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The Nepali Army ( ne, नेपाली सेना, translit=Nēpālī Sēnā), technically the Gorkhali Army ( ne, गोरखाली सेना, translit=Gōrakhālī Sēnā, label=none; see ''
Gorkha The Gurkhas or Gorkhas () with endonym Gorkhali ( ne, गोरखाली, ) are soldiers native to South Asia of Nepalis, Nepalese nationality recruited for the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent, Gurkha Contingent ...

Gorkha
s''), is the
land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of Earth's crust, crustal components such a ...
service branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces of a sovereign nation or state. Types of branches Unified forces The Canadian Armed Forces is the unified arm ...
of the Nepali Armed Forces. The terms "Gurkha" and "Gorkhali" are synonymous with "Nepali". Hence, in essence, the “Gorkha” heritage belongs, first and foremost, to the Nepali Army. During the period of the Nepali unification campaign, it was known as the ''Gorkhali Army'' and later as the ''Royal Nepali Army'' following the establishment of a Hindu monarchy in Nepal. It was officially renamed to the Nepali Army on 28 May 2008, following the abolition of the 240-year-old Shah dynasty shortly after the Nepali Civil War. The Nepali Army has participated in various conflicts throughout its history, going as far back as the Nepali unification campaign launched by
Prithvi Narayan Shah Maharaja Mahārāja ; (also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great Monarch, king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler Maharaja Sri Gupta, founder of t ...

Prithvi Narayan Shah
of the
Gorkha Kingdom Gorkha Kingdom ( ne, गोरखा राज्य) was a Khas people, Khas kingdom in the confederation of 24 states known as Chaubisi rajya, on the Indian subcontinent, present-day western Nepal. The Kingdom of Gorkha extended from the Mars ...
. It has engaged in an extensive number of battles within
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lan ...

South Asia
, and continues to take part in global conflicts as part of
United Nations peacekeeping#REDIRECT United Nations peacekeeping Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peace Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create t ...
coalitions. The Nepali Army is headquartered in
Kathmandu , pushpin_map = Nepal Bagmati Province#Nepal#Asia , coordinates = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = , subdivision_type1 = Provinces of Nepal, Province , subdivision_name1 = Bagm ...

Kathmandu
,
Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in S ...

Nepal
and the incumbent
Chief of Army Staff Chief of Army Staff (COAS) or Chief of Staff of the Army is a title commonly used for the appointment held by the most senior officer in several nations' armies. * Chief of Army (Australia) * Chief of Army Staff of the Bangladesh Army * Chief of S ...
is
General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral zone in suppo ...
Prabhu Ram Sharma.


History

The Nepal unification campaign was a turning point in the history of the Nepali army. Since unification was not possible without a strong army, the management of the armed forces had to be exceptional. Apart from the standard Malla era temples in
Kathmandu , pushpin_map = Nepal Bagmati Province#Nepal#Asia , coordinates = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = , subdivision_type1 = Provinces of Nepal, Province , subdivision_name1 = Bagm ...

Kathmandu
, the army organized itself in
Gorkha The Gurkhas or Gorkhas () with endonym Gorkhali ( ne, गोरखाली, ) are soldiers native to South Asia of Nepalis, Nepalese nationality recruited for the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent, Gurkha Contingent ...

Gorkha
. Technicians and experts had to be brought in from abroad to manufacture war materials. After the
Gorkhali The Gurkhas or Gorkhas () with endonym Gorkhali ( ne, गोरखाली, ) are soldiers native to South Asia of Nepalis, Nepalese nationality recruited for the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent, Gurkha Contingent ...

Gorkhali
troops captured Nuwakot, the hilly northern part of Kathmandu (Kantipur) in 1744, the
Gorkhali armed forces
Gorkhali armed forces
came to be known as the Royal Nepali Army. Their performance impressed their enemies so much that the British East-India Company started recruiting Nepali troops into their forces. The native British soldiers called the new soldiers "
Gurkhas The Gurkhas or Gorkhas (), with endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Eur ...

Gurkhas
". The Gurkha-Sikh War began shortly after, in 1809. In 1946, the Royal Nepali Army troops were led by Commanding General Sir Baber Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana at the Victory Parade in London. Once Kaiser Wilhelm II said, "I can send my army to fight with any troops of the world, but my heart shivers when I heard the name of Gorkhali". This reflect the braveness of Nepalis Army. Former Indian Army Chief of Staff Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw once stated that: "If a man says he is not afraid of dying, he is either lying or he is a Gorkhali." Prior to 2006, the Nepali Army was known as the Royal Nepali Army and was under the control of the King of Nepal. Following the ''Loktantra Andolan'' (People's Movement for Democracy) on May 18, 2006, a bill was passed by the Nepali parliament curtailing royal power, which included renaming the army. In 2004, Nepal spent $99.2 million on its military (1.5% of its GDP). Since 2002, the RNA had been involved in the Nepali Civil War. They were also used to quell the pro-democracy protesters in April 2006 ''Loktantra Andolan''.


Organization

The Nepali Army has about 95,000 infantry army and air service members protecting the sovereignty of
Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in S ...

Nepal
. In August 2018, The Himalayan Times estimated total army forces to be around 96,000 while The Kathmandu Post estimated it to be 92,000.


Supreme Command

The position of the Supreme Commander of the Nepali Army is the President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Until 2006, the King of Nepal (monarchy abolished) was in control of all military forces in the country. The National Army was renamed from Royal Nepali Army to Nepali Army after the recent national conversion from a monarchy to a republic on 28 May 2008.


The National Defence Council

This council has seven members: the Prime Minister, the Defence Minister, the Chief of the Army Staff, Foreign Minister, Finance Minister, Home Minister, and the Chief Secretary. The President of Nepal is the Supreme Commander-In-Chief.


Divisions

The Nepali Army is divided into 4 different commands. Eastern Command, Mid Command, Valley Command and Western Command In addition to this, there are 7 independent units: * Army Aviation Directorate * Special Forces Brigade * Nepali Army Medical Core * Artillery Brigade * Signals Brigade * Engineers Brigade * Air Defense Brigade * Corps of intelligence


Women Participation in Nepal Army

The first unofficial participation of women in the Nepal Army was during the Anglo-Nepalese War, Anglo-Nepali War in the Battle of Nalapani. The Battle of Nalapani was the first battle of the Anglo-Nepali War of 1814–1816, fought between the forces of the British East India Company and Nepal, then ruled by the Gorkha Kingdom. Nepali women were heavily involved in this battle, supporting the male Gurkha warriors.


Notable Women Officers In Nepal Army

* Brigadier General Dr. Radha Shah = First women to become Brigadier General of Nepal Army * Brigadier General Dr. Narvada Thapa = First women staff of Nepal Army to get a doctorate (P.Hd) * Colonel Dr. Sarita K.C = First Nepali army personnel to join UN Peacekeeping mission(UNIFIL) * Major Geeta Gurung = First women officer commanding of the unit in a peacekeeping mission, UNDOF from Nepal Army * Major Kriti Rajbhandari = First women observer military liaison officer from Nepal Army * Colonel Yvetta Rana = First women officer of Judge Advocate General Department of Nepal Army * Major Er.Bibhusa Mishra = First women officer to join the Engineering Field of Nepali Army (2061 B.S.) * Lieutenant Colonel Sovana Rayamajhi = First women officer to join IT Department of Nepal Army * Major Er. Ranjana Kandel = First women Engineer officer to join EME of Nepal Army * Major Niru Dhungana = First batch of women military pilot * Major Anita Ale Magar = First batch of women military pilot * Major Shristhi Khadka = First women company commander of Nepal Army


Operations

The primary role of the NA is to defend the territorial integrity, sovereignty, and independence of Nepal. Their secondary role is to assist the Civilian Government of Nepal in the maintenance of internal security. Other duties include humanitarian assistance/disaster relief operations, assisting in national development, nature conservation efforts, and participation in an international peacekeeping mission.


Foreign Involvements

* Royal Nepali Army in Indian Sepoy Mutiny * Royal Nepali Army in The First World War 1914–1918 * Royal Nepali Army in Waziristan War * Royal Nepali Army in Afghan War −1919 * Nepal in World War II, Royal Nepali Army in The Second World War * Royal Nepali Army in Hyderabad Action – 1948


Domestic Operations

Disarmament of the Khampas – 1974 In 1974, the then Royal Nepali Army (RNA) was mobilized to disarm the Tibetan Khampas, who had been using Nepali soil as a base to engage in guerilla warfare against the People's Liberation Army in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. The Khampas operated mainly from a base secretly established at Mustang in northwest Nepal. The RNA, under diplomatic pressure from China and the international community, moved nine infantry units toward Mustang and gave the Khampas an ultimatum to either disarm themselves and surrender or face attack. The terms and conditions of their surrender were that they would be given Nepali citizenship, land, and money, and free schooling for their children. The Khampa commander, General Wangdi, agreed to surrender but eventually fled the camp. He was later killed by RNA forces in Doti, in far western Nepal, while trying to loot a Nepal Police post, this was the first time the RNA had mobilized domestically in such large numbers.


International Operations

The Nepali Army has contributed more than 100,000 peacekeeping, peacekeepers to a variety of United Nations-sponsored peacekeeping missions such as: * United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), * United Nations Operation in Somalia II, UNOSOMII the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), United Nations Operation in Somalia II, UN Operational Mission Somalia II, * UNMIH, MINUSTAH the United Nations Mission in Haiti. * UNAMSIL – Currently, Nepal is sending an 800-man battalion to serve in the peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL). * UNMIS – The Nepali Army has sent a protection company of 200 personnel in United Nations Mission In Sudan. The Redeployment Coordination HQ at Kassala is also manned by the Nepali contingent. The RCHQ was intended to monitor withdrawals from the eastern sectors of the UNMIS area under the Sudan Comprehensive Peace Accord. * UNDOF * MINUSMA – For the first time, the Nepali Army has a company of Explosive Ordnance Disposal, EOD of 140 personnel specially dedicated for improvised explosive device (IED) and ordnance disposal mission in Mali.


U.S./Nepal military relations

The U.S.-Nepali military relationship focuses on support for democratic institutions, civilian control of the military, and the professional military ethic to include respect for human rights. The US would support Nepal with arms, ammunition and additional commandos and soldiers if war began with its neighboring China but resisted giving any support if war broke out with India as in is an essential ally to the US in the Indo-Pacific against China and has also signed COMCASA with the US in the 2+2 meeting in September 2018. Both countries have had extensive contact over the years. Nepali Army units have served with distinction alongside American forces in places such as Haiti, Iraq, and Somalia. U.S.-Nepali military engagement continues today through IMET, Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC), Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), and various conferences and seminars. The U.S. military sends many Nepali Army officers to America to attend military schooling, such as the Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Army War College. The IMET budget for FY2001 was $220,000. The EPIC program, EIPC program is an inter-agency program between the Department of Defense and the Department of State to increase the pool of international peacekeepers and to promote interoperability. Nepal received about $1.9 million in EPIC funding. United States Pacific Command, Commander in Chief, Pacific (CINCPAC) coordinates military engagement with Nepal through the Office of Defense Cooperation (ODC). The ODC Nepal is located in the American Embassy
Kathmandu , pushpin_map = Nepal Bagmati Province#Nepal#Asia , coordinates = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = , subdivision_type1 = Provinces of Nepal, Province , subdivision_name1 = Bagm ...

Kathmandu
.


Bases

*Kathmandu Army HQ [Jangi Adda] * Eastern Command HQ, Itahari *Mid Command HQ, Pokhara *Western Command HQ,Surkhet *Valley Command HQ, Kathmandu Apart from these there are differnet formation, unit and sub-unit at all 77 districts of Neapal. Major Base Camps are located in all 77 districts of Nepal, with at least 20 major base camps and 500 Army in each district.


Schools

* Nepali Army Command and Staff College, Shivapuri * Nepali Army War College, Nagarkot *Nepali Army Rangers School, Nagarkot * Nepalese Military Academy, Nepali Military Academy, Kharipati * Nepali Army Recruit Training Center, Trishuli * Nepali Army Jungle Warfare School, Amlekhgunj. * Nepali Army High Altitude and Mountain Warfare School, Mustang. * Nepali Army Intelligence School, Kharipati. * Nepali Army Logistics School, Chhauni. * Birendra Peace Keeping Operation Training Center, Panchkhal. * Nepali Army Para Training School, Maharajgunj. * Nepali Army EME school, Kharipati.


Units

The first four army units of the Nepali Army are Shreenath, Kali Baksh (Kalibox), Barda Bahadur, and Sabuj companies in August 1762 by the King
Prithvi Narayan Shah Maharaja Mahārāja ; (also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great Monarch, king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler Maharaja Sri Gupta, founder of t ...

Prithvi Narayan Shah
. With Khas people, Khas/Chhetri and Thakuri clans. The Purano Gorakh Company was founded in February 1763 as the fifth army unit of Nepal by its founding date.http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/printedition/news/2013-03-09/nepal-army-day-five-nepal-army-battalions-mark-250-years-of-combat-history.html * Shree Nath Battalion – established 1762 * Shree Kali Buksh Battalion – established 1762 * Shree Barda Bahadur Battalion – established 1762 * Shree Sabuj Battalion – established 1762 * Shree Purano Gorakh Battalion – established 1763 * Shree Devi Datta Battalion – established 1783 * Shree Naya Gorakh Battalion – established 1783 * Shree Bhairavi Dal Battalion – established 1785 * Shree Singhanath Battalion – established 1786 (Commando) * Shree Shreejung Battalion – established 1783 * Shree Ranabhim Battalion – established 1783 * Shree Naya Shree Nath Battalion – established 1783 * Shree Vajradal Company – established 1806 * Shree Shree Mehar Battalion - established 1836 * Shree 'The Famous' Mahindra Dal Battalion -established 1844 A.D -1901 B.S. * Nepal Artillery, Shree Rajdal Regiment (Artillery) (Currently expanded to three additional independent Artillery regiments) * Shree Ganeshdal Battalion – established 1846 – signals and communications * Shree Nepal Cavalry – established 1849 – Household Cavalry ceremonial unit since 1952 * Shree Kali Prasad Battalion (Engineers) – established 1863 * Shree Bhairavnath Battalion – established 1910 – (Parachute Battalion) * Shree Bhagvati Prasad Company – established 1927 * Shree Khadga Dal Battalion - established 1937 * Shree Parshwavarti Company – established 1936 – served as PM's Body Guard unit and disbanded 1952 * Shree Gorkah Bahadur Battalion – established 1952 (best infantry unit of NA, then was developed for special duty of Royal Guards). * Shree Jagadal Battalion (Air Defence) * Shree Yuddha Kawaj Battalion (Mechanized Infantry) * Shree Mahabir Battalion (Rangers Battalion. Equivalent to U.S Army Rangers (Part of Nepali Army Special Operation Force)) * Shree Chandan Nath Battalion – established 2004 (Infantry Unit) * Shree Tara Dal Battalion – established 2002 (Infantry Unit) * Shree No 1 Disaster Management Battalion – established 2012 * Shree No 2 Disaster Management Battalion – established 2012


Equipment

The majority of equipment used by the Nepali Army is imported from other countries. India is the army's largest supplier of arms and ammunition as well as other logistical equipment, which are often furnished under generous military grants. Germany, the United States, Belgium, Israel, and South Korea have also either supplied or offered arms to the Nepali Army. Army's first standard rifle was the Belgian FN FAL, which it adopted in 1960. Nepali FALs were later complemented by L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle#India, unlicensed, Indian-manufactured variants of the same weapon, as well its British counterpart, the L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle. Beginning in 2002 these were officially supplemented in army service by the American M-16 rifle, which took the FAL's place as the army's standard service rifle. Nevertheless, the FAL and its respective variants remain the single most prolific weapon in Nepali army service, with thousands of second-hand examples being supplied by India as late as 2005.


Small arms


Heavy weapons


Vehicles


Uniform

The Nepali Army currently has two types of uniforms.


Formal Uniform

This uniform is used primarily for parading and official duties. In August 2010, the Nepali Army introduced a new ceremonial uniform replacing those worn by the former Royal Army to make it more relevant to the changing context and time. The new uniform comprises an olive green tunic and trousers of modern style, green-colored shirt and tie, leather belt, and peaked cap.


Uniform

The Nepali Army uses this uniform for regular operational duties. Nepali army uses two types of camouflage patterns: * Swirl * Nepali 4-Color Camouflage – similar to the Japan Air Self Defense Force camouflage


Rank structure

;Commissioned Officers ;Other ranks


Chiefs of the Nepali Army

The Chief of the Nepali Army have been mostly drawn from noble Chhetri families from Gorkha Kingdom, Gorkha such as "Pande dynasty", "Basnyat dynasty", and "Thapa dynasty" before the rule of "Rana dynasty". During the Shah dynasty, Shah monarchy, the officers were drawn from these aristocratic families. During the Rana dynasty, Ranas overtook the position as wikt:birthbirthright. The first army chief of Nepal was King
Prithvi Narayan Shah Maharaja Mahārāja ; (also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great Monarch, king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler Maharaja Sri Gupta, founder of t ...

Prithvi Narayan Shah
who drafted and commanded the Nepali (Gorkhali) Army. The first civilian army chief was Kaji (Nepal), Kaji Kalu Pande who had significant role in the Unification of Nepal, campaign of Nepal. He was considered as army head due to the undertaking of duties and responsibilities of the army but not by the formalization of the title. Mukhtiyar Bhimsen Thapa was the first person to use ''Commander-in-Chief'' as the title of army chief. King Rajendra Bikram Shah appointed Bhimsen to the post of Commander-in-Chief and praised Bhimsen for long service to the nation. However, on 14 June 1837, the King took over the command of all the battalions put in charge of various courtiers, and himself became the Commander-in-Chief. Immediately after the incarceration of the Thapa dynasty, Thapas in 1837, Dalbhanjan Pande and Rana Jang Pande were the joint head of military administration. However, Rana Jang was removed after 3 months in October 1837. Since the regime of ''Mukhtiyar'' Bhimsen, only seven army chiefs of Nepal were non-Rana Chhetris including Shah dynasty, Shahs while others were all Rana family, Ranas till 1951. Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) was replaced by Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) from the reign of General Singha Pratap Shah.


Battles

Nepali army fought various battles on the unification campaign.


Battles Defending the Kingdom of Nepal

*Battle against Mir Qasim – 1763 AD *Battle of Pauwa Gadhi against Captain Kinloch- 1767 AD * Anglo-Nepalese War, Anglo-Nepali War – 1814 AD * First Nepal – Tibet War * Sino-Nepalese War, Nepal-Tibet/China War *Nepalese-Tibetan War, Last Nepal-Tibet War * Nepali Civil War


Battles for unification of Nepal

*Battle of Kirtipur *Battle of Kathmandu *Battle of Bhaktapur *Limbuwan-Gorkha War *Invasion of Doti Kingdom


Battles as allies

*Allies of World War I#Personnel and casualties, World War I (World War I casualties#.C2.A0Nepal, Casualties) *Allies of World War II#Personnel and casualties, World War II (World War II casualties#.C2.A0Nepal, Casualties)


Medals and awards

* Mahendra Mala * Parama Nepal Pratap Baskara * Ati Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara * Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara * Ojasvi Rajanya (Sovereign – A) * Ojasvi Rajanya (Sovereign – B) * Ojasvi Rajanya (Grand Master – A) * Ojasvi Rajanya (Grand Master – B) * Parama Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal – Shreepada * Ati Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal – Shreepada * Maha Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal Shreepada


Social Adaptation

Nepal Army is portrayed in different movies and television shows throughout Nepal and the world. The film "Ma Timi Bina Marihalchu Ni" featuring Bhuwan K.C. and Jharana Thapa is based on the story of Nepal Army.


See also

* List of mountain warfare forces *Military of Nepal *Armed Police Force Nepal *Nepal Police *National Investigation Department of Nepal *List of operation by Gurkha Army


Notes


References


Books

* * * * *{{citation , last = Pradhan , first = Kumar L. , title = Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806–1839 , publisher = Concept Publishing Company , year = 2012 , isbn = 9788180698132 , location = New Delhi , pages = 278 , url = https://books.google.com/books?id=7PP1yElRzIUC&q=the+assassination+of+rana+bahadur+shah


External links


Official website of the Nepali ArmyOfficial website of the Nepali Army Command and Staff CollegeNepal
*Kaji Biraj Thapa Magar of Gorkha *Biraj Thapa Magar *https://thediplomat.com/2013/10/the-deft-politicking-of-nepals-army/1/, 2013 * Ghimire, S. (2016)
Security Sector Reform Organic: Infrastructure for Peace as an Entry Point?
Peacebuilding. Military of Nepal, Army Armies by country, Nepal Gurkhas, . Nepali Army ne:नेपाली सेना sv:Nepalesiska armén