Coordinates : 17°09′N 62°35′W / 17.150°N 62.583°W /
Flag Coat of arms
MOTTO: Country Above Self
O Land of Beauty! ROYAL ANTHEM :
God Save the Queen
God Save the Queen
and largest city Charlestown
17°20′N 62°45′W / 17.333°N 62.750°W / 17.333;
under federal constitutional
• PRESIDENT, NEVIS ISLAND ASSEMBLY
• FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
19 September 1883
93 km2 (36 sq mi) (207th )
• 2011 CENSUS
130/km2 (336.7/sq mi) (not ranked )
GDP (PPP )
• PER CAPITA
• PER CAPITA
very high · 54th
East Caribbean dollar ($) (XCD )
−4 (UTC −4)
dd-mm-yyyy (CE )
DRIVES ON THE
Vance W. Amory International
IATA : NEV, ICAO : TKPN
Elevation 35 ft. (11 m) Caribbean portal
A view of
Nevis from the southeastern peninsula of
Saint Kitts .
The east coast of Nevis, partially protected by coral reefs .
Long Haul Bay is seen in the foreground. Main Street,
Charlestown, Nevis . Part of the west coast of Nevis, including
the location of Nelson\'s Spring The view looking inland from
Nevis airport, 2008
NEVIS /ˈniːvɪs/ is a small island in the
Caribbean Sea that forms
part of the inner arc of the
Leeward Islands chain of the West Indies
Nevis and the neighbouring island of
Saint Kitts constitute one
country: the Federation of
Saint Kitts and
Nevis is located
near the northern end of the
Lesser Antilles archipelago , about 350
km east-southeast of
Puerto Rico and 80 km west of
Antigua . Its area
is 93 square kilometres (36 sq mi) and the capital is Charlestown .
Saint Kitts and
Nevis are separated by a shallow 3-kilometre (2 mi)
channel known as "The Narrows ".
Nevis is roughly conical in shape
with a volcano known as
Nevis Peak at its centre. The island is
fringed on its western and northern coastlines by sandy beaches which
are composed of a mixture of white coral sand with brown and black
sand which is eroded and washed down from the volcanic rocks that make
up the island. The gently-sloping coastal plain (1 km (0.62 mi) wide)
has natural freshwater springs as well as non-potable volcanic hot
springs , especially along the western coast.
The island was named Oualie ("Land of Beautiful Waters") by the
Caribs and Dulcina ("Sweet Island") by the early British settlers. The
name, Nevis, is derived from the Spanish, Nuestra Señora de las
Nieves (which means Our Lady of the Snows ); the name first appears on
maps in the 16th century.
Nevis is also known by the sobriquet "Queen
of the Caribees", which it earned in the 18th century, when its sugar
plantations created much wealth for the British.
Nevis is of particular historical significance to Americans because
it was the birthplace and early childhood home of
Alexander Hamilton .
For the British,
Nevis is the place where
Horatio Nelson was stationed
as a young sea captain, and is where he met and married a Nevisian,
Frances Nisbet , the young widow of a plantation-owner.
The majority of the approximately 12,000 citizens of
Nevis are of
primarily African descent. English is the official language, and the
literacy rate, 98 percent, is one of the highest in the Western
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Amerindians
* 2.2 Colonial era
* 2.3 Emancipation
* 2.4 1800 to the present day
* 3 Economy
* 3.1 Historical
* 3.2 Tourism
* 3.3 Offshore accounting
* 4 Politics
* 4.1 Elections
* 4.2 Movement for constitutional reform
* 4.3 Secession movement
* 4.3.1 Legislative motivation for secession
* 4.3.2 Fiscal motivation for secession
* 4.3.3 1998 referendum
* 5 Parishes
* 6 Geography
* 6.1 Colonial deforestation
* 6.2 Water resources
* 6.3 Climate
* 6.3.1 Hurricanes
* 7 Culture
* 7.1 Language
* 7.2 Music, theatre and dance
* 7.3 Architecture
* 8 Notable natives and residents
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
In 1498, Christopher Columbus gave the island the name San Martin
(Saint Martin). However, the confusion of numerous poorly-charted
small islands in the Leeward Island chain meant that this name ended
up being accidentally transferred to another island, which is still
known as Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten .
The current name
Nevis was derived from a Spanish name Nuestra
Señora de las Nieves by a process of abbreviation and anglicisation .
The Spanish name means Our Lady of the Snows . It is not known who
chose this name for the island, but it is a reference to the story of
a 4th-century Catholic miracle: a snowfall on the
Esquiline Hill in
Rome. Presumably the white clouds that usually cover the top of Nevis
Peak reminded someone of this story of a miraculous snowfall in a hot
Nevis was part of the Spanish claim to the Caribbean islands, a claim
pursued until the
Treaty of Madrid (1670) , even though there were no
Spanish settlements on the island. According to Vincent Hubbard,
author of Swords, Ships an island settled for more than two thousand
years by Amerindian people. The indigenous people of
these periods belonged to the Leeward Island Amerindian groups
popularly referred to as
Arawaks and Caribs , a complex mosaic of
ethnic groups with similar culture and language. Lennox Honychurch
(D. Phil. in Anthropology) from Dominica, a leading scholar in the
history and culture of Caribs, traces the European use of the term
"Carib" to refer to the Leeward Island aborigines to Columbus, who
picked it up from the
Hispaniola . It was not a name the
Caribs called themselves. "Carib Indians" was the generic name used
for all groups believed involved in cannibalistic war rituals, more
particularly, the consumption of parts of a killed enemy's body.
The Amerindian name for
Nevis was Oualie, land of beautiful waters.
The structure of the Island Carib language has been linguistically
identified as Arawakan .
In spite of the Spanish claim,
Nevis continued to be a popular
stop-over point for English and Dutch ships on their way to the North
American continent . Captain Bartholomew Gilbert of Plymouth visited
the island in 1603, spending two weeks to cut twenty tons of lignum
vitae wood. Gilbert sailed on to
Virginia to seek out survivors of the
Roanoke settlement in what is now
North Carolina . Captain John Smith
Nevis also on his way to
Virginia in 1607. This was the voyage
which founded Jamestown , the first permanent English settlement in
the New World.
On 30 August 1620, James 6th of Scotland – James I of England
asserted sovereignty over
Nevis by giving a Royal Patent for
colonisation to the
Earl of Carlisle . However, actual European
settlement did not happen until 1628 when Anthony Hilton moved from
Saint Kitts following a murder plot against him. He was
accompanied by 80 other settlers, soon to be boosted by a further 100
settlers from London who had originally hoped to settle
Hilton became the first Governor of Nevis. After the Treaty of Madrid
(1670) between Spain and England,
Nevis became the seat of the British
colony and the
Admiralty Court also sat in Nevis. Between 1675 and
1730, the island was the headquarters for the slave trade for the
Leeward Islands, with approximately 6,000–7,000 enslaved West
Africans passing through en route to other islands each year. The
Royal African Company brought all its ships through Nevis. A 1678
census shows a community of Irish people – 22% of the population –
existing as either indentured servants or freemen. Illustration
of French slave trade in the 1876 book The 18th century: Its
Institutions, Customs, and Costumes: France, 1700–1789.
Due to the profitable
Slave Trade and the high quality of Nevisian
sugar cane , the island soon became a dominant source of wealth for
Great Britain and the slave-owning British plantocracy. When the
Leeward Islands were separated from
Barbados in 1671,
Nevis became the
seat of the
Leeward Islands colony and was given the nickname "Queen
of the Caribees". It remained colonial capital for the Leeward Islands
until the seat was transferred to
Antigua for military reasons in
1698. During this period,
Nevis was the richest of the British Leeward
Islands. The island outranked larger islands like
Jamaica in sugar
production in the late 17th century. The wealth of the planters on the
island is evident in the tax records preserved at the Calendar State
Papers in the British
Colonial Office Public Records, where the amount
of tax collected on the
Leeward Islands was recorded. The sums
recorded for 1676 as "head tax on slaves", a tax payable in sugar,
amounted to 384,600 pounds in Nevis, as opposed to 67,000 each in
Antigua and Saint Kitts, 62,500 in
Montserrat , and 5,500 total in the
other five islands. The profits on sugar cultivation in
enhanced by the fact that the cane juice from
Nevis yielded an
unusually high amount of sugar. A gallon (3.79 litres) of cane juice
Nevis yielded 24 ounces (0.71 litres) of sugar, whereas a gallon
Saint Kitts yielded 16 ounces (0.47 litres). Twenty percent of
British Empire 's total sugar production in 1700 was derived from
Nevisian plantations. Exports from West Indian colonies like Nevis
were worth more than all the exports from all the mainland Thirteen
North America combined at the time of the American
The enslaved families formed the large labour force required to work
the sugar plantations. After the 1650s the supply of white indentured
servants began to dry up due to increased wages in England and less
incentive to migrate to the colonies. By the end of the 17th century,
the population of
Nevis consisted of a small, rich planter elite in
control, a marginal population of poor whites, a great majority of
African-descended slaves, and an unknown number of maroons , escaped
slaves living in the mountains. In 1780, 90 percent of the 10,000
people living on
Nevis were black. Some of the maroons joined with
the few remaining Caribs in
Nevis to form a resistance force. Memories
of the Nevisian maroons' struggle under the plantation system are
preserved in place names such as Maroon Hill, an early centre of
The great wealth generated by the colonies of the
West Indies led to
wars between Spain, Britain, and France. The formation of the United
States can be said to be a partial by-product of these wars and the
strategic trade aims that often ignored North America. Three
William Kidd being one of them) were employed by the
British Crown to help protect ships in Nevis' waters.
During the 17th century, the French, based on Saint Kitts, launched
many attacks on Nevis, sometimes assisted by the Island Caribs, who in
1667 sent a large fleet of canoes along in support. In the same year a
Franco-Dutch invasion fleet was repelled off
Nevis by an English
fleet. Letters and other records from the era indicate that the
Nevis hated and feared the Amerindians. In 1674 and 1683
they participated in attacks on Carib villages in
Dominica and St.
Vincent , in spite of a lack of official approval from the Crown for
On Nevis, the English built Fort Charles and a series of smaller
fortifications to aid in defending the island against Carib attacks.
Charlestown Methodist Chapel, 1802. Pro-slavery mobs set the
chapel ablaze in 1797, but the building was saved.
In 1706, Pierre Le Moyne d\'Iberville , the French Canadian founder
Louisiana in North America, decided to drive the English out of
Nevis and thus also stop pirate attacks on French ships; he considered
Nevis the region's headquarters for piracy against French trade.
During d'Iberville's invasion of Nevis, French buccaneers were used in
the front line, infamous for being ruthless killers after the
pillaging during the wars with Spain where they gained a reputation
for torturing and murdering non-combatants. In the face of the
invading force, the English militiamen of
Nevis fled. Some planters
burned the plantations, rather than letting the French have them, and
hid in the mountains. It was the enslaved Africans who held the French
at bay by taking up arms to defend their families and the island. The
slave quarters had been looted and burned as well, as the main reward
promised the men fighting on the French side in the attack was the
right to capture as many slaves as possible and resell them in
During the fighting, 3,400 enslaved Nevisians were captured and sent
off to Martinique, but about 1,000 more, poorly armed and militarily
untrained, held the French troops at bay, by "murderous fire"
according to an eyewitness account by an English militiaman. He wrote
that "the slaves' brave behaviour and defence there shamed what some
of their masters did, and they do not shrink to tell us so." After 18
days of fighting, the French were driven off the island. Among the
Nevisian men, women and children carried away on d'Iberville's ships,
six ended up in Louisiana, the first persons of African descent to
arrive there. Slave owner and trader John Pinney (1740–1818)
of Montravers Plantation.
One consequence of the French attack was a collapsed sugar industry
and during the ensuing hardship on Nevis, small plots of land on the
plantations were made available to the enslaved families in order to
control the loss of life due to starvation. With less profitability
for the absentee plantation owners, the import of food supplies for
the plantation workers dwindled. Between 1776 and 1783, when the food
supplies failed to arrive altogether due to the rebellion in North
America , 300–400 enslaved Nevisians starved to death. On 1 August
1834, slavery was abolished in the
British Empire . In Nevis, 8,815
slaves were freed. The first Monday in August is celebrated as
Emancipation Day and is part of the annual
Nevis Culturama festival.
A four-year apprenticeship programme followed the abolishment of
slavery on the plantations. In spite of the continued use of the
labour force, the Nevisian slave owners were paid over £150,000 in
compensation from the British Government for the loss of property,
whereas the enslaved families received nothing for 200 years of
labour. One of the wealthiest planter families in Nevis, the Pinneys
of Montravers Plantation, claimed £36,396 (worth close to £1,800,000
today) in compensation for the slaves on the family-owned plantations
around the Caribbean.
Because of the early distribution of plots and because many of the
planters departed from the island when sugar cultivation became
unprofitable, a relatively large percentage of Nevisians already owned
or controlled land at emancipation. Others settled on crown land.
This early development of a society with a majority of small,
landowning farmers and entrepreneurs created a stronger middleclass in
Nevis than in
Saint Kitts where the sugar industry continued until
2006. Even though the 15 families in the wealthy planter elite no
longer control the arable land,
Saint Kitts still has a large,
landless working class population.
1800 TO THE PRESENT DAY
Nevis school in 1899. See also: History of
Saint Kitts and
Nevis was united with
Saint Kitts and
Anguilla in 1882, and they
became an associated state with full internal autonomy in 1967, though
Anguilla seceded in 1971. Together,
Saint Kitts and
independent on 19 September 1983. On 10 August 1998, a referendum on
Nevis to separate from
Saint Kitts had 2,427 votes in favour and 1,498
against, falling short of the two-thirds majority needed.
Before 1967, the local government of
Saint Kitts was also the
Nevis and Anguilla.
Nevis had two seats and
seat in the government. The economic and infrastructural development
of the two smaller islands was not a priority to the colonial federal
When the hospital in Charlestown was destroyed in a hurricane in
1899, planting of trees in the squares of
Saint Kitts and refurbishing
of government buildings, also in Saint Kitts, took precedence over the
rebuilding of the only hospital in Nevis. After five years without
any proper medical facilities, the leaders in
Nevis initiated a
campaign, threatening to seek independence from Saint Kitts. The
British Administrator in Saint Kitts, Charles Cox, was unmoved. He
Nevis did not need a hospital since there had been no
significant rise in the number of deaths during the time Nevisians had
been without a hospital. Therefore, no action was needed on behalf of
the government, and besides, Cox continued, the Legislative Council
Anguilla as a drag on St. Kitts and would
willingly see a separation". Finally, a letter of complaint to the
British Foreign Office gave result and the federal
Saint Kitts was ordered by their superiors in London to
take speedy action. The Legislative Council took another five years to
consider their options. The final decision by the federal government
was to not rebuild the old hospital after all, but to instead convert
the old Government House in
Nevis into a hospital, named Alexandra
Hospital after Queen Alexandra, wife of King
Edward VII . A majority
of the funds assigned for the hospital could thus spent on the
construction of a new official residence in Nevis.
Electricity was introduced in
Nevis in 1954, when two generators were
shipped in to provide electricity to the area around Charlestown. In
Nevis fared better than Anguilla, where there were no
paved roads, no electricity and no telephones up until 1967. However,
electricity did not become available island-wide on
Nevis until 1971.
An ambitious infrastructure development programme has been introduced
during the last 10 years, including a transformation of the
Charlestown port, construction of a new deep-water harbour,
resurfacing and widening the Island Main Road, a new airport terminal
and control tower, and a major airport expansion, which required the
relocation of an entire village in order to make room for the runway
Modernised classrooms and better equipped schools, as well as
improvements in the educational system, have contributed to a leap in
academic performance on the island. The pass rate among the Nevisian
students sitting for the
Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) exams,
the Cambridge General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE) and
the Caribbean Advance Proficiency Examinations is now consistently
among the highest in the English-speaking Caribbean.
The official currency is the
Eastern Caribbean dollar (EC$), which is
shared by eight other territories in the region.
An African baobab tree by a ruin at Montravers Estate, a former
plantation that produced, on average, 110 "hogsheads " (30,000 kg) of
sugar and around 7,250 gallons (33,000 litres) of rum each year.
Nevis Heritage Trail sign at Montravers Estate.
After d'Iberville's invasion in 1704, records show Nevis’ sugar
industry in ruins and a decimated population begging the English
Parliament and relatives for loans and monetary assistance to stave
off island-wide starvation. The sugar industry on the island never
fully recovered and during the general depression that followed the
loss of the West Indian sugar monopoly ,
Nevis fell on hard times and
the island became one of the poorest in the region. The island
remained poorer than
Saint Kitts until 1991, when the fiscal
Nevis edged ahead of the fiscal performance of Saint
Kitts for the first time since the French invasion. The European
Commission\'s Delegation in
Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean
estimates the annual per capita
Gross Domestic Product
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on Nevis
to be about 10 percent higher than on St. Kitts.
The major source of revenue for
Nevis today is tourism. During the
2003–2004 season, approximately 40,000 tourists visited Nevis. A
five star hotel (The Four Seasons Resort Nevis, West Indies), four
exclusive restored plantation inns, and several smaller hotels, are
currently in operation. Larger developments along the west coast have
recently been approved and are in the process of being developed.
The introduction of new legislation has made offshore financial
services a rapidly growing economic sector in Nevis. Incorporation of
companies, international insurance and reinsurance, as well as several
international banks, trust companies, asset management firms, have
created a boost in the economy. During 2005, the
Treasury collected $94.6 million in annual revenue, compared to $59.8
million during 2001. In 1998, 17,500 international banking companies
were registered in Nevis. Registration and annual filing fees paid in
1999 by these entities amounted to over 10 percent of Nevis’
revenues. The offshore financial industry gained importance during
the financial disaster of 1999 when
Hurricane Lenny damaged the major
resort on the island, causing the hotel to be closed down for a year
and 400 of the 700 employees to be laid off.
In 2000, the
Financial Action Task Force , part of the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), issued a blacklist
of 35 nations which were said to be non-cooperative in the campaign
against tax evasion and money laundering . The list included the
Saint Kitts and Nevis, as well as
Liechtenstein , Monaco
Luxembourg , the British
Channel Islands , Israel, and Russia. No
alleged misconduct had taken place on Nevis, but the island was
included in the blanket action against all offshore financial business
centres, as such centres cause a considerable loss of tax revenue for
the G7 countries.
The seawall at
Charlestown, Nevis .
Saint Kitts is seen in the
background, lying across the channel known as "The Narrows". The house
Alexander Hamilton was born is visible in the mid-distance.
(Photograph taken in 2005)
The political structure for the Federation of
Saint Kitts and Nevis
is based on the Westminster
Parliamentary system , but it is a unique
structure in that
Nevis has its own unicameral legislature,
consisting of Her Majesty 's representative (the Deputy Governor
General) and members of the
Nevis Island Assembly .
considerable autonomy in its legislative branch. The constitution
actually empowers the
Nevis Island Legislature to make laws that
cannot be abrogated by the National Assembly. In addition,
Nevis has a
constitutionally protected right to secede from the federation, should
a two-third majority of the island's population vote for independence
in a local referendum. Section 113.(1) of the constitution states:
Nevis Island Legislature may provide that the island of Nevis
shall cease to be federated with the island of Saint Christopher and
accordingly that this Constitution shall no longer have effect in the
island of Nevis."
Nevis has its own premier and its own government, the
Administration. It collects its own taxes and has a separate budget,
with a current account surplus. According to a statement released by
Nevis Ministry of Finance in 2005,
Nevis had one of the highest
growth rates in gross national product and per capita income in the
Caribbean at that point.
The federal prime minister,
Denzil Douglas , is the leader of the
majority party of the federal House of Representatives in Saint Kitts,
and his cabinet conducts the affairs of state. The Federation of Saint
Nevis has a 14 or 15-member unicameral legislature or
parliament (the Senate and House of Representatives sit and vote
together): A Senate, with three or four members appointed by the
governor general on the advice of the prime minister and the leader of
the opposition; and a popularly elected House of Representatives with
11 members, eight
Saint Kitts seats and three
Nevis seats. The prime
minister and the cabinet are responsible to the Parliament.
Main article: Politics of
Saint Kitts and
Nevis elections are scheduled every five years. The
of 2013, called on 23 January 2013, was won by the party in
Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), led by Vance Amory
. The CCM won three of the five seats in the
Nevis Island Assembly,
while the incumbent party, the
Nevis Reformation Party (NRP), won two.
In the federal elections of 2010, the CCM won two of the three Nevis
assigned Federal seats, while the NRP won one. Of the eight Saint
Kitts assigned federal seats, the St Kitts-
Nevis Labour Party won six
People's Action Movement (PAM) two.
MOVEMENT FOR CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM
Joseph Parry , leader of the opposition, has indicated that he
favours constitutional reform over secession for Nevis. His party, the
NRP, has historically been the strongest and most ardent proponent for
Nevis independence; the party came to power with secession as the main
campaign issue. In 1975, the NRP manifesto declared that: "The Nevis
Reformation Party will strive at all costs to gain secession for Nevis
from St. Kitts – a privilege enjoyed by the island of
Nevis prior to
A cursory proposal for constitutional reform was presented by the NRP
in 1999, but the issue was not prominent in the 2006 election campaign
and it appears a detailed proposal has yet to be worked out and agreed
upon within the party.
In Handbook of Federal Countries published by
Forum of Federations ,
the authors consider the constitution problematic because it does not
"specifically outline" the federal financial arrangements or the means
by which the central government and
Nevis Island Administration can
raise revenue: "In terms of the NIA, the constitution only states (in
s. 108(1)) that 'all revenues...raised or received by the
Administration...shall be paid into and form a fund styled the Nevis
Island Consolidated Fund.' Section 110(1) states that the proceeds of
all 'takes' collected in St. Kitts and
Nevis under any law are to be
shared between the federal government and the
Administration based on population. The share going to the NIA,
however, is subject to deductions (s. 110(2)), such as the cost of
common services and debt charges, as determined by the
Governor-General (s.110(3)) on the advice of the
Prime Minister who
can also take advice from the
Premier of Nevis (s.110(4))."
According to a 1995 report by the Commonwealth Observer Group of the
Commonwealth Secretariat , "the federal government is also the local
government of St Kitts and this has resulted in a perception among the
political parties in
Nevis that the interests of the people of Nevis
are being neglected by the federal government which is more concerned
with the administration of St Kitts than with the federal
Simeon Daniel , Nevis' first Premier and former leader of the Nevis
Reformation Party (NRP) and
Vance Amory , Premier and leader of the
Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), made sovereign independence for
Nevis from the Federation of
Saint Kitts and
Nevis part of their
parties' agenda. Since independence from the
United Kingdom in 1983,
Nevis Island Administration and the Federal Government have been
involved in several conflicts over the interpretation of the new
constitution which came into effect at independence. During an
Voice of America in March 1998, repeated in a government
issued press release headlined "PM Douglas Maintains 1983 Constitution
Denzil Douglas called the constitution a
"recipe for disaster and disharmony among the people of both islands".
A crisis developed in 1984 when the People\'s Action Movement (PAM)
won a majority in the Federal elections and temporarily ceased
honouring the Federal Government's financial obligations to Nevis.
Consequently, cheques issued by the
Nevis Administration were not
honoured by the Bank, public servants in
Nevis were not paid on time
Nevis Island Administration experienced difficulties in
meeting its financial obligations.
There is also substantial support in
Nevis for British Overseas
Territory status similarly to
Anguilla , which was formerly the third
of the tri-state Saint Christopher-Nevis-
Legislative Motivation For Secession
Nevis Today, a magazine published by the
Administration, is part of the new drive to keep the population
updated about investments and plans for the island.
In 1996, four new bills were introduced in the National Assembly in
Saint Kitts, one of which made provisions to have revenue derived from
Nevis paid directly to the treasury in Saint Kitts
instead of to the treasury in Nevis. Another bill, The Financial
Services Committee Act, contained provisions that all investments in
Saint Kitts and
Nevis would require approval by an investment
committee in Saint Kitts. This was controversial, because ever since
Nevis Island Administration had approved all investments for
Nevis, on the basis that the constitution vests legislative authority
for industries, trades and businesses and economic development in
Nevis to the
Nevis Island Administration.
All three representatives from Nevis, including the leader of the
opposition in the
Nevis Island Assembly, objected to the introduction
of these bills into the National Assembly in Saint Kitts, arguing that
the bills would affect the ability of
Nevis to develop its offshore
financial services sector and that the bills would be detrimental to
Nevis economy. All the representatives in opposition in the
National Assembly shared the conviction that the bills, if passed into
law, would be unconstitutional and undermine the constitutional and
legislative authority of the
Nevis Island Administration, as well as
result in the destruction of the economy of Nevis.
The constitutional crisis initially developed when the newly
appointed Attorney General refused to grant permission for the Nevis
Island Administration to assert its legal right in the Courts. After a
decision of the High Court in favour of the
Prime Minister gave newspaper interviews stating
that he "refused to accept the decision of the High Court". Due to
the deteriorating relationship between the
Nevis Island Administration
and the Federal Government, a Constitutional Committee was appointed
in April 1996 to advise on whether or not the present constitutional
arrangement between the islands should continue. The committee
recommended constitutional reform and the establishment of an island
administration for Saint Kitts, separate from the Federal Government.
The Federal Government in
Saint Kitts fills both functions today and
Saint Kitts does not have an equivalent to the
Administration. Disagreements between the political parties in Nevis
and between the
Nevis Island Administration and the Federal Government
have prevented the recommendations by the electoral committee from
being implemented. The problematic political arrangement between the
two islands therefore continues to date.
Nevis has continued developing its own legislation, such as The Nevis
International Insurance Ordinance and the
Nevis International Mutual
Funds Ordinance of 2004, but calls for secession are often based on
concerns that the legislative authority of the
Administration might be challenged again in the future.
Fiscal Motivation For Secession
The issues of political dissension between
Saint Kitts and
often centred around perceptions of imbalance in the economic
structure. As noted by many scholars, Nevisians have often referred
to a structural imbalance in Saint Kitts' favour in how funds are
distributed between the two islands and this issue has made the
Nevis secession a constant presence in the island's
political arena, with many articles appearing in the local press
expressing concerns such as those compiled by Everton Powell in "What
Motivates Our Call for Independence":
* Many of the businesses that operate in
Nevis are headquartered in
Saint Kitts and pay the corporate taxes to Saint Kitts, despite the
fact that profits for those businesses are derived from Nevis.
* The vast majority of Nevisians and residents of
Nevis depart the
Federation from Saint Kitts. This meant that departure taxes are paid
in Saint Kitts.
* The bulk of cargo destined for
Nevis enters the Federation through
Saint Kitts. Custom duties are therefore paid in Saint Kitts.
* The largest expenditure for Nevis, approximately 29 percent of the
Nevis Island Administration's recurrent budget, is education and
health services, but the
Nevis Island Legislature has no power to
legislate over these two areas.
* Police, defense and coast guard are a federal responsibility.
Charlestown Police Station, which served as the Headquarters for
police officers in Nevis, was destroyed by fire in December 1991.
Police officers initially had to operate out of the ruin, until the
Nevis Island Administration managed to raise the resources to re-house
Nevis experiences an economic disadvantage because of preferential
treatment by the federal government for development of Saint Kitts.
The division of foreign aid and various forms of international
assistance toward development and infrastructure are especially
contentious issues. Lists showing the disparities in sharing have been
compiled by Dr. Everson Hull, a former Economics professor of Howard
University, and are available online.
Nevis independence referendum, 1998
A referendum on secession from the Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis
was held in 1998. Although 62% voted in favor of a secession, a
two-thirds majority would have been necessary for the referendum to
Main article: Parishes of
Saint Kitts and
The island of
Nevis is divided into five administrative subdivisions
called parishes , each of which has an elected representative in the
Nevis Island Assembly. The division of this almost round island into
parishes was done in a circular sector pattern, so each parish is
shaped like a pie slice, reaching from the highest point of
down to the coastline.
The parishes have double names, for example
Saint George Gingerland .
The first part of the name is the name of the patron saint of the
parish church, and the second part of the name is the traditional
common name of the parish. Often the parishes are referred to simply
by their common names. The religious part of a parish name is
sometimes written or pronounced in the possessive: Saint George's
The five parishes of
Saint George Gingerland
Saint James Windward
Saint John Figtree
Saint Paul Charlestown
Saint Thomas Lowland
Nevis and neighbouring
Leeward Islands during the 2002 volcanic
Montserrat (centre). Top to bottom, left:
St. Eustatius ,
Saint Kitts , Nevis; right:
The formation of the island began in mid-
approximately 3.45 million years ago. Nine distinct eruptive centres
from different geological ages, ranging from mid-
Pleistocene , have contributed to the formation. No single model of
the island's geological evolution can therefore be ascertained.
Nevis Peak (985 m /3,232 ft) is the dormant remnant of one of these
ancient stratovolcanoes . The last activity took place about 100,000
years ago, but active fumaroles and hot springs are still found on the
island, the most recent formed in 1953. The composite cone of Nevis
volcano has two overlapping summit craters that are partially filled
by a lava dome, created in recent, pre-Columbian time. Pyroclastic
flows and mudflows were deposited on the lower slopes of the cone
Nevis Peak is located on the outer crater rim. Four
other lava domes were constructed on the flanks of the volcano, one on
the northeast flank (Madden's Mount), one on the eastern flank
(Butlers Mountain), one on the northwest coast (Mount Lily) and one on
the south coast (Saddle Hill, with a height of 375 metres).
During the last ice age , when the sea level was 60 m lower, the
three islands of Saint Kitts,
Sint Eustatius (also known as
Statia) were connected as one island.
Saba , however, is separated
from these three by a deeper channel.
There are visible wave-breaking reefs along the northern and eastern
shorelines. To the south and west, the reefs are located in deeper
water and are suitable for scuba diving. The most developed beach on
Nevis is the 6.5 km long Pinney\'s Beach , on the western or Caribbean
coast. There are sheltered swimming beaches in Oualie Bay and Cades
Bay. The eastern coast of the island faces into the Atlantic Ocean,
and can have strong surf in parts of the shore which are unprotected
by fringing coral reefs . The colour of the sand on the beaches of
Nevis is variable: on a lot of the bigger beaches the sand is a yellow
grey in colour, but some beaches on the southern coast have darker,
reddish, or even black sand. Under a microscope it becomes clear that
Nevis sand is a mixture of tiny fragments of coral, many foraminifera
, and small crystals of the various mineral constituents of the
volcanic rock of which the island is made.
On the western plain, looking south-southwest towards
During the 17th and 18th centuries, massive deforestation was
undertaken by the planters as the land was initially cleared for sugar
cultivation. This intense land exploitation by the sugar and cotton
industry lasted almost 300 years, and greatly changed the island's
In some places along the windswept southeast or "Windward" coast of
the island, the landscape is radically altered compared with how it
used to be in pre-colonial times. Due to extreme land erosion, the
top soil was swept away, and in some places at the coast, sheer cliffs
as high as 25 metres (82 ft) have developed.
Thick forest once covered the eastern coastal plain, where the
Amerindians built their first settlements during the Aceramic period,
complimenting the ecosystem surrounding the coral reef just offshore.
It was the easy access to fresh water on the island and the rich food
source represented by the ocean life sheltered by the reef that made
it feasible for the Amerindians to settle this area around 600 BC.
With the loss of the natural vegetation, the balance in runoff
nutrients to the reef was disturbed, eventually causing as much as 80
percent of the large eastern fringing reef to become inactive. As the
reef broke apart, it in turn provided less protection for the
During times of maximum cultivation, sugar cane fields stretched from
the coastline of
Nevis up to an altitude at which the mountain slopes
were too steep and rocky to farm. Nonetheless, once the sugar industry
was finally abandoned, vegetation on the leeward side of the island
regrew reasonably well, as scrub and secondary forest.
A hot volcanic spring-water bathing pool at the Bath Spring.
Nevis has several natural freshwater springs (including Nelson\'s
Spring). The island also has numerous non-potable volcanic hot springs
, including most notably the Bath Spring near Bath village, just south
of the capital Charlestown.
After heavy rains, powerful rivers of rainwater pour down the
numerous ravines (known as ghauts). When the water reaches the
coastline, the corresponding coastal ponds, both freshwater and
brackish, fill to capacity and beyond, spilling over into the sea.
With modern development, the existing freshwater springs are no
longer enough to supply water to the whole island. The water supply
now comes mostly from Government wells. The major source of potable
water for the island is groundwater, obtained from 14 active wells.
Water is pumped from the wells, stored and allowed to flow by gravity
to the various locations.
The climate is tropical with little variation, tempered all year
round (but particularly from December through February) by the steady
north-easterly winds, called the trade winds . There is a slightly
hotter and somewhat rainier season from May to November.
Nevis lies within the track area of tropical storms and occasional
hurricanes. These storms can develop between August and October. This
time of year has the heaviest rainfalls.
* September 1989: there was a considerable amount of damage from
Hurricane Hugo .
* September 1998, there was a great deal of damage from Hurricane
* November 1999:
Nevis was hit by
Hurricane Lenny , which caused
some heavy damage to the island's infrastructure on the western coast,
because of the storm's unusual track from west to east.
* October 2008:
Nevis was brushed with the edge of Hurricane Omar .
Among other establishments, The Four Seasons Resort
Nevis was forced
to close to undergo repairs. Hurricane Omar thus caused the loss of
600 jobs for over 2 years; the resort reopened on 15 December 2010.
* August 2010: there was some damage on
Nevis from Hurricane Earl .
* September 2010, there was some damage from Hurricane Igor .
See also: Music of
Saint Kitts and
Saint Kitts Creole
Culturama, the annual cultural festival of Nevis, is celebrated
Emancipation Day weekend, the first week of August. The
festivities include many traditional folk dances, such as the
masquerade , the
Moko jumbies on stilts, Cowboys and Indians, and
Plait the Ribbon, a
May pole dance. The celebration was given a more
organised form in 1974, including a Miss Culture Show and a Calypso
Competition, as well as drama performances, old fashion Troupes
(including Johnny Walkers, Giant and Spear, Bulls, Red Cross and Blue
Ribbon), arts and crafts exhibitions and recipe competitions.
According to the
Nevis Department of Culture, the aim is to protect
and encourage indigenous folklore, in order to make sure that the
uniquely Caribbean culture can "reassert itself and flourish".
The official language is English and
Saint Kitts Creole (known on the
island as 'Nevisian' or '
Nevis creole') is also widely spoken. The
local creole is actually more widely spoken on
Nevis than on the
MUSIC, THEATRE AND DANCE
Nevisian culture has since the 17th century incorporated African,
European and East Indian cultural elements, creating a distinct
Afro-Caribbean culture. Several historical anthropologists have done
Nevis and in Nevisian migrant communities in order to
trace the creation and constitution of a Nevisian cultural community.
Karen Fog Olwig published her research about
Nevis in 1993, writing
that the areas where the Afro-Caribbean traditions were especially
strong and flourishing relate to kinship and subsistence farming .
However, she adds, Afro-Caribbean cultural impulses were not
recognised or valued in the colonial society and were therefore often
expressed through Euro-Caribbean cultural forms. Examples of European
forms appropriated to express Afro-Caribbean culture are the Nevisian
and Kittitian Tea Meetings and Christmas Sports. According to
Roger D. Abrahams , these traditional performance art
forms are "Nevisian approximation of British performance codes,
techniques, and patterns". He writes that the Tea Meetings were staged
as theatrical "battles between decorum and chaos", decorum represented
by the ceremony chairmen and chaos the hecklers in the audience, with
a diplomatic King or a Queen presiding over the battle to ensure
The Christmas Sports included a form of comedy and satire based on
local events and gossip. They were historically an important part of
the Christmas celebrations in Nevis, performed on Christmas Eve by
small troupes consisting of five or six men accompanied by string
bands from different parts of the island. One of the men in the troupe
was dressed as a woman, playing all the female parts in the
dramatisations. The troupes moved from yard to yard to perform their
skits, using props, face paint and costumes to play the roles of
well-known personalities in the community. Examples of gossip about
undesired behaviour that could surface in the skits for comic effect
were querulous neighbours, adulterous affairs, planters mistreating
workers, domestic disputes or abuse, crooked politicians and any form
of stealing or cheating experienced in the society. Even though no
names were mentioned in these skits, the audience would usually be
able to guess who the heckling message in the troupe's dramatised
portrayals was aimed at, as it was played out right on the person's
own front yard. The acts thus functioned as social and moral
commentaries on current events and behaviours in Nevisian society.
This particular form is called "Bazzarding" by many locals. Abrahams
theorises that Christmas Sports are rooted in the pre-emancipation
Christmas and New Year holiday celebrations, when the enslaved
population had several days off.
American folklorist and musicologist
Alan Lomax visited
Nevis in 1962
in order to conduct long-term research into the black folk culture of
the island. His field trip to
Nevis and surrounding islands resulted
in the anthology Lomax Caribbean Voyage series. Among the Nevisians
recorded were chantey -singing fishermen in a session organised in a
rum shop in Newcastle; Santoy, the Calypsonian, performing calypsos by
Nevisian ballader and local legend Charles Walters to guitar and
cuatro ; and string bands , fife players and drummers from Gingerland,
performing quadrilles .
The island is also known for "Jamband music", which is the kind of
music performed by local bands during the "Culturama Festival" and is
key to "Jouvert" dancing. The sounds of the so-called "Iron Band" are
also popular within the culture; many locals come together using any
old pans, sinks, or other kits of any sort; which they use to create
sounds and music. This form of music is played throughout the villages
during the Christmas and carnival seasons.
The Museum of
Nevis History, Charlestown, housed in the restored
Georgian building where
Alexander Hamilton was born. (See Nevis
Historical and Conservation Society .)
A series of earthquakes during the 18th century severely damaged most
of the colonial-era stone buildings of Charlestown. The Georgian stone
buildings in Charlestown that are visible today had to be partially
rebuilt after the earthquakes, and this led to the development of a
new architectural style, consisting of a wooden upper floor over a
stone ground floor; the new style resisted earthquake damage much more
Two famous Nevisian buildings from the 18th century are Hermitage
Plantation, built of lignum vitae wood in 1740, the oldest surviving
wooden house still in use in the Caribbean today, and the Bath Hotel,
the first hotel in the Caribbean, a luxury hotel and spa built by John
Huggins in 1778. The soothing waters of the hotel's hot spring and the
lively social life on
Nevis attracted many famous Europeans including
Admiral Nelson , and Prince William Henry, Duke of
Clarence , (future
William IV of the United Kingdom ), who attended
balls and private parties at the Bath Hotel. Today, the building
serves as government offices, and there are two outdoor hot-spring
bathing spots which were specially constructed in recent years for
An often repeated legend appears to suggest that a destructive 1690
earthquake and tsunami destroyed the buildings of the original capital
Jamestown on the west coast. Folk tales say that the town sank beneath
the ocean. However, archaeologists from the University of Southampton
who have done excavations in the area, have found no evidence to
indicate that the story is true. They state that this story may
originate with an over-excited Victorian letter writer sharing
somewhat exaggerated accounts of his exotic life in the tropical
colony with a British audience back home. One such letter recounts
that so much damage was done to the town that it was completely
evacuated, and was engulfed by the sea. Early maps do not, however,
actually show a settlement called "Jamestown", only "Morton's Bay",
and later maps show that all that was left of Jamestown/Morton's Bay
in 1818 was a building labelled "Pleasure House". Very old bricks that
wash up on
Pinney's Beach after storms may have contributed to this
legend of a sunken town; however these bricks are thought to be dumped
ballast from 17th and 18th century sailing ships.
NOTABLE NATIVES AND RESIDENTS
Arthur Anslyn MBE, marine expert. Born on, and lives on, Nevis.
Alexander Hamilton , the statesman and one of the founding fathers
of the United States, was born on
Nevis around 1755, and spent a
significant part of his childhood there. His father was a trader from
Scotland, his mother was from Nevis. The place of his birth currently
Nevis Island Assembly Chambers and the Museum of Nevis
* The Duchess of Bronte,
Frances Nisbet (1761–1831), is best known
as the wife of British hero 1st Viscount Admiral Lord
Horatio Nelson ,
Battle of Trafalgar fame. She was a planter's daughter from Nevis,
whose rich and influential uncle, John Herbert, was the President of
the Council of Nevis. When she met Captain
Horatio Nelson on Nevis,
Frances Nisbet was a young widow with a five-year-old son. Nelson and
she were married in
Nevis in 1787. A copy of the marriage certificate
is on display at the
Saint John Figtree
Parish Anglican Church in
Eulalie Spence (1894–1981), pioneer playwright of the Harlem
Renaissance , was born on
Nevis on 11 June 1894. She and her family
moved to New York in 1902. She wrote fourteen plays, including Fools
Errand, which ran on Broadway in 1927. Her three-act play The Whipping
was optioned by
Paramount Studios , and was eventually filmed as Ready
for Love , a 1934 film starring
Ida Lupino and
Richard Arlen Spence
is famous for having introduced an affirming image of black women into
early American drama, using her unique mix of folk art and political
race drama. Several of her plays won awards.
Elquemedo Willett , born 1 May 1953, famous Nevisian cricket
player and former
Leeward Islands and
West Indies left-arm spinner,
was the first Leeward Islander to play Test cricket for the West
Indies in 1973, when he was 19 years old. He was inducted into the
Nevis Sports Museum Hall of Fame in 2005.
Cicely Tyson , born on 18 or 19 December 1924, Oscar -nominated in
1972, former wife of
Miles Davis and winner of multiple Emmy Awards ,
is of Nevisian descent. Both her parents emigrated from
Nevis to the
Harlem neighborhood of
New York City
New York City .
Rupert Crosse , the first African American to be nominated for an
Academy Award as Best Supporting Actor is of Nevisian descent.
Runako Morton , Nevisian cricketer (1978–2012)
Constance Baker Motley (1921–2005), who as a young lawyer
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. , has Nevisian heritage and owned
a home in Brown Hill, Nevis, near her ancestral home. Both her mother
and father emigrated from Nevis. She attained fame as the first
African-American woman appointed as a United States Federal judge, the
African-American woman elected to the
New York State Senate and
the first woman to serve as
Manhattan borough president. She was also
African-American woman to serve on the federal judiciary
(1966), as well as the first
African-American and the first woman to
become Chief Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern
District of New York (1982).
Mel B , the former "Scary Spice" of the
Spice Girls , born on 29
May 1975 in
Leeds , has a Nevisian father.
Angela Griffin , actress, born 19 July 1976 in
Leeds , has a
Nevisian father. She is a British actress and television presenter who
has been active on British television since the early 1990s.
* United States Supreme Court Justice
Stephen Breyer has a vacation
home on Nevis. In February 2012 he was robbed in his home at
Nevis Historical and Conservation Society
* Chief Justices
* ^ The Deputy
Nevis is appointed by the
Saint Kitts and
Nevis , to assent or withhold
assent to any bill passed by the
Nevis Island Assembly and to perform
other functions of the office of
Governor-General on Her Majesty's
behalf relating to Nevis, as the
Governor-General may specify. See
Chapter III, Sections 23 of the Constitution.
* ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/StKittsNevis.html retrieved
* ^ A B C D "
Saint Kitts and Nevis". International Monetary Fund.
Retrieved 21 April 2010.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U Hubbard, Vincent K.
(2002). Swords, Ships & Sugar: History of Nevis. Corvallis, Oregon:
Premiere, ISBN 1-891519-05-0 , pp. 20–23 (Captain Gilbert, Captain
Smith), 25 (pearl diving), 41–44 (name Dulcina, treaty with Spain,
first settlement), 69–70 (privateers, Captain Francis), 79–85
(slave trade, Royal African Company, Queen of the Caribees), 86–102
(Caribs), 113–120 (d'Iberville, buccaneers), 138–139 (Great
Britain's wealth derived from West Indian sugar and slave trade, 1776
starvation), 194–195 (Alexandra Hospital), 211–223 (electricity,
Anguilla in 1967, OECD blacklist).
* ^ "
Saint Kitts and Nevis". CIA World Factbook. Central
Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 5 February 2016.
* ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Our Lady of the Snow".
Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
* ^ See for example
Nevis Heritage excavation reports, 2000–2002,
Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton. Retrieved 8
* ^ A B C D Wilson, Samuel (1990). "The Prehistoric Settlement
Pattern of Nevis, West Indies". Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 16,
No. 4 (Winter 1989), p. 427-450.
* ^ A B Honychurch, Lennox (1997). "Crossroads in the Caribbean: A
Site of Encounter and Exchange on Dominica". World Archaeology Vol.
* ^ "Irish indentured labour in the Caribbean".
Nationalarchives.gov.uk. March 11, 2013.
* ^ Calendar State Papers (1676). Number 1152, 1676. The British
Colonial Office Public Records. Qtd. in Hubbard, p. 85.
* ^ Watts, David (1987). The West Indies: Patterns of Development,
Culture and Environmental Change Since 1492. Cambridge University
Press, 1987, p. 285.
* ^ Goveia, Elsa H. (1965). Slave Society in the British Leeward
Islands. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965. ISBN 0-88258-048-5
* ^ A B Personal stories: Traders and Merchants – John Pinney. In
Bristol and Transatlantic Slavery, a project by City Museum and the
University of the West of England's Faculty of Humanities. Retrieved 8
* ^ A B Baker Motley, Constance (1998). Equal Justice Under Law. An
Autobiography. New York: Farrar, Straus "Minister of Education to GSS
2005 graduands: The future of
Nevis depends on you". SKN Vibes, 24
November 24, 2005; and Washington Archibald High School obtains
highest CXC pass rate among 7 others. SKN Vibes, 4 September 2006.
Retrieved 7 May 2007.
* ^ A B C "EU & the Eastern Caribbean: St Kitts and Nevis
Overview". The European Commission's Delegation in
Barbados and the
Eastern Caribbean. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ CIA Factbook (2006). Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ "Developers pay US$10m installment for
Nevis land". Caribbean
Net News, 9 May 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ A B As reported by the Premier at the official Web site for
Nevis Financial Services Departments and the Ministry of Finance,
Nevis. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ "Employment on
Nevis increases" (2006).
Nevis Island Government
Press Release, May 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ See articles in the BBC,Island Sun, and The Royal Gazette.
Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ Phillips, Fred (2002). Commonwealth Caribbean Constitutional
Law. Cavendish Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-84314-429-8 , p. 136: "St
Nevis has broken new ground in creating a federal structure
that is sui generis: a Federation not between St Kitts and Nevis, but
Nevis on the one hand and St Kitts and
Nevis on the other."
* ^ See section 3 and 4 about
Nevis Island Legislature and
Administration in The Saint Christopher and
Nevis Constitution Order
1983. Published online by Georgetown University and also by University
of the West Indies. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
Nevis Island Administration – Ministry of Finance (2005).
Quick Facts. About Nevis. Tax and Economic System. Retrieved 8 August
* ^ "CCM Defeats NRP in
Nevis Elections". The St. Kitts-Nevis
Observer, 23 January 2013.
* ^ "St. Kitts ruling party wins in early elections". The Seattle
Times, 26 January 2010.
* ^ Herbert, Roy (2005). "A short historical look at the
Relationship between St. Kitts & Nevis". Historical Review. Nevis
Independence, 4 February 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ "Nevis: \'Reform before independence\'". BBC Caribbean, online
edition, 26 January 2004. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ A B Griffiths, Ann Lynn and Karl Nerenberg (2002). Handbook of
Federal Countries. Ed. Karl Nerenberg. Published McGill-Queen's Press
– MQUP, 2002. ISBN 0-7735-2511-4 , p. 274.
* ^ General Election in St Kitts and
Nevis 3 July 1995: The Report
of the Commonwealth Observer Group. Commonwealth Observer Group,
Commonwealth Secretariat, 1995. ISBN 0-85092-466-9 , p.3.
* ^ "
Nevis still on the agenda, says premier."
Caribbean Net News, 16 June 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ Office of the
Prime Minister (1998). "PM Douglas Maintains 1983
Constitution is Flawed." Media Release, 11 March 1998. Retrieved 8
* ^ A B C D E F G H The
Concerned Citizens Movement (1996). "The
Way Forward For The Island Of Nevis." Nevis, Queen of the Caribees.
Nevis Island Administration, September 1996. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ "
Nevis Independent Travel". nevisindependence.com.
* ^ A B Phillips, Fred (2002). Commonwealth Caribbean
Constitutional Law. Cavendish Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-84314-429-8 .
* ^ St. Kitts and
Nevis Observer July 16–22, 1995. Qtd. in The
Concerned Citizens Movement. "The Way Forward For The Island Of
Nevis." Nevis, Queen of the Caribees.
Nevis Island Administration,
* ^ Anckar, Dag (2001). "Party systems and voter alignments in
small island states". In Party Systems and Voter Alignments Revisited.
Eds. Lauri Karvonen and Stein Kuhnle. Routledge, 2001. ISBN
0-415-23720-3 . p. 270: "To a historical rivalry between the islands
must be added a structural economic imbalance".
* ^ See for example: Duval, David Timothy (2004). Tourism in the
Caribbean: Trends, Development, Prospects. Routledge, 2004. ISBN
0-415-30361-3 , p. 102: "
Nevis has claimed domination and exploitation
by St Kitts and has come to view St Kitts as the 'larger omnipresent
looming partner' (Premdas 2000). Such mistreatment (whether real or
perceived), combined with the subordinate island's distinctive
cultural and historical identity, has fostered an ambivalent
relationship between internal core and periphery. These accusations
and counter-attacks have been entrenched in the countries' collective
memory and have, to some degree, permeated many aspects of society."
See also: Phillips, Fred (2002). Commonwealth Caribbean Constitutional
Law Cavendish Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-84314-429-8 : "In Freedom in
the Caribbean, reference was made to the long history of grievance
Nevis against St Kitts imperial legislation brought Nevis
into the unitary state of St Kitts/Nevis/
Anguilla in 1882."
* ^ Powell, Everton (Ed.) (2006). "What Motivates Our Call for
Nevis Independence. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ Hull, E. "Part I: Grabbing the Forgiven-debt Money." and "On
the Money Trail – PART II".
Nevis Independence. See also Powell,
Everton (2006). "Disparities in sharing".
Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ United Nations (2000). "
Saint Kitts and Nevis: Executive
Summary". Country Reports. Committee on Science and Technology, United
Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, pdf file. Retrieved 7
* ^ "
Nevis Peak" (2006). Global Worldwide Holocene Volcano and
Eruption Information. Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian
Institution, National Museum of Natural History, 2006. Retrieved 8
* ^ Wilson, Samuel (1990). "The Prehistoric Settlement Pattern of
Nevis, West Indies". Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 16, No. 4
(Winter 1989), p. 428: "The breakup of the fringing reef has itself
contributed to extensive and accelerating coastal erosion on the
windward coast of the island, where sea cliffs of unconsolidated
volcanic gravels as high as 25 m have developed."
* ^ The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(ECLAC). “Chapter 9: St. Kitts and Nevis. In Programme of Action for
the sustainable development of small island developing States (SIDS
POA). United Nations, 2003-09-29. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
Nevis Department of Culture (2006).
Nevis Culturama. 8 May
2006. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ Olwig, Karen Fog (1993). Global Culture, Island Identity:
continuity and change in the Afro-Caribbean community of Nevis. Chur,
Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1993.
* ^ Abrahams, Roger D. (1983). Man of Words in the West Indies:
Performance and the Emergence of Creole Culture. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins U P, 1983.
* ^ A B Abrahams, Roger D. (1973). "Christmas Mummings on Nevis."
Folklore Journal (1973): pp. 120–31.
* ^ Cowley, John. "Caribbean Voyage:
Nevis & St Kitts Tea Meetings,
Christmas Sports, & the Moonlight Night". Musical Traditions, 1
November 2002. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
* ^ Abrahams, Roger D. "Charles Walters – West Indian
Autolycus\'". Western Folklore, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Apr. 1968), pp.
* ^ Machling, Tessa (2002). "Jamestown, Morton's Bay and James
Fort: Myth, Port and Fort". Interim Report for the 2002 Season, Theme
Two. University of Southampton.
* ^ White, Colin (2003). "The Wife\'s Tale: Frances, Lady Nelson
and the break-up of her marriage". Journal for Maritime Research, Oct.
2003 issue. ISSN 1469-1957 . Online at JMR, National Maritime Museum,
Greenwich, London. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ Donati, William. Ida Lupino: A Biography.
Lexington, KY :
University Press of Kentucky , 1996. ISBN 0813143527 . Google Books.
Retrieved July 22, 2013.
* ^ Braconi, Adrienne Macki. "Eulalie Spence." The Cambridge
Companion to African American Theatre. Ed. Harvey Young. Cambridge :
Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN 1107017122 . 117–134. Google
Books. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
* ^ Parascandola, Louis J. Look for Me All Around You: Anglophone
Caribbean Immigrants in the
Harlem Renaissance. Wayne State University
Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8143-2987-X .
* ^ CMC (2005). "Willett for
Nevis Sports Hall of Fame" West Indies
Cricket Board, 27 February 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
* ^ "New York, Naturalization Records, 1882–1944 ". Ancestry.com.
Retrieved 22 February 2015.
* ^ "Justice Breyer robbed by machete-wielding intruder at West
Indies vacation home". Fox News.
* Michener, James, A. 1989. Caribbean. Secker ;background:none
Saint Kitts and
* Christ Church Nichola Town
* Saint Anne Sandy Point
* Saint George Basseterre
* Saint John Capisterre
* Saint Mary Cayon
* Saint Paul Capisterre
* Saint Peter Basseterre
* Saint Thomas Middle Island
* Trinity Palmetto Point
Saint George Gingerland
Saint James Windward
Saint John Figtree
Saint Paul Charlestown
Saint Thomas Lowland
Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth
realm Now a member of the
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags
* 1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK)
* 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802
* Since 1713
* 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate)
* 1813–1964 Malta (Colony)
* 1809–1864 Ionian Islands
Irish Free State
Irish Free State
17th century and before
19th and 20th century
* 1583–1907 Newfoundland
* 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia
* Since 1619
* 1620–1691 Plymouth
* 1624–1966 *
* 1625–1650 Saint Croix
* 1627–1979 *
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
* 1628–1883 Nevis
* 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay
* 1632–1776 Maryland
* since 1632
* 1636–1776 Connecticut
* 1636–1776 Rhode Island
* 1637–1662 New Haven
* 1643–1860 Bay Islands
* Since 1650
* 1655–1962 *
* 1663–1712 Carolina
* 1664–1776 New York
* 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey
* Since 1666 Virgin Islands
* Since 1670
* 1670–1973 *Bahamas
* 1670–1870 Rupert\'s Land
* 1680–1776 New Hampshire
* 1681–1776 Pennsylvania
* 1686–1689 New England
* 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay
* 1701–1776 Delaware
* 1712–1776 South Carolina
* 1713–1867 Nova Scotia
* 1733–1776 Georgia
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
* 1762–1974 *Grenada
* 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island
* 1763–1791 Quebec
* 1763–1783 West Florida
* 1784–1867 New Brunswick
* Since 1799
Turks and Caicos Islands
Columbia District /
Oregon Country 1
* 1833–1960 Windward Islands
* 1841–1867 Canada
* 1849–1866 Vancouver Island
* 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands
* 1858–1866 British Columbia
* 1860–1981 *British
* 1862–1863 Stickeen
* 1866–1871 British Columbia
* 1867–1931 *
Dominion of Canada 2
* 1871–1964 Honduras
* 1882–1983 *
Saint Kitts and
* 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago
* 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3
West Indies Federation
* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States.
* 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained
self-government through the Statute of Westminster . See Name of
* 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion
until it joined Canada in 1949.
* 1631–1641 Providence Island
* 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4
* 1831–1966 Guiana
* Since 1833
Falkland Islands 5
* Since 1908
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 5
* 4. Now a department of Colombia .
* 5. Occupied by Argentina during the
Falklands War of April–June
17th and 18th centuries
* Since 1658
Saint Helena 14
* 1792–1961 Sierra Leone
* Since 1815
Ascension Island 14
* Since 1816
Tristan da Cunha 14
* 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope
* 1807–1808 Madeira
* 1816–1965 The Gambia
* 1856–1910 Natal
* 1862–1906 Lagos
* 1874–1957 Gold Coast
* 1882–1922 Egypt
* 1884–1900 Niger Coast
* 1884–1966 Bechuanaland
* 1884–1960 Somaliland
* 1887–1897 Zululand
* 1890–1962 Uganda
* 1891–1907 Central Africa
* 1893–1968 Swaziland
* 1895–1920 East Africa
* 1899–1956 Sudan
* 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria
* 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria
* 1900–1910 Orange River
* 1900–1910 Transvaal
* 1910–1931 South Africa
* 1914–1960 Nigeria
* 1919–1961 Cameroons 6
* 1920–1963 Kenya
* 1922–1961 Tanganyika 6
* 1923–1965 and 1979–1980
Southern Rhodesia 7
League of Nations mandate .
* 7. Self-governing
Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared
independence in 1965 (as
Rhodesia ) and continued as an unrecognised
state until the 1979
Lancaster House Agreement
Lancaster House Agreement . After recognised
independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until
it withdrew in 2003.
17th and 18th century
* 1685–1824 Bencoolen
* 1702–1705 Pulo Condore
* 1757–1947 Bengal
* 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite
* 1781–1784 and 1795–1819
* 1786–1946 Penang
* 1795–1948 Ceylon
* 1796–1965 Maldives
* 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton
* 1819–1826 Malaya
* 1839–1967 Aden
* 1839–1842 Afghanistan
* 1841–1997 Hong Kong
* 1841–1946 Sarawak
* 1848–1946 Labuan
* 1858–1947 India
* 1874–1963 Borneo
* 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate)
Unfederated Malay States
* 1888–1984 Brunei
Muscat and Oman
Muscat and Oman
Federated Malay States
* 1898–1930 Weihai
* 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate)
* 1918–1961 Kuwait
* 1920–1932 Mesopotamia 8
* 1921–1946 Transjordan 8
* 1923–1948 Palestine 8
* 1945–1946 South Vietnam
* 1946–1963 Sarawak
* 1946–1963 Singapore
Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
* Since 1960
Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of
* Since 1965
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory (before as part of
Mauritius and the
League of Nations mandate . Iraq's mandate was not enacted and
replaced by the
18th and 19th centuries
* 1788–1901 New South Wales
* 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania
Auckland Islands 9
* 1824–1901 Queensland
* 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia
* 1836–1901 South Australia
* since 1838 Pitcairn Islands
* 1841–1907 New Zealand
* 1851–1901 Victoria
* 1874–1970 Fiji 10
* 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories
* 1884–1949 Papua
* 1888–1901 Rarotonga /Cook Islands 9
Union Islands 9
Gilbert and Ellice Islands 11
Solomon Islands 12
* 1900–1970 Tonga
* 1900–1974 Niue 9
* 1901–1942 *Australia
* 1907–1953 *New Zealand
* 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru
* 1919–1949 New Guinea
* 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea 13
* 9. Now part of the *
Realm of New Zealand
Realm of New Zealand .
* 10. Suspended member.
* 11. Now
Kiribati and *
* 12. Now the *
Solomon Islands .
* 13. Now *
Papua New Guinea .
ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC
* Since 1658
Saint Helena 14
* Since 1815
Ascension Island 14
* Since 1816
Tristan da Cunha 14
* Since 1908
British Antarctic Territory