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The Neotropical realm
Neotropical realm
is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. Physically, it includes the tropical terrestrial ecoregions of the Americas
Americas
and the entire South American temperate zone.

Contents

1 Definition 2 Major ecological regions

2.1 Amazonia 2.2 Caribbean 2.3 Central America 2.4 Central Andes 2.5 Eastern South America 2.6 Northern Andes 2.7 Orinoco 2.8 Southern South America

3 History 4 Endemic animals and plants

4.1 Animals 4.2 Plants

5 Neotropic
Neotropic
terrestrial ecoregions 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Definition[edit] In biogeography, the Neotropic
Neotropic
or Neotropical realm
Neotropical realm
is one of the eight terrestrial realms. This realm includes South and the North American regions of Central America; in Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula and southern lowlands, and most of the east and west coastlines, incluing the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula; the Caribbean islands, southern Florida, and the coastal portion of the Río Grande Valley
Río Grande Valley
in South Texas, because these regions share a large number of plant and animal groups. The realm also includes temperate southern South America. In contrast, the Neotropical Floristic Kingdom excludes southernmost South America, which instead is placed in the Antarctic kingdom. The Neotropic
Neotropic
is delimited by similarities in fauna or flora. Its fauna and flora are distinct from the Nearctic
Nearctic
(which includes most of North America) because of the long separation of the two continents. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
joined the two continents two to three million years ago, precipitating the Great American Interchange, an important biogeographical event. The Neotropic
Neotropic
includes more tropical rainforest (tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests) than any other realm, extending from southern Mexico
Mexico
through Central America
Central America
and northern South America to southern Brazil, including the vast Amazon Rainforest. These rainforest ecoregions are one of the most important reserves of biodiversity on Earth. These rainforests are also home to a diverse array of indigenous peoples, who to varying degrees persist in their autonomous and traditional cultures and subsistence within this environment. The number of these peoples who are as yet relatively untouched by external influences continues to decline significantly, however, along with the near-exponential expansion of urbanization, roads, pastoralism and forest industries which encroach on their customary lands and environment. Nevertheless, amidst these declining circumstances this vast "reservoir" of human diversity continues to survive, albeit much depleted. In South America
South America
alone, some 350–400 indigenous languages and dialects are still living (down from an estimated 1,500 at the time of first European contact), in about 37 distinct language families and a further number of unclassified and isolate languages. Many of these languages and their cultures are also endangered. Accordingly, conservation in the Neotropical realm
Neotropical realm
is a hot political concern, and raises many arguments about development versus indigenous versus ecological rights and access to or ownership of natural resources. Major ecological regions[edit] The WWF subdivides the realm into bioregions, defined as "geographic clusters of ecoregions that may span several habitat types, but have strong biogeographic affinities, particularly at taxonomic levels higher than the species level (genus, family)." Laurel forest
Laurel forest
and other cloud forest are subtropical and mild temperate forest, found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable and mild temperatures. Tropical rainforest, tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests are highlight[clarification needed] in Southern North America, Amazonia, Caribbean, Central America, Northern Andes and Central Andes. Amazonia[edit] The Amazonia bioregion
Amazonia bioregion
is mostly covered by tropical moist broadleaf forest, including the vast Amazon rainforest, which stretches from the Andes mountains to the Atlantic Ocean, and the lowland forests of the Guianas. The bioregion also includes tropical savanna and tropical dry forest ecoregions. Caribbean[edit] Main article: Caribbean bioregion Central America[edit] Main article: Central America
Central America
bioregion Central Andes[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (April 2012)

Eastern South America[edit] Eastern South America
South America
includes the Caatinga
Caatinga
xeric shrublands of northeastern Brazil, the broad Cerrado
Cerrado
grasslands and savannas of the Brazilian Plateau, and the Pantanal
Pantanal
and Chaco grasslands. The diverse Atlantic forests
Atlantic forests
of eastern Brazil
Brazil
are separated from the forests of Amazonia by the Caatinga
Caatinga
and Cerrado, and are home to a distinct flora and fauna. Northern Andes[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2011)

Orinoco[edit] The Orinoco
Orinoco
is a region of humid forested broadleaf forest and wetland primarily comprising the drainage basin for the Orinoco
Orinoco
River and other adjacent lowland forested areas. This region includes most of Venezuela
Venezuela
and parts of Colombia. Southern South America[edit] The temperate forest ecoregions of southwestern South America, including the temperate rain forests of the Valdivian temperate rain forests and Magellanic subpolar forests
Magellanic subpolar forests
ecoregions, and the Juan Fernández Islands and Desventuradas Islands, are a refuge for the ancient Antarctic flora, which includes trees like the southern beech (Nothofagus), podocarps, the alerce ( Fitzroya
Fitzroya
cupressoides), and Araucaria
Araucaria
pines like the monkey-puzzle tree ( Araucaria
Araucaria
araucana). These magnificent rainforests are endangered by extensive logging and their replacement by fast-growing non-native pines and eucalyptus. History[edit] South America
South America
was originally part of the supercontinent of Gondwana, which included Africa, Australia, India, New Zealand, and Antarctica, and the Neotropic
Neotropic
shares many plant and animal lineages with these other continents, including marsupial mammals and the Antarctic flora. After the final breakup of the Gondwana
Gondwana
about 110 million years ago, South America
South America
was separated from Africa and drifted north and west. Much later, about two to three million years ago, South America
South America
was joined with North America
North America
by the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, which allowed a biotic exchange between the two continents, the Great American Interchange. South American species like the ancestors of the Virginia opossum
Virginia opossum
(Didelphis virginiana) and the armadillo moved into North America, and North Americans like the ancestors of South America's camelids, including the llama (Lama glama), moved south. The long-term effect of the exchange was the extinction of many South American species, mostly by outcompetition by northern species. Endemic animals and plants[edit] Animals[edit] There are 31 bird families that are endemic to the Neotropical realm, over twice the number of any other realm. They include tanagers, rheas, tinamous, curassows, antbirds, ovenbirds, and toucans. Bird families originally unique to the Neotropics include hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) and wrens (family Troglodytidae). Mammal
Mammal
groups originally unique to the Neotropics include:

Order Xenarthra: anteaters, sloths, and armadillos New World monkeys Caviomorpha
Caviomorpha
rodents, including capybaras and guinea pigs, and chinchillas American opossums (order Didelphimorphia) and shrew opossums (order Paucituberculata)

There are 63 fish families and subfamilies are endemic to the Neotropical realm, more than any other realm (van der Sleen and Albert, 2018 [van der Sleen, Peter, and James S. Albert, eds. Field Guide to the Fishes of the Amazon, Orinoco, and Guianas. Princeton University Press, 2017]). Neotropical fishes include more than 5,700 species, and represent at least 66 distinct lineages in continental freshwaters (Albert and Reis, 2011). The well-known red-bellied piranha is endemic to the Neotropic
Neotropic
realm, occupying a larger geographic area than any other piranha species. Some fish groups originally unique to the Neotropics include:

Order Gymnotiformes: Neotropical electric fishes Family Characidae: tetras and allies Family Loricariidae: armoured catfishes Subfamily Cichlinae: Neotropical cichlids Subfamily Poeciliinae: guppies and relatives

Examples of other animal groups that are entirely or mainly restricted to the Neotropical region include:

Caimans New World coral snakes Poison dart frogs Dactyloidae
Dactyloidae
("anoles") Preponini
Preponini
and Anaeini
Anaeini
butterflies (including Agrias) Brassolini
Brassolini
and Morphini
Morphini
butterflies (including Caligo
Caligo
and Morpho) Callicorini
Callicorini
butterflies Heliconiini
Heliconiini
butterflies Ithomiini
Ithomiini
butterflies Riodininae
Riodininae
butterflies Eumaeini
Eumaeini
butterflies Firetips
Firetips
or firetail skipper butterflies Euglossini
Euglossini
bees Augochlorini bees Pseudostigmatidae
Pseudostigmatidae
("giant damselflies") Mantoididae
Mantoididae
(short-bodied mantises) Canopidae, Megarididae, and Phloeidae (pentatomoid bugs) Aetalionidae
Aetalionidae
and Melizoderidae (treehoppers[1]) Gonyleptidae
Gonyleptidae
(harvestmen)

Plants[edit] Plant families endemic and partly subendemic to the realm are, according to Takhtajan (1978), Hymenophyllopsidaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Caryocaraceae, Pellicieraceae, Quiinaceae, Peridiscaceae, Bixaceae, Cochlospermaceae, Tovariaceae, Lissocarpaceae (Lissocarpa), Brunelliaceae, Dulongiaceae, Columelliaceae, Julianiaceae, Picrodendraceae, Goupiaceae, Desfontainiaceae, Plocospermataceae, Dialypetalanthaceae (Dialypetalanthus), Nolanaceae (Nolana), Calyceraceae, Heliconiaceae, Cannaceae, Thurniaceae
Thurniaceae
and Cyclanthaceae.[2][3] Plant families that originated in the Neotropic
Neotropic
include Bromeliaceae, Cannaceae
Cannaceae
and Heliconiaceae.[citation needed] Plant species with economic importance originally unique to the Neotropic
Neotropic
include:[citation needed]

Potato
Potato
(Solanum tuberosum) Tomato
Tomato
(Solanum lycopersicum) Cacao tree (Theobroma cacao), source of cocoa and chocolate Maize
Maize
(Zea mays) Lima bean
Lima bean
(Phaseolus lunatus) Cotton (Gossypium barbadense) Cassava
Cassava
(Manihot esculenta) Sweet potato
Sweet potato
(Ipomoea batatas) Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) Quinoa
Quinoa
(Chenopodium quinoa)

Neotropic
Neotropic
terrestrial ecoregions[edit]

Neotropic
Neotropic
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

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Araucaria
Araucaria
moist forests Argentina, Brazil

Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil

Bahia coastal forests Brazil

Bahia interior forests Brazil

Bolivian Yungas Bolivia, Peru

Caatinga
Caatinga
enclaves moist forests Brazil

Caqueta moist forests Brazil, Colombia

Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela

Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia

Cayos Miskitos-San Andrés and Providencia moist forests Colombia, Nicaragua

Central American Atlantic moist forests Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama

Central American montane forests El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua

Chiapas montane forests Mexico

Chimalapas montane forests Mexico

Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Ecuador, Panama

Cocos Island moist forests Costa Rica

Cordillera de la Costa montane forests Venezuela

Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela

Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica, Nicaragua

Cuban moist forests Cuba

Eastern Cordillera Real montane forests Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama

Fernando de Noronha-Atol das Rocas moist forests Brazil

Guayanan Highlands moist forests Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Guianan moist forests Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Guianan piedmont and lowland moist forests Brazil, Venezuela

Gurupa várzea Brazil

Hispaniolan moist forests Dominican Republic, Haiti

Iquitos várzea Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama

Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama

Jamaican moist forests Jamaica

Japurá-Solimoes-Negro moist forests Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela

Juruá-Purus moist forests Brazil

Leeward Islands moist forests Antigua, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Nevis, Saint Kitts, British Virgin Islands

Madeira-Tapajós moist forests Bolivia, Brazil

Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia

Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia

Marajó várzea Brazil

Maranhão Babaçu forests Brazil

Mato Grosso tropical dry forests Brazil

Monte Alegre várzea Brazil

Napo moist forests Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Negro-Branco moist forests Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela

Northeastern Brazil
Brazil
restingas Brazil

Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador

Oaxacan montane forests Mexico

Orinoco
Orinoco
Delta swamp forests Guyana, Venezuela

Pantanos de Centla Mexico

Paramaribo swamp forests Guyana, Suriname

Paraná-Paraíba interior forests Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay

Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil

Pernambuco interior forests Brazil

Peruvian Yungas Peru

Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico

Puerto Rican moist forests Puerto Rico

Purus várzea Brazil

Purus-Madeira moist forests Brazil

Rio Negro campinarana Brazil, Colombia

Santa Marta montane forests Colombia

Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil

Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico

Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico

Solimões-Japurá moist forest Brazil, Colombia, Peru

South Florida rocklands United States

Southern Andean Yungas Argentina, Bolivia

Southwest Amazon moist forests Bolivia, Brazil, Peru

Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama

Tapajós-Xingu moist forests Brazil

Tepuis Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Tocantins-Araguaia-Maranhão moist forests Brazil

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
moist forests Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Trindade-Martin Vaz Islands tropical forests Brazil

Uatuma-Trombetas moist forests Brazil, Guyana, Suriname

Ucayali moist forests Peru

Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela

Veracruz moist forests Mexico

Veracruz montane forests Mexico

Western Ecuador
Ecuador
moist forests Colombia, Ecuador

Windward Islands moist forests Dominica, Grenada, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Xingu-Tocantins-Araguaia moist forests Brazil

Yucatán moist forests Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Neotropic
Neotropic
Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

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Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Venezuela

Atlantic dry forests Brazil

Bahamian dry forests Bahamas

Bajío dry forests Mexico

Balsas dry forests Mexico

Bolivian montane dry forests Mexico

Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia

Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
dry forests Cayman Islands

Central American dry forests Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua

Chaco Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay

Chiapas Depression dry forests Guatemala, Mexico

Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil

Cuban dry forests Cuba

Ecuadorian dry forests Ecuador

Hispaniolan dry forests Dominican Republic, Haiti

Jalisco dry forests Mexico

Jamaican dry forests Jamaica

Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela

Leeward Islands dry forests Anguilla, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda, Montserrat

Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia

Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela

Marañón dry forests Peru

Panamanian dry forests Panama

Patía Valley dry forests Colombia

Puerto Rican dry forests Puerto Rico

Revillagigedo Islands
Revillagigedo Islands
dry forests Mexico

Sierra de la Laguna dry forests Mexico

Sinaloan dry forests Mexico

Sinu Valley dry forests Colombia

Southern Pacific dry forests Mexico

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
dry forests Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru

Veracruz dry forests Mexico

Windward Islands dry forests Grenada, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Yucatán dry forests Mexico

Neotropic
Neotropic
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

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Bahamian pineyards The Bahamas

Belizian pine forests Belize

Central American pine-oak forests El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua

Cuban pine forests Cuba

Hispaniolan pine forests Haiti, Dominican Republic

Miskito pine forests Honduras, Nicaragua

Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico

Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico

Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests Mexico

Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico

Neotropic
Neotropic
Temperate
Temperate
broadleaf and mixed forests

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Juan Fernandez Islands
Juan Fernandez Islands
temperate forests Chile

Magellanic subpolar forests Argentina, Chile

San Felix-San Ambrosio Islands temperate forests (Desventuradas Islands) Chile

Valdivian temperate rain forests Argentina, Chile

Neotropic
Neotropic
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Aripo Savannas Trinidad

Beni savanna Bolivia

Campos rupestres Brazil

Cerrado Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
shrub and grasslands Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
is an overseas territory of France

Córdoba montane savanna Argentina

Guianan savanna Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela

Gran Chaco Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay

Los Llanos Venezuela, Colombia

Uruguayan savanna Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay

Neotropic
Neotropic
Temperate
Temperate
grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

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Argentine Espinal Argentina

Argentine Monte Argentina

Humid Pampas Argentina

Patagonian grasslands Argentina, Chile

Patagonian steppe Argentina, Chile

Semi-arid Pampas Argentina

Neotropic
Neotropic
Flooded grasslands and savannas

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Central Mexican wetlands Mexico

Cuban wetlands Cuba

Enriquillo wetlands Dominican Republic, Haiti

Everglades United States

Guayaquil flooded grasslands Ecuador

Orinoco
Orinoco
wetlands Venezuela

Pantanal Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Paraná flooded savanna Argentina

Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina

Neotropic
Neotropic
Montane grasslands and shrublands

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Central Andean dry puna Argentina, Bolivia, Chile

Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru

Central Andean wet puna Bolivia, Peru

Cordillera Central páramo Ecuador, Peru

Cordillera de Merida páramo Venezuela

Northern Andean páramo Colombia, Ecuador

Santa Marta páramo Colombia

Talamanca Paramo Costa Rica, Panama

Southern Andean steppe Argentina, Chile

Zacatonal Mexico, Guatemala

Neotropic
Neotropic
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

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Chilean Matorral Chile

Neotropic
Neotropic
Deserts and xeric shrublands

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Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela

Aruba-Curaçao- Bonaire
Bonaire
cactus scrub Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao

Atacama desert Chile, Peru

Caatinga Brazil

Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
xeric scrub Cayman Islands

Cuban cactus scrub Cuba

Galápagos Islands
Galápagos Islands
xeric scrub Ecuador

Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela

La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela

Leeward Islands xeric scrub Anguilla, Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, Saint Barthélemy, Saba, US Virgin Islands

Malpelo Island xeric scrub Colombia

Motagua Valley thornscrub Guatemala

Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela

San Lucan xeric scrub Mexico

Sechura desert Peru

Tehuacán Valley matorral Mexico

Windward Islands xeric scrub Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago Brazil

Neotropic
Neotropic
Mangrove

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Alvarado mangroves Mexico

Amapá mangroves Brazil

Bahamian mangroves Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands

Bahia mangroves Brazil

Belizean Coast mangroves Belize

Belizean Reef mangroves Belize

Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas mangroves Costa Rica, Panama

Coastal Venezuelan mangroves Venezuela

Esmeraldes-Pacific Colombia
Colombia
mangroves Colombia, Ecuador

Florida mangroves United States

Greater Antilles mangroves Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico

Guianan mangroves French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela

Gulf of Fonseca mangroves El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua

Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves Ecuador, Peru

Gulf of Panama
Panama
mangroves Panama

Ilha Grande mangroves Brazil

Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
mangroves Lesser Antilles

Magdalena-Santa Marta mangroves Colombia

Manabí mangroves Ecuador

Maranhão mangroves Brazil

Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves Mexico

Mayan Corridor mangroves Mexico

Mexican South Pacific Coast mangroves Mexico

Moist Pacific Coast mangroves Costa Rica, Panama

Mosquitia-Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast mangroves Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua

Northern Dry Pacific Coast mangroves El Salvador, Guatemala

Northern Honduras
Honduras
mangroves Guatemala, Honduras

Pará mangroves Brazil

Petenes mangroves Mexico

Piura mangroves Peru

Ría Lagartos mangroves Mexico

Rio Negro-Rio San Sun mangroves Costa Rica, Nicaragua

Rio Piranhas mangroves Brazil

Rio São Francisco mangroves Brazil

Southern Dry Pacific Coast mangroves Costa Rica, Nicaragua

Tehuantepec-El Manchon mangroves Mexico

Trinidad
Trinidad
mangroves Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago

Usumacinta mangroves Mexico

References[edit]

^ [1] ^ Тахтаджян А. Л. Флористические области Земли / Академия наук СССР. Ботанический институт им. В. Л. Комарова. — Л.: Наука, Ленинградское отделение, 1978. — 247 с. — 4000 экз. DjVu, Google Books. ^ Takhtajan, A. (1986). Floristic Regions of the World. (translated by T.J. Crovello & A. Cronquist). University of California Press, Berkeley, PDF, DjVu.

Bibliography[edit]

Albert, J. S., and R. E. Reis (2011). Historical Biogeography
Biogeography
of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes. University of California Press, Berkeley. 424 pp. ISBN 978-0-520-26868-5 [2] Bequaert, Joseph C. "An Introductory Study of Polistes in the United States and Canada with Descriptions of Some New North and South American Forms (Hymenoptera; Vespidæ)." Journal of the New York Entomological Society 48.1 (1940): 1-31. Cox, C. B.; P. D. Moore (1985). Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach (Fourth Edition). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. Dinerstein, E., Olson, D. Graham, D.J. et al. (1995). A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions
Ecoregions
of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington DC., [3]. Olson, D. M., B. Chernoff, G. Burgess, I. Davidson, P. Canevari, E. Dinerstein, G. Castro, V. Morisset, R. Abell, and E. Toledo. 1997. Freshwater biodiversity of Latin America and the Caribbean: a conservation assessment. Draft report. World Wildlife Fund-U.S., Wetlands International, Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Support Program, and United States Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., [4]. Reis, R. E., S. O. Kullander, and C. J. Ferraris Jr. 2003. Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre. 729 pp. Udvardy, M. D. F. (1975). A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. IUCN Occasional Paper no. 18. Morges, Switzerland: IUCN. [5] van der Sleen, Peter, and James S. Albert, eds. Field Guide to the Fishes of the Amazon, Orinoco, and Guianas. Princeton University Press, 2017.

External links[edit]

Media related to Neotropic
Neotropic
at Wikimedia Commons Map of the ecozones Eco-Index, a bilingual searchable reference of conservation and research projects in the Neotropics; a service of the Rainforest Alliance NeoTropic Acosta et al., 2018. Climate change and peopling of the Neotropics during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana. http://boletinsgm.igeolcu.unam.mx/bsgm/index.php/component/content/article/368-sitio/articulos/cuarta-epoca/7001/1857-7001-1-acosta

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Biogeographic regionalisations

Biomes

Terrestrial biomes

Polar/montane

Tundra Taiga Montane grasslands and shrublands

Temperate

Coniferous forests Broadleaf and mixed forests Deciduous forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Tropical and subtropical

Coniferous forests Moist broadleaf forests Dry broadleaf forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Dry

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Deserts and xeric shrublands

Wet

Flooded grasslands and savannas Riparian Wetland

Aquatic biomes

Pond Littoral Intertidal Mangroves Kelp forests Coral reefs Neritic zone Pelagic zone Benthic zone Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Demersal zone

Other biomes

Endolithic zone

Biogeographic realms

Terrestrial

Afrotropical Antarctic Australasian Nearctic Palearctic Indomalayan Neotropical Oceanian

Marine

Arctic Temperate
Temperate
Northern Pacific Tropical Atlantic Western Indo-Pacific Central Indo-Pacific Tropical Eastern Pacific

Subdivisions

Biogeographic provinces Bioregions Ecoregions

List of ecoregions Global 200
Global 200
ecoregions

See also

Ecological land classification Floristic kingdoms Vegetation
Vegetation
classifications Zoo

.