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The New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha are a number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus
Jesus
and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives. Some of these writings have been cited as scripture by early Christians, but since the fifth century a widespread consensus has emerged limiting the New Testament
New Testament
to the 27 books of the modern canon.[1][2] Thus Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches generally do not view these New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha as part of the Bible.[2]

Contents

1 Definition 2 History

2.1 Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon 2.2 Modern scholarship and translation

3 Gospels

3.1 Canonical gospels 3.2 Infancy gospels 3.3 Jewish Christian
Christian
gospels 3.4 Non-canonical gospels 3.5 Sayings gospels 3.6 Passion gospels 3.7 Harmonized gospels

4 Gnostic
Gnostic
texts

4.1 Dialogues with Jesus 4.2 General texts concerning Jesus 4.3 Sethian
Sethian
texts concerning Jesus 4.4 Ritual diagrams

5 Acts 6 Epistles 7 Apocalypses 8 Fate of Mary 9 Miscellany 10 Fragments 11 Lost works 12 Close candidates for canonization 13 Evaluation 14 Published collections 15 See also 16 References 17 Sources 18 External links

Definition[edit] The word "apocrypha" means "things put away" or "things hidden," originating from the Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
adjective apocryphus, "secret" or "non-canonical," which in turn originated from the Greek adjective ἀπόκρυφος (apokryphos), "obscure," from the verb ἀποκρύπτειν (apokryptein), "to hide away."[3] From the Greek prefix "apo" which means "away" and the Greek verb "kryptein" which means "to hide".[4] The general term is usually applied to the books that were considered by the church as useful, but not divinely inspired. As such, to refer to Gnostic
Gnostic
writings as "apocryphal" is misleading since they would not be classified in the same category by orthodox believers. Often used by the Greek Fathers was the term antilegomena, or "spoken against", although some canonical books were also spoken against, such as the Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of John in the East. Often used by scholars is the term pseudepigrapha, or "falsely inscribed" or "falsely attributed", in the sense that the writings were written by an anonymous author who appended the name of an apostle to his work, such as in the Gospel of Peter
Gospel of Peter
or The Æthiopic Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Enoch: almost all books, in both Old and New Testaments, called "apocrypha" in the Protestant tradition are pseudepigrapha. In the Catholic and Orthodox traditions, what are called the apocrypha by Protestants include the deuterocanonical books: in the Catholic tradition, the term "apocrypha" is synonymous with what Protestants would call the pseudepigrapha, the latter term of which is almost exclusively used by scholars.[5] History[edit] Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon[edit] Main article: Development of the New Testament
New Testament
canon That some works are categorized as New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha is indicative of the wide range of responses that were engendered in the interpretation of the message of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth. During the first several centuries of the transmission of that message, considerable debate turned on safeguarding its authenticity. Three key methods of addressing this survive to the present day: ordination, where groups authorize individuals as reliable teachers of the message; creeds, where groups define the boundaries of interpretation of the message; and canons, which list the primary documents certain groups believe contain the message originally taught by Jesus. There was substantial debate about which books should be included in the canons. In general, those books that the majority regarded as the earliest books about Jesus
Jesus
were the ones included. Books that were not accepted into the canons are now termed apocryphal. Some of them were vigorously suppressed and survive only as fragments. The earliest lists of canonical works of the New Testament
New Testament
were not quite the same as modern lists; for example, the Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
was regarded as disputed by some Christians (see Antilegomena), while Shepherd of Hermas
Shepherd of Hermas
was considered genuine by others, and appears (after the Book
Book
of Revelation) in the Codex Sinaiticus. The Syriac Peshitta, used by all the various Syrian Churches, originally did not include 2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude and Revelation (and this canon of 22 books is the one cited by John Chrysostom (~347-407) and Theodoret (393-466) from the School of Antioch).[6] Western Syrians have added the remaining five books to their New Testament
New Testament
canons in modern times[6] (such as the Lee Peshitta
Peshitta
of 1823). Today, the official lectionaries followed by the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church
Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church
and the East Syriac Chaldean Catholic Church, which is in communion with the Holy See, still only present lessons from the 22 books of the original Peshitta.[6] The Armenian Apostolic
Armenian Apostolic
church at times has included the Third Epistle to the Corinthians, but does not always list it with the other 27 canonical New Testament
New Testament
books. This Church did not accept Revelation into its Bible
Bible
until 1200 CE.[7] The New Testament
New Testament
of the Coptic Bible, adopted by the Egyptian Church, includes the two Epistles
Epistles
of Clement.[citation needed] Modern scholarship and translation[edit] English translations were made in the early 18th century by William Wake and by Jeremiah Jones, and collected in 1820 by William Hone's Apocryphal New Testament.[8] The series Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 8, contains translations by Alexander Walker.[9] New translations by M. R. James appeared in 1924, and were revised by J.K. Eliott, The Apocryphal New Testament, Oxford University Press, 1991. The "standard" scholarly edition of the New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha
Apocrypha
in German is that of Schneemelcher,[10] and in English its translation by Robert McLachlan Wilson.[11] Tischendorf and other scholars began to study New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha seriously in the 19th century and produce new translations. The texts of the Nag Hammadi library
Nag Hammadi library
are often considered separately but the current edition of Schneemelcher
Schneemelcher
also contains eleven Nag Hammadi texts.[12] Books that are known objectively not to have existed in antiquity are usually not considered part of the New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha. Among these are the Libellus de Nativitate Sanctae Mariae (also called the "Nativity of Mary") and the Latin Infancy gospel. The latter two did not exist in antiquity, and they seem to be based on the earlier Infancy gospels.[citation needed] Gospels[edit] Main articles: Gospel
Gospel
and List of gospels Canonical gospels[edit] Four gospels came to be accepted as part of the New Testament
New Testament
canon.

Gospel
Gospel
according to Matthew Gospel
Gospel
according to Mark Gospel
Gospel
according to Luke Gospel
Gospel
according to John

Infancy gospels[edit] The rarity of information about the childhood of Jesus
Jesus
in the canonical gospels led to a hunger of early Christians for more detail about the early life of Jesus. This was supplied by a number of 2nd century and later texts, known as infancy gospels, none of which were accepted into the biblical canon, but the very number of their surviving manuscripts attests to their continued popularity. Most of these were based on the earliest infancy gospels, namely the Infancy Gospel of James
Gospel of James
(also called the "Protoevangelium of James") and Infancy Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas, and on their later combination into the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew
Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew
(also called the "Infancy Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew" or "Birth of Mary and Infancy of the Saviour"). The other significant early infancy gospels are the Syriac Infancy Gospel, the History of Joseph the Carpenter
History of Joseph the Carpenter
and the Life of John the Baptist. Jewish Christian
Christian
gospels[edit] Main article: Jewish– Christian
Christian
gospels The Jewish– Christian
Christian
Gospels
Gospels
were gospels of a Jewish Christian character quoted by Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius, Epiphanius, Jerome
Jerome
and probably Didymus the Blind.[13] Most modern scholars have concluded that there was one gospel in Aramaic/Hebrew and at least two in Greek, although a minority argue that there were only two, Aramaic/Hebrew and Greek.[14] None of these gospels survives today, but attempts have been made to reconstruct them from references in the Church Fathers. The reconstructed texts of the gospels are usually categorized under New Testament Apocrypha. The standard edition of Schneemelcher
Schneemelcher
describes the texts of three Jewish–Christian gospels
Jewish–Christian gospels
as follows:[15]

1) The Gospel of the Ebionites
Gospel of the Ebionites
("GE") – 7 quotations by Epiphanius. 2) The Gospel of the Hebrews
Gospel of the Hebrews
("GH") – 1 quotation ascribed to Cyril of Jerusalem, plus GH 2–7 quotations by Clement, Origen, and Jerome. 3) The Gospel of the Nazarenes
Gospel of the Nazarenes
("GN") – GN 1 to GN 23 are mainly from Jerome; GN 24 to GN 36 are from medieval sources.

Some scholars consider that the 2 last named are in fact the same source.[16] Non-canonical gospels[edit] Other documents entitled "gospels" came into existence in the second and third Christian
Christian
centuries. Sometimes, those attributed to the text state elsewhere that their text is the earlier version, or that their text excises all the additions and distortions made by their opponents to the more recognised version of the text. The Church Fathers insisted that these people were the ones making distortions, but some modern scholars do not. It remains to be seen whether any are earlier and more accurate versions of the canonical texts. Details of their contents only survive in the attacks on them by their opponents, and so for the most part it is uncertain as to how extensively different they are, and whether any constitute entirely different works. These texts include:

Gospel of Marcion
Gospel of Marcion
(mid 2nd century) Gospel of Mani
Gospel of Mani
(3rd century) Gospel
Gospel
of Apelles (mid-late 2nd century) Gospel
Gospel
of Bardesanes
Bardesanes
(late 2nd - early 3rd century) Gospel of Basilides
Gospel of Basilides
(mid 2nd century)

Sayings gospels[edit] One or two texts take the form of brief logia—sayings and parables of Jesus—which are not embedded in a connected narrative:

Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas

Some scholars regard the Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Thomas
as part of the tradition from which the canonical gospels eventually emerged; however, the Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Thomas
is heavily gnostic and likely not written by orthodox Christians. In any case, both of these documents offer insight into what the theoretical Q document
Q document
might have looked like. Passion gospels[edit] A number of gospels are concerned specifically with the "Passion" (from Greek pathos (suffering) i.e.: the arrest, execution and resurrection) of Jesus:

Gospel
Gospel
of Peter Gospel of Nicodemus
Gospel of Nicodemus
(also called the "Acts of Pilate") Pseudo-Cyril of Jerusalem, On the Life and the Passion of Christ Gospel
Gospel
of Bartholomew Questions of Bartholomew Resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
Christ (which claims to be according to Bartholomew)

Although three texts take Bartholomew's name, it may be that one of the Questions of Bartholomew
Questions of Bartholomew
or the Resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
Christ is in fact the unknown Gospel
Gospel
of Bartholomew. Harmonized gospels[edit] A number of texts aim to provide a single harmonization of the canonical gospels, that eliminates discordances among them by presenting a unified text derived from them to some degree. The most widely read of these was the Diatessaron. Gnostic
Gnostic
texts[edit] Main article: Gnostic
Gnostic
gospels See also: Apocryphon In the modern era, many Gnostic
Gnostic
texts have been uncovered, especially from the Nag Hammadi
Nag Hammadi
library. Some texts take the form of an expounding of the esoteric cosmology and ethics held by the Gnostics. Often this was in the form of dialogue in which Jesus
Jesus
expounds esoteric knowledge while his disciples raise questions concerning it. There is also a text, known as the Epistula Apostolorum, which is a polemic against Gnostic
Gnostic
esoterica, but written in a similar style as the Gnostic
Gnostic
texts. Dialogues with Jesus[edit]

Apocryphon of James
Apocryphon of James
(also called the "Secret Book
Book
of James") Book
Book
of Thomas the Contender Dialogue of the Saviour Gospel of Judas
Gospel of Judas
(also called the " Gospel of Judas
Gospel of Judas
Iscariot") Gospel of Mary
Gospel of Mary
(also called the " Gospel of Mary
Gospel of Mary
Magdalene") Gospel
Gospel
of Philip Greek Gospel
Gospel
of the Egyptians (distinct from the Coptic Gospel
Gospel
of the Egyptians) The Sophia of Jesus
Jesus
Christ

General texts concerning Jesus[edit]

Coptic Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Paul (distinct from the Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Paul) Gospel
Gospel
of Truth Gnostic
Gnostic
Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Peter (distinct from the Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Peter) Pistis Sophia Second Treatise of the Great Seth

Sethian
Sethian
texts concerning Jesus[edit] The Sethians were a gnostic group who originally worshipped the biblical Seth
Seth
as a messianic figure, later treating Jesus
Jesus
as a re-incarnation of Seth. They produced numerous texts expounding their esoteric cosmology, usually in the form of visions:

Apocryphon of John
Apocryphon of John
(also called the "Secret Gospel
Gospel
of John") Coptic Gospel
Gospel
of the Egyptians (distinct from the Greek Gospel
Gospel
of the Egyptians) Trimorphic Protennoia

Ritual diagrams[edit] Some of the Gnostic
Gnostic
texts appear to consist of diagrams and instructions for use in religious rituals:

Ophite Diagrams Books of Jeu

Acts[edit] Main article: Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
(genre) Several texts concern themselves with the subsequent lives of the apostles, usually with highly supernatural events. Almost half of these, anciently called The Circuits of the Apostles and now known by the name of their purported author, "Leucius Charinus" (supposedly a companion of John the apostle), contained the Acts of Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas, and Paul. These were judged by the Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople in the ninth century to be full of folly, self-contradiction, falsehood, and impiety. The Acts of Thomas
Acts of Thomas
and the Acts of Peter
Acts of Peter
and the Twelve are often considered Gnostic
Gnostic
texts. While most of the texts are believed to have been written in the 2nd century, at least two, the Acts of Barnabas
Acts of Barnabas
and the Acts of Peter
Acts of Peter
and Paul are believed to have been written as late as the 5th century.

Acts of Andrew Acts of Barnabas Acts of John Acts of Mar Mari Acts of the Martyrs Acts of Paul Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul
and Thecla Acts of Peter Acts of Peter
Acts of Peter
and Andrew Acts of Peter
Acts of Peter
and Paul Acts of Peter
Acts of Peter
and the Twelve Acts of Philip Acts of Pilate Acts of Thomas Acts of Timothy Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca

Epistles[edit] Main article: Epistles There are also non-canonical epistles (or "letters") between individuals or to Christians in general. Some of them were regarded very highly by the early church:

Epistle
Epistle
of Barnabas Epistles
Epistles
of Clement Epistle
Epistle
of the Corinthians to Paul Epistle
Epistle
of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans Epistle
Epistle
of Ignatius to the Trallians Epistle
Epistle
of Polycarp to the Philippians Epistle
Epistle
to Diognetus Epistle
Epistle
to the Laodiceans (an epistle in the name of Paul) Epistle
Epistle
to Seneca the Younger (an epistle in the name of Paul) Third Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians - accepted in the past by some in the Armenian Orthodox
Armenian Orthodox
church.

Apocalypses[edit] Main article: Apocalyptic literature Several works frame themselves as visions, often discussing the future, afterlife, or both:

Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Paul (distinct from the Coptic Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Paul) Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Peter (distinct from the Gnostic
Gnostic
Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Peter) Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Pseudo-Methodius Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Thomas (also called the Revelation of Thomas) Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Stephen (also called the Revelation of Stephen) First Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of James (also called the First Revelation of James) Second Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of James (also called the Second Revelation of James) The Shepherd of Hermas

Fate of Mary[edit] Several texts (over 50) consist of descriptions of the events surrounding the varied fate of Mary (the mother of Jesus):

The Home Going of Mary The Falling Asleep of the Mother of God The Descent of Mary

Miscellany[edit] These texts, due to their content or form, do not fit into the other categories:

Apostolic Constitutions
Apostolic Constitutions
(church regulations supposedly asserted by the apostles) Book
Book
of Nepos Canons of the Apostles Cave of Treasures
Cave of Treasures
(also called The Treasure) Clementine literature Didache
Didache
(possibly the first written catechism) Liturgy of St James Penitence of Origen Prayer of Paul Sentences of Sextus Physiologus Book
Book
of the Bee

Fragments[edit] In addition to the known apocryphal works, there are also small fragments of texts, parts of unknown (or uncertain) works. Some of the more significant fragments are:

The Unknown Berlin Gospel
Unknown Berlin Gospel
(also called the Gospel
Gospel
of the Saviour) The Naassene Fragment The Fayyum Fragment The Secret Gospel
Gospel
of Mark, whose authenticity has been challenged The Oxyrhynchus Gospels The Egerton Gospel

Lost works[edit] Several texts are mentioned in many ancient sources and would probably be considered part of the apocrypha, but no known text has survived:

Gospel
Gospel
of Eve (a quotation from this gospel is given by Epiphanius (Haer. xxvi. 2, 3). It is possible that this is the Gospel
Gospel
of Perfection he alludes to in xxvi. 2. The quotation shows that this gospel was the expression of complete pantheism) Gospel
Gospel
of the Four Heavenly Realms Gospel of Matthias
Gospel of Matthias
(probably different from the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew) Gospel
Gospel
of Perfection (used by the followers of Basilides
Basilides
and other Gnostics. See Epiphanius, Haer. xxvi. 2) Gospel
Gospel
of the Seventy Gospel
Gospel
of Thaddaeus (this may be a synonym for the Gospel
Gospel
of Judas, confusing Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
for Jude the Apostle) Gospel
Gospel
of the Twelve Memoria Apostolorum

Close candidates for canonization[edit] While many of the books listed here were considered heretical (especially those belonging to the gnostic tradition—as this sect was considered heretical by Proto-orthodox Christianity
Proto-orthodox Christianity
of the early centuries), others were not considered particularly heretical in content, but in fact were well accepted as significant spiritual works. While some of the following works appear in complete Bibles from the fourth century, such as 1 Clement and The Shepherd of Hermas, showing their general popularity, they were not included when the canon was formally decided at the end of that century.

1 and 2 Clement Shepherd of Hermas Didache Epistle
Epistle
of Barnabas Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Peter Third Epistle
Epistle
to the Corinthians

Evaluation[edit] Among historians of early Christianity the books are considered invaluable, especially those that almost made it into the final canon, such as Shepherd of Hermas. Bart Ehrman, for example, said:

The victors in the struggles to establish Christian
Christian
Orthodoxy not only won their theological battles, they also rewrote the history of the conflict; later readers then naturally assumed that the victorious views had been embraced by the vast majority of Christians from the very beginning ... The practice of Christian
Christian
forgery has a long and distinguished history ... the debate lasted three hundred years ... even within "orthodox" circles there was considerable debate concerning which books to include.[17]

This debate primarily concerned whether certain works should be read in the church service or only privately. These works were widely used but not necessarily considered Catholic or 'universal.' Such works include the Didache, Shepherd of Hermas, 1 Clement, 2 Clement, the Epistle
Epistle
of Barnabas, and to a lesser extent the Apocalypse
Apocalypse
of Peter. Considering the generally accepted dates of authorship for all of the canonical New Testament
New Testament
works (ca. 100 CE), as well as the various witnesses to canonicity extant among the writings of Ignatius, Polycarp, Irenaeus, etc., the four gospels and letters of Paul were held by the gentile Christian
Christian
community as scriptural, and 200 years were needed to finalize the canon; from the beginning of the 2nd Century to the mid-4th Century, no book in the final canon was ever declared spurious or heretical, except for the Revelation of John which the Council of Laodicea in 363-364 CE rejected (although it accepted all of the other 26 books in the New Testament). This was possibly due to fears of the influence of Montanism
Montanism
which used the book extensively to support their theology. See Revelation of John
Revelation of John
for more details. Athanasius
Athanasius
wrote his Easter letter in 367 CE which defined a canon of 27 books, identical to the current canon, but also listed two works that were "not in the canon but to be read:" The Shepherd of Hermas
Shepherd of Hermas
and the Didache. Nevertheless, the early church leaders in the 3rd and 4th Centuries generally distinguished between canonical works and those that were not canonical but 'useful,' or 'good for teaching,' though never relegating any of the final 27 books to the latter category. One aim with establishing the canon was to capture only those works which were held to have been written by the Apostles, or their close associates, and as the Muratorian fragment canon (ca. 150–175 CE) states concerning the Shepherd of Hermas:[citation needed]

...But Hermas wrote The Shepherd very recently, in our times, in the city of Rome, while bishop Pius, his brother, was occupying the chair of the church of the city of Rome. And therefore it ought indeed to be read; but it cannot be read publicly to the people in church either among the Prophets, whose number is complete, or among the Apostles, for it is after their time.[citation needed]

Published collections[edit]

Michel, Charles; Peeters, Paul (1924) [1911]. Évangiles Apocryphes (in French) (2nd ed.). Paris: A. Picard.  James, Montague Rhodes (1953) [1924]. The Apocryphal New Testament (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.  González-Blanco, Edmundo, ed. (1934). Los Evangelio Apócrifos (in Spanish). 3 vols. Madrid: Bergua.  Bonaccorsi, Giuseppe, ed. (1948). Vangeli apocrifi (in Italian). Florence: Libreria Editrice Fiorentina.  Aurelio de Santos Otero, ed. (1956). Los Evangelios Apócrifos: Colección de textos griegos y latinos, versión crítica, estudios introductorios y comentarios (in Spanish). Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Christianos.  Kekeliże, Korneli, ed. (1959). Kartuli versiebi aṗoḳripebis mocikulta šesaxeb [Georgian Versions of the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles]. Tblisi: Sakartvelos SSR mecnierebata akademiis gamomcemloba.  Moraldi, Luigi, ed. (1994) [1971]. Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento (in Italian). Translated by Moraldi, Luigi (2nd ed.). Turin: Unione tipografico-editrice torinese.  Robinson, James M. (1977). The Nag Hammadi
Nag Hammadi
Library in English. San Francisco: Harper & Row.  Erbetta, Mario, ed. (1966–1981). Gli Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento (in Italian). 3 vols. Translated by Erbetta, Mario. Turin: Marietti.  Aurelio de Santos Otero (1978–1981). Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der altslavischen Apokryphen (in German). 2 vols. Berlin: De Gruyter.  Herbert, Máire; McNamara, Martin (1989). Irish Biblical Apocrypha: Selected Texts in Translation. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.  Elliott, J. K. (1993). Apocryphal New Testament.  Bovon, François; Geoltrain, Pierre; Kaestli, Jean-Daniel, eds. (1997–2005). Écrits apocryphes chrétiens (in French). Paris: Gallimard.  Ehrman, Bart D.; Pleše, Zlatko (2011). The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.  Markschies, Christoph; Schröter, Jens, eds. (2012). Antike christliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung (in German). Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck.  Burke, Tony; Landau, Brent, eds. (2016). New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha: More noncanonical scriptures. 1. Grand Rapids. MI: Eerdmans. 

See also[edit]

Authorship of the Pauline epistles Biblical canon Books of the Bible List of early Christian
Christian
writers List of gospels History of Christianity Historicity of Jesus Nag Hammadi
Nag Hammadi
library The Q document, a hypothetical document underlying much of the text of the canonical gospels of Matthew and Luke Textual criticism

References[edit]

^ Van Liere, Frans (2014). An Introduction to the Medieval Bible. Cambridge University Press. pp. 68–69.  ^ a b Ehrman, Bart D. (2003). Lost Christianities: Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. pp. 230–231.  ^ " Apocrypha
Apocrypha
- Definition". merriam-webster.com.  ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=apocrypha ^ Charlesworth, James H (1985). Old Testament
Old Testament
Pseudepigrapha. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. p. 2257. ISBN 978-1-59856-489-1.  ^ a b c Peshitta ^ Reliability Archived October 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ The apocryphal New Testament, being all the gospels, epistles, and other pieces now extant. London, W. Hone. 1820.  ^ ANF08... Apocrypha
Apocrypha
of the New Testament. ^ James McConkey Robinson, Christoph Heil, Jozef Verheyden, The Sayings Gospel
Gospel
Q: Collected Essays, Leuven, Peeters 2005, p. 279 "Not only has a third, fourth, fifth, and sixth edition of the standard German work by Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher
Schneemelcher
prepared under the editorship of Schneemelcher
Schneemelcher
appeared, but independent editions are being produced ... ^ New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha, Vol. 1: Gospels
Gospels
and Related Writings (1990), Vol. 2: Writings Relating to the Apostles Apocalypses and Related Subjects (1992), Westminster John Knox Press. ^ The fifth Gospel: the Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Thomas
comes of age - 1998 p105 Stephen J. Patterson, James McConkey Robinson, Hans-Gebhard Bethge -"The current edition of Wilhelm Schneemelcher's standard New Testament Apocrypha
Apocrypha
contains eleven Nag Hammadi
Nag Hammadi
tractates," ^ Elliott 2005, p. 3. ^ Ehrman & Pleše 2011, p. 199. ^ Vielhauer & Strecker 1991, pp. 134–78. ^ Craig A. Evans ^ Ehrman, Lost Scriptures P 2,3

Sources[edit]

Cameron, Ron (1982). The Other Gospels: Non-Canonical Gospel
Gospel
Texts. Westminster/John Knox. ISBN 978-0-664-24428-6.  Ehrman, Bart D.; Pleše, Zlatko (2011). "The Jewish Christian Gospels". The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations. Oxford University Press. pp. 197–216. ISBN 978-0-19-973210-4.  Elliott, James Keith (2005) [1993]. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-826181-0.  Schlarb, Egbert; Lührmann, Dieter (2000). "Hebräerevangelium". Fragmente apokryph gewordener Evangelien in griechischer und lateinischer Sprache (in German). N.G. Elwert Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7708-1144-1.  Vielhauer, Philipp; Strecker, Georg (1991). Schneemelcher, Wilhelm; Wilson, Robert McLachlan, eds. New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha: Gospels
Gospels
and Related Writings Volume 1 (2 ed.). John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22721-X.  (6th German edition, translated by George Ogg) Yamauchi, Edwin M. (1979). "Apocryphal Gospels". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia: A–D Volume 1. Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 181–88. ISBN 978-0-8028-3781-3. 

External links[edit]

New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha
Apocrypha
texts New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha
Apocrypha
resources New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha
Apocrypha
histories New Testament
New Testament
Apocrypha
Apocrypha
- Tabulation includes Gnostic
Gnostic
Gospels
Gospels
(23) and Gnostic
Gnostic
Acts (29), linked to English translations. The Apocryphal Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew and Thomas public domain audiobook at LibriVox

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Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1–2 Samuel 1–2 Kings 1–2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Deuterocanon and Apocrypha

Catholic Orthodox

Tobit Judith Additions to Esther 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Wisdom Sirach Baruch / Letter of Jeremiah Additions to Daniel

Susanna Song of the Three Children Bel and the Dragon

Orthodox only

1 Esdras 2 Esdras Prayer of Manasseh Psalm 151 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Odes

Tewahedo Orthodox

Enoch Jubilees 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan Paralipomena of Baruch Broader canon

Syriac

Letter of Baruch 2 Baruch Psalms
Psalms
152–155

New Testament

Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation

Subdivisions

Chapters and verses Pentateuch Wisdom Major prophets / Minor prophets Gospels

Synoptic

Epistles

Pauline Johannine Pastoral Catholic

Apocalyptic literature

Development

Old Testament
Old Testament
canon New Testament
New Testament
canon Antilegomena Jewish canon Christian
Christian
canon

Manuscripts

Dead Sea Scrolls Samaritan Pentateuch Septuagint Targum Diatessaron Muratorian fragment Peshitta Vetus Latina Masoretic Text New Testament
New Testament
manuscript categories New Testament
New Testament
papyri New Testament
New Testament
uncials

See also

Biblical canon Luther's canon Authorship English Bible
Bible
translations Other books referenced in the Bible Pseudepigrapha

list

New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha Studies Synod of Hippo Textual criticism

Category Porta

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