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Sir Nevill Francis Mott CH FRS[1] (30 September 1905 – 8 August 1996) was a British physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics
Physics
in 1977 for his work on the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems, especially amorphous semiconductors. The award was shared with Philip W. Anderson and J. H. Van Vleck. The three had conducted loosely related research. Mott and Anderson clarified the reasons why magnetic or amorphous materials can some times be metallic and some times insulating.[2][3][4][5][6]

Contents

1 Education and early life 2 Career and research

2.1 Publications

3 Awards and honours 4 Personal life 5 References

Education and early life[edit] Mott was born in Leeds
Leeds
to Lilian Mary Reynolds and Charles Francis Mott and grew up first in the village of Giggleswick, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, where his father was Senior Science Master at Giggleswick
Giggleswick
School. His mother also taught Maths at the School. The family moved (due to his father's jobs) first to Staffordshire, then to Chester and finally Liverpool, where his father had been appointed Director of Education. Mott was at first educated at home by his mother, who was a Cambridge Mathematics Tripos graduate. His parents had met in the Cavendish Laboratory, when both were engaged in physics research. At age ten, he began formal education at Clifton College
Clifton College
in Bristol, then at St John's College, Cambridge, where he read the Mathematics Tripos. Career and research[edit] Mott was appointed a Lecturer in the Physics
Physics
Department at the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
in 1929. He returned to Cambridge in 1930 as a Fellow and lecturer of Gonville and Caius College, and in 1933 moved to the University of Bristol
University of Bristol
as Melville Wills Professor in Theoretical Physics. In 1948 he became Henry Overton Wills
Henry Overton Wills
Professor of Physics
Physics
and Director of the Henry Herbert Wills Physical Laboratory at Bristol. In 1954 he was appointed Cavendish Professor of Physics
Physics
at Cambridge, a post he held until 1971. He was instrumental in the painful cancellation of the planned particle accelerator because of its very high cost. He also served as Master of Gonville and Caius College, 1959–1966. His early works were on the theoretical analysis of collisions in gases, notably the collision with spin flip of an electron against a hydrogen atom, which would stimulate subsequent works by André Blandin and Jun Kondo about similar effects between conduction electrons, as well as magnetic properties in metals. This sort of activity led Mott to writing two books. The first one, which was edited together with Ian Sneddon, gives a simple and clear description of quantum mechanics, with an emphasis on the Schrödinger equation
Schrödinger equation
in real space. The second describes atomic and electronic collisions in gases, using the rotational symmetry of electronic states in the Hartree–Fock method. But already in the middle of the 1930s, Mott's interests had broadened to include solid states, leading to two more books that would have a great impact on the development of the field in the years prior and after World War II. In 1936, Theory of the Properties of Metals and Alloys (written together with H. Jones) describes a simplified framework which led to rapid progresses.[further explanation needed] The concept of nearly free valence electrons in metallic alloys explained the special stability of the Hume-Rothery phases if the Fermi sphere of the sp Valence electron, treated as free, would be scattered by the Brillouin zone
Brillouin zone
boundaries of the atomic structure. The description of the impurities in metals by the Thomas Fermi approximation would explain why such impurities would not interact at long range. Finally the delocalisation of the valence d electrons in transitional metals and alloys would explain the possibility for the magnetic moments of atoms to be expressed as fractions of Bohr magnetons, leading to ferro or antiferromagnetic coupling at short range. This last contribution, produced at the first international conference on magnetism, held in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
in May 1939, reinforced similar points of view defended at the time in France by the future Nobel laureate Louis Néel. In 1949, Mott suggested to Jacques Friedel to use the approach developed together with Marvey for a more accurate description of the electric-field screening of the impurity in a metal, leading to the characteristic long range charge oscillations. Friedel also used the concept developed in that book of virtual bound level to describe a situation when the atomic potential considered is not quite strong enough to create a (real) bound level of symmetry e ≠ o.[further explanation needed] The consequences of these remarks on the more exact approaches of cohesion in rp as well as d metals were mostly developed by his students in Orsay.[further explanation needed] The second book, with Ronald Wilfred Gurney, On the Physical Chemistry of Solids was more diverse. It treated notably of the oxidation of metals at low temperatures, where it described the growth of the oxide layer as due to the electric field developed between the metal and absorbed oxygen ions, which could force the way of metallic or oxygen ions through a disordered oxide layer. The book also analysed the photographic reactions in ionic silver compound in terms of precipitation of silver ions into metallic clusters. This second field had a direct and long lasting consequence on the research activity of John (Jack) Mitchell. Mott's accomplishments include explaining theoretically the effect of light on a photographic emulsion (see latent image). His work on oxidation, besides fostering new research in the field (notably by J. Bénard and Nicolás Cabrera), was the root of the concept of the band gap produced in semiconductors by gradients in the distribution of donor and acceptor impurities. When Mott returned to Bristol after the war, (during that period, he worked on the role of plastic deformation on the progression of fracture cracks), his having met and hired of Frederick Charles Frank led both of them to develop, with the help of others such as Frank Nabarro and Alan Cottrell, to attack with the field of dislocations, in which Bristol shone with a new vigor, especially at the end of the 1940s. If Mott only produced early and somewhat minor contributions to that field, notably on alloy hardening with Nabarro and on the topology of a dislocation network lowering the apparent elastic constants of a crystal, there is no doubt that Mott's enthusiasm played its role in the three major steps forward in the field by F. C. Frank on crystal growth and plasticity and later, in Cambridge, by P. Hirsch on the thin film electron microscopy. At the same time, however, Mott started playing around electronic correlations and their possible role in Verwey's compounds such as nickel oxides which could switch from metals to insulators under various physical conditions (transition of substances from metallic to nonmetallic states (Mott transition). The term Mott insulator
Mott insulator
is also named for him, as well as the Mott polynomials, which he introduced. Publications[edit] N. F. Mott revived the old Philosophical Magazine
Philosophical Magazine
and transformed it into a lively publication essentially centred on the then-new field of solid state physics, attracting writers, readers and general interest on a wide scale. After receiving a paper on point defects in crystals by Frederick Seitz
Frederick Seitz
that was obviously too long for Phil. Mag, Mott decided to create a new publication, Advances in Physics
Physics
for such review papers. Both publications are still active in 2017.

N. F. Mott, "The Wave Mechanics of α-Ray Tracks", Proceedings of the Royal Society (1929) A126, pp. 79–84, doi:10.1098/rspa.1929.0205. (reprinted as Sec.I-6 of Quantum Theory and Measurement, J.A. Wheeler. and W.H. Zurek, (1983) Princeton). N. F. Mott, Metal-Insulator Transitions, second edition (Taylor & Francis, London, 1990). ISBN 0-85066-783-6, ISBN 978-0-85066-783-7 N. F. Mott, A Life in Science (Taylor & Francis, London, 1986). ISBN 0-85066-333-4, ISBN 978-0-85066-333-4 N. F. Mott, H. Jones, The Theory of Properties of Metals and Alloys, (Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1958) Brian Pippard, Nevill Francis Mott, Physics
Physics
Today, March 1997, pp. 95 and 96: (pdf).

Awards and honours[edit] In 1977, Nevill Mott was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, together with Philip Warren Anderson
Philip Warren Anderson
and John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems." The news of having won the Nobel Prize received Mott while having lunch at restaurant Die Sonne in Marburg, Germany, during a visit to fellow solid state scientist at Marburg
Marburg
University.[7] Mott was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(FRS) in 1936.[1] Mott served as president of the Physical Society in 1957. In the early 1960s he was chairman of the British Pugwash group. He was knighted in 1962.[8] Mott received an honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University
Heriot-Watt University
in 1972.[9] In 1981, Mott became a founding member of the World Cultural Council.[10] He continued to work until he was about ninety. He was made a Companion of Honour
Companion of Honour
in 1995.[11] In 1995, Mott visited the Loughborough University
Loughborough University
Department of Physics
Physics
and presented a lecture entitled "65 Years in Physics". The University continues to host the annual Sir Nevill Mott Lecture.[12] Personal life[edit] Mott was married to Ruth Eleanor Horder, and had two daughters, Elizabeth and Alice. He died in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire. His autobiography, A Life in Science, was published in 1986 by Taylor & Francis.[13] References[edit]

^ a b c Pippard, B. (1998). "Sir Nevill Francis Mott, C. H. 30 September 1905 – 8 August 1996". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 44: 315. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1998.0021.  ^ BBC video of Mott interviewed by Lewis Wolpert
Lewis Wolpert
in 1985 (accessed 8 October 2010) ^ Nobel lecture (PDF) ^ Sir Nevill Francis Mott ^ Mott's memories University of Bristol
University of Bristol
(accessed Jan 2006) ^ National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists Archived 31 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Bath University ^ E. A. Davis (2002). Nevill Mott: Reminiscences And Appreciations. Taylor & Francis. p. 269. ISBN 0-203-48439-8.  ^ "New Year Honours List" (PDF). Nature. 193 (4810): 17. 6 January 1962. Bibcode:1962Natur.193Q..17.. doi:10.1038/193017a0. Retrieved 1 May 2012.  ^ webperson@hw.ac.uk. " Heriot-Watt University
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh: Honorary Graduates". www1.hw.ac.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ "About Us". World Cultural Council. Retrieved November 8, 2016.  ^ "1977: Nevill Francis Mott (1905–1996) St John's College, Cambridge". St John. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ "Sir Nevill Mott Lecture Series". Loughborough University. Retrieved January 18, 2018.  ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=lZmZrUHpA98C[ISBN missing]

Academic offices

Preceded by Sir James Chadwick Master of Gonville and Caius College 1959–1966 Succeeded by Joseph Needham

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Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

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Masters of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge

Gonville Hall

John Colton (1349) William Rougham (1360) Richard Pulham (1393) William Somersham (1412) John Rickingale (1416) Thomas Attwood (1426) Thomas Boleyn (1454) Edmund Sheriffe (1472) Henry Costessey (1475) John Barly (1483) Edmund Stubb (1504) William Buckenham (1513) John Skipp (1536) John Styrmin (1540) Thomas Bacon (1552)

Gonville and Caius College

John Caius
John Caius
(1559) Thomas Legge
Thomas Legge
(1573) William Branthwaite
William Branthwaite
(1607) John Gostlin
John Gostlin
(1619) Thomas Batchcroft
Thomas Batchcroft
(1626, 1660) William Dell
William Dell
(1649) Robert Brady (1660) James Halman
James Halman
(1700) John Ellys (1703) Thomas Gooch
Thomas Gooch
(1716) James Burrough (1754) John Smith (1764) Richard Fisher (1795) Martin Davy
Martin Davy
(1803) Benedict Chapman
Benedict Chapman
(1839) Edwin Guest
Edwin Guest
(1852) Norman Macleod Ferrers
Norman Macleod Ferrers
(1880) Ernest Stewart Roberts
Ernest Stewart Roberts
(1903) Hugh Kerr Anderson
Hugh Kerr Anderson
(1912) John Forbes Cameron (1928) James Chadwick
James Chadwick
(1948) Nevill Francis Mott (1959) Joseph Needham
Joseph Needham
(1966) Henry William Rawson Wade (1976) Peter Gray (1988) Neil McKendrick
Neil McKendrick
(1996) Christopher Hum (2006) Alan Fersht
Alan Fersht
(2012)

v t e

Copley Medallists (1951–2000)

David Keilin
David Keilin
(1951) Paul Dirac
Paul Dirac
(1952) Albert Kluyver
Albert Kluyver
(1953) E. T. Whittaker
E. T. Whittaker
(1954) Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
(1955) Patrick Blackett (1956) Howard Florey
Howard Florey
(1957) John Edensor Littlewood (1958) Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
(1959) Harold Jeffreys
Harold Jeffreys
(1960) Hans Adolf Krebs
Hans Adolf Krebs
(1961) Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
(1962) Paul Fildes
Paul Fildes
(1963) Sydney Chapman (1964) Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
(1965) Lawrence Bragg
Lawrence Bragg
(1966) Bernard Katz (1967) Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
(1968) Peter Medawar
Peter Medawar
(1969) Alexander R. Todd
Alexander R. Todd
(1970) Norman Pirie (1971) Nevill Francis Mott (1972) Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
(1973) W. V. D. Hodge
W. V. D. Hodge
(1974) Francis Crick
Francis Crick
(1975) Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
(1976) Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
(1977) Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward
(1978) Max Perutz
Max Perutz
(1979) Derek Barton (1980) Peter D. Mitchell
Peter D. Mitchell
(1981) John Cornforth
John Cornforth
(1982) Rodney Robert Porter
Rodney Robert Porter
(1983) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
(1984) Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
(1985) Rudolf Peierls
Rudolf Peierls
(1986) Robin Hill (1987) Michael Atiyah
Michael Atiyah
(1988) César Milstein
César Milstein
(1989) Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam
(1990) Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
(1991) George Porter
George Porter
(1992) James D. Watson (1993) Frederick Charles Frank
Frederick Charles Frank
(1994) Frank Fenner (1995) Alan Cottrell
Alan Cottrell
(1996) Hugh Huxley (1997) James Lighthill
James Lighthill
(1998) John Maynard Smith
John Maynard Smith
(1999) Alan Battersby (2000)

v t e

Founding members of the World Cultural Council

Christian B. Anfinsen Werner Arber James Baddiley M. Balasegaram Frank Barnaby Christiaan Barnard Colin Blakemore Aage N. Bohr Norman Borlaug Harold G. Callan André Frédéric Cournand William J. Darby Eduardo de Robertis Cornelis de Jager Guy Blaudin de Thé Jean-François Denisse Venancio Deulofeu Frank J. Dixon Richard S. Doll Audouin Dollfus Jacques-Émile Dubois Gerald Durrell Francisco J. Dy John C. Eccles Paul Ehrlich Manfred Eigen Mohammed El Fasi Ernest L. Eliel Kenneth O. Emergy José Rafael Estrada Hans J. Eysenck Don W. Fawcett David J. Finney Val L. Fitch Carl G. Gahmberg Alfred D. Hershey Gerhard Herzberg David H. Hubel Osmo H. Järvi Reginald V. Jones Adrian Kantrowitz Nathan O. Kaplan Leo A. Kaprio Vasso Karageorghis Peter E. Kent Donald W. Kerst Seymour S. Kety Prem N. Kirpal Georges B. Koelle Walther Manshard Georges Mathé William D. McElroy Henry McIlwain John McMichael Jerrold Meinwald Harry Melville Desmond J. Morris Giuseppe Moruzzi Nevill Mott Vernon B. Mountcastle Robert S. Mulliken Walter H. Munk Ilie G. Murgulescu Jayant V. Narlikar Louis E. F. Néel Yuval Ne'eman Bernhard H. Neumann William A. Nierenberg Marshall W. Nirenberg George E. Palade Arthur B. Pardee David Phillips Jacques Piccard Jens J. Pindborg Comlan A. A. Quenum Hermann Rahn G. N. Ramachandran Gunnar Randers Chintamani N. R. Rao Rex Richards Jean Rösch Abraham J. A. Roux Stanley K. Runcorn Donald H. Sadler Hakim Muhammad Saeed Nobufusa Saito Abdus Salam Stuart J. Saunders Menahem Max Schiffer William G. Schneider Glenn T. Seaborg Ernest R. Sears Frederick Seitz Leonard T. Skeggs Stefan Ślopek George J. Smets George D. Snell Leonard Sosnowky Roger W. Sperry Lyman Spitzer Frederick Stewart Heikki Suomalainen Pol Swings Charles Tanford Henry Taube John M. Tedder Edward Teller Howard Temin Harold Thompson Peter C. Thonemann Phillip V. Tobias Alexander R. Todd Jan Peter Toennies Andrzej Trautman Jean L. F. Tricart Ioan Ursu Constantin Vago Eugene van Tamelen Ulf S. von Euler Alan Walsh William J. Whelan Karel F. Wiesner Rosalyn S. Yalow John Z. Young

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49307037 LCCN: n81019567 ISNI: 0000 0001 0898 9114 GND: 118785141 SELIBR: 321604 SUDOC: 032964986 BNF: cb123887203 (data) MGP: 105786 NDL: 00450670 SN

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