HOME
The Info List - Nevis


--- Advertisement ---



Coordinates: 17°09′N 62°35′W / 17.150°N 62.583°W / 17.150; -62.583

Nevis

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: Country Above Self

Anthem: O Land of Beauty! Royal anthem: God Save the Queen

Capital and largest city Charlestown 17°20′N 62°45′W / 17.333°N 62.750°W / 17.333; -62.750

Official languages English

Demonym Nevisian

Government

Parliamentary democracy under federal constitutional monarchy

• Monarch

Elizabeth II

• Premier

Mark Brantley

• Deputy Governor-General[1]

Majorie Morton (Acting)

• President, Nevis
Nevis
Island Assembly

Christen Springette

Independence

• from the United Kingdom

19 September 1983

Area

• Total

93 km2 (36 sq mi) (207th)

Population

• 2011 census

11,108[2]

• Density

130/km2 (336.7/sq mi) (not ranked)

GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate

• Total

$726 million[3]

• Per capita

$13,429[3]

GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate

• Total

$557 million[3]

• Per capita

$10,315[3]

HDI (2007)  0.825 very high · 54th

Currency East Caribbean dollar ($) (XCD)

Time zone −4 (UTC−4)

Date format dd-mm-yyyy (CE)

Drives on the left

Calling code +1 869

Internet TLD .kn

Airport Vance W. Amory International IATA: NEV, ICAO: TKPN Elevation 35 ft. (11 m) Caribbean portal

A view of Nevis
Nevis
from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts

The east coast of Nevis, partially protected by coral reefs. Long Haul Bay is seen in the foreground.

Main Street, Charlestown, Nevis

Part of the west coast of Nevis, including the location of Nelson's Spring

The view looking inland from the Nevis
Nevis
airport, 2008

Nevis
Nevis
/ˈniːvɪs/ is a small island in the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
that forms part of the inner arc of the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
chain of the West Indies. Nevis
Nevis
and the neighbouring island of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
constitute one country: the Federation of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis. Nevis
Nevis
is located near the northern end of the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
archipelago, about 350 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and 80 km west of Antigua. Its area is 93 square kilometres (36 sq mi) and the capital is Charlestown. Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
are separated by a shallow 3-kilometre (2 mi) channel known as "The Narrows". Nevis
Nevis
is roughly conical in shape with a volcano known as Nevis Peak
Nevis Peak
at its centre. The island is fringed on its western and northern coastlines by sandy beaches which are composed of a mixture of white coral sand with brown and black sand which is eroded and washed down from the volcanic rocks that make up the island. The gently-sloping coastal plain (1 km (0.62 mi) wide) has natural freshwater springs as well as non-potable volcanic hot springs, especially along the western coast. The island was named Oualie ("Land of Beautiful Waters") by the Caribs and Dulcina ("Sweet Island") by the early British settlers. The name Nevis
Nevis
is derived from the Spanish Nuestra Señora de las Nieves (which means Our Lady of the Snows); the name first appears on maps in the 16th century.[4] Nevis
Nevis
is also known by the sobriquet "Queen of the Caribees", which it earned in the 18th century, when its sugar plantations created much wealth for the British. Nevis
Nevis
is of particular historical significance to Americans because it was the birthplace and early childhood home of Alexander Hamilton. For the British, Nevis
Nevis
is the place where Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
was stationed as a young sea captain, and is where he met and married a Nevisian, Frances Nisbet, the young widow of a plantation-owner. The majority of the approximately 12,000 citizens of Nevis
Nevis
are of primarily African descent. English is the official language,[5] and the literacy rate, 98 percent, is one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Amerindians 2.2 Colonial era 2.3 Emancipation 2.4 1800 to the present day 2.5 Hurricanes

3 Geography

3.1 Geology 3.2 Colonial deforestation 3.3 Water resources 3.4 Climate

4 Economy

4.1 Tourism 4.2 Offshore accounting

5 Politics

5.1 Elections 5.2 Movement for constitutional reform 5.3 Secession movement

5.3.1 Legislative motivation for secession 5.3.2 Fiscal motivation for secession 5.3.3 1998 referendum

6 Government 7 Culture

7.1 Language 7.2 Music, theatre and dance 7.3 Architecture

8 Notable natives and residents 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] In 1498, Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
gave the island the name San Martin (Saint Martin). However, the confusion of numerous poorly-charted small islands in the Leeward Island chain meant that this name ended up being accidentally transferred to another island, which is still known as Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten. The current name Nevis
Nevis
was derived from a Spanish name Nuestra Señora de las Nieves by a process of abbreviation and anglicisation. The Spanish name means Our Lady of the Snows. It is not known who chose this name for the island, but it is a reference to the story of a 4th-century Catholic miracle: a snowfall on the Esquiline Hill
Esquiline Hill
in Rome.[6] Presumably the white clouds that usually cover the top of Nevis Peak
Nevis Peak
reminded someone of this story of a miraculous snowfall in a hot climate. Nevis
Nevis
was part of the Spanish claim to the Caribbean islands, a claim pursued until the Treaty of Madrid (1670), even though there were no Spanish settlements on the island. According to Vincent Hubbard, author of Swords, Ships & Sugar: History of Nevis, the Spanish ruling caused many of the Arawak groups who were not ethnically Caribs to "be redefined as Caribs overnight".[4] Records indicate that the Spanish enslaved large numbers of the native inhabitants on the more accessible of the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
and sent them to Cubagua, Venezuela to dive for pearls. Hubbard suggests that the reason the first European settlers found so few "Caribs" on Nevis
Nevis
is that they had already been rounded up by the Spanish and shipped off to be used as slaves. History[edit] Main article: History of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Amerindians[edit] Nevis
Nevis
was first sighted by Columbus in 1493; an island settled for more than two thousand years by Amerindian people.[7] The indigenous people of Nevis
Nevis
during these periods belonged to the Leeward Island Amerindian groups popularly referred to as Arawaks
Arawaks
and Caribs, a complex mosaic of ethnic groups with similar culture and language.[8] Dominican anthropologist Lennox Honychurch traces the European use of the term "Carib" to refer to the Leeward Island aborigines to Columbus, who picked it up from the Taínos
Taínos
on Hispaniola. It was not a name the Caribs called themselves.[9] "Carib Indians" was the generic name used for all groups believed involved in cannibalistic war rituals, more particularly, the consumption of parts of a killed enemy's body. The Amerindian name for Nevis
Nevis
was Oualie, land of beautiful waters. The structure of the Island Carib language has been linguistically identified as Arawakan.[9] Colonial era[edit] In spite of the Spanish claim, Nevis
Nevis
continued to be a popular stop-over point for English and Dutch ships on their way to the North American continent. Captain Bartholomew Gilbert of Plymouth visited the island in 1603, spending two weeks to cut twenty tons of lignum vitae wood. Gilbert sailed on to Virginia
Virginia
to seek out survivors of the Roanoke settlement
Roanoke settlement
in what is now North Carolina. Captain John Smith visited Nevis
Nevis
also on his way to Virginia
Virginia
in 1607. This was the voyage which founded Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the New World.[4] On 30 August 1620, James 6th of Scotland – James I of England asserted sovereignty over Nevis
Nevis
by giving a Royal Patent for colonisation to the Earl of Carlisle. However, actual European settlement did not happen until 1628 when Anthony Hilton moved from nearby Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
following a murder plot against him. He was accompanied by 80 other settlers, soon to be boosted by a further 100 settlers from London who had originally hoped to settle Barbuda. Hilton became the first Governor of Nevis. After the Treaty of Madrid (1670) between Spain and England, Nevis
Nevis
became the seat of the British colony and the Admiralty Court
Admiralty Court
also sat in Nevis. Between 1675 and 1730, the island was the headquarters for the slave trade for the Leeward Islands, with approximately 6,000–7,000 enslaved West Africans passing through en route to other islands each year. The Royal African Company
Royal African Company
brought all its ships through Nevis.[4] A 1678 census shows a community of Irish people – 22% of the population – existing as either indentured servants or freemen.[10]

Illustration of French slave trade in the 1876 book The 18th century: Its Institutions, Customs, and Costumes: France, 1700–1789.

Due to the profitable Slave Trade
Slave Trade
and the high quality of Nevisian sugar cane, the island soon became a dominant source of wealth for Great Britain and the slave-owning British plantocracy. When the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
were separated from Barbados
Barbados
in 1671, Nevis
Nevis
became the seat of the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
colony and was given the nickname "Queen of the Caribees". It remained colonial capital for the Leeward Islands until the seat was transferred to Antigua
Antigua
for military reasons in 1698. During this period, Nevis
Nevis
was the richest of the British Leeward Islands.[4] The island outranked larger islands like Jamaica
Jamaica
in sugar production in the late 17th century. The wealth of the planters on the island is evident in the tax records preserved at the Calendar State Papers in the British Colonial Office
Colonial Office
Public Records, where the amount of tax collected on the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
was recorded. The sums recorded for 1676 as "head tax on slaves", a tax payable in sugar, amounted to 384,600 pounds in Nevis, as opposed to 67,000 each in Antigua
Antigua
and Saint Kitts, 62,500 in Montserrat, and 5,500 total in the other five islands.[11] The profits on sugar cultivation in Nevis
Nevis
was enhanced by the fact that the cane juice from Nevis
Nevis
yielded an unusually high amount of sugar. A gallon (3.79 litres) of cane juice from Nevis
Nevis
yielded 24 ounces (0.71 litres) of sugar, whereas a gallon from Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
yielded 16 ounces (0.47 litres).[4] Twenty percent of the British Empire's total sugar production in 1700 was derived from Nevisian plantations.[12] Exports from West Indian colonies like Nevis were worth more than all the exports from all the mainland Thirteen Colonies of North America
North America
combined at the time of the American Revolution.[4] The enslaved families formed the large labour force required to work the sugar plantations. After the 1650s the supply of white indentured servants began to dry up due to increased wages in England and less incentive to migrate to the colonies. By the end of the 17th century, the population of Nevis
Nevis
consisted of a small, rich planter elite in control, a marginal population of poor whites, a great majority of African-descended slaves, and an unknown number of maroons, escaped slaves living in the mountains. In 1780, 90 percent of the 10,000 people living on Nevis
Nevis
were black.[4] Some of the maroons joined with the few remaining Caribs in Nevis
Nevis
to form a resistance force. Memories of the Nevisian maroons' struggle under the plantation system are preserved in place names such as Maroon Hill, an early centre of resistance. The great wealth generated by the colonies of the West Indies
West Indies
led to wars between Spain, Britain, and France. The formation of the United States can be said to be a partial by-product of these wars and the strategic trade aims that often ignored North America.[4] Three privateers ( William Kidd
William Kidd
being one of them) were employed by the British Crown to help protect ships in Nevis' waters.[4] During the 17th century, the French, based on Saint Kitts, launched many attacks on Nevis, sometimes assisted by the Island Caribs, who in 1667 sent a large fleet of canoes along in support. In the same year a Franco-Dutch invasion fleet was repelled off Nevis
Nevis
by an English fleet. Letters and other records from the era indicate that the English on Nevis
Nevis
hated and feared the Amerindians. In 1674 and 1683 they participated in attacks on Carib villages in Dominica
Dominica
and St. Vincent, in spite of a lack of official approval from the Crown for the attack.[4] On Nevis, the English built Fort Charles and a series of smaller fortifications to aid in defending the island. This included Saddle Hill Battery, built in 1740 to replace a deodand on Mount Nevis.[4]:44,62,131 Emancipation[edit]

Charlestown Methodist Chapel, 1802. Pro-slavery mobs set the chapel ablaze in 1797, but the building was saved.

In 1706, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, the French Canadian founder of Louisiana
Louisiana
in North America, decided to drive the English out of Nevis and thus also stop pirate attacks on French ships; he considered Nevis the region's headquarters for piracy against French trade. During d'Iberville's invasion of Nevis, French buccaneers were used in the front line, infamous for being ruthless killers after the pillaging during the wars with Spain where they gained a reputation for torturing and murdering non-combatants[citation needed]. In the face of the invading force, the English militiamen of Nevis
Nevis
fled. Some planters burned the plantations, rather than letting the French have them, and hid in the mountains[citation needed]. It was the enslaved Africans who held the French at bay by taking up arms to defend their families and the island. The slave quarters had been looted and burned as well, as the main reward promised the men fighting on the French side in the attack was the right to capture as many slaves as possible and resell them in Martinique.[citation needed] During the fighting, 3,400 enslaved Nevisians were captured and sent off to Martinique, but about 1,000 more, poorly armed and militarily untrained, held the French troops at bay, by "murderous fire" according to an eyewitness account by an English militiaman. He wrote that "the slaves' brave behaviour and defence there shamed what some of their masters did, and they do not shrink to tell us so."[4] After 18 days of fighting, the French were driven off the island. Among the Nevisian men, women and children carried away on d'Iberville's ships, six ended up in Louisiana, the first persons of African descent to arrive there.[4]

Slave owner and trader John Pinney (1740–1818) of Montravers Plantation.

One consequence of the French attack was a collapsed sugar industry and during the ensuing hardship on Nevis, small plots of land on the plantations were made available to the enslaved families in order to control the loss of life due to starvation. With less profitability for the absentee plantation owners, the import of food supplies for the plantation workers dwindled. Between 1776 and 1783, when the food supplies failed to arrive altogether due to the rebellion in North America, 300–400 enslaved Nevisians starved to death.[4] On 1 August 1834, slavery was abolished in the British Empire. In Nevis, 8,815 slaves were freed.[4] The first Monday in August is celebrated as Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
and is part of the annual Nevis
Nevis
Culturama festival. A four-year apprenticeship programme followed the abolishment of slavery on the plantations. In spite of the continued use of the labour force, the Nevisian slave owners were paid over £150,000 in compensation from the British Government for the loss of property, whereas the enslaved families received nothing for 200 years of labour.[13] One of the wealthiest planter families in Nevis, the Pinneys of Montravers Plantation, claimed £36,396 (worth close to £1,800,000 today) in compensation for the slaves on the family-owned plantations around the Caribbean.[14] Because of the early distribution of plots and because many of the planters departed from the island when sugar cultivation became unprofitable, a relatively large percentage of Nevisians already owned or controlled land at emancipation.[15] Others settled on crown land. This early development of a society with a majority of small, landowning farmers and entrepreneurs created a stronger middleclass in Nevis
Nevis
than in Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
where the sugar industry continued until 2006. Even though the 15 families in the wealthy planter elite no longer control the arable land, Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
still has a large, landless working class population.[16] 1800 to the present day[edit]

Nevis
Nevis
school in 1899.

See also: History of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Nevis
Nevis
was united with Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Anguilla
Anguilla
in 1882, and they became an associated state with full internal autonomy in 1967, though Anguilla
Anguilla
seceded in 1971. Together, Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
became independent on 19 September 1983. On 10 August 1998, a referendum on Nevis
Nevis
to separate from Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
had 2,427 votes in favour and 1,498 against, falling short of the two-thirds majority needed. Before 1967, the local government of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
was also the government of Nevis
Nevis
and Anguilla. Nevis
Nevis
had two seats and Anguilla
Anguilla
one seat in the government. The economic and infrastructural development of the two smaller islands was not a priority to the colonial federal government. When the hospital in Charlestown was destroyed in a hurricane in 1899, planting of trees in the squares of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and refurbishing of government buildings, also in Saint Kitts, took precedence over the rebuilding of the only hospital in Nevis.[4] After five years without any proper medical facilities, the leaders in Nevis
Nevis
initiated a campaign, threatening to seek independence from Saint Kitts. The British Administrator in Saint Kitts, Charles Cox, was unmoved. He stated that Nevis
Nevis
did not need a hospital since there had been no significant rise in the number of deaths during the time Nevisians had been without a hospital. Therefore, no action was needed on behalf of the government, and besides, Cox continued, the Legislative Council regarded " Nevis
Nevis
and Anguilla
Anguilla
as a drag on St. Kitts and would willingly see a separation".[17] Finally, a letter of complaint to the metropolitan British Foreign Office
British Foreign Office
gave result and the federal government in Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
was ordered by their superiors in London to take speedy action. The Legislative Council took another five years to consider their options. The final decision by the federal government was to not rebuild the old hospital after all, but to instead convert the old Government House in Nevis
Nevis
into a hospital, named Alexandra Hospital after Queen Alexandra, wife of King Edward VII. A majority of the funds assigned for the hospital could thus spent on the construction of a new official residence in Nevis.[4] After d'Iberville's invasion in 1704, records show Nevis’ sugar industry in ruins and a decimated population begging the English Parliament and relatives for loans and monetary assistance to stave off island-wide starvation.[4] The sugar industry on the island never fully recovered and during the general depression that followed the loss of the West Indian sugar monopoly, Nevis
Nevis
fell on hard times and the island became one of the poorest in the region. The island remained poorer than Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
until 1991, when the fiscal performance of Nevis
Nevis
edged ahead of the fiscal performance of Saint Kitts for the first time since the French invasion.[4] Electricity was introduced in Nevis
Nevis
in 1954, when two generators were shipped in to provide electricity to the area around Charlestown. In this regard, Nevis
Nevis
fared better than Anguilla, where there were no paved roads, no electricity and no telephones up until 1967. However, electricity did not become available island-wide on Nevis
Nevis
until 1971.[4] An ambitious infrastructure development programme has been introduced during the last 10 years, including a transformation of the Charlestown port, construction of a new deep-water harbour, resurfacing and widening the Island Main Road, a new airport terminal and control tower, and a major airport expansion, which required the relocation of an entire village in order to make room for the runway extension. Modernised classrooms and better equipped schools, as well as improvements in the educational system, have contributed to a leap in academic performance on the island. The pass rate among the Nevisian students sitting for the Caribbean Examination Council
Caribbean Examination Council
(CXC) exams, the Cambridge General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE) and the Caribbean Advance Proficiency Examinations is now consistently among the highest in the English-speaking Caribbean.[18][19] Hurricanes[edit]

September 1989: there was a considerable amount of damage from Hurricane Hugo. September 1998, there was a great deal of damage from Hurricane Georges. November 1999: Nevis
Nevis
was hit by Hurricane Lenny, which caused some heavy damage to the island's infrastructure on the western coast, because of the storm's unusual track from west to east. October 2008: Nevis
Nevis
was brushed with the edge of Hurricane Omar. Among other establishments, The Four Seasons Resort Nevis
Nevis
was forced to close to undergo repairs. Hurricane Omar thus caused the loss of 600 jobs for over 2 years; the resort reopened on 15 December 2010. August 2010: there was some damage on Nevis
Nevis
from Hurricane Earl. September 2010, there was some damage from Hurricane Igor. September 2017, there was damage from Hurricane Irma.

Geography[edit]

Nevis
Nevis
and neighbouring Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
during the 2002 volcanic eruption in Montserrat
Montserrat
(centre). Top to bottom, left: St. Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Nevis; right: Barbuda, Antigua, Guadeloupe.

The formation of the island began in mid- Pliocene
Pliocene
times, approximately 3.45 million years ago. Nine distinct eruptive centres from different geological ages, ranging from mid- Pliocene
Pliocene
to Pleistocene, have contributed to the formation. No single model of the island's geological evolution can therefore be ascertained.[20] Nevis Peak
Nevis Peak
(985 m /3,232 ft) is the dormant remnant of one of these ancient stratovolcanoes. The last activity took place about 100,000 years ago, but active fumaroles and hot springs are still found on the island, the most recent formed in 1953.[21] The composite cone of Nevis
Nevis
volcano has two overlapping summit craters that are partially filled by a lava dome, created in recent, pre-Columbian time. Pyroclastic flows
Pyroclastic flows
and mudflows were deposited on the lower slopes of the cone simultaneously. Nevis Peak
Nevis Peak
is located on the outer crater rim. Four other lava domes were constructed on the flanks of the volcano, one on the northeast flank (Madden's Mount), one on the eastern flank (Butlers Mountain), one on the northwest coast (Mount Lily) and one on the south coast (Saddle Hill, with a height of 375 metres). During the last ice age, when the sea level was 60 m lower, the three islands of Saint Kitts, Nevis
Nevis
and Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
(also known as Statia) were connected as one island. Saba, however, is separated from these three by a deeper channel. There are visible wave-breaking reefs along the northern and eastern shorelines. To the south and west, the reefs are located in deeper water and are suitable for scuba diving. The most developed beach on Nevis
Nevis
is the 6.5 km long Pinney's Beach, on the western or Caribbean coast. There are sheltered swimming beaches in Oualie Bay and Cades Bay. The eastern coast of the island faces into the Atlantic Ocean, and can have strong surf in parts of the shore which are unprotected by fringing coral reefs. The colour of the sand on the beaches of Nevis
Nevis
is variable: on a lot of the bigger beaches the sand is a yellow grey in colour, but some beaches on the southern coast have darker, reddish, or even black sand. Under a microscope it becomes clear that Nevis
Nevis
sand is a mixture of tiny fragments of coral, many foraminifera, and small crystals of the various mineral constituents of the volcanic rock of which the island is made. Geology[edit] Seven volcanic centers make up Nevis. These include Round Hill (3.43 Ma), Cades Bay (3.22 Ma), Hurricane Hill (2.7 Ma), Saddle Hill (1.8 Ma), Butlers Mountain (1.1 Ma), Red Cliff and Nevis Peak
Nevis Peak
(0.98 Ma). These are mainly andesite and dacite lava domes, with associated block and ash flows, plus lahars. Nevis Peak
Nevis Peak
has the highest elevation at 984 m. Cades Bay and Farm Estate Soufriere are noted areas of hydrothermal activity.[22][23] Water has been piped since 1911 from a spring called the "Source", located 1800 feet up the mountain, to storage tanks at Rawlins Village, and since 1912, to Butler's Village. Additional drinking water comes from Nelson's Spring near Cotton Ground and Bath Spring. Groundwater
Groundwater
has been extracted since the 1990s, and mixed with the Source water.[24] Colonial deforestation[edit]

On the western plain, looking south-southwest towards Charlestown

During the 17th and 18th centuries, massive deforestation was undertaken by the planters as the land was initially cleared for sugar cultivation. This intense land exploitation by the sugar and cotton industry lasted almost 300 years, and greatly changed the island's ecosystem. In some places along the windswept southeast or "Windward" coast of the island, the landscape is radically altered compared with how it used to be in pre-colonial times.[8] Due to extreme land erosion, the top soil was swept away, and in some places at the coast, sheer cliffs as high as 25 metres (82 ft) have developed.[25] Thick forest once covered the eastern coastal plain, where the Amerindians built their first settlements during the Aceramic period, complimenting the ecosystem surrounding the coral reef just offshore. It was the easy access to fresh water on the island and the rich food source represented by the ocean life sheltered by the reef that made it feasible for the Amerindians to settle this area around 600 BC.[8] With the loss of the natural vegetation, the balance in runoff nutrients to the reef was disturbed, eventually causing as much as 80 percent of the large eastern fringing reef to become inactive. As the reef broke apart, it in turn provided less protection for the coastline.[8] During times of maximum cultivation, sugar cane fields stretched from the coastline of Nevis
Nevis
up to an altitude at which the mountain slopes were too steep and rocky to farm. Nonetheless, once the sugar industry was finally abandoned, vegetation on the leeward side of the island regrew reasonably well, as scrub and secondary forest. Water resources[edit]

A hot volcanic spring-water bathing pool at the Bath Spring.

Nevis
Nevis
has several natural freshwater springs (including Nelson's Spring). The island also has numerous non-potable volcanic hot springs, including most notably the Bath Spring near Bath village, just south of the capital Charlestown. After heavy rains, powerful rivers of rainwater pour down the numerous ravines (known as ghauts). When the water reaches the coastline, the corresponding coastal ponds, both freshwater and brackish, fill to capacity and beyond, spilling over into the sea. With modern development, the existing freshwater springs are no longer enough to supply water to the whole island. The water supply now comes mostly from Government wells. The major source of potable water for the island is groundwater, obtained from 14 active wells. Water is pumped from the wells, stored and allowed to flow by gravity to the various locations.[26] Climate[edit] See also: Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
§ Climate The climate is tropical with little variation, tempered all year round (but particularly from December through February) by the steady north-easterly winds, called the trade winds. There is a slightly hotter and somewhat rainier season from May to November. Nevis
Nevis
lies within the track area of tropical storms and occasional hurricanes. These storms can develop between August and October. This time of year has the heaviest rainfalls. Economy[edit] The official currency is the Eastern Caribbean dollar
Eastern Caribbean dollar
(EC$), which is shared by eight other territories in the region.

An African baobab tree by a ruin at Montravers Estate, a former plantation that produced, on average, 110 "hogsheads" (30,000 kg) of sugar and around 7,250 gallons (33,000 litres) of rum each year.[14]

Nevis
Nevis
Heritage Trail sign at Montravers Estate.

The European Commission's Delegation in Barbados
Barbados
and the Eastern Caribbean estimates the annual per capita Gross Domestic Product
Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) on Nevis
Nevis
to be about 10 percent higher than on St. Kitts.[27] Tourism[edit] The major source of revenue for Nevis
Nevis
today is tourism. During the 2003–2004 season, approximately 40,000 tourists visited Nevis.[28] A five star hotel (The Four Seasons Resort Nevis, West Indies), four exclusive restored plantation inns, and several smaller hotels, are currently in operation. Larger developments along the west coast have recently been approved and are in the process of being developed.[29] Offshore accounting[edit] The introduction of new legislation has made offshore financial services a rapidly growing economic sector in Nevis. Incorporation of companies, international insurance and reinsurance, as well as several international banks, trust companies, asset management firms, have created a boost in the economy.[30] During 2005, the Nevis
Nevis
Island Treasury collected $94.6 million in annual revenue, compared to $59.8 million during 2001.[31] In 1998, 17,500 international banking companies were registered in Nevis. Registration and annual filing fees paid in 1999 by these entities amounted to over 10 percent of Nevis’ revenues.[27] The offshore financial industry gained importance during the financial disaster of 1999 when Hurricane Lenny damaged the major resort on the island, causing the hotel to be closed down for a year and 400 of the 700 employees to be laid off.[27] In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force, part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), issued a blacklist of 35 nations which were said to be non-cooperative in the campaign against tax evasion and money laundering. The list included the Federation of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis, as well as Liechtenstein, Monaco, Luxembourg, the British Channel Islands, Israel, and Russia.[32] No alleged misconduct had taken place on Nevis, but the island was included in the blanket action against all offshore financial business centres, as such centres cause a considerable loss of tax revenue for the G7 countries. Politics[edit]

The seawall at Charlestown, Nevis. Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
is seen in the background, lying across the channel known as "The Narrows". The house where Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
was born is visible in the mid-distance. (Photograph taken in 2005)

The political structure for the Federation of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
is based on the Westminster Parliamentary system, but it is a unique structure[33] in that Nevis
Nevis
has its own unicameral legislature, consisting of Her Majesty's representative (the Deputy Governor General) and members of the Nevis
Nevis
Island Assembly. Nevis
Nevis
has considerable autonomy in its legislative branch. The constitution actually empowers the Nevis
Nevis
Island Legislature to make laws that cannot be abrogated by the National Assembly. In addition, Nevis
Nevis
has a constitutionally protected right to secede from the federation, should a two-third majority of the island's population vote for independence in a local referendum. Section 113.(1) of the constitution states: "The Nevis
Nevis
Island Legislature may provide that the island of Nevis shall cease to be federated with the island of Saint Christopher and accordingly that this Constitution shall no longer have effect in the island of Nevis."[34] Nevis
Nevis
has its own premier and its own government, the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration. It collects its own taxes and has a separate budget, with a current account surplus. According to a statement released by the Nevis
Nevis
Ministry of Finance in 2005, Nevis
Nevis
had one of the highest growth rates in gross national product and per capita income in the Caribbean at that point.[35] The federal prime minister, Timothy Harris, is the leader of the majority party of the federal House of Representatives in Saint Kitts, and his cabinet conducts the affairs of state. The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Nevis
has a 14 or 15-member unicameral legislature or parliament (the Senate and House of Representatives sit and vote together): A Senate, with three or four members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; and a popularly elected House of Representatives with 11 members, eight Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
seats and three Nevis
Nevis
seats. The prime minister and the cabinet are responsible to the Parliament. Elections[edit] Main article: Politics of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Nevis
Nevis
elections are scheduled every five years. The Nevis
Nevis
elections of 2013, called on 23 January 2013, was won by the party in opposition, the Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), led by Vance Amory. The CCM won three of the five seats in the Nevis
Nevis
Island Assembly, while the incumbent party, the Nevis Reformation Party (NRP), won two.[36] In the federal elections of 2010, the CCM won two of the three Nevis assigned Federal seats, while the NRP won one. Of the eight Saint Kitts assigned federal seats, the St Kitts- Nevis
Nevis
Labour Party won six and the People's Action Movement
People's Action Movement
(PAM) two.[37] Movement for constitutional reform[edit] Joseph Parry, leader of the opposition, has indicated that he favours constitutional reform over secession for Nevis. His party, the NRP, has historically been the strongest and most ardent proponent for Nevis
Nevis
independence; the party came to power with secession as the main campaign issue. In 1975, the NRP manifesto declared that: "The Nevis Reformation Party will strive at all costs to gain secession for Nevis from St. Kitts – a privilege enjoyed by the island of Nevis
Nevis
prior to 1882."[38] A cursory proposal for constitutional reform was presented by the NRP in 1999, but the issue was not prominent in the 2006 election campaign and it appears a detailed proposal has yet to be worked out and agreed upon within the party.[39] In Handbook of Federal Countries published by Forum of Federations, the authors consider the constitution problematic because it does not "specifically outline" the federal financial arrangements or the means by which the central government and Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration can raise revenue: "In terms of the NIA, the constitution only states (in s. 108(1)) that 'all revenues...raised or received by the Administration...shall be paid into and form a fund styled the Nevis Island Consolidated Fund.' [...] Section 110(1) states that the proceeds of all 'takes' collected in St. Kitts and Nevis
Nevis
under any law are to be shared between the federal government and the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration based on population. The share going to the NIA, however, is subject to deductions (s. 110(2)), such as the cost of common services and debt charges, as determined by the Governor-General
Governor-General
(s.110(3)) on the advice of the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
who can also take advice from the Premier of Nevis
Premier of Nevis
(s.110(4))."[40] According to a 1995 report by the Commonwealth Observer Group of the Commonwealth Secretariat, "the federal government is also the local government of St Kitts and this has resulted in a perception among the political parties in Nevis
Nevis
that the interests of the people of Nevis are being neglected by the federal government which is more concerned with the administration of St Kitts than with the federal administration."[41] Secession movement[edit] Simeon Daniel, Nevis' first Premier and former leader of the Nevis Reformation Party (NRP) and Vance Amory, Premier and leader of the Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), made sovereign independence for Nevis
Nevis
from the Federation of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
part of their parties' agenda.[42] Since independence from the United Kingdom in 1983, the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration and the Federal Government have been involved in several conflicts over the interpretation of the new constitution which came into effect at independence. During an interview on Voice of America
Voice of America
in March 1998, repeated in a government issued press release headlined "PM Douglas Maintains 1983 Constitution is Flawed", Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Denzil Douglas
Denzil Douglas
called the constitution a "recipe for disaster and disharmony among the people of both islands".[43] A crisis developed in 1984 when the People's Action Movement
People's Action Movement
(PAM) won a majority in the Federal elections and temporarily ceased honouring the Federal Government's financial obligations to Nevis.[44] Consequently, cheques issued by the Nevis
Nevis
Administration were not honoured by the Bank, public servants in Nevis
Nevis
were not paid on time and the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration experienced difficulties in meeting its financial obligations.[44] There is also substantial support in Nevis
Nevis
for British Overseas Territory status similarly to Anguilla, which was formerly the third of the tri-state Saint Christopher-Nevis- Anguilla
Anguilla
colony.[45] Legislative motivation for secession[edit]

Nevis
Nevis
Today,[46] a magazine published by the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration, is part of the new drive to keep the population updated about investments and plans for the island.

In 1996, four new bills were introduced in the National Assembly in Saint Kitts, one of which made provisions to have revenue derived from activities in Nevis
Nevis
paid directly to the treasury in Saint Kitts instead of to the treasury in Nevis. Another bill, The Financial Services Committee Act, contained provisions that all investments in Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
would require approval by an investment committee in Saint Kitts. This was controversial, because ever since 1983 the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration had approved all investments for Nevis, on the basis that the constitution vests legislative authority for industries, trades and businesses and economic development in Nevis
Nevis
to the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration.[47] All three representatives from Nevis, including the leader of the opposition in the Nevis
Nevis
Island Assembly, objected to the introduction of these bills into the National Assembly in Saint Kitts, arguing that the bills would affect the ability of Nevis
Nevis
to develop its offshore financial services sector and that the bills would be detrimental to the Nevis
Nevis
economy. All the representatives in opposition in the National Assembly shared the conviction that the bills, if passed into law, would be unconstitutional and undermine the constitutional and legislative authority of the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration, as well as result in the destruction of the economy of Nevis.[44] The constitutional crisis initially developed when the newly appointed Attorney General refused to grant permission for the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration to assert its legal right in the Courts. After a decision of the High Court in favour of the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration, the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
gave newspaper interviews stating that he "refused to accept the decision of the High Court".[48] Due to the deteriorating relationship between the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration and the Federal Government, a Constitutional Committee was appointed in April 1996 to advise on whether or not the present constitutional arrangement between the islands should continue. The committee recommended constitutional reform and the establishment of an island administration for Saint Kitts, separate from the Federal Government.[47] The Federal Government in Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
fills both functions today and Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
does not have an equivalent to the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration. Disagreements between the political parties in Nevis and between the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration and the Federal Government have prevented the recommendations by the electoral committee from being implemented. The problematic political arrangement between the two islands therefore continues to date.[40] Nevis
Nevis
has continued developing its own legislation, such as The Nevis International Insurance Ordinance and the Nevis
Nevis
International Mutual Funds Ordinance of 2004,[30] but calls for secession are often based on concerns that the legislative authority of the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration might be challenged again in the future. Fiscal motivation for secession[edit] The issues of political dissension between Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
are often centred around perceptions of imbalance in the economic structure.[49] As noted by many scholars,[50] Nevisians have often referred to a structural imbalance in Saint Kitts' favour in how funds are distributed between the two islands and this issue has made the movement for Nevis
Nevis
secession a constant presence in the island's political arena, with many articles appearing in the local press expressing concerns such as those compiled by Everton Powell in "What Motivates Our Call for Independence":[51]

Many of the businesses that operate in Nevis
Nevis
are headquartered in Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and pay the corporate taxes to Saint Kitts, despite the fact that profits for those businesses are derived from Nevis.[44] The vast majority of Nevisians and residents of Nevis
Nevis
depart the Federation from Saint Kitts. This meant that departure taxes are paid in Saint Kitts.[44] The bulk of cargo destined for Nevis
Nevis
enters the Federation through Saint Kitts. Custom duties are therefore paid in Saint Kitts.[44] The largest expenditure for Nevis, approximately 29 percent of the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration's recurrent budget, is education and health services, but the Nevis
Nevis
Island Legislature has no power to legislate over these two areas.[44] Police, defense and coast guard are a federal responsibility. Charlestown Police Station, which served as the Headquarters for police officers in Nevis, was destroyed by fire in December 1991. Police officers initially had to operate out of the ruin, until the Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration managed to raise the resources to re-house the police.[44] Nevis
Nevis
experiences an economic disadvantage because of preferential treatment by the federal government for development of Saint Kitts. The division of foreign aid and various forms of international assistance toward development and infrastructure are especially contentious issues. Lists showing the disparities in sharing have been compiled by Dr. Everson Hull, a former Economics professor of Howard University, and are available online.[52]

1998 referendum[edit] See also: Nevis
Nevis
independence referendum, 1998 A referendum on secession from the Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis was held in 1998. Although 62% voted in favor of a secession, a two-thirds majority would have been necessary for the referendum to succeed. Government[edit] Main article: Parishes of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis The island of Nevis
Nevis
is divided into five administrative subdivisions called parishes, each of which has an elected representative in the Nevis
Nevis
Island Assembly. The division of this almost round island into parishes was done in a circular sector pattern, so each parish is shaped like a pie slice, reaching from the highest point of Nevis
Nevis
Peak down to the coastline. The parishes have double names, for example Saint George Gingerland. The first part of the name is the name of the patron saint of the parish church, and the second part of the name is the traditional common name of the parish. Often the parishes are referred to simply by their common names. The religious part of a parish name is sometimes written or pronounced in the possessive: Saint George's Gingerland. The five parishes of Nevis
Nevis
are:

Saint George Gingerland Saint James Windward Saint John Figtree Saint Paul Charlestown Saint Thomas Lowland

Culture[edit] See also: Music of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
and Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
Creole Culturama, the annual cultural festival of Nevis, is celebrated during the Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
weekend, the first week of August. The festivities include many traditional folk dances, such as the masquerade, the Moko jumbies
Moko jumbies
on stilts, Cowboys and Indians, and Plait the Ribbon, a May pole
May pole
dance. The celebration was given a more organised form in 1974, including a Miss Culture Show and a Calypso Competition, as well as drama performances, old fashion Troupes (including Johnny Walkers, Giant and Spear, Bulls, Red Cross and Blue Ribbon), arts and crafts exhibitions and recipe competitions. According to the Nevis
Nevis
Department of Culture, the aim is to protect and encourage indigenous folklore, in order to make sure that the uniquely Caribbean culture can "reassert itself and flourish".[53] Language[edit] The official language is English and Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
Creole (known on the island as 'Nevisian' or ' Nevis
Nevis
creole') is also widely spoken. The local creole is actually more widely spoken on Nevis
Nevis
than on the neighbouring island. Music, theatre and dance[edit] Nevisian culture has since the 17th century incorporated African, European and East Indian cultural elements, creating a distinct Afro-Caribbean culture. Several historical anthropologists have done field research Nevis
Nevis
and in Nevisian migrant communities in order to trace the creation and constitution of a Nevisian cultural community. Karen Fog Olwig published her research about Nevis
Nevis
in 1993, writing that the areas where the Afro-Caribbean traditions were especially strong and flourishing relate to kinship and subsistence farming. However, she adds, Afro-Caribbean cultural impulses were not recognised or valued in the colonial society and were therefore often expressed through Euro-Caribbean cultural forms.[54] Examples of European forms appropriated to express Afro-Caribbean culture are the Nevisian and Kittitian Tea Meetings and Christmas Sports. According to anthropologist Roger D. Abrahams, these traditional performance art forms are "Nevisian approximation of British performance codes, techniques, and patterns". He writes that the Tea Meetings were staged as theatrical "battles between decorum and chaos", decorum represented by the ceremony chairmen and chaos the hecklers in the audience, with a diplomatic King or a Queen presiding over the battle to ensure fairness.[55] The Christmas Sports included a form of comedy and satire based on local events and gossip.[56] They were historically an important part of the Christmas celebrations in Nevis, performed on Christmas Eve by small troupes consisting of five or six men accompanied by string bands from different parts of the island. One of the men in the troupe was dressed as a woman, playing all the female parts in the dramatisations. The troupes moved from yard to yard to perform their skits, using props, face paint and costumes to play the roles of well-known personalities in the community. Examples of gossip about undesired behaviour that could surface in the skits for comic effect were querulous neighbours, adulterous affairs, planters mistreating workers, domestic disputes or abuse, crooked politicians and any form of stealing or cheating experienced in the society. Even though no names were mentioned in these skits, the audience would usually be able to guess who the heckling message in the troupe's dramatised portrayals was aimed at, as it was played out right on the person's own front yard. The acts thus functioned as social and moral commentaries on current events and behaviours in Nevisian society. This particular form is called "Bazzarding" by many locals. Abrahams theorises that Christmas Sports are rooted in the pre-emancipation Christmas and New Year holiday celebrations, when the enslaved population had several days off.[56] American folklorist and musicologist Alan Lomax
Alan Lomax
visited Nevis
Nevis
in 1962 in order to conduct long-term research into the black folk culture of the island. His field trip to Nevis
Nevis
and surrounding islands resulted in the anthology Lomax Caribbean Voyage series.[57] Among the Nevisians recorded were chantey-singing fishermen in a session organised in a rum shop in Newcastle; Santoy, the Calypsonian, performing calypsos by Nevisian ballader and local legend Charles Walters[58] to guitar and cuatro; and string bands, fife players and drummers from Gingerland, performing quadrilles. The island is also known for "Jamband music", which is the kind of music performed by local bands during the "Culturama Festival" and is key to "Jouvert" dancing. The sounds of the so-called "Iron Band" are also popular within the culture; many locals come together using any old pans, sinks, or other kits of any sort; which they use to create sounds and music. This form of music is played throughout the villages during the Christmas and carnival seasons. Architecture[edit]

The Museum of Nevis
Nevis
History, Charlestown, housed in the restored Georgian building where Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
was born.

A series of earthquakes during the 18th century severely damaged most of the colonial-era stone buildings of Charlestown. The Georgian stone buildings in Charlestown that are visible today had to be partially rebuilt after the earthquakes, and this led to the development of a new architectural style, consisting of a wooden upper floor over a stone ground floor; the new style resisted earthquake damage much more effectively. Two famous Nevisian buildings from the 18th century are Hermitage Plantation, built of lignum vitae wood in 1740, the oldest surviving wooden house still in use in the Caribbean today, and the Bath Hotel, the first hotel in the Caribbean, a luxury hotel and spa built by John Huggins in 1778. The soothing waters of the hotel's hot spring and the lively social life on Nevis
Nevis
attracted many famous Europeans including Antigua-based Admiral Nelson, and Prince William Henry, Duke of Clarence, (future William IV of the United Kingdom), who attended balls and private parties at the Bath Hotel. Today, the building serves as government offices, and there are two outdoor hot-spring bathing spots which were specially constructed in recent years for public use. An often repeated legend appears to suggest that a destructive 1690 earthquake and tsunami destroyed the buildings of the original capital Jamestown on the west coast. Folk tales say that the town sank beneath the ocean. However, archaeologists from the University of Southampton who have done excavations in the area, have found no evidence to indicate that the story is true. They state that this story may originate with an over-excited Victorian letter writer sharing somewhat exaggerated accounts of his exotic life in the tropical colony with a British audience back home.[59] One such letter recounts that so much damage was done to the town that it was completely evacuated, and was engulfed by the sea. Early maps do not, however, actually show a settlement called "Jamestown", only "Morton's Bay", and later maps show that all that was left of Jamestown/Morton's Bay in 1818 was a building labelled "Pleasure House". Very old bricks that wash up on Pinney's Beach
Pinney's Beach
after storms may have contributed to this legend of a sunken town; however these bricks are thought to be dumped ballast from 17th and 18th century sailing ships. Notable natives and residents[edit]

Arthur Anslyn
Arthur Anslyn
MBE, marine expert. Born on, and lives on, Nevis. Alexander Hamilton, the statesman and one of the founding fathers of the United States, was born on Nevis
Nevis
around 1755, and spent a significant part of his childhood there. His father was a trader from Scotland, his mother was from Nevis. The place of his birth currently holds the Nevis Island Assembly
Nevis Island Assembly
Chambers and the Museum of Nevis History. The Duchess of Bronte, Frances Nisbet
Frances Nisbet
(1761–1831), is best known as the wife of British hero 1st Viscount Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson, of Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
fame. She was a planter's daughter from Nevis, whose rich and influential uncle, John Herbert, was the President of the Council of Nevis.[60] When she met Captain Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
on Nevis, Frances Nisbet
Frances Nisbet
was a young widow with a five-year-old son. Nelson and she were married in Nevis
Nevis
in 1787. A copy of the marriage certificate is on display at the Saint John Figtree
Saint John Figtree
Parish
Parish
Anglican Church in Nevis. Eulalie Spence
Eulalie Spence
(1894–1981), pioneer playwright of the Harlem Renaissance, was born on Nevis
Nevis
on 11 June 1894. She and her family moved to New York in 1902. She wrote fourteen plays, including Fools Errand, which ran on Broadway in 1927. Her three-act play The Whipping was optioned by Paramount Studios, and was eventually filmed as Ready for Love, a 1934 film starring Ida Lupino
Ida Lupino
and Richard Arlen[61][62] Spence is famous for having introduced an affirming image of black women into early American drama, using her unique mix of folk art and political race drama. Several of her plays won awards.[63] Elquemedo Willett, born 1 May 1953, famous Nevisian cricket player and former Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
and West Indies
West Indies
left-arm spinner, was the first Leeward Islander to play Test cricket for the West Indies
West Indies
in 1973, when he was 19 years old. He was inducted into the Nevis
Nevis
Sports Museum Hall of Fame in 2005.[64] Cicely Tyson, born on 18 or 19 December 1924, Oscar-nominated in 1972, former wife of Miles Davis
Miles Davis
and winner of multiple Emmy Awards, is of Nevisian descent. Both her parents emigrated from Nevis
Nevis
to the Harlem neighborhood of New York City.[65] Rupert Crosse, the first African American to be nominated for an Academy Award
Academy Award
as Best Supporting Actor is of Nevisian descent. Runako Morton, Nevisian cricketer (1978–2012) Constance Baker Motley
Constance Baker Motley
(1921–2005), who as a young lawyer represented Martin Luther King, Jr., has Nevisian heritage and owned a home in Brown Hill, Nevis, near her ancestral home. Both her mother and father emigrated from Nevis.[15] She attained fame as the first African-American
African-American
woman appointed as a United States Federal judge, the first African-American
African-American
woman elected to the New York State Senate
New York State Senate
and the first woman to serve as Manhattan
Manhattan
borough president. She was also the first African-American
African-American
woman to serve on the federal judiciary (1966), as well as the first African-American
African-American
and the first woman to become Chief Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (1982). Mel B, the former "Scary Spice" of the Spice Girls, born on 29 May 1975 in Leeds, has a Nevisian father. Angela Griffin, actress, born 19 July 1976 in Leeds, has a Nevisian father. She is a British actress and television presenter who has been active on British television since the early 1990s. United States Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer
Stephen Breyer
has a vacation home on Nevis. In February 2012 he was robbed in his home at machete-point.[66]

See also[edit]

Chief Justices Nevis
Nevis
Historical and Conservation Society

References[edit]

^ The Deputy Governor-General
Governor-General
of Nevis
Nevis
is appointed by the Governor-General
Governor-General
of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis, to assent or withhold assent to any bill passed by the Nevis Island Assembly
Nevis Island Assembly
and to perform other functions of the office of Governor-General
Governor-General
on Her Majesty's behalf relating to Nevis, as the Governor-General
Governor-General
may specify. See Chapter III, Sections 23 of the Constitution. ^ "St. Kitts and Nevis: Islands, Parishes & Major Towns – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". Retrieved 7 September 2017 ^ a b c d " Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Hubbard, Vincent K. (2002). Swords, Ships & Sugar: History of Nevis. Corvallis, Oregon: Premiere, ISBN 1-891519-05-0, pp. 20–23 (Captain Gilbert, Captain Smith), 25 (pearl diving), 41–44 (name Dulcina, treaty with Spain, first settlement), 69–70 (privateers, Captain Francis), 79–85 (slave trade, Royal African Company, Queen of the Caribees), 86–102 (Caribs), 113–120 (d'Iberville, buccaneers), 138–139 (Great Britain's wealth derived from West Indian sugar and slave trade, 1776 starvation), 194–195 (Alexandra Hospital), 211–223 (electricity, Anguilla
Anguilla
in 1967, OECD blacklist). ^ " Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 February 2016.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Our Lady of the Snow". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ See for example Nevis
Nevis
Heritage excavation reports, 2000–2002, Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ a b c d Wilson, Samuel (1990). "The Prehistoric Settlement Pattern of Nevis, West Indies". Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 16, No. 4 (Winter 1989), p. 427-450. ^ a b Honychurch, Lennox (1997). "Crossroads in the Caribbean: A Site of Encounter and Exchange on Dominica". World Archaeology Vol. 28(3): 291–304. ^ "Irish indentured labour in the Caribbean". Nationalarchives.gov.uk. March 11, 2013. ^ Calendar State Papers (1676). Number 1152, 1676. The British Colonial Office
Colonial Office
Public Records. Qtd. in Hubbard, p. 85. ^ Watts, David (1987). The West Indies: Patterns of Development, Culture and Environmental Change Since 1492. Cambridge University Press, 1987, p. 285. ^ Goveia, Elsa H. (1965). Slave Society in the British Leeward Islands. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965. ISBN 0-88258-048-5 ^ a b Personal stories: Traders and Merchants – John Pinney. In Bristol and Transatlantic Slavery, a project by City Museum and the University of the West of England's Faculty of Humanities. Retrieved 8 May 2007. ^ a b Baker Motley, Constance (1998). Equal Justice Under Law. An Autobiography. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. ISBN 0-374-14865-1. An excerpt from the autobiography, describing her search in Nevis
Nevis
church records for her family's history during the era of slavery, is available online at The New York Times Book Review. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Simmonds, Keith C. (1987). "Political and Economic Factors Influencing the St. Kitts- Nevis
Nevis
Polity: An Historical Perspective". Phylon, 48:4. 4th Qtr., 1987, pp. 277–286. ^ Qtd. in Hubbard, p. 195. ^ Brown, Janet (2000). "Early Childhood Investment in St. Kitts and Nevis: A Model for the Caribbean?". Caribbean Child Development Centre, School of Continuing Studies, UWI, Mona: "St. Kitts- Nevis
Nevis
has one of the highest levels of CXC passes in the region." ^ "Education official calls on students to push beyond their comfort zones". Nevis
Nevis
Government Information Service, 10 January 2007: "In 2002, Nevis
Nevis
captured the award for Most Outstanding School for the year in the Region. [...] In the May/June examinations of 2006, Nevis again recorded its name in the annals of CXC's when it captured two of the eight awards in Business Studies and Technical/vocational Studies. Nevis
Nevis
returned the best performance in Business Studies in the Region in two of the three years that the award had been offered". For results at individual schools, see Caines, Jaedee. "Proud Moment For Lyn Jeffers School". The Observer, 13 October 2005; "Minister of Education to GSS 2005 graduands: The future of Nevis
Nevis
depends on you". SKN Vibes, 24 November 24, 2005; and Washington Archibald High School obtains highest CXC pass rate among 7 others. SKN Vibes, 4 September 2006. Retrieved 7 May 2007. ^ United Nations (2000). " Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis: Executive Summary". Country Reports. Committee on Science and Technology, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, pdf file. Retrieved 7 December 2006. ^ " Nevis
Nevis
Peak" (2006). Global Worldwide Holocene Volcano and Eruption Information. Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ " Nevis
Nevis
Geology". Caribbean Volcanoes.  ^ " Nevis
Nevis
Geological Profile". The University of West Indies.  ^ Hubbard, Vincent (2002). Swords, Ships & Sugar. Corvallis: Premiere Editions International, Inc. p. 196. ISBN 9781891519055.  ^ Wilson, Samuel (1990). "The Prehistoric Settlement Pattern of Nevis, West Indies". Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 16, No. 4 (Winter 1989), p. 428: "The breakup of the fringing reef has itself contributed to extensive and accelerating coastal erosion on the windward coast of the island, where sea cliffs of unconsolidated volcanic gravels as high as 25 m have developed." ^ The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). “Chapter 9: St. Kitts and Nevis. In Programme of Action for the sustainable development of small island developing States (SIDS POA). United Nations, 2003-09-29. Retrieved 28 August 2007. ^ a b c "EU & the Eastern Caribbean: St Kitts and Nevis
Nevis
Overview". The European Commission's Delegation in Barbados
Barbados
and the Eastern Caribbean. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ CIA Factbook (2006). Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ "Developers pay US$10m installment for Nevis
Nevis
land". Caribbean Net News, 9 May 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ a b As reported by the Premier at the official Web site for Nevis Financial Services Departments and the Ministry of Finance, Nevis. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ "Employment on Nevis
Nevis
increases" (2006). Nevis
Nevis
Island Government Press Release, May 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ See articles in the BBC, Island Sun, and The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Phillips, Fred (2002). Commonwealth Caribbean Constitutional Law. Cavendish Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-84314-429-8, p. 136: "St Kitts and Nevis
Nevis
has broken new ground in creating a federal structure that is sui generis: a Federation not between St Kitts and Nevis, but between Nevis
Nevis
on the one hand and St Kitts and Nevis
Nevis
on the other." ^ See section 3 and 4 about Nevis
Nevis
Island Legislature and Administration in The Saint Christopher and Nevis
Nevis
Constitution Order 1983. Published online by Georgetown University and also by University of the West Indies. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration – Ministry of Finance (2005). Quick Facts. About Nevis. Tax and Economic System. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ "CCM Defeats NRP in Nevis
Nevis
Elections". The St. Kitts- Nevis
Nevis
Observer, 23 January 2013. ^ "St. Kitts ruling party wins in early elections". The Seattle Times, 26 January 2010. ^ Herbert, Roy (2005). "A short historical look at the Relationship between St. Kitts & Nevis". Historical Review. Nevis
Nevis
Independence, 4 February 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ "Nevis: 'Reform before independence'". BBC Caribbean, online edition, 26 January 2004. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ a b Griffiths, Ann Lynn and Karl Nerenberg (2002). Handbook of Federal Countries. Ed. Karl Nerenberg. Published McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, 2002. ISBN 0-7735-2511-4, p. 274. ^ General Election in St Kitts and Nevis
Nevis
3 July 1995: The Report of the Commonwealth Observer Group. Commonwealth Observer Group, Commonwealth Secretariat, 1995. ISBN 0-85092-466-9, p.3. ^ " Independence
Independence
for Nevis
Nevis
still on the agenda, says premier." Caribbean Net News, 16 June 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Office of the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
(1998). "PM Douglas Maintains 1983 Constitution is Flawed." Media Release, 11 March 1998. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ a b c d e f g h The Concerned Citizens Movement (1996). "The Way Forward For The Island Of Nevis." Nevis, Queen of the Caribees. Nevis Island Administration, September 1996. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ http://www.mondaq.com/x/4365/offshore+financial+centres/Secession+The+Way+Forward+For+Nevis+St+Kitts ^ " Nevis
Nevis
Independent Travel". nevisindependence.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2006.  ^ a b Phillips, Fred (2002). Commonwealth Caribbean Constitutional Law. Cavendish Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-84314-429-8. ^ St. Kitts and Nevis
Nevis
Observer July 16–22, 1995. Qtd. in The Concerned Citizens Movement. "The Way Forward For The Island Of Nevis." Nevis, Queen of the Caribees. Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration, September 1996. ^ Anckar, Dag (2001). "Party systems and voter alignments in small island states". In Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited. Eds. Lauri Karvonen and Stein Kuhnle. Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-23720-3. p. 270: "To a historical rivalry between the islands must be added a structural economic imbalance". ^ See for example: Duval, David Timothy (2004). Tourism in the Caribbean: Trends, Development, Prospects. Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-30361-3, p. 102: " Nevis
Nevis
has claimed domination and exploitation by St Kitts and has come to view St Kitts as the 'larger omnipresent looming partner' (Premdas 2000). Such mistreatment (whether real or perceived), combined with the subordinate island's distinctive cultural and historical identity, has fostered an ambivalent relationship between internal core and periphery. These accusations and counter-attacks have been entrenched in the countries' collective memory and have, to some degree, permeated many aspects of society." See also: Phillips, Fred (2002). Commonwealth Caribbean Constitutional Law Cavendish Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-84314-429-8: "In Freedom in the Caribbean, reference was made to the long history of grievance nurtured by Nevis
Nevis
against St Kitts [ever since] imperial legislation brought Nevis
Nevis
into the unitary state of St Kitts/Nevis/ Anguilla
Anguilla
in 1882." ^ Powell, Everton (Ed.) (2006). "What Motivates Our Call for Independence". Nevis
Nevis
Independence. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Hull, E. "Part I: Grabbing the Forgiven-debt Money." and "On the Money Trail – PART II". Nevis
Nevis
Independence. See also Powell, Everton (2006). "Disparities in sharing". Nevis
Nevis
Independence. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Nevis
Nevis
Department of Culture (2006). Nevis
Nevis
Culturama. 8 May 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Olwig, Karen Fog (1993). Global Culture, Island Identity: continuity and change in the Afro-Caribbean community of Nevis. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1993. ^ Abrahams, Roger D. (1983). Man of Words in the West Indies: Performance and the Emergence of Creole Culture. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U P, 1983. ^ a b Abrahams, Roger D. (1973). "Christmas Mummings on Nevis." North Carolina Folklore
Folklore
Journal (1973): pp. 120–31. ^ Cowley, John. "Caribbean Voyage: Nevis
Nevis
& St Kitts Tea Meetings, Christmas Sports, & the Moonlight Night". Musical Traditions, 1 November 2002. Retrieved 8 May 2007. ^ Abrahams, Roger D. "Charles Walters – West Indian Autolycus'". Western Folklore, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Apr. 1968), pp. 77–95. ^ Machling, Tessa (2002). "Jamestown, Morton's Bay and James Fort: Myth, Port and Fort". Interim Report for the 2002 Season, Theme Two. University of Southampton. ^ White, Colin (2003). "The Wife's Tale: Frances, Lady Nelson and the break-up of her marriage". Journal for Maritime Research, Oct. 2003 issue. ISSN 1469-1957. Online at JMR, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ Donati, William. Ida Lupino: A Biography. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1996. ISBN 0813143527. Google Books. Retrieved July 22, 2013. ^ Braconi, Adrienne Macki. "Eulalie Spence." The Cambridge Companion to African American Theatre. Ed. Harvey Young. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN 1107017122. 117–134. Google Books. Retrieved July 17, 2013. ^ Parascandola, Louis J. Look for Me All Around You: Anglophone Caribbean Immigrants in the Harlem
Harlem
Renaissance. Wayne State University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8143-2987-X. ^ CMC (2005). "Willett for Nevis
Nevis
Sports Hall of Fame" West Indies Cricket
Cricket
Board, 27 February 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2006. ^ "New York, Naturalization Records, 1882–1944 [database on-line]". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 22 February 2015.  ^ "Justice Breyer robbed by machete-wielding intruder at West Indies vacation home". Fox News. 

Further reading[edit]

Michener, James, A. 1989. Caribbean. Secker & Warburg. London. ISBN 0-436-27971-1 (Especially Chap. VIII. "A Wedding on Nevis", pp. 289–318). The book is a fictionalised account of Caribbean history, but according to the publisher, "...everything said about Nelson and his frantic search for a wealthy life is based on fact." Ordnance Survey, Government of the United Kingdom, 1984. Nevis, with part of St. Christopher (Saint Kitts). Series E803 (D.O.S. 343), Sheet NEVIS, Edition 5 O.S.D. 1984. Reprinted in 1995, published by the Government of the United Kingdom (Ordnance Survey) for the Government of Saint Christopher (St. Kitts) and Nevis. Robinson, David and Jennifer Lowery (Editors), 2000. The natural history of the island of Nevis. Nevis
Nevis
Historical and Conservation Society Press, Ithaca, New York.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nevis.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Nevis.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article Nevis.

Nevis
Nevis
Island Administration Nevis
Nevis
Island Tourism Authority Nevis
Nevis
Island Tourism Guide

v t e

Parishes of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis

Saint Kitts

Christ Church Nichola Town Saint Anne Sandy Point Saint George Basseterre Saint John Capisterre Saint Mary Cayon Saint Paul Capisterre Saint Peter Basseterre Saint Thomas Middle Island Trinity Palmetto Point

Nevis

Saint George Gingerland Saint James Windward Saint John Figtree Saint Paul Charlestown Saint Thomas Lowland

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies
West Indies
Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South

.