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NERO (/ˈnɪəroʊ/ ; Latin
Latin
: _Nerō Claudius
Claudius
Caesar Augustus Germanicus_) (15 December 37 AD – 9 June 68 AD) was the last emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty . He was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius
Claudius
and became Claudius' heir and successor. Like Claudius, Nero
Nero
became emperor with the consent of the Praetorian Guard . Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger , was implicated in Claudius' death and Nero's nomination as emperor. She dominated Nero's early life and decisions until he cast her off; five years into his reign, he had her murdered.

During the early years of his reign, Nero
Nero
was content to be guided by his mother, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca and his Praetorian prefect , Sextus Afranius Burrus . As time passed, he started to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire . His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Iceni Queen Boudica
Boudica
. The Bosporan Kingdom was briefly annexed to the empire, and the First Jewish–Roman War began. Nero
Nero
focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade and the cultural life of the empire, ordering theatres built and promoting athletic games. He made public appearances as a poet, musician and charioteer; in the eyes of traditionalists, this undermined the dignity and authority of his person, status and office. His extravagant, empire-wide program of public and private works was funded by a rise in taxes that was much resented by the middle and upper classes. Various plots against his life were revealed; the ringleaders, most of them Nero's own courtiers, were executed.

In 68 AD Vindex , governor of the Gaulish territory Gallia Lugdunensis , rebelled. He was supported by Galba , the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis . Vindex's revolt failed in its immediate aim but Nero
Nero
fled Rome
Rome
when Rome's discontented civil and military authorities chose Galba as emperor. He committed suicide on June 9, 68 A.D., when he learned that he had been tried _in absentia_ and condemned to death as a public enemy, making him the first Roman Emperor to commit suicide. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors .

Nero's rule is usually associated with tyranny and extravagance; his more infamous executions include that of his mother. Most Roman sources, such as Suetonius and Cassius Dio , offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign; Tacitus claims that the Roman people thought him compulsive and corrupt. Many Romans believed that the Great Fire of Rome
Rome
was instigated by Nero
Nero
to clear the way for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea . He was said to have seized Christians as scapegoats for the fire and burned them alive, seemingly motivated not by public justice but by personal cruelty. Some modern historians question the reliability of the ancient sources on Nero's tyrannical acts. A few sources paint Nero in a more favourable light. There is evidence of his popularity among the Roman commoners, especially in the eastern provinces of the Empire, where a popular legend arose that Nero
Nero
had not died and would return. At least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as " Nero
Nero
reborn" , to enlist popular support.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 Nero\'s Reign (54 AD–68 AD)

* 2.1 Early reign * 2.2 Matricide * 2.3 Decline * 2.4 Great Fire of Rome
Rome
* 2.5 Later years * 2.6 The revolt of Vindex and Galba and the death of Nero
Nero
* 2.7 Post mortem

* 3 Military Conflicts

* 3.1 Boudicca\'s Uprising * 3.2 Peace with Parthia * 3.3 The First Jewish War

* 4 Pursuits * 5 Historiography

* 6 Nero
Nero
in Jewish and Christian tradition

* 6.1 Jewish tradition

* 6.2 Christian tradition

* 6.2.1 Martyrdoms of Peter and Paul * 6.2.2 The Antichrist

* 7 Numismatics Gallery * 8 Ancestry * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

EARLY LIFE

LUCIUS DOMITIUS AHENOBARBUS, Nero, was born on 15 December 37 AD in Antium . :87 He was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger . His maternal grandparents were Germanicus
Germanicus
and Agrippina the Elder . His mother was Caligula
Caligula
's sister. :5 He was Augustus
Augustus
' great great grandson, descended from the first Emperor's only daughter Julia . :2

The ancient biographer Suetonius was critical of Nero's ancestors. He wrote that Augustus
Augustus
had reproached Nero's grandfather for his unseemly enjoyment of violent gladiator games. Nero's father was said to be "irascible and brutal". According to Jürgen Malitz , Suetonius wrote that both "enjoyed chariot races and theater performances to a degree not befitting their position." :3

Nero's father, Domitius, died in 40 AD. A few years before his death, Domitius had been involved in a political scandal that, according to Malitz, "could have cost him his life if Tiberius
Tiberius
had not died in the year 37." :3 In the previous year, 39 AD, Nero's mother, Agrippina had been caught up in a scandal of her own. Caligula's beloved sister Drusilla had recently died and Caligula
Caligula
began to feel threatened by his brother-in-law Marcus Aemilius Lepidus . Agrippina was suspected of adultery with her brother-in-law and was forced to carry the funerary urn after Lepidus' execution. Caligula
Caligula
then banished his two surviving sisters, Agrippina and Julia Livilla , to a remote island in the Mediterranean. :4 According to _The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome_, Agrippina was exiled for plotting to overthrow Caligula. Nero's inheritance was taken from him and he was sent to live with his paternal aunt Domitia Lepida , who was the mother of Claudius
Claudius
' third wife Valeria Messalina . :11

Caligula's short reign lasted from 37 AD until 41 AD. :11. He died from multiple stab wounds in January of 41 AD after being ambushed by his own Praetorian Guard on the Palatine
Palatine
. Claudius
Claudius
succeeded Caligula
Caligula
as Emperor. Agrippina married Claudius
Claudius
in 49 AD and became his fourth wife. By February 49 AD, she had persuaded Claudius
Claudius
to adopt her son Nero. After Nero's adoption, "Claudius" became part of his name: Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar Drusus Germanicus. Claudius
Claudius
had gold coins issued to mark the adoption. :119 Classics professor Josiah Osgood has written that "the coins, through their distribution and imagery alike, showed that a new Leader was in the making." :231 David Shotter noted that, despite events in Rome, Nero's step-brother Brittanicus was more prominent in provincial coinages during the early 50s. :52

Nero
Nero
officially formally entered public life as an adult in 51 AD—he was around 14 years old. :51 When he turned 16 Nero
Nero
married Claudius' daughter (and his step-sister), Claudia Octavia . Between the years 51 AD and 53 AD he gave several speeches on behalf of various communities including the Ilians; the Apameans, requesting a five-year tax reprieve after an earthquake; and the northern colony of Bologna
Bologna
, after their settlement suffered a devastating fire. :231

Claudius
Claudius
died in 54 AD; many ancient historians claim that he was poisoned by Agrippina . Shotter has written that "Claudius' death in 54 AD has usually been regarded as an event hastened by Agrippina because of signs that Claudius
Claudius
was showing a renewed affection for his natural son," but he notes that among ancient sources Josephus
Josephus
was uniquely reserved in describing the poisoning as a rumor. :53 Contemporary sources differ in their accounts. Tacitus says that Locusta
Locusta
prepared the poison, which was served to the Emperor by his food taster Halotus . Tacitus also writes that Agrippina arranged for Claudius' doctor Xenophon to administer poison, in the event that the Emperor survived. :53 Suetonius differs in some details, but also implicates Halotus and Agrippina. Like Tacitus, Cassius Dio writes that the poison was prepared by Locusta, but in Dio's account it is administered by Agrippina instead of Halotus. In Apocolocyntosis , Seneca the Younger does not mention mushrooms at all. :54 Agrippina's involvement in Claudius' death is not accepted by all modern scholars. :589

Before Claudius' death, Agrippina had maneuvered to remove Britannicus' tutors and replace them with tutors she had selected. She was also able to convince Claudius
Claudius
to replace two prefects of the Praetorian guard who were suspected of supporting Brittanicus with a single commander, Burrus . :13 Since Agrippina had replaced the guard officers with men loyal to her, Nero
Nero
was able to assume power without incident. :417

NERO\'S REIGN (54 AD–68 AD)

Most of what we know about Nero's reign comes from three ancient writers: Tacitus , Suetonius, and Greek historian Cassius Dio . :37

According to ancient historians, Nero's construction projects were overly extravagant and the large number of expenditures under Nero left Italy "thoroughly exhausted by contributions of money" with "the provinces ruined." Modern historians, though, note that the period was riddled with deflation and that it is likely that Nero's spending came in the form of public works projects and charity intended to ease economic troubles.

EARLY REIGN

Statue of Nero
Nero
as a boy

Nero
Nero
was sixteen years old when he became emperor in 54 AD. This made him the youngest emperor until Commodus , who became emperor aged 15 in 177. The first five years of Nero's reign were described as _Quinquennium Neronis_ by Trajan
Trajan
; the interpretation of the phrase is a matter of dispute amongst scholars. :17

Nero's tutor, Seneca, prepared Nero's first speech before the Senate. During this speech, Nero
Nero
spoke about "eliminating the ills of the previous regime." :16. H.H. Scullard writes that "he promised to follow the Augustan model in his principate, to end all secret trials _intra cubiculum_, to have done with the corruption of court favorites and freedman, and above all to respect the privileges of the Senate and individual Senators." :257 His respect of the Senatorial autonomy, which distinguished him from Caligula
Caligula
and Claudius, was generally well-received by the Roman Senate . :18

Scullard writes that Nero's mother, Agrippina "meant to rule through her son." :257 Agrippina murdered her political rivals: Domitia Lepida, the aunt that Nero
Nero
had lived with during Agrippina's exile; M. Iunius Silanus, a great grandson of Augustus; and Narcissus . :257 One of the earliest coins that Nero
Nero
issues during his reign shows Agrippina on the coin's obverse side; usually, this would be reserved for a portrait of the emperor. The Senate also allowed Agrippina two lictors during public appearances, an honor that was customarily only bestowed upon magistrates and the Vestalis Maxima . :16 In AD 55, Nero removed Agrippina's ally Marcus Antonius Pallas from his position in the treasury. Shotter writes the following about Agrippina's deteriorating relationship with Nero: "What Seneca and Burrus probably saw as relatively harmless in Nero—his cultural pursuits and his affair with the slave girl Acte—were to her signs of her son's dangerous emancipation of himself from her influence." :12 Britannicus was poisoned after Agrippina threatened to side with him. :12 Nero, who was having an affair with Acte, exiled Agrippina from the palace when she began to cultivate a relationship with his wife Octavia. :257

Jürgen Malitz writes that ancient sources do not provide any clear evidence to evaluate the extent of Nero's personal involvement in politics during the first years of his reign. He describes the policies that are explicitly attributed to Nero
Nero
as "well-meant but incompetent notions" like Nero's failed initiative to abolish taxes in 58 AD. Scholars generally credit Nero's advisors Burrus and Seneca with the administrative successes of these years. Malitz writes that in later years, Nero
Nero
panicked when he had to make decisions on his own during times of crisis. :19

MATRICIDE

_The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome_ cautiously notes that Nero's reasons for killing his mother in 59 AD are "not fully understood." According to Tacitus , the source of conflict between Nero
Nero
and his mother was Nero's affair with Poppaea Sabina . In _Histories _ Tacitus writes that the affair began while Poppaea was still married to Rufrius Crispinus , but in his later work _Annals _ Tacitus says Poppaea was married to Otho when the affair began. :214 In _Annals_ Tacitus writes that Agrippina opposed Nero's affair with Poppaea because of her affection for his wife Octavia . Anthony Barrett writes that Tacitus' account in _Annals_ "suggests that Poppaea's challenge drove over the brink." :215 A number of modern historians have noted that Agrippina's death would not have offered much advantage for Poppaea, as Nero
Nero
did not marry Poppaea until 62 AD. :215 Barrett writes that Poppaea seems to serve as a "literary device, utilized because could see no plausible explanation for Nero's conduct and also incidentally to show that Nero, like Claudius, had fallen under the malign influence of a woman." :215 According to Suetonius , Nero
Nero
had his former freedman Anicetus arrange a shipwreck; Agrippina survived the wreck and swam ashore and was executed by Anicetus, who reported her death as a suicide.

DECLINE

Modern scholars believe that Nero's reign had been going well in the years before Agrippina's death. After Agrippina's exile, Burrus and Seneca were responsible for the administration of the Empire. :258 However, Nero's "conduct became far more egregious" after his mother's death. :22 Miriam T. Griffins suggests that Nero's decline began as early as 55 AD with the murder of his stepbrother Britannicus, but also notes that " Nero
Nero
lost all sense of right and wrong and listened to flattery with total credulity" after Agrippina's death. :84 Griffin points out that Tacitus "makes explicit the significance of Agrippina's removal for Nero's conduct". :84

In 62 AD, Nero's adviser Burrus died. That same year Nero
Nero
called for the first treason trial of his reign (_maiestas_ trial) against Antistius Sosianus . :53 He also executed his rivals Cornelius Sulla and Rubellius Plautus . Jurgen Malitz considers this to be a turning point in Nero's relationship with the Roman Senate . Malitz writes that " Nero
Nero
abandoned the restraint he had previously shown because he believed a course supporting the Senate promised to be less and less profitable."

After Burrus' death Nero
Nero
appointed two new Praetorian Prefects Faenius Rufus and Ofonius Tigellinus . Politically isolated, Seneca was forced to retire. :26 According to Tacitus, Nero
Nero
divorced Octavia on grounds of infertility, and banished her. :99 After public protests over Octavia's exile, Nero
Nero
accused her of adultery with Anicetus and she was executed. :99

In 64 AD Nero
Nero
married Pythagoras , a freedman . Miriam T. Griffin has described this as "the first example of open sexual depravity." :164

GREAT FIRE OF ROME

Main article: Great Fire of Rome
Rome

The Great Fire of Rome
Rome
erupted on the night of 18 July to 19 July 64. The fire started on the slope of the Aventine overlooking the Circus Maximus . _ The Fire of Rome_ by Hubert Robert
Hubert Robert
(1785)

Tacitus, the main ancient source for information about the fire, wrote that countless mansions, residences and temples were destroyed. Tacitus and Cassius Dio have both written of extensive damage to the Palatine, which has been supported by subsequent archaeological excavations. The fire is reported to have burned for over a week. :260 It destroyed three of fourteen Roman districts and severely damaged seven more. :260

Tacitus wrote that some ancient accounts described the fire as an accident, while others had claimed that it was a plot of Nero's. Tacitus is the only surviving source which does not blame Nero
Nero
for starting the fire; he says he is "unsure." Pliny the Elder , Suetonius and Cassius Dio all wrote that Nero
Nero
was responsible for the fire. These accounts give several reasons for Nero's alleged arson like Nero's envy of King Priam and a dislike for the city's ancient construction. Suetonius wrote that Nero
Nero
started the fire because he wanted the space to build his Golden House . The Golden House, also called the _Domus Aurea_ included lush artificial landscapes and a 30-meter-tall statue of himself, the Colossus of Nero . The size of this complex is debated (from 100 to 300 acres).

Tacitus wrote that Nero
Nero
accused Christians of starting the fire to remove suspicion from himself. According to this account, many Christians were arrested and brutally executed by "being thrown to the beasts, crucified, and being burned alive".

Suetonius and Cassius Dio alleged that Nero
Nero
sang the " Sack of Ilium " in stage costume while the city burned. The popular legend that Nero played the fiddle while Rome
Rome
burned "is at least partly a literary construct of Flavian propagandawhich looked askance on the abortive Neronian attempt to rewrite Augustan models of rule." :2

According to Tacitus, Nero
Nero
was in Antium during the fire. Upon hearing news of the fire, Nero
Nero
returned to Rome
Rome
to organize a relief effort, which he paid for from his own funds. Nero's contributions to the relief extended to personally taking part in the search for and rescue of victims of the blaze, spending days searching the debris without even his bodyguards. After the fire, Nero
Nero
opened his palaces to provide shelter for the homeless, and arranged for food supplies to be delivered in order to prevent starvation among the survivors.

In the wake of the fire, he made a new urban development plan. Houses built after the fire were spaced out, built in brick, and faced by porticos on wide roads. Nero
Nero
also built a new palace complex known as the Domus Aurea in an area cleared by the fire. To find the necessary funds for the reconstruction, tributes were imposed on the provinces of the empire. The cost to rebuild Rome
Rome
was immense, requiring funds the state treasury did not have. Nero
Nero
devalued the Roman currency for the first time in the Empire's history. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 84 per Roman pound to 96 (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). He also reduced the silver purity from 99.5% to 93.5%—the silver weight dropping from 3.83 grams to 3.4 grams. Furthermore, Nero
Nero
reduced the weight of the aureus from 40 per Roman pound to 45 (8 grams to 7.2 grams).

LATER YEARS

In 65 AD, Gaius Calpurnius Piso , a Roman statesman, organized a conspiracy against Nero
Nero
with the help of Subrius Flavus and Sulpicius Asper, a tribune and a centurion of the Praetorian Guard. According to Tacitus, many conspirators wished to "rescue the state" from the emperor and restore the Republic . The freedman Milichus discovered the conspiracy and reported it to Nero's secretary, Epaphroditos
Epaphroditos
. As a result, the conspiracy failed and its members were executed including Lucan , the poet. Nero's previous advisor Seneca was accused by Natalis; he denied the charges but was still ordered to commit suicide as by this point he had fallen out of favor with Nero.

Nero
Nero
was said to have kicked Poppaea to death in 65 AD, before she could have his second child. Modern historians, noting the probable biases of Suetonius, Tacitus, and Cassius Dio, and the likely absence of eyewitnesses to such an event, propose that Poppaea may have died after miscarriage or in childbirth. Nero
Nero
went into deep mourning; Poppaea was given a sumptuous state funeral , divine honors , and was promised a temple for her cult. A year's importation of incense was burned at the funeral. Her body was not cremated, as would have been strictly customary, but embalmed after the Egyptian manner and entombed; it is not known where.

THE REVOLT OF VINDEX AND GALBA AND THE DEATH OF NERO

A marble bust of Nero, Antiquarium of the Palatine
Palatine
.

In March 68, Gaius Julius
Julius
Vindex , the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis , rebelled against Nero's tax policies. Lucius Verginius Rufus , the governor of Germania Superior , was ordered to put down Vindex's rebellion. In an attempt to gain support from outside his own province, Vindex called upon Servius Sulpicius Galba , the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis , to join the rebellion and further, to declare himself emperor in opposition to Nero.

At the Battle of Vesontio in May 68, Verginius' forces easily defeated those of Vindex and the latter committed suicide. However, after putting down this one rebel, Verginius' legions attempted to proclaim their own commander as Emperor. Verginius refused to act against Nero, but the discontent of the legions of Germany and the continued opposition of Galba in Spain did not bode well for him.

While Nero
Nero
had retained some control of the situation, support for Galba increased despite his being officially declared a public enemy ('hostis publicus' ). The prefect of the Praetorian Guard , Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus , also abandoned his allegiance to the Emperor and came out in support for Galba.

In response, Nero
Nero
fled Rome
Rome
with the intention of going to the port of Ostia and, from there, to take a fleet to one of the still-loyal eastern provinces. According to Suetonius, Nero
Nero
abandoned the idea when some army officers openly refused to obey his commands, responding with a line from Vergil 's _ Aeneid _: "Is it so dreadful a thing then to die?" Nero
Nero
then toyed with the idea of fleeing to Parthia , throwing himself upon the mercy of Galba, or to appeal to the people and beg them to pardon him for his past offences "and if he could not soften their hearts, to entreat them at least to allow him the prefecture of Egypt". Suetonius reports that the text of this speech was later found in Nero's writing desk, but that he dared not give it from fear of being torn to pieces before he could reach the Forum.

Nero
Nero
returned to Rome
Rome
and spent the evening in the palace. After sleeping, he awoke at about midnight to find the palace guard had left. Dispatching messages to his friends' palace chambers for them to come, he received no answers. Upon going to their chambers personally, he found them all abandoned. When he called for a gladiator or anyone else adept with a sword to kill him, no one appeared. He cried, "Have I neither friend nor foe?" and ran out as if to throw himself into the Tiber .

Returning, Nero
Nero
sought for some place where he could hide and collect his thoughts. An imperial freedman, Phaon , offered his villa, located 4 miles outside the city. Travelling in disguise, Nero
Nero
and four loyal freedmen , Epaphroditos
Epaphroditos
, Phaon , Neophytus , and Sporus , reached the villa, where Nero
Nero
ordered them to dig a grave for him.

At this time, a courier arrived with a report that the Senate had declared Nero
Nero
a public enemy and that it was their intention to execute him by beating him to death and that armed men had been sent to apprehend him for the act to take place in the Forum. The Senate actually was still reluctant and deliberating on the right course of action as Nero
Nero
was the last member of the Julio-Claudian Family. Indeed, most of the senators had served the imperial family all their lives and felt a sense of loyalty to the deified bloodline, if not to Nero
Nero
himself. The men actually had the goal of returning Nero
Nero
back to the Senate, where the Senate hoped to work out a compromise with the rebelling governors that would preserve Nero's life, so that at least a future heir to the dynasty could be produced.

Nero, however, did not know this, and at the news brought by the courier, he prepared himself for suicide , pacing up and down muttering _Qualis artifex pereo_ ("What an artist dies in me"). Losing his nerve, he begged one of his companions to set an example by killing himself first. At last, the sound of approaching horsemen drove Nero
Nero
to face the end. However, he still could not bring himself to take his own life but instead he forced his private secretary, Epaphroditos
Epaphroditos
, to perform the task.

When one of the horsemen entered and saw that Nero
Nero
was dying, he attempted to stop the bleeding, but efforts to save Nero's life were unsuccessful. Nero's final words were "Too late! This is fidelity!" He died on 9 June 68, the anniversary of the death of Octavia, and was buried in the Mausoleum of the Domitii Ahenobarbi, in what is now the Villa Borghese
Villa Borghese
( Pincian Hill ) area of Rome.

With his death, the Julio-Claudian dynasty ended. :19 When news of his death reached Rome, the Senate posthumously declared Nero
Nero
a public enemy to appease the coming Galba (as the Senate had initially declared Galba as a public enemy) and proclaimed Galba the new emperor. Chaos would ensue in the year of the Four Emperors .

POST MORTEM

See also: Nero Redivivus legend and Pseudo-Nero Apotheosis
Apotheosis
of Nero, c. after 68. Artwork portraying Nero
Nero
rising to divine status after his death.

According to Suetonius and Cassius Dio, the people of Rome
Rome
celebrated the death of Nero. Tacitus, though, describes a more complicated political environment. Tacitus mentions that Nero's death was welcomed by Senators, nobility and the upper class. The lower-class, slaves, frequenters of the arena and the theater, and "those who were supported by the famous excesses of Nero", on the other hand, were upset with the news. Members of the military were said to have mixed feelings, as they had allegiance to Nero, but had been bribed to overthrow him.

Eastern sources, namely Philostratus II and Apollonius of Tyana , mention that Nero's death was mourned as he "restored the liberties of Hellas with a wisdom and moderation quite alien to his character" and that he "held our liberties in his hand and respected them."

Modern scholarship generally holds that, while the Senate and more well-off individuals welcomed Nero's death, the general populace was "loyal to the end and beyond, for Otho and Vitellius both thought it worthwhile to appeal to their nostalgia."

Nero's name was erased from some monuments, in what Edward Champlin regards as an "outburst of private zeal". Many portraits of Nero
Nero
were reworked to represent other figures; according to Eric R. Varner, over fifty such images survive. This reworking of images is often explained as part of the way in which the memory of disgraced emperors was condemned posthumously (see damnatio memoriae ). Champlin, however, doubts that the practice is necessarily negative and notes that some continued to create images of Nero
Nero
long after his death.

The civil war during the year of the Four Emperors was described by ancient historians as a troubling period. According to Tacitus, this instability was rooted in the fact that emperors could no longer rely on the perceived legitimacy of the imperial bloodline, as Nero
Nero
and those before him could. Galba began his short reign with the execution of many of Nero's allies. One such notable enemy included Nymphidius Sabinus , who claimed to be the son of Emperor Caligula
Caligula
.

Otho overthrew Galba. Otho was said to be liked by many soldiers because he had been a friend of Nero's and resembled him somewhat in temperament. It was said that the common Roman hailed Otho as Nero himself. Otho used "Nero" as a surname and reerected many statues to Nero. Vitellius overthrew Otho. Vitellius began his reign with a large funeral for Nero
Nero
complete with songs written by Nero.

After Nero's suicide in 68, there was a widespread belief, especially in the eastern provinces, that he was not dead and somehow would return. This belief came to be known as the Nero Redivivus Legend .

The legend of Nero's return lasted for hundreds of years after Nero's death. Augustine of Hippo wrote of the legend as a popular belief in 422.

At least three Nero
Nero
imposters emerged leading rebellions. The first, who sang and played the cithara or lyre and whose face was similar to that of the dead emperor, appeared in 69 during the reign of Vitellius. After persuading some to recognize him, he was captured and executed. Sometime during the reign of Titus
Titus
(79–81), another impostor appeared in Asia and sang to the accompaniment of the lyre and looked like Nero
Nero
but he, too, was killed. Twenty years after Nero's death, during the reign of Domitian
Domitian
, there was a third pretender. He was supported by the Parthians, who only reluctantly gave him up, and the matter almost came to war.

MILITARY CONFLICTS

BOUDICCA\'S UPRISING

In 59 AD Boudicca 's husband, Prasutagus , died. Prasutagus, leader of the Iceni , had been a client king of Rome's during Claudius' reign, but this arrangement was unlikely to survive the death of the former Emperor. When Catus Decianus scourged Boudicca and raped her daughters, the Iceni revolted. They were joined by the Trinovantes tribe, and Boudicca\'s uprising became the most significant provincial rebellion of the 1st century AD. :32 :254 Julius
Julius
Classicianus replaced Decianus as procurator . Classicianus advised Nero
Nero
to replace the governor, Suetonius Paulinus , who continued to punish the population even after the rebellion was over. :265 Nero
Nero
decided to adopt a more lenient approach to governing the province, and appointed a new governor, Petronius Turpilianus . :33

PEACE WITH PARTHIA

For more details on this topic, see Roman–Parthian War of 58–63 .

Nero
Nero
began preparing for war in the early years of his reign, after the Parthian king Vologeses set his brother Tiridates on the Armenian throne. Around 57 AD and 58 AD Domitius Corbulo and his legions advanced on Tiridates and captured the Armenian capital Artaxata . Tigranes was chosen to replace Tiridates on the Armenian throne. When Tigranes attacked Adiabene , Nero
Nero
had to send further legions to defend Armenia and Syria from Parthia. After Rome
Rome
lost Rhandeia to the Parthians, Corbulo reached an agreement with the Parthians: Rome
Rome
would recognize Tiridates as king of Armenia, only if he agreed to receive his diadem from Nero. A coronation ceremony was held in Italy 66 AD. Dio reports that Tiridates said "I have come to you, my God, worshiping you as Mithras
Mithras
." Shotter says this parallels other divine designations that were commonly applied to Nero
Nero
in the East including "The New Apollo
Apollo
" and "The New Sun." After the coronation, friendly relations were established between Rome
Rome
and the eastern kingdoms of Parthia and Armenia. Artaxata was temporarily renamed Neroneia. :265-66 :35

THE FIRST JEWISH WAR

Main article: First Jewish-Roman War
First Jewish-Roman War

In 66, there was a Jewish revolt in Judea stemming from Greek and Jewish religious tension. In 67, Nero
Nero
dispatched Vespasian
Vespasian
to restore order. This revolt was eventually put down in 70, after Nero's death. This revolt is famous for Romans breaching the walls of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and destroying the Second Temple of Jerusalem .

PURSUITS

Nero
Nero
studied poetry, music, painting and sculpture. He both sang and played the _cithara _ (a type of lyre ). Many of these disciplines were standard education for the Roman elite, but Nero's devotion to music exceeded what was socially acceptable for a Roman of his class. :41-2 Ancient sources were critical of Nero's emphasis on the arts, chariot-racing and athletics. Pliny described Nero
Nero
as an "actor-emperor" (_scaenici imperatoris_) and Suetonius wrote that he was "carried away by a craze for popularity...since he was acclaimed as the equal of Apollo
Apollo
in music and of the Sun in driving a chariot, he had planned to emulate the exploits of Hercules as well." :53

In 66 AD Nero
Nero
participated in the Olympics. The games had been postponed for a year so Nero
Nero
could participate, and artistic competitions were added to the athletic events. Nero
Nero
won every contest in which he was a competitor. During the games Nero
Nero
sang and played his lyre on stage, acted in tragedies and raced chariots. Champlin writes that though Nero's participation "effectively stifled true competition, seems to have been oblivious of reality." :54-5

Nero
Nero
established the Neronian games in 60 AD. Modeled on Greek style games, these games included "music" "gymnastic" and "questrian" contents. According to Suetonius the gymnastic contests were held in the Saepta area of the Campus Martius . :288

HISTORIOGRAPHY

The historian Josephus
Josephus
(c. 37–100) accused other historians of slandering Nero.

The history of Nero's reign is problematic in that no historical sources survived that were contemporary with Nero. These first histories, while they still existed, were described as biased and fantastical, either overly critical or praising of Nero. The original sources were also said to contradict on a number of events. Nonetheless, these lost primary sources were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Nero
Nero
written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporary historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus , Cluvius Rufus and Pliny the Elder all wrote condemning histories on Nero
Nero
that are now lost. There were also pro- Nero
Nero
histories, but it is unknown who wrote them or for what deeds Nero
Nero
was praised.

The bulk of what is known of Nero
Nero
comes from Tacitus , Suetonius and Cassius Dio , who were all of the senatorial class. Tacitus and Suetonius wrote their histories on Nero
Nero
over fifty years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 150 years after Nero's death. These sources contradict one another on a number of events in Nero's life including the death of Claudius
Claudius
, the death of Agrippina , and the Roman fire of 64, but they are consistent in their condemnation of Nero.

A handful of other sources also add a limited and varying perspective on Nero. Few surviving sources paint Nero
Nero
in a favourable light. Some sources, though, portray him as a competent emperor who was popular with the Roman people, especially in the east. Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio (c. 155–229) was the son of Cassius Apronianus , a Roman senator. He passed the greater part of his life in public service. He was a senator under Commodus and governor of Smyrna after the death of Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
; and afterwards suffect consul around 205, and also proconsul in Africa and Pannonia.

Books 61–63 of Dio's _Roman History_ describe the reign of Nero. Only fragments of these books remain and what does remain was abridged and altered by John Xiphilinus , an 11th-century monk. Dio Chrysostom

Dio Chrysostom (c. 40–120), a Greek philosopher and historian, wrote the Roman people were very happy with Nero
Nero
and would have allowed him to rule indefinitely. They longed for his rule once he was gone and embraced imposters when they appeared:

Indeed the truth about this has not come out even yet; for so far as the rest of his subjects were concerned, there was nothing to prevent his continuing to be Emperor for all time, seeing that even now everybody wishes he were still alive. And the great majority do believe that he still is, although in a certain sense he has died not once but often along with those who had been firmly convinced that he was still alive. Epictetus
Epictetus

Epictetus
Epictetus
(c. 55–135) was the slave to Nero's scribe Epaphroditos
Epaphroditos
. He makes a few passing negative comments on Nero's character in his work, but makes no remarks on the nature of his rule. He describes Nero
Nero
as a spoiled, angry and unhappy man. Josephus
Josephus

The historian Josephus
Josephus
(c. 37–100), while calling Nero
Nero
a tyrant, was also the first to mention bias against Nero. Of other historians, he said:

But I omit any further discourse about these affairs; for there have been a great many who have composed the history of Nero; some of which have departed from the truth of facts out of favour, as having received benefits from him; while others, out of hatred to him, and the great ill-will which they bore him, have so impudently raved against him with their lies, that they justly deserve to be condemned. Nor do I wonder at such as have told lies of Nero, since they have not in their writings preserved the truth of history as to those facts that were earlier than his time, even when the actors could have no way incurred their hatred, since those writers lived a long time after them. Lucan

Though more of a poet than historian, Lucanus (c. 39–65) has one of the kindest accounts of Nero's rule. He writes of peace and prosperity under Nero
Nero
in contrast to previous war and strife. Ironically, he was later involved in a conspiracy to overthrow Nero
Nero
and was executed. Philostratus

Philostratus II "the Athenian" (c. 172–250) spoke of Nero
Nero
in the Life of Apollonius Tyana (Books 4–5). Though he has a generally bad or dim view of Nero, he speaks of others' positive reception of Nero in the East. Pliny the Elder

The history of Nero
Nero
by Pliny the Elder (c. 24–79) did not survive. Still, there are several references to Nero
Nero
in Pliny's _Natural Histories_. Pliny has one of the worst opinions of Nero
Nero
and calls him an "enemy of mankind." Plutarch

Plutarch (c. 46–127) mentions Nero
Nero
indirectly in his account of the Life of Galba and the Life of Otho, as well as in the Vision of Thespesius in Book 7 of the Moralia, where a voice orders that Nero's soul be transferred to a more offensive species. Nero
Nero
is portrayed as a tyrant, but those that replace him are not described as better. Seneca the Younger

It is not surprising that Seneca (c. 4 BC–65), Nero's teacher and advisor, writes very well of Nero. Suetonius Main article: Lives of the Twelve Caesars

Suetonius (c. 69–130) was a member of the equestrian order, and he was the head of the department of the imperial correspondence. While in this position, Suetonius started writing biographies of the emperors, accentuating the anecdotal and sensational aspects. Tacitus Main article: Annals (Tacitus)

The _Annals_ by Tacitus (c. 56–117) is the most detailed and comprehensive history on the rule of Nero, despite being incomplete after the year 66 AD. Tacitus described the rule of the Julio-Claudian emperors as generally unjust. He also thought that existing writing on them was unbalanced:

The histories of Tiberius, Caius, Claudius
Claudius
and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, and after their death were written under the irritation of a recent hatred.

Tacitus was the son of a procurator , who married into the elite family of Agricola. He entered his political life as a senator after Nero's death and, by Tacitus' own admission, owed much to Nero's rivals. Realising that this bias may be apparent to others, Tacitus protests that his writing is true. Girolamo Cardano

In 1562 Girolamo Cardano published in Basel his _Encomium Neronis_, which was one of the first historical references of the Modern era to portray Nero
Nero
in a positive light.

NERO IN JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN TRADITION

JEWISH TRADITION

At the end of 66 AD, conflict broke out between Greeks and Jews in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Caesarea. According to the Talmud
Talmud
, Nero
Nero
went to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and shot arrows in all four directions. All the arrows landed in the city. He then asked a passing child to repeat the verse he had learned that day. The child responded, "I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel" (Ez. 25,14). Nero
Nero
became terrified, believing that God wanted the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to be destroyed, but would punish the one to carry it out. Nero
Nero
said, "He desires to lay waste His House and to lay the blame on me," whereupon he fled and converted to Judaism to avoid such retribution. Vespasian was then dispatched to put down the rebellion.

The Talmud
Talmud
adds that the sage Reb Meir Baal HaNess , Rabbi Meir or Rabbi Meir Baal HaNes ( Rabbi Meir the miracle maker) was a Jewish sage who lived in the time of the Mishna a prominent supporter of the Bar Kokhba rebellion against Roman rule. He was considered one of the greatest of the Tannaim of the third generation (139-163). According to the Talmud, his father was a descendant of the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Nero who had converted to Judaism. His wife Bruriah is one of the few women cited in the Gemara . He is the third most frequently mentioned sage in the Mishnah.

Roman and Greek sources nowhere report Nero's alleged trip to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or his alleged conversion to Judaism. There is also no record of Nero
Nero
having any offspring who survived infancy: his only recorded child, Claudia Augusta , died aged 4 months.

CHRISTIAN TRADITION

_ A Christian Dirce_, by Henryk Siemiradzki . A Christian woman is martyred in this re-enactment of the myth of Dirce . Nero's Torches

Non-Christian historian Tacitus describes Nero
Nero
extensively torturing and executing Christians after the fire of 64. Suetonius also mentions Nero
Nero
punishing Christians, though he does so because they are "given to a new and mischievous superstition" and does not connect it with the fire.

Christian writer Tertullian (c. 155–230) was the first to call Nero the first persecutor of Christians. He wrote, "Examine your records. There you will find that Nero
Nero
was the first that persecuted this doctrine". Lactantius (c. 240–320) also said that Nero
Nero
"first persecuted the servants of God". as does Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
. However, Suetonius writes that, "since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, the expelled them from Rome" ("_Iudaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantis Roma expulit_"). These expelled "Jews" may have been early Christians, although Suetonius is not explicit. Nor is the Bible explicit, calling Aquila of Pontus and his wife, Priscilla, both expelled from Italy at the time, "Jews".

Martyrdoms Of Peter And Paul

The first text to suggest that Nero
Nero
ordered the execution of an apostle is a letter by Clement to the Corinthians traditional dated to around 96 A.D. :123– The apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah , a Christian writing from the 2nd century says, "the slayer of his mother, who himself (even) this king, will persecute the plant which the Twelve Apostles of the Beloved have planted. Of the Twelve one will be delivered into his hands" was interpreted to mean Nero.

Bishop
Bishop
Eusebius of Caesarea
Caesarea
(c. 275–339) was the first to write explicitly that Paul was beheaded in Rome
Rome
during the reign of Nero. He states that Nero's persecution led to Peter and Paul's deaths, but that Nero
Nero
did not give any specific orders. However, several other accounts going back to the 1st century have Paul surviving his two years in Rome
Rome
and travelling to Hispania
Hispania
, before facing trial in Rome again prior to his death.

Peter is first said to have been crucified upside-down in Rome
Rome
during Nero's reign (but not by Nero) in the apocryphal Acts of Peter (c. 200). The account ends with Paul still alive and Nero
Nero
abiding by God's command not to persecute any more Christians.

By the 4th century, a number of writers were stating that Nero
Nero
killed Peter and Paul.

The Antichrist

Main articles: Antichrist , The Beast (Revelation) , and Number of the Beast

The Sibylline Oracles , Book 5 and 8, written in the 2nd century, speak of Nero
Nero
returning and bringing destruction. Within Christian communities, these writings, along with others, fueled the belief that Nero
Nero
would return as the Antichrist. In 310, Lactantius wrote that Nero
Nero
"suddenly disappeared, and even the burial place of that noxious wild beast was nowhere to be seen. This has led some persons of extravagant imagination to suppose that, having been conveyed to a distant region, he is still reserved alive; and to him they apply the Sibylline verses", Lactantius maintains that it is not right to believe this. :20–

In 422, Augustine of Hippo wrote about 2 Thessalonians 2:1–11, where he believed Paul mentioned the coming of the Antichrist. Though he rejects the theory, Augustine mentions that many Christians believed Nero
Nero
was the Antichrist or would return as the Antichrist. He wrote, "so that in saying, 'For the mystery of iniquity doth already work,' he alluded to Nero, whose deeds already seemed to be as the deeds of Antichrist."

Some modern biblical scholars such as Delbert Hillers (Johns Hopkins University ) of the American Schools of Oriental Research and the editors of the _Oxford Study Bible_ and _Harper Collins Study Bible_, contend that the number 666 in the Book of Revelation is a code for Nero, a view that is also supported in Roman Catholic Biblical commentaries.

The concept of Nero
Nero
as the Antichrist is often a central belief of Preterist eschatology .

NUMISMATICS GALLERY

*

Coin issued under Claudius
Claudius
celebrating young Nero
Nero
as the future emperor, c. 50 *

Nero
Nero
coin, c. 66. Ara Pacis
Ara Pacis
on the reverse. *

Nero, Sestertius
Sestertius
with countermark "X" of Legio X Gemina *

An Aureus
Aureus
of Nero
Nero
and his mother, Agrippina , c. 54 *

Coin showing Nero
Nero
distributing charity to a citizen. c. 64–66. *

Coin of Nero
Nero
and Poppaea Sabina

ANCESTRY

ANCESTORS OF NERO

16. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus

8. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32 BC)

17. Porcia (sister of Cato the Younger)

4. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16 BC)

18. ???

9. Aemilia Lepida

19. ???

2. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32)

20. Marcus Antonius Creticus

10. Mark Antony

21. Julia

5. Antonia Major

22. Gaius Octavius

11. Octavia

23. Atia

1. NERO

24. Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
(praetor 42 BC)

12. Drusus

25. Livia

6. Germanicus
Germanicus

26. Mark Antony

13. Antonia Minor

27. Octavia

3. Agrippina the Younger

28. ???

14. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa

29. ???

7. Agrippina the Elder

30. Augustus
Augustus

15. Julia the Elder

31. Scribonia

SEE ALSO

* Nero in popular culture

NOTES

* ^ Classical Latin
Latin
spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Nero: LVCIVS DOMITIVS AHENOBARBVS IPA: , NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS IPA: * ^ Tacitus wrote the following about Agrippina's marriage to Claudius: "From this moment the country was transformed. Complete obedience was accorded to a woman—and not a woman like Messalina who toyed with national affairs. This was a rigorous, almost masculine, despotism. In public, Agrippina was austere and often arrogant. Her private life was chaste—unless power was to be gained. Her passion to acquire money was unbounded; she wanted it as a stepping stone to supremacy. :11 * ^ According to _The Oxford Encyclopedia of Greece and Rome_ Nero was adopted in 50 AD. * ^ For further information see adoption in Rome
Rome
. * ^ Suetonius wrote "It is commonly agreed that Claudius
Claudius
was killed by poison. There is, however, disagreement as to where and by whom it was administered. Some record that, when he was at a feast with priests on the citadel, it was given to him by his taster, the eunuch Halotus, others that it was given him at a family dinner by Agrippina herself, offering him the drug in a dish of mushrooms, a kind of food to which he was very partial...His death was concealed until all arrangements were in place with regard to his successor." :193 * ^ Sources describe Acte as a slave girl (Shotter) and a freedwoman (Champlin and Scullard).

REFERENCES

* ^ Talmudic sources say that Nero
Nero
refrained from attacking Jerusalem, and even converted to Judaism. ( Gittin 56a) * ^ Suetonius states that Nero
Nero
committed suicide in Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Nero
Nero
49; Sulpicius Severus, who possibly used Tacitus' lost fragments as a source, reports that it was uncertain whether Nero
Nero
committed suicide, Sulpicius Severus, _Chronica_ II.29, also see T.D. Barnes, "The Fragments of Tacitus' Histories", _Classical Philology_ (1977), p. 228. * ^ Galba criticized the excesses (_luxuria_) of Nero's public and private spending. See Kragelund, Patrick, "Nero's Luxuria, in Tacitus and in the Octavia", in _The Classical Quarterly_, 2000, pp. 494–515. Kragelund is citing Tacitus, _Annals_ I.16 * ^ References to Nero's matricide appear in the _Sibylline Oracles _ 5.490–520, Geoffrey Chaucer 's _ Canterbury Tales _ The Monk\'s Tale and William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
's _ Hamlet
Hamlet
_ 3.ii. * ^ " Suetonius • Vita Neronis". _penelope.uchicago.edu_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tacitus, _Annals_. XV.44. * ^ On fire and Christian persecution, see F.W. Clayton, "Tacitus and Christian Persecution", _The Classical Quarterly_, pp. 81–85; B.W. Henderson, _Life and Principate of the Emperor Nero_, p. 437; On general bias against Nero, see Edward Champlin, _Nero_, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press , 2003, pp. 36–52 (ISBN 0-674-01192-9 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Barrett, Anthony A. (2010). "Nero". In Micael Gagarin (ed.). _The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome_. Oxford37 University Press. Retrieved 2017-07-01. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Dando-Collins, Stephen (2010). _The great fire of Rome: the fall of the emperor Nero
Nero
and his city_. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81890-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Barrett, Anthony A.; Fantham, Elaine; Yardley, John C. (2016-07-12). _The Emperor Nero: A Guide to the Ancient Sources_. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-8110-9 .

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Malitz, Jürgen (2005). _Nero_. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 978-1-4051-4475-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Shotter, David (2012-10-02). _Nero_. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-36432-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Hurley, Donna W. "Caligula". In Gagarin, Michael. _The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome_. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2017-07-01. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Shotter, David (2016). _ Nero
Nero
Caesar Augustus: Emperor of Rome_. S.l.: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-14015-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Buckley, Emma; Dinter, Martin (2013-05-03). _A Companion to the Neronian Age_. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-31653-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Osgood, Josiah (2011). _ Claudius
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Nero
31. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ wikisource:The Annals (Tacitus)/Book 15#45 XV.45. * ^ Thornton, Mary Elizabeth Kelly "Nero's New Deal," _Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association_, Vol. 102, (1971), p. 629. * ^ " Nero
Nero
Roman emperor". _Encyclopedia Britannica_. Retrieved 2017-07-02. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Scullard, H. H (2011). _From the Gracchi to Nero: a history of Rome
Rome
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Nero
34. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Griffin, Miriam T (2013). _Nero: the end of a dynasty_. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21464-3 . * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_, XIV.13 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XIV.48. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XIV.60. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XIV.64. * ^ _A_ _B_ Champlin, _Nero_, p. 122 * ^ Cite error: The named reference tacitus-annals-xv.38 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Champlin, _Nero_, p. 125 * ^ Cite error: The named reference annals-xv-40 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Champlin, _Nero_, p.182 * ^ Cite error: The named reference Tacitus-Annals-15 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Roth, Leland M. (1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning, First, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 227–8. ISBN 0-06-430158-3 . * ^ Ball, Larry F. (2003). The Domus Aurea and the Roman architectural revolution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82251-3 . * ^ Warden reduces its size to under 100 acres (0.40 km2). Warden, P.G., "The Domus Aurea Reconsidered," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 40 (1981) pp. 271–278. * ^ Champlin, _Nero_, p.121 * ^ Champlin, _Nero_, pp. 121-22 * ^ Champlin, _Nero_, p. 77 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Nero, 38; Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LXII.16. * ^ Cite error: The named reference OEDR was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ _A_ _B_ Cite error: The named reference annals-xv-39 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Cite error: The named reference annals-xv-43 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XV.45. * ^ "Roman Currency of the Principate". Tulane University. Archived from the original on 2001-02-10. Retrieved 2011-07-13. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XV.49. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XV.50. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XV.55. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XV.70. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XV.60–62. * ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). _A Treasure of Royal Scandals_, p.216. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-7394-2025-9 . * ^ Rudich, Vasily, _Political Dissidence Under Nero_, pp. 135-136. * ^ Counts, Derek B., "Regum Externorum Consuetudine: The Nature and Function of Embalming in Rome", _Classical Antiquity_, Vol. 15 No. 2, Oct., 1996; pp. 189-190: 193, note 18 "We should not consider it an insult that Poppaea was not buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus, as were other members of the imperial family until the time of Nerva." 196 (note 37, citing Pliny the elder, _Natural History_, 12.83. DOI: 10.2307/25011039 – via JSTOR (subscription required) * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LXIII.22. * ^ Donahue. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LXIII.24. * ^ Plutarch, _The Parallel Lives_, Life of Galba 5. * ^ Albino Garzetti (2014): _From Tiberius
Tiberius
to the Antonines: A History of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
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49. * ^ Barrett, A. A (1996). _Agrippina: sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius, mother of Nero_. London: Batsford. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cite error: The named reference tacitus-histories-I.2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page ). * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ 63. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Nero
Nero
57. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tacitus, _Histories_ I.4. * ^ Tacitus, _Histories_ I.5. * ^ Philostratus II, _The Life of Apollonius_ 5.41. * ^ Letter from Apollonius to Emperor Vespasian, Philostratus II, _The Life of Apollonius_ 5.41. * ^ M. T. Griffin, Nero
Nero
(1984), p. 186; Gibbon, Edward, _The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_ Vol. I, Chap. III. * ^ Champlin (2003), p. 29. * ^ _A_ _B_ John Pollini (September 2006), Review of _Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture_ by Eric R. Varner, _ The Art Bulletin _. * ^ Russell, M. and Manley, H. (2016) Sanctioning Memory: Changing Identity. Using 3D laser scanning to identify two \'new\' portraits of the Emperor Nero
Nero
in English antiquarian collections, Internet Archaeology 42. Retrieved 15 June 2016 * ^ Champlin (2003), pp. 29–31. * ^ Tacitus, _Histories_ I.6. * ^ Plutarch, _The Parallel Lives_, The Life of Galba 9. * ^ Tacitus, _Histories_ I.13. * ^ _A_ _B_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Otho 7. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Vitellius 11. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Nero
Nero
57; Tacitus, _Histories_ II.8; Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LXVI.19. * ^ _A_ _B_ Augustine of Hippo, _City of God_ .XX.19.3. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tacitus, _Histories_ II.8. * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LXVI.19. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caears_, Life of Nero
Nero
57. * ^ Josephus, _War of the Jews_ II.13.7. * ^ Josephus, _War of the Jews_ III.1.3. * ^ Josephus, _War of the Jews_ VI.10.1. * ^ Josephus, _War of the Jews_ VII.1.1. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.1; Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_ XX.8.3; Tacitus, _Life of Gnaeus Julius
Julius
Agricola_ 10; Tacitus, _Annals_ XIII.20. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XIII.20; Tacitus, _Annals_ XIV.2. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XIII.20; Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_ XIX.1.13. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ XIII.20. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.1; Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_ XX.8.3. * ^ Dio Chrysostom, _Discourse_ XXI, On Beauty. * ^ https://www.college.columbia.edu/core/content/epictetus * ^ Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_ XX.8.3. * ^ Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, _Pharsalia_ (Civil War) (_c._ 65). * ^ Pliny the Elder, _Natural Histories_ VII.8.46. * ^ Plutach, _Moralia,_ ed. by G. P. Goold, trans. by Phillip H. De Lacy and Benedict Einarson, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), 7: 269–99. * ^ Seneca the Younger, _Apocolocyntosis_ 4. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.1. * ^ Tacitus, _History_ I.1. * ^ Talmud, tractate Gitin 56a-b * ^ Drew Kaplan, "Rabbinic Popularity in the Mishnah VII: Top Ten Overall _Drew Kaplan's Blog_ (5 July 2011). * ^ Isaac, Benjamin (2004) The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity pp. 440–491. Princeton. * ^ Suetonius _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Nero, chapter 16. * ^ Tertullian _Apologeticum_, lost text quoted in , Eusebius , _Ecclesiastical History _, II.25.4. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lactantius, _Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died_ II. * ^ Sulpicius Severus, _Chronica_ II.28. * ^ Suetonius _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Claudius
Claudius
25. * ^ Acts of the Apostles 18:2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Edward Champlin (1 July 2009). _Nero_. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02936-1 . * ^ Ascension of Isaiah Chapter 4.2. * ^ Eusebius, _Ecclesiastical History_ II.25.5. * ^ In the apocryphal Acts of Paul, in the apocryphal Acts of Peter, in the First Epistle of Clement 5:6, and in The Muratorian Fragment. * ^ Apocryphal _Acts of Peter_. * ^ Lactantius wrote that Nero
Nero
"crucified Peter, and slew Paul.", Lactantius, _Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died_ II; John Chrysostom wrote Nero
Nero
knew Paul personally and had him killed, John Chrysostom, _Concerning Lowliness of Mind_ 4; Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
says Nero
Nero
killed Peter and Paul, Sulpicius Severus, _Chronica_ II.28–29. * ^ _Sibylline Oracles_ 5.361–376, 8.68–72, 8.531–157. * ^ Miriam T. Griffin; Tutor in Ancient History and Fellow Miriam T Griffin (11 September 2002). _Nero: The End of a Dynasty_. Routledge. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-1-134-61044-0 . * ^ Sulpicius Severus
Sulpicius Severus
and Victorinus of Pettau also say that Nero is the Antichrist, Sulpicius Severus, _Chronica_ II.28–29; Victorinus
Victorinus
of Pettau, _Commentary on the Apocalypse_ 17. * ^ "2 Thessalonians 2:7 – Passage Lookup – King James Version". BibleGateway.com. Retrieved 2010-11-09. * ^ The Book of Revelation, Catherine A. Cory. * ^ Revelation, Alan John Philip Garrow. * ^ Hillers, Delbert, "Rev. 13, 18 and a scroll from Murabba'at", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 170 (1963) 65. * ^ The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990. 1009. * ^ Just, S.J., Ph.D., Prof. Felix. "_The Book of Revelation, Apocalyptic Literature, and Millennial Movements_, University of San Francisco, USF Jesuit Community". Retrieved 2007-05-18. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PRIMARY SOURCES

* Tacitus, _Histories_, I–IV (_c._ 105) * Tacitus, _Annals_, XIII–XVI (_c._ 117) * Josephus, _War of the Jews_, Books II–VI (_c._ 94) * Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_, Book XX (_c._ 94) * Cassius Dio, _Roman History_, Books 61–63 (_c._ 229) * Plutarch, _The Parallel Lives_, The Life of Galba (_c._ 110) * Philostratus II, _Life of Apollonius Tyana_, Books 4–5, (_c._ 220) * Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, the Life of Nero
Nero
(_c._ 121)

SECONDARY SOURCES

* Benario, Herbert W. Nero
Nero
at _De Imperatoribus Romanis_. * Champlin, Edward (2005). _Nero_. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01822-8 . * Cronin, Vincent . _Nero_. London: Stacey International, 2010 (ISBN 1-906768-14-5 ). * Donahue, John, " Galba (68–69 A.D.)" at _De Imperatoribus Romanis_. * Grant, Michael. _Nero_. New York: Dorset Press, 1989 (ISBN 0-88029-311-X ). * Griffin, Miriam T. _Nero: The End of a Dynasty_. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press , 1985 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-03285-4 ); London; New York: Routledge, 1987 (paperback, ISBN 0-7134-4465-7 ). * Holland, Richard. _Nero: The Man Behind the Myth_. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2000 (paperback ISBN 0-7509-2876-X ). * (in French) Minaud, Gérard, _Les vies de 12 femmes d'empereur romain - Devoirs, Intrigues color:#555">(Registration required (help)). * Warmington, Brian Herbert. _Nero: Reality and Legend_. London: Chatto New York: W.W Norton New York: Vintage, 1981 (paperback, ISBN 0-7011-1454-1 ). * (Russian) Mikhail Berman-Tsikinovsky "The Pisonian Conspiracy"(Заговор Пизона)docudrama based on Tacitus Annals 15 and other sources. Failed conspiracy against Nero
Nero
led to tragic death of 26 year old Great Roman poet Lucan and his famous uncle Seneca, executed by Nero
Nero
order. Moscow, Wagrius plus, 2008. ISBN 978-598525-045-9 * Nero
Nero
Nero: The Actor-Emperor * Nero
Nero
entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith * Nero
Nero
basic data & select quotes posted by _Romans On Line_ * THE LIFE AND TIMES OF NERO By CARLO MARIA FRANZERO (BTM format). * Nero\'s depiction in Tacitus\' Annals * Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Drusus Germanicus
Germanicus
entry in the _Illustrated History of the Roman Empire_. * _ Pelham, Henry Francis (1911). "Nero". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica _. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 390–393.

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