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Network Rail
Network Rail
is the owner (via its subsidiary Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd which was known as Railtrack
Railtrack
plc before 2002)[5] and infrastructure manager of most of the rail network in England, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales.[6] Network Rail
Network Rail
is an arms length public body of the Department for Transport
Department for Transport
with no shareholders, which reinvests its income in the railways. Network Rail's main customers are the private train operating companies (TOCs), responsible for passenger transport, and freight operating companies (FOCs), who provide train services on the infrastructure that the company owns and maintains. Since 1 September 2014, Network Rail
Network Rail
has been classified as a "public sector body".[7] To cope with quickly rising passenger numbers, Network Rail
Network Rail
is currently undertaking a £38 billion programme of upgrades to the network, including Crossrail, electrification of lines, upgrading Thameslink and a new high-speed line.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-2002 1.2 2002 onwards 1.3 Allegations of misuse of public funds and discrimination 1.4 Knighthood of John Armitt 1.5 Regional reorganisation 1.6 Flying Scotsman cancellation 1.7 Great Western Electrification 1.8 Sharing of responsibility with TOCs

2 Responsibilities 3 Funding 4 Assets

4.1 Infrastructure 4.2 Stations 4.3 Training facilities 4.4 Telecoms assets 4.5 Rolling stock 4.6 Possible asset sales

5 Development

5.1 Current investment programme 5.2 The GRIP process 5.3 Control periods 5.4 Route plans 5.5 Electricity

6 Governance structure and accountability

6.1 Formal governance structure 6.2 Monitoring Network Rail's performance 6.3 Informal governance groups

6.3.1 Railway Industry Planning Group (RIPG)

6.4 Directors

7 Safety 8 Private versus public-sector status 9 National Centre 10 Photography competition 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Pre-2002[edit] See also: Railtrack
Railtrack
and British Rail Britain's railway system was built by private companies, but it was nationalised by the Transport Act 1947
Transport Act 1947
and run by British Railways until re-privatisation in the 1990s. Infrastructure and passenger and freight services were separated at that time. Between 1994 and 2002 the infrastructure was owned and operated by Railtrack. The Hatfield train crash on 17 October 2000 was a defining moment in the collapse of Railtrack.[8] The immediate major repairs undertaken across the whole British rail network were estimated to have cost in the order of £580 million and Railtrack
Railtrack
had no idea how many more 'Hatfields' were waiting to happen because it had lost considerable in-house engineering skill following the sale or closure of many of the engineering and maintenance functions of British Rail
British Rail
to external companies; nor did the company have any way of assessing the consequence of the speed restrictions it was ordering, which all but brought the railway network to a standstill.[9] The costs of modernising the West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
were also spiralling.[10] In 2001, Railtrack
Railtrack
announced that, despite making a pre-tax profit before exceptional expenses of £199m, the £733m of costs and compensation paid out over the Hatfield crash had plunged Railtrack
Railtrack
from profit into a loss of £534m,[11] and it approached the government for funding, which it then used to pay a £137m dividend to its shareholders in May 2001.[12] Network Rail
Network Rail
Ltd took over control by buying Railtrack
Railtrack
plc, which was in "railway administration", from Railtrack
Railtrack
Group plc for £500 million; Railtrack
Railtrack
plc was then renamed and reconstituted as Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd. The purchase was completed on 3 October 2002.[13] The former company had thus never ceased to exist but continued under another name: for this reason Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd was the defendant in later prosecutions in respect of events which had occurred in the days of Railtrack. 2002 onwards[edit]

UK total rail subsidies 1986–2015 (in 2015 terms), showing the huge increase after the Hatfield crash.[14]

Following an initial period in which Network Rail
Network Rail
established itself and demonstrated its competence in addressing the principal challenges of improving asset condition, reducing unit costs and tackling delay, the Government's Rail Review in 2004 said that Network Rail
Network Rail
should be given responsibility for whole-industry performance reporting, timetable development, specification of small and medium network enhancements, and the delivery of route-specific utilisation strategies (RUS).[15] Some of these are functions which Network Rail already had; others – such as the obligation to devise route utilisation strategies – were transferred to Network Rail
Network Rail
from the Strategic Rail Authority, a non-departmental public body, part of the UK government. The SRA was abolished in November 2006.[16] The company moved its headquarters to Kings Place, 90 York Way, from 40 Melton Street, Euston, in August 2008. In October 2008, Sir Ian McAllister announced that he would not stand for re-election as chairman of Network Rail. He had held the position for six years. He noted that as Network Rail
Network Rail
moved to a "new phase in its development" it was appropriate for a new chairman to lead it there.[17] Many track safety initiatives have been introduced in the time Network Rail has been responsible for this area. The latest, announced in December 2008, known as "All Orange", states that all track personnel must not only wear orange hi-vis waistcoats or jackets, but must also wear orange hi-vis trousers at all times when working on or near the track. This ruling came into force in January 2009 for maintenance and property workers and in April 2009 for infrastructure and investment sites.[18] Allegations of misuse of public funds and discrimination[edit] In 2009, allegations appeared in the media from the Transport Salaried Staffs' Association concerning treatment of Network Rail
Network Rail
employees. Former chief executive Iain Coucher
Iain Coucher
was also accused of financial impropriety involving unspecified payments to his business partner Victoria Pender during his tenure at Network Rail.[19] An internal investigation held by Network Rail
Network Rail
in 2010, vetted by its auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers, uncovered no evidence of wrongdoing. An independent enquiry headed by Anthony White QC in 2011 further examined the claims, but also exonerated Coucher.[20][21] Knighthood of John Armitt[edit] Critical commentary appeared in the media concerning the knighthood awarded to John Armitt
John Armitt
in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to engineering and construction. Armitt was Chief Executive of Network Rail at the time of the 2007 Grayrigg derailment
Grayrigg derailment
and the family of a victim of the accident criticised the award, which coincidentally was conferred on the same day that Network Rail
Network Rail
were prosecuted for the accident.[22] Regional reorganisation[edit] In 2011 the company began the process of reorganising its operational structure into nine semi-autonomous regional entities, each with their own managing director; the first two units to be created were Scotland and Wessex regions.[23][24] The reorganisation has been interpreted as a move back towards vertical integration of track and train operations.[25] Flying Scotsman cancellation[edit] In 2016 Network Rail
Network Rail
failed to check whether the Flying Scotsman could fit through tunnels along the Borders Route resulting in the cancellation of a trip just 24 hours before departure. The operator described the cancellation as "an absolute disgrace", Network Rail blamed the cancellation on an internal "administrative error"[26] Just one day later Network Rail
Network Rail
chose to climb down and allow the train journey to take place. Scottish Transport Minister Derek Mackay branded the affair a "debacle".[27] Great Western Electrification[edit] Network Rail's attempt to electrify the Great Western Main Line
Great Western Main Line
has been dogged by poor planning and cost overruns;[28] the projected cost has ballooned from £1.2 billion to £2.8 billion by the end of 2015[29] and the project has been delayed to the point where the government has asked Hitachi to retrofit the new Intercity Express Programme trainsets with diesel as well as electric engines as the electrification has been scaled back.[30] Sharing of responsibility with TOCs[edit] In December 2016, the Transport Secretary, Chris Grayling announced that Network Rail
Network Rail
would lose sole control of track maintenance and repairs, and instead would share this with the Train Operating Companies.[31][32][33] Responsibilities[edit]

Sign showing the Network Rail
Network Rail
name on the signal box at Ledbury.

Network Rail
Network Rail
owns the infrastructure, including the railway tracks, signals, overhead wires, tunnels, bridges, level crossings and most stations, but not the passenger or commercial freight rolling stock. It however owns a fleet of departmental stock. Although it owns over 2,500 railway stations, it manages only 18 of the biggest and busiest of them, all the other stations being managed by one or other of the various train operating companies (TOCs).[34] Network Rail
Network Rail
has a 15-year lease on Square One in Manchester with 800 staff in one of Manchester's largest refurbished office spaces.[35] Network Rail
Network Rail
should not be confused with 'National Rail'. National Rail is not an organisation, but merely a brand, used to explain and promote a Great Britain-wide network of passenger railway services. The majority of Network Rail
Network Rail
lines also carry freight traffic; some lines are freight only. A few lines that carry passenger traffic are not part of the National Rail
National Rail
network (for example High Speed 1, Heathrow Express, Tyne and Wear Metro
Tyne and Wear Metro
(the Tyne and Wear Metro
Tyne and Wear Metro
uses Network Rail
Network Rail
track between Pelaw and Sunderland and is responsible for that) and the London
London
Underground). Conversely, a few National Rail services operate over track which is not part of the Network Rail network. For example, Chiltern Railways services run on track owned by London
London
Underground between Harrow-on-the-Hill and Amersham. The current Chairman is Sir Peter Hendy, and Mark Carne is currently appointed as the Chief Executive.[2] Funding[edit] Main article: Financing of the rail industry in Great Britain Network Rail
Network Rail
is funded partly through a direct grant from the government (£3.8 billion in 2015/16) and partly by train operating companies paying access charges to use the rail network (£1.6 billion in 2015/16). In 2015/16, it spent £3.1 billion on renewals (renewing existing infrastructure back to how it was when new) and £3.2 billion on enhancements, with the rest spent on maintenance and other costs.[36] Assets[edit] Infrastructure[edit]

Network Rail
Network Rail
depot at Norwood Junction station, Croydon.

Unimog
Unimog
bucket truck.

High-pressure water jets clearing leaves at Taunton.

Network Rail
Network Rail
covers 20,000 miles of track, and 40,000 bridges and tunnels.[37] In October 2003 Network Rail
Network Rail
announced that it would take over all infrastructure maintenance work from private contractors, following concerns about the quality of work carried out by certain private firms, and spiralling costs.[38] February 2004 saw the opening of an operations centre at Waterloo station in London, operated jointly by Network Rail
Network Rail
and South West Trains. This was the first full collaboration of its kind since privatisation, and it is regarded as a model for other areas of the network, with a further six integrated Network Rail
Network Rail
+ TOC Control Centres having opened since then, at Blackfriars, Croydon
Croydon
(Leading Control for Thameslink), Swindon, Birmingham New Street, Glasgow and, most recently, Liverpool Street and South Wales
Wales
based in Cardiff Canton.[citation needed] Track renewal, the ongoing modernisation of the railway network by replacing track and signalling, continues to be carried out by private engineering firms under contract. The biggest renewals projects include the multibillion-pound upgrade of the London
London
– Glasgow West Coast Main Line, which was completed in 2008, the Thameslink Programme to upgrade the north-south railway through London
London
and work on the part of Crossrail
Crossrail
which is operated by Network Rail.[39] Network Rail
Network Rail
initially sub-contracted much of the work and the site to private infrastructure maintenance companies such as Carillion
Carillion
and First Engineering. Other sub-contractors are used on site for specialist work or additional labour. These include Prima Services Group, Sky Blue, Balfour Beatty, Laboursite, BCL, Atkins (Atkins Rail) and McGinleys.[citation needed] Since 2003 Network Rail
Network Rail
has been building up significant in-house engineering skills, including funding of apprenticeship and foundation degree schemes. Network Rail
Network Rail
reports significant savings resulting from the initial transfers of work away from contracting companies. Additional contracts were taken back by Network Rail
Network Rail
after the serious accident at Potters Bar and other accidents at Rotherham and King's Cross led Jarvis to pull out of the track repair business. Shortly after this, and due to other failures by maintenance companies, Network Rail
Network Rail
took control of many more maintenance duties. Telecomms maintenance came full circle in April 2009 with the bringing in house of the staff of Thales Telecom Services Ltd (formerly British Rail Telecommunications (BRT)).[citation needed] In 2006, Network Rail
Network Rail
made public a high-tech plan to combat the effects of slippery rail. This plan involves the use of satellites for tracking trouble areas, water-jetting trains and crews using railhead scrubbers, sand sticks and a substance called Natrusolve, which dissolves leaf mulch.[40] All workers working on, near or trackside have to undergo a Personal Track Safety assessment (re-assessed every two years).[41] Network Rail workers undergo an assessment every year as part of AITL (Assessment in the Line). The AITL requires each worker to go through questions on a computer based program on all the competencies held.[citation needed] In 2007 it was announced that the number of track renewal contractors will be reduced to four from the current six. These are now Amey/SECO, Balfour Beatty, Babcock First Engineering and Jarvis plc.[42] Jarvis went into administration in March 2010,[43] with the bulk of its work commitments being picked up by Babcock.[citation needed] Stations[edit] Network Rail
Network Rail
owns more than 2,500 railway stations, divided into six categories. Management and operation of most of them is carried out mostly by the principal train operating company serving that station; however, in a few cases the train operating company does not serve the station. For example, Hinckley is served by CrossCountry, but it is managed by East Midlands Trains. As of June 2017, Network Rail
Network Rail
manages 18 stations directly.[34][44] The stations Network Rail
Network Rail
operate are:

National

Birmingham New Street Bristol Temple Meads Clapham Junction Edinburgh Waverley Glasgow Central Guildford Leeds Liverpool Lime Street Manchester Piccadilly Reading

Central London
London
stations

London
London
Bridge London
London
Cannon Street London
London
Charing Cross London
London
Euston London
London
King's Cross London
London
Liverpool Street London
London
Paddington London
London
St Pancras Low Level London
London
Victoria London
London
Waterloo

Network Rail
Network Rail
High Speed also operates London
London
St Pancras International High Level, Stratford International and Ebbsfleet International. Glasgow Central and Liverpool Lime Street stations are divided into high and low-level stations – the high-level stations are all termini used primarily by the main inter-city services to those stations. The low-level stations are through routes on local commuter networks that are largely separate from other routes to the main station; these platforms are not managed by Network Rail, but instead the rail operator that primarily uses them ( ScotRail and Merseyrail respectively). Network Rail
Network Rail
operated Gatwick Airport station until January 2012 when it was transferred to Southern, and Fenchurch Street until November 2014 when it was transferred to c2c. Network Rail
Network Rail
took over management of Bristol Temple Meads and Reading in April 2014.[45] A DfT franchise report in 2014 stated Network Rail's intention to subsume more major stations into Network Rail's directly operated portfolio. The report earmarked York for Network Rail
Network Rail
management, as well as Manchester Oxford Road and Manchester Victoria which are currently undergoing major rebuilding as part of the Northern Hub.[46] However as of September 2017[update] the two Manchester stations remain under the operatorship of Northern.[47][48] Training facilities[edit]

Network Rail's Coventry
Coventry
leadership development centre, Westwood.

Network Rail
Network Rail
has several training and development sites around Britain. These include sites in Newcastle, Peterborough, Derby, Leeds, Walsall
Walsall
and Larbert
Larbert
which provide refresher courses, and train staff in new equipment. Advanced Apprentice Scheme trainees are trained at HMS Sultan in Gosport within the whole first year and over seven 2-week periods or five 3-week periods (throughout their second and third year) of their apprenticeship, using a combination of Royal Navy facilities and a specially installed training centre. All courses are taught by VT Flagship (part of Babcock International) in the first year but apprentices are trained by Network Rail
Network Rail
staff in the second and third years.[49] Network Rail
Network Rail
bought a residential centre from Cable and Wireless in the Westwood Business Centre near Coventry
Coventry
for leadership development. The company and other industry partners such as VolkerRail
VolkerRail
and Balfour Beatty
Balfour Beatty
also operate a Foundation Degree in conjunction with Sheffield Hallam University. In 2008, Network Rail
Network Rail
piloted its first qualification in "track engineering". It has been given permission to develop courses equivalent to GCSE and A-levels.[50] Telecoms assets[edit] Network Rail
Network Rail
operates various essential telecommunication circuits for signalling and electrification control systems, train radio systems, lineside communications, level crossing CCTV, station information and security systems as well as more general IT and business telephony needs. The fixed bearer network infrastructure comprises transmission systems and telephone exchanges linked by a fibre optic and copper cable network that is located mainly within trackside troughing routes on the former British Rail
British Rail
Telecommunications network. (It is the largest private telecoms network in the UK). Network Rail
Network Rail
operates several analogue radio networks that support mobile communication applications for drivers and lineside workers which consist of base stations, antenna systems and control equipment. The National Radio Network (NRN) was developed specifically for the operational railway; it provides radio coverage for 98% of the rail network through 500 base stations and 21 radio exchanges. The Radio Electronic Token Block RETB
RETB
system is based on similar technology as the NRN and ORN but provides data communication for signalling token exchange as well as voice communication.[citation needed] Fixed communication at trackside is provided by telephone. These are primarily provided for signallers to communicate with train crew, via telephones mounted on signal posts, and with the public through telephones located at level crossings. GAI-Tronics provides many of the telephones sited on trackside and at level crossings. They also provide Public Access Help Points on platforms and stations to provide passengers with easy access to Information and Emergency control centres. GSM-R
GSM-R
radio systems are being introduced across Europe
Europe
under EU legislation for interoperability. In the UK, as of March 2014, Network Rail is well underway in the UK implementation of GSM-R
GSM-R
to replace its legacy National Radio Network (NRN) and Cab Secure Radio (CSR) systems currently in use. Network Rail
Network Rail
has an internal infrastructure database known as GEOGIS. The system uses codes for four-digit Track IDs to identify which line at any location is referred to. The first number refers to track direction, with values of 1 (Up), 2 (Down), 3 (Reversible/Bi-directional), or 4 (Merry Go Round Loop). The second number refers to track use, which can be 1 (Main or Fast), 2 (Slow, Local or Relief), 3 (Goods), 4 (Single line), 5 (Loop), 6 (Terminal or Bay), 7 (Crossover), 8 (Other or Engine), or 9 (Single Siding). The third and fourth numbers refer to the track number, which can be any number from 00 to 99 inclusive, and are usually numbered sequentially.[51] Rolling stock[edit] Network Rail
Network Rail
operates a large variety of DMUs, locomotives and rolling stock to perform safety checks and maintenance (this fleet is not to be confused with the combined rolling stock assets of ATOC members who work in combination as National Rail). As well as the multiple units and locomotives detailed below, Network Rail
Network Rail
own and operate a large stock of rolling stock for particular testing duties and track maintenance. Network Rail
Network Rail
also hire freight locomotives from various freight operators including DB Cargo UK, Freightliner, Colas Rail
Colas Rail
and GB Railfreight
GB Railfreight
amongst others to operate engineers' trains in support of maintenance and renewal work. Network Rail's Infrastructure Monitoring fleet of test trains is operated by Colas Rail, primarily using locomotives from Colas' and Network Rail's own fleets, but also using locomotives hired from other companies such as Direct Rail Services, GB Railfreight
GB Railfreight
and Europhoenix
Europhoenix
as required.

Class Image Type Introduced Fleet Size

Class 73

Electro-diesel locomotive 1962,1965-1967 3

Class 97

Diesel Locomotive 1960–65 4

Class 117

Diesel Multiple Unit 1961 1

Class 121

Diesel Multiple Unit 1960 1

Class 313

Electric multiple unit 1976-77 1

NMT

High Speed Train 2003 (built between 1975 & 1982) 1

MPV

Diesel Multiple Unit

50 (some stored)

Class 950

Diesel Multiple Unit 1987 1

Mark 2 Carriage

carriage 1963-75

DBSO

Control car 2007 (converted from BSO in 1979, and 1985–86) 5

DVT

Control car 2013 4

Class 489

Control car 2006 (converted from 2HAP EMU in 1983) 3

Possible asset sales[edit] In May 2015, it was reported in the national press that the government was considering selling off some of Network Rail's assets, including large stations and wi-fi services. The government denied the reports.[52][53] Development[edit] Current investment programme[edit] See also: Timeline of future railway upgrades in Britain

Rail Passengers in Great Britain from 1829-2016, showing the early era of small railway companies, the amalgamation into the "Big Four", nationalisation and finally the current era of privatisation.

From 1997 to 2014 (inclusive), passenger numbers have more than doubled, following little growth in the previous decades. To cope with the increasing passenger numbers, Network Rail
Network Rail
is currently undertaking a £38 billion programme of upgrades to the network, including Crossrail, electrification of lines, in-cab signalling, new inter-city trains, upgrading Thameslink, and a new high-speed line. The GRIP process[edit] For investment projects, as opposed to routine maintenance, Network Rail has developed an eight-stage process designed to minimise and mitigate risks. This is known as the Governance for Railway Investment Projects (GRIP), previously known as “Guide to Rail Investment Projects”.[54] The stages are as follows:

output definition; pre-feasibility; option selection; single option development; detailed design; construction, test and commission; scheme hand back; project close out.

Each stage delivers an agreed set of outputs to defined quality criteria.[54] Control periods[edit] Main article: Network Rail
Network Rail
Control Periods For financial and other planning purposes, Network Rail
Network Rail
works within 5-year "Control Periods", each one beginning on 1 April and ending on 31 March to coincide with the financial reporting year. These periods were inherited from Railtrack, so that the earlier ones are retrospective, and not necessarily of 5 years duration. They are as follows:

Control Period 1 (CP1): 1996–2001 Control Period 2 (CP2): 2001–2004 Control Period 3 (CP3): 2004–2009 Control Period 4 (CP4): 2009–2014 Control Period 5 (CP5): 2014–2019 Control Period 6 (CP6): 2019–2024 Control Period 7 (CP7): 2024–2029 Control Period 8 (CP8): 2029–2034

The Secretary of State for Transport
Secretary of State for Transport
regularly issues a High-Level Output Specification (HLOS) indicating what work the Government wishes to be undertaken during a given Control Period.[55] Route plans[edit]

Strategic Routes in England
England
and Wales
Wales
2014.

Network Rail
Network Rail
regularly publishes a Strategic Business Plan detailing their policies, processes and plans, as well as financial expenditure and other data. The most recent complete business plan was published in January 2013.[56] Within these plans the rail network is divided into ten “devolved routes” or “operational routes”, with a Route Plan for each being published annually.[56] Each route or other plan covers a number of railway lines usually defined by geographical area and the routes are further subdivided into 17 “strategic routes”, each divided into Strategic Route Sections (SRS) and given an SRS number and name.[57] The plans also detail the geography of routes, stations, major junctions, capacity constraints and other issues and provide data on freight gauge, electrification, line speed, number of tracks, capacity and other information. The plans also detail the expected future demand and development of each route, their predicted expenditure and their maintenance and investment requirements.[58] The devolved routes were introduced in 2011,[59] and the 17 strategic routes labelled "A" to "Q" were introduced in 2010. From 2004 to 2009, the network had been divided into 26 strategic routes numbered "1" to "26". In 2003, the network had been divided into 41 strategic routes numbered "1" to "41".[60] The 2011 devolved routes and strategic routes are organised as in the table below.[57]

Devolved Route Strategic Route Primary routes Other destinations Former strategic routes 2004–09

South East A

Kent and High Speed One

London
London
Charing Cross – Ashford International London
London
St Pancras International – Channel Tunnel

Canterbury East Dover Priory Folkestone Central Hastings London
London
Bridge London
London
Cannon Street Maidstone East Margate Rochester Sevenoaks Tonbridge

1. Kent

B

Sussex London
London
Victoria – Brighton

Chichester Clapham Junction Dorking Eastbourne London
London
Blackfriars London
London
Bridge London
London
St Pancras International Redhill

2. Brighton Main Line & Sussex

Wessex C

Wessex London
London
Waterloo – Southampton Central

Ascot Basingstoke Bournemouth Clapham Junction Exeter St Davids Guildford Kew Bridge Portsmouth Harbour Salisbury Shanklin Shepperton Staines Weymouth Windsor & Eton Riverside Woking

3. South West Main Line 4. Wessex Routes

Anglia D

East Anglia London
London
Liverpool Street – Norwich

Cambridge Ely Felixstowe Great Yarmouth Lowestoft Harwich Town Ipswich Kings Lynn Southend Victoria

5. West Anglia 7. Great Eastern

E

North London
London
Line none

Barking Gospel Oak Richmond Stratford

6. North London
London
Line and Thameside (part)

F

Thameside none

Fenchurch Street Shoeburyness Southend Central

6. North London
London
Line and Thameside (part)

London
London
North Eastern and East Midland G

East Coast Main Line and North East London
London
King's Cross – Leeds and Edinburgh Waverley

Doncaster Durham Lincoln Central Newcastle Peterborough Whitby York

8. East Coast Main Line 9. North East Routes (part) 11. South Cross-Pennine, South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire (part)

H

Cross-Pennine, Yorkshire & Humber and North West (East section) Chesterfield – Barnetby

Barnsley Bradford Interchange Huddersfield Hull Leeds Scarborough Sheffield Skipton York

9. North East Routes (part) 10. North Cross-Pennine, North and West Yorkshire 11. South Cross-Pennine, South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire (part)

I

East Midlands

London
London
St Pancras International – Nottingham, Derby, Chesterfield Burton-on-Trent – Derby

Bedford Leicester Matlock Skegness

19. Midland Main Line and East Midlands

Western J

London
London
and West London
London
Paddington – Oxford, Bristol Parkway, Severn Tunnel, Taunton

Heathrow Central Heathrow Terminal 4 Newbury Reading Didcot Parkway South Ruislip Swindon Windsor & Eton Central

12. Reading to Penzance (part) 13. Great Western Main Line
Great Western Main Line
(part)

K

West of England

Swindon – Bristol Temple Meads Bristol Parkway – Plymouth Bristol Temple Meads – Cheltenham Spa

Barnstaple Bath Spa Exeter St Davids Gloucester Penzance Taunton

12. Reading to Penzance (part) 13. Great Western Main Line
Great Western Main Line
(part)

Wales L

Wales Severn Tunnel -- Swansea

Aberdare Aberystwyth Bangor Blaenau Ffestiniog Caerphilly Cardiff Central Carmarthen Crewe Fishguard Harbour Gloucester Hereford Holyhead Llandudno Merthyr Tydfil Milford Haven Newport Pembroke Dock Port Talbot Parkway Pwllheli Rhyl Rhymney Shrewsbury Tenby Treherbert Wrexham General

13. Great Western Main Line
Great Western Main Line
(part) 14. South and Central Wales
Wales
and Borders 15. South Wales
Wales
Valleys 22. North Wales
Wales
and Borders

London
London
North Western H

Cross-Pennine, Yorkshire & Humber and North West (West section)

Crewe – Manchester Piccadilly Liverpool South Parkway – Liverpool Lime Street

Barrow-in-Furness Blackburn Blackpool North Bolton Burnley Central Buxton Carlisle Colne Lancaster Manchester Victoria Morecambe Preston Settle Southport Todmorden Warrington Central Wigan Wallgate Windermere

20. North West Urban 23. North West Rural

M

West Midlands and Chilterns Birmingham New Street – Oxford, Cheltenham Spa, Rugby, Burton-on-Trent and Stafford

Banbury Bicester Village Coventry High Wycombe Kidderminster London
London
Marylebone Nuneaton Stratford-upon-Avon Warwick Wolverhampton Worcester Foregate Street

16. Chilterns 17. West Midlands

N

West Coast Main Line London
London
Euston – Liverpool South Parkway, Cheadle Hulme & Carstairs

Bedford St Johns Bletchley Carlisle Chester Crewe Lancaster Macclesfield Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Central Northampton Preston Rugby Runcorn St Albans Abbey Stafford Stoke-on-Trent Warrington Bank Quay Wigan North Western

18. West Coast Main Line

O

Merseyside none

Chester Ellesmere Port Kirkby Liverpool Central Liverpool Lime Street Liverpool South Parkway New Brighton Ormskirk Southport West Kirby

21. Merseyrail

Scotland P

Scotland
Scotland
East Edinburgh Waverley – Carstairs & Falkirk High

Aberdeen Dundee Glasgow Queen Street High Level Inverness Kyle of Lochalsh Stirling Thurso Wick

24. East of Scotland 25. Highlands (part)

Q

Scotland
Scotland
West Carstairs – Glasgow Central

Ardrossan Harbour Ayr Dumbarton Central Dumfries Fort William Glasgow Queen Street Low Level Greenock Central Helensburgh Central Largs Mallaig Oban Stranraer

25. Highlands (part) 26. Strathclyde and South West Scotland

Electricity[edit] Network Rail
Network Rail
opened the world's largest solar-powered bridge at Blackfriars Bridge across the River Thames
River Thames
in January 2014. The roof of the bridge has been covered with 4,400 photovoltaic panels, providing up to half of the energy for London
London
Blackfriars station.[61] Governance structure and accountability[edit] Formal governance structure[edit] The company is accountable to a body of members through its corporate constitution,[62] to its commercial train operator customers through its contracts with them (the contracts are subject to regulatory oversight), and to the public interest through the statutory powers of the Office of Rail and Road
Office of Rail and Road
(ORR).[63] Since Network Rail
Network Rail
does not have shareholders, its members hold the board of directors to account for their management of the business. From 1 July 2015 all the members were removed leaving the special member, the Secretary of State for Transport, as the sole member of Network Rail.[64] Previously at any one time there were around 100 members in total, drawn from a wide range of industry partners and members of the public. There were two general categories of membership, industry members comprising any organisation holding a licence to operate on the railway or preferred bidder for a railway franchise, and public members who were drawn from the wider stakeholder community. Members were appointed by an independent panel and served a three-year term. They had a number of statutory rights and duties which included attending annual general meetings, receiving the Annual Report and Accounts, and approving the appointment or re-appointment of Network Rail’s directors. Members had a duty to act in the best interests of the company without personal bias. They received no payments other than travel expenses.[citation needed] Setting the strategic direction and the day-to-day management of Network Rail
Network Rail
is the responsibility of the company’s board of directors. That direction must be consistent with the regulatory jurisdiction of the ORR, and with the requirements of its contracts. The ORR in turn operates within the overall transport policy set by the UK Department for Transport
Department for Transport
and the Scottish government, including as to what the government wants the railway industry to achieve and how much money the government is prepared to put into the industry. This means that the degree of government influence and control over the company is higher than it was before these enlargements of the powers and role of the government were introduced by the Railways Act 2005.[citation needed] Monitoring Network Rail's performance[edit] The Office of Rail and Road
Office of Rail and Road
(ORR) monitors Network Rail's performance on a continuous basis against targets established by the regulatory authority in the most recent access charges review (2003), against obligations in the company's network licence and against forecasts in its own business plan. If performance is poor, the company will face criticism and possible enforcement action from its commercial customers (under their contracts) and from the ORR (enforcing the company's network licence). It may also be criticised by its members in general meeting.[citation needed] In the annual report 2014/15, the ORR reported that the Public Performance Measure (PPM) was 89.6%, 1.4 percentage points (pp) below target in England
England
and Wales, and PPM in Scotland
Scotland
was 90.5%, 1.5pp below its regulatory performance target of 92%.[65] Informal governance groups[edit] Railway Industry Planning Group (RIPG)[edit] The Railway Industry Planning Group (RIPG), chaired by Network Rail, has as its purpose railway industry input into the structure and development of the national railway strategic planning processes. Its members are drawn from railway funders, operators and users,[66] and the group meets quarterly to consider:[citation needed]

rail industry liaison with regional and local government Regional (and Scotland
Scotland
and Wales) Planning Assessments Route Utilisation Strategies specification of passenger operator franchises High Level Output Specifications and Network Rail’s Strategic Business Plan Network Rail’s Business Planning Criteria, Business Plan and Route Plans.

Directors[edit]

Current board

Name Notes

Sir Peter Hendy Non-executive chairman

Mark Carne[67] Chief executive

Patrick Butcher[67] Group finance director

Paul Plummer[67] Group strategy director

Malcolm Brinded Non-executive director

Richard Brown Non-executive director reporting to the Transport Secretary

Sharon Flood Non-executive director

Chris Gibb Non-executive director

Janis Kong Non-executive director

Michael O'Higgins Non-executive director

Bridget Rosewell Non-executive director

Previous chairmen

Years Name

2002–2009 Sir Ian McAllister

2009–2012 Rick Haythornthwaite

2012–2015 Richard Parry-Jones

Previous chief executives

Years Name Notes

2002–2007 John Armitt Previously chief executive of Railtrack
Railtrack
2001-2002

2007–2010 Iain Coucher Previously managing director 2002–2007

2010–2011 Peter Henderson Interim chief executive October 2010 – February 2011

2011-2013 Sir David Higgins Now running HS2

Safety[edit]

2013 Rail fatalities per billion passenger-km in European countries.[68]

While generally strong, the safety record of the company was marred in February 2007 when a Virgin express derailed at Grayrigg in Cumbria. Network Rail
Network Rail
admitted responsibility for the incident. The RAIB investigation concluded in 2009 that a faulty set of points had caused the derailment.[69] In 2012 the Office of Rail Regulation
Office of Rail Regulation
announced that Network Rail
Network Rail
was to be prosecuted under the Health and Safety Act for "failure to provide and implement suitable and sufficient standards, procedures, guidance, training, tools and resources for the inspection and maintenance of fixed stretcher bar points". Network Rail pleaded guilty and were fined £4.1 million including legal costs.[70][71] In December 2005 two young girls were killed by a train as they were crossing the railway line via a pedestrian level crossing at Elsenham in Essex. Network Rail
Network Rail
was prosecuted for breaching health and safety law and fined £1 million in March 2012. The court heard that risk assessments carried out by Network Rail
Network Rail
staff in 2002 had identified potential dangers with the crossing and recommended the installation of gates that would lock automatically as trains approached, but this was not acted upon.[72] Private versus public-sector status[edit] See also: Railtrack In 2001 the then Labour government denied that it had nationalised the rail network in order to prevent Railtrack's shareholders claiming, via the European Court of Human Rights, the four-year average price of Railtrack, about £10 per share. Instead, Railtrack's shareholders were given only £2.60.[73] The Times
The Times
reported that Gordon Brown's aide, Shriti Vadera e-mailed Stephen Byers
Stephen Byers
in July 2001 asking: "Can we engineer the solution through insolvency ... and therefore avoid compensation under the Human Rights Act?"[74] Railtrack
Railtrack
plc was placed into railway administration under the Railways Act 1993
Railways Act 1993
on 7 October 2001, following an application to the High Court by the then Transport Secretary, Stephen Byers.[75] It was reported in November 2001 that a further £3.5 billion might be needed to keep the national railway network running, a sum disputed by Ernst & Young, the administrators.[76] To get Railtrack
Railtrack
out of administration, the government had to go back to the High Court and present evidence that the company was no longer insolvent. The principal reason given by the government to the court for this assertion was the decision of the rail regulator in 2002 to carry out an interim review of the company's finances, with the potential to advance significant additional sums to the company.[77] The High Court accepted that the company was not insolvent, and the railway administration order was discharged in October 2002. Until 2013, there was discussion over whether Network Rail
Network Rail
is a public-sector or a private-sector entity. Although it was officially a private sector organisation, the fact that its debts were underwritten by the government, and it is partially funded by the government, has led to its being described as being "nationalisation in all but name".[78] It was also claimed that the government is keen for Network Rail not to be classified as a public-sector organisation, as this would mean that the company's debt would be counted as public expenditure liabilities.[79] The Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
(ONS) repeatedly clashed with the National Audit Office and the Statistics Commission over whether the successor to Railtrack
Railtrack
should be considered a private company – as the ONS believed – or included on the Government's books, as the National Audit Office argued. The NAO said that as the Government is bearing the risk that would normally be borne by equity capital, and as it can appoint, through the SRA, a director who cannot be removed by members, Network Rail
Network Rail
is effectively a subsidiary of the Government-controlled SRA.[80][81] In December 2013, the ONS announced that from September 2014, Network Rail will be classified as a "government body". This resulted in the company's debt of £34 billion being added to the national debt.[79][82] National Centre[edit] Main article: Quadrant:MK The new national centre now known as 'The Quadrant:MK' is in Milton Keynes: it completed construction in June 2012.[83] The complex is five minutes' walk from Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Central. The four buildings, which are connected to a central street, accommodate about 3,000 people. As of June 2012[update], the engineering, logistics, operations including timetable planning, IT, procurement, planning and finance departments all planned to move to the Quadrant.[83] Photography competition[edit] Network Rail
Network Rail
organises the Landscape Photographer of the Year competition. Shortlisted photos are displayed at London
London
Waterloo and other major stations.[84] See also[edit]

Northern Ireland Railways Financing of the rail industry in Great Britain

References[edit]

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Network Rail
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Department for Transport
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Wayback Machine
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Network Rail
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Network Rail
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Department for Transport
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Network Rail
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Network Rail
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