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The neotropical otter or neotropical river otter ( Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis) is an otter species found in Central America, South America
South America
and the island of Trinidad. It is physically similar to the northern and southern river otter, which occur directly north and south of this species' range. The length of the neotropical otter can range from 90–150 centimetres (35–59 in), of which the tail comprises about a third. Body weight ranges from 5–15 kilograms (11–33 lb).[2] Otters are members of the family Mustelidae, the most species-rich (and therefore diverse) family in the order Carnivora. This otter is found in many different riverine habitats, including deciduous and evergreen forests, savannas, llanos and pantanal. It prefers to live in clear fast-flowing rivers and streams. It is a relatively solitary animal and feeds mostly on fish and crustaceans.

Contents

1 Subspecies and taxonomy 2 Description 3 Habitat and distribution 4 Ecology

4.1 Diet 4.2 Reproduction 4.3 Communication 4.4 Competition

5 Conservation 6 In captivity 7 References 8 Further reading

Subspecies and taxonomy[edit] The taxonomy of the genus Lontra
Lontra
has been debated, but the use of Lontra
Lontra
rather than Lutra
Lutra
for New World otters is generally supported. The neotropical otter has a very wide range, covering a large portion of South America, so it is not surprising there are geographical structures separating some populations. One such geographical isolation is the Cordillera Mountains. Additionally, the river in the Magdellena river valley flows north, away from the mountains, decreasing the likelihood that otters in the northern tip of South America will mix with otters elsewhere in the continent. Neotropical otters have an interesting phylogenic relationship to other otter species. They are most similar to Lontra
Lontra
feline and Lontra provocax, which is not surprising considering these two species are found in South America. However, neotropical otters are relatively distantly related to Pteronura brasiliensis, which is surprising considering they have nearly identical ecological niches and home ranges.[3] In one study, otters within a 1600 square mile area in southern Brazil showed low nucleotide variation, but high haplotype diversity compared to other otter species and other carnivores. The study made the conclusion that otters may be undergoing a recent increase in diversity. The results also show interrelatedness of otters nearby and give reason to separate the species into subspecies:[4]

Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis annectens Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis colombiana Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis enudris Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis incarum Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis longicaudis Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis raferrous

Description[edit] The neotropical otter is covered in a short, dark grayish-brown pelage. Fur color is lighter around the muzzle and throat.[5] They possess a long wide tail, with short stout legs and fully webbed toes.[6] Sexually dimorphic, the males are about 25% larger than the females. Body mass of the otter generally ranges from 5 to 15 kilograms. Neotropical otters will communicate with nearby otters via scent marking. Communication may also occur via whistles, hums, and screeches.[6] The dental formula seldom varies from that of Eurasian otters, except in the few cases of otters that have dental anomalies.[7] Females and males have the same formula. The dental formula (for half the skull) is as follows:[8]

Upper: 3 incisors, 1 canine, 4 premolars and 1 molar Lower: 3 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars and 2 molars

Habitat and distribution[edit] The neotropical otter has the widest distribution of all the lontra species. Their habitat can range from northwest Mexico to central Argentina. They prefer clear and fast-flowing rivers and are rarely known to settle in the sluggish, silt-laden lowland rivers. While mostly occurring at 300 to 1500 m above sea level they have been found settled at 3000 m.[9] They require abundant riparian vegetation and abundant den sites, but other than that the neotropical otter is very versatile and tolerant to environmental change. The otter will prefer sites that are solid, high, dry, and in proximity to deep water.[10] The Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
is the greatest generalist of all otter species. It can inhabit formidable habitats such as wastewater treatment plants, rice and sugar cane plantations, drainage ditches, and swamps. It can inhabit cold, glacial lakes in the Andes of Ecuador.[11] It can also live on the shorelines of marine environments hunting marine species and playing in the highly saline water.[12] Ecology[edit] Diet[edit] The neotropical otter's diet consists mostly of fish and crustaceans making up 67% and 28%,respectively, of its total diet. The otter will also occasionally feed on mollusks and small mammals. This otter is known to occasionally attack fishnets for a source of prey, hindering fishing productivity.[13] Otters living near marine habitats can have a much higher proportion of crustaceans in their diets. Seasonality also greatly affect otters' food choice. During the dry season, when less fish and crustaceans are available, one study found a higher proportion of frogs in otters' diet. Though, during this time, anurans and reptiles still made up a very small percentage of the total diet. This might also be due to the fact that certain frogs mate during the dry season, so the frogs are easier prey. All in all, the distribution of available food species in a particular area roughly correlates to the percentage of each species found in otters' diet.[14] Reproduction[edit] Breeding occurs mostly in spring. Gestation will last 56 days and produce a litter of 1–5 pups.[5] The pups are born blind yet fully furred. They will emerge from their mother's nest when about 52 days and begin swimming at 74 days. They are raised completely by their mother, as males do not provide any parental care.[10] The male will only spend a single day with the female during breeding season. The female must keep her pups safe from predation by other neotropical otters. In one captive breeding situation, cannibalism by the mother may have occurred, though it was not confirmed.[15] In an ecologically healthy area, there are many possible shelters so an individual can choose its preferred den. However, studies show that not all possible shelters are occupied and not all shelters are equally utilized by Neotropical otters. Otters visit different shelters with varying frequencies, from once or few times per up to many times per year. One factor that influences their preference for a den has to do with the water level, especially during flood season, when a den near water level can easily be washed away. A den may be at the water level, near the bank, or more than 1.5 meters about the water level.[16] There are many other factors influencing otters' preferences for a shelter. Neotropical otters prefer dens near fresh water, high food availability, and relatively deep and wide water. During seasons with low water, individual otters may be more clumped because they will all move into areas of a river with deeper water, with more fish.[16] Deep, wide pools have been found to have a greater diversity of fish, preferential for otters. Some studies show that otters will forgo a less preferable, but more available den, like a muddy river bank, to spend more time in a preferential den, like a rocky shore.[17] Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
females will rear pups in a den without a male. In some cases, a female may find a den that has space to keep her pups and a separate area for her own space. A study of a male otter's movement over 35 days showed he used three different dens without communication between them. Also, this individual moved between two islands separated by a one-kilometer wide estuary. He spent some time in a site with heavy mud, poor substrate for a den, so he may have been on the move to find food.[18] Dens may have more than one opening, so the otter can easily exit to forage for food while staying safe from predators. There are many classifications of dens that Neotropical otters may use. A cavity among stones or under tree roots is preferred. In certain parts of South America, an otter may come across a limestone dissolution cavity or a cavity in a rocky wall. Though lacking a source of light, the Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
can make great use of this sturdy home. As a last resort, an otter expend energy to excavate a space among vegetation or a river bank, though those homes are less sturdy. Vegetative cover is also very important for the Neotropical otter. In comparison to other otter dens, the Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
dens do not have holes directly into the water, they do not use plant material as bedding, and will live in caves without light. They are elusive creatures and prefer undisturbed forests without signs of human activity. When humans clear forests for agricultural land, the number of available otter habitats plummets.[16] Communication[edit] Like other otter species, neotropical otters will mark their territory with scratching or spraint (feces) in obvious places like rocks and under bridges.[19] Signs of marking may be most concentrated around their dens. They tend to only mark in certain areas of the den, separate from the activity center of the den. In caves, where a water sources may leak through the walls and wash away the scent, the resident may mark areas inside their den.[16] Competition[edit] The niches and ranges of the Giant river otter and the Neotropical otter overlap widely. Both species are diurnal and mainly piscivorous. The Giant otter
Giant otter
is less of a generalist in habitat, preferring slow-moving water and overhanging vegetation, but where the Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
may also occur. The Giant otter
Giant otter
is much larger and hunts in groups, so it can take larger prey. Some areas, like the Pantanal, have high enough productivity, so both otter species can exists with little or no competition. Additionally, Neotropical otters prefer deeper and wider streams than Giant otters.[11] Conservation[edit] The neotropical otter is listed as Near Threatened
Near Threatened
by the IUCN. The species is currently protected in Argentina and many other South American countries. Heavy hunting for its fur in the 1950s–1970s resulted in much local extinction over the otter's range. Illegal hunting, habitat destruction through mining and ranching, and water pollution still affect the population of the neotropical otter.[20] Although there have been attempts at captive breeding, they are largely unsuccessful.[5] Most negative feelings about otters arise from fishermen who compete with the otter for fish. More data is needed to determine how much overlap exists between the fishermen's desired catch and the otter's diet. The highest competition between Neotropical otters and fishermen occurs during drought conditions. Fishermen may move out of their regular fishing areas, into deeper pools where the otter usually hunts in the absence of people. In a study on local fishermen's attitudes, the study revealed that fishermen's knowledge aligned with scientific data about the Neotropical otter's behavior, body description, and other data. Because the fishermen's facts aligned with scientific knowledge, scientists could then trust the fishermen's first-hand accounts about problems they experience with otters. Fishermen reported that otters will damage their fishing gear, but do not damage crab and shrimp nets. The locals have varying opinions about the otters' presence, from understanding they have to share space with the otters to wanting to kill the otters. Fishermen's knowledge and frequent contact with this elusive species might qualify them as the best managers of the species. There have been proposals to subsidize their fish profits lost to otters. However, it might be more beneficial to pay them to collect data on the species. This would benefit fishermen economically, improve fishermen's attitude toward the animal, and build on to currently insufficient data about this species. Fishermen usually have the greatest knowledge of the resource. Otters are rarely victims of being caught in gillnets, themselves, and very rarely die from the same cause.[21] Neotropical otters are threatened by habitat degradation associated with: agriculture, soil compaction, pollution, roadways, and runoff. Also, when forests are cleared for cattle grazing, heavy vegetation (which is the otter's preferred habitat) near streams is also cleared or trampled by cattle. This species is a very important ecological indicator because they prefer ecologically rich, aquatic habitats and have a low reproductive potential.[17] In captivity[edit] One male and one female Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
were captured near Caucasia, Colombia and taken to Santa Fe Zoological Park in 1994 and 1996, respectively. Zoo staff observed the pair mating in the water, then separated the animals. The female had three births; one was successful. The infant deaths may have been unintentionally caused by the mother. One idea suggested the mother's enclosure was too small and she had no access to water, as she would have had in the wild. The mother's gestation period was 86 days for two separate breeding events recorded at this zoo. An 86-day gestation period is much longer than the previously accepted belief that gestation lasts around 60 days. Two possible explanations are: differences might exist between different subspecies or a later copulation may have occurred and not been observed. Also, this otter species might display short-term variation in gestation periods.[15] References[edit]

^ Rheingantz, M.L. & Trinca, C.S. (2015). " Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T12304A21937379. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T12304A21937379.en. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Berry, K. (2000). Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis. Animal
Animal
Diversity Web ^ Trinca, C. S.; De Thoisy, B.; Rosas, F. C. W.; Waldemarin, H. F.; Koepfli, K. -P.; Vianna, J. A.; Eizirik, E. (2012). "Phylogeography and Demographic History of the Neotropical Otter
Otter
(Lontra longicaudis)". Journal of Heredity. 103 (4): 479. doi:10.1093/jhered/ess001. PMID 22589556.  ^ Trinca, C. S.; Waldemarin, H. F.; Eizirik, E. (2007). "Genetic diversity of the Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
( Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis Olfers, 1818) in Southern and Southeastern Brazil". Brazilian Journal of Biology. 67 (4): 813. doi:10.1590/S1519-69842007000500003. PMID 18278347.  ^ a b c Bertonatti,C., and A. Parera. (1994). Lobito de rio. Revista Vida Silvestre. Nuestro libro rojo, fundacion vida silvrestre Argentina, Ficha No. 34 ^ a b Emmons, Louise H.; Feer, François (1997-09-02). Neotropical rainforest mammals. A field guide (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 161–162. ISBN 978-0-226-20721-6. OCLC 44179508.  ^ Peters, F. B., Coelho, E. L., Vasconcelos, B. C. E., Roth, P. R. O., & Christoff, A. U. (2013). Dental anomalies in Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis (carnivora: mustelidae) collected in southern Brazil. IUCN
IUCN
Otter Specialist Group Bulletin, 30(1), 31–36. ^ Melissen, A. (2000). Husbandry guidelines for Lutra
Lutra
lutra. Otterspecialistgroup.org ^ Eisenberg, J.F. Mammals of the neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. ^ a b Parera, A. (1993) The Neotropical river otter Lutra
Lutra
longicaudis in Ibera Lagoon, Argentina. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin. 8:13–16. ^ a b Munis, M. C., & Oliveira, L. F. B. (2011). Habitat use and food niche overlap by neotropical otter, Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis, and giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. The IUCN/SSC Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin, 28(A), 76–85. ^ Alarcon, G. G., & Simones-Lopes, P. C. (2004). The Neotropical otter Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis feeding habits in a marine coastal area, southern Brazil. The IUCN/SSC Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin, 21(1), 24–30. ^ Alarcon, G.G. and Simões-Lopes, P.C. (2004) The Neotropical Otter Lontra
Lontra
Longicaudis Feeding Habits In A Marine Coastal Area, Southern Brazil. IUCN
IUCN
Otter
Otter
Spec. Group Bull. 21(1): 24–30 ^ Rheingantz, M. L.; Waldemarin, H. F.; Rodrigues, L. V.; Moulton, T. P. (2011). "Seasonal and spatial differences in feeding habits of the Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae) in a coastal catchment of southeastern Brazil". Zoologia (Curitiba, Impresso). 28: 37. doi:10.1590/S1984-46702011000100006.  ^ a b Arcila, D. A., & Ramirez, M. (2004). Captive reproduction of the Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
in the Santa Fe Zoological Park in Medellin, Colombia. The IUCN/SSC Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin, 2(1), 16–18. ^ a b c d Pardini, R. (1999). "Use of shelters by the neotropical river otter ( Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis) in an Atlantic forest stream, southeastern Brazil". Journal of Mammalogy. 80 (2): 600–610. doi:10.2307/1383304. JSTOR 1383304.  ^ a b Carrillo-Rubio, E., & Lafon, A. (2004). Neotropical river otter mico-habitat preference in west-central Chihuahua, Mexico. The IUCN/SSC Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin, 21(1), 10–15. ^ Nakano-Oliveira, E., Fusco, R., Dos Santos, E. A. V., & Monteiro-Filho, E. L. A. (2004). New information about the behavior of Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis (carnivora: Mustelidae) by radio-telemetry. The IUCN/SSC Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin, 21(1), 31–35. ^ Rheingantz, M. L., Waldemarin, H. F., & Kasper, C. B. (2004). Survey of Neotropical otters: testing methods to access distribution. The IUCN/SSC Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin, 21A, 1 ^ Chehebar, C. (1990). Action plan for Latin American Otters. pp. 63–74 in Otters: an action plan for their conservation Pat Foster-Turley, S. M. Macdonald, Chris Mason (eds.), IUCN/SSC Otter Specialist Group. ^ Barbieri, F.; Machado, R.; Zappes, C. A.; Oliveira, L. R. D. (2012). "Interactions between the Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
( Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis) and gillnet fishery in the southern Brazilian coast". Ocean & Coastal Management. 63: 16. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.03.007. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis (Neotropical otter).

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis

Mammalian Species- No609, 1–5. Lontra
Lontra
longicaudis. Serge Lariviere, 5 May 1999 by the American Society of Mammalogists. Yoxon, P; Yoxon, G (2014). Otters of the world. Whittles Publishing. ISBN 978-184995-129-6. 

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter
Otter
civet (C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q839828 ADW: Lontra_longicaudis ARKive: lontra-longicaudis EoL: 311556 Fossilworks: 157469 GBIF: 2433738 iNaturalist: 41778 ITIS: 621914 IUCN: 12304 MSW: 14001106 NCBI: 71

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