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Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint. As such, neoclassicism was a reaction against the unrestrained emotionalism and perceived formlessness of late Romanticism, as well as a "call to order" after the experimental ferment of the first two decades of the twentieth century. The neoclassical impulse found its expression in such features as the use of pared-down performing forces, an emphasis on rhythm and on contrapuntal texture, an updated or expanded tonal harmony, and a concentration on absolute music as opposed to Romantic program music. In form and thematic technique, neoclassical music often drew inspiration from music of the 18th century, though the inspiring canon belonged as frequently to the Baroque and even earlier periods as to the Classical period—for this reason, music which draws inspiration specifically from the Baroque is sometimes termed neo-Baroque music. Neoclassicism had two distinct national lines of development, French (proceeding partly from the influence of Erik Satie
Erik Satie
and represented by Igor Stravinsky, who was in fact Russian-born) and German (proceeding from the "New Objectivity" of Ferruccio Busoni, who was actually Italian, and represented by Paul Hindemith). Neoclassicism was an aesthetic trend rather than an organized movement; even many composers not usually thought of as "neoclassicists" absorbed elements of the style.

Contents

1 People and works 2 Other neoclassical composers 3 See also 4 Sources 5 Further reading

People and works[edit] Although the term "neoclassicism" refers to a 20th-century movement, there were important 19th-century precursors. In pieces such as Franz Liszt's À la Chapelle Sixtine (1862), Edvard Grieg's Holberg Suite (1884), Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's divertissement from The Queen of Spades (1890), George Enescu's Piano Suite in the Old Style (1897) and Max Reger's Concerto
Concerto
in the Old Style (1912), composers "dressed up their music in old clothes in order to create a smiling or pensive evocation of the past" (Albright 2004, 276). Sergei Prokofiev's Symphony
Symphony
No. 1 (1917) is sometimes cited as a precursor of neoclassicism (Whittall 1980). Prokofiev himself thought that his composition was a "passing phase" whereas Stravinsky's neoclassicism was by the 1920s "becoming the basic line of his music" (Prokofiev 1991, 273). Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
also introduced neoclassical elements into his music, most notably in his orchestral suite Le bourgeois gentilhomme Op. 60, written in an early version in 1911 and its final version in 1917 (Ross 2010, 207). Ottorino Respighi
Ottorino Respighi
was also one of the precursors of neoclassicism with his "Ancient Airs and Dances" Suite No. 1, composed in 1917. Instead of looking at musical forms of the 18th century, Respighi, who, in addition to being a renowned composer and conductor, was also a notable musicologist, looked at Italian music of the 16th and 17th century. His fellow contemporary composer Gian Francesco Malipiero, also a musicologist, compiled a complete edition of the works of Claudio Monteverdi. Malipiero's relation with ancient Italian music was not simply aiming at a revival of antique forms within the framework of a "return to order", but an attempt to revive an approach to composition that would allow the composer to free himself from the constraints of the sonata form and of the over-exploited mechanisms of thematic development (Malipiero 1952, 340, cited from Sorce Keller 1978,[page needed]).[not in citation given] Igor Stravinsky's first foray into the style began in 1919/20 when he composed the ballet Pulcinella, using themes which he believed to be by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi
Giovanni Battista Pergolesi
(it later came out that many of them were not, though they were by contemporaries). Later examples are the Octet for winds, the Dumbarton Oaks Concerto, the Concerto
Concerto
in D, the Symphony
Symphony
of Psalms, Symphony
Symphony
in C, and Symphony
Symphony
in Three Movements, as well as the opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex and the ballets Apollo and Orpheus, in which the neoclassicism took on an explicitly "classical Grecian" aura. Stravinsky's neoclassicism culminated in his opera The Rake's Progress, with a libretto by W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
(Walsh 2001, §8). Stravinskian neoclassicism was a decisive influence on the French composers Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc, and Arthur Honegger, as well as on Bohuslav Martinů, who revived the Baroque concerto grosso form in his works (Large 1976, 100). Pulcinella, as a subcategory of rearrangement of existing Baroque compositions, spawned a number of similar works, including Alfredo Casella's Scarlattiana (1927), Poulenc's Suite Française, Ottorino Respighi's Antiche arie e danze and Gli uccelli (Simms 1986, 462), and Richard Strauss's Tanzsuite aus Klavierstücken von François Couperin and the related Divertimento nach Couperin, Op. 86 (1923 and 1943, respectively) (Heisler 2009, 112). Starting around 1926 Béla Bartók's music shows a marked increase in neoclassical traits, and a year or two later acknowledged Stravinsky's "revolutionary" accomplishment in creating novel music by reviving old musical elements while at the same time naming his colleague Zoltán Kodály
Zoltán Kodály
as another Hungarian adherent of neoclassicism (Bónis 1988, 73–74). A German strain of neoclassicism was developed by Paul Hindemith, who produced chamber music, orchestral works, and operas in a heavily contrapuntal, chromatically inflected style, best exemplified by Mathis der Maler. Roman Vlad
Roman Vlad
contrasts the "classicism" of Stravinsky, which consists in the external forms and patterns of his works, with the "classicality" of Busoni, which represents an internal disposition and attitude of the artist towards works (Samson 1977, 28). Busoni wrote in a letter to Paul Bekker, "By 'Young Classicalism' I mean the mastery, the sifting and the turning to account of all the gains of previous experiments and their inclusion in strong and beautiful forms" (Busoni 1957, 20). Neoclassicism found a welcome audience in Europe and America, as the school of Nadia Boulanger
Nadia Boulanger
promulgated ideas about music based on her understanding of Stravinsky's music. Boulanger taught and influenced many notable composers, including Grażyna Bacewicz, Lennox Berkeley, Elliott Carter, Francis Chagrin, Aaron Copland, David Diamond, Irving Fine, Jean Françaix, Roy Harris, Igor Markevitch, Darius Milhaud, Astor Piazzolla, Walter Piston, Ned Rorem, and Virgil Thomson. In Spain, Manuel de Falla's neoclassical Concerto
Concerto
for Harpsichord, Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Violin, and Cello of 1926 was perceived as an expression of "universalism" (universalismo), broadly linked to an international, modernist aesthetic (Hess 2001a, 3–8). In the first movement of the concerto, Falla quotes fragments of the 15th-century villancico "De los álamos, vengo madre". He had similarly incorporated quotations from 17th-century music when he first embraced neoclassicism in the puppet-theatre piece El retablo de maese Pedro (1919–23), an adaptation from Cervantes's Don Quixote. Later neoclassical compositions by Falla include the 1924 chamber cantata Psyché and incidental music for Pedro Calderón de la Barca's, El gran teatro del mundo, written in 1927 (Hess 2001b). In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Roberto Gerhard
Roberto Gerhard
composed in the neoclassical style, including his Concertino for Strings, the Wind Quintet, the cantata L'alta naixença del rei en Jaume, and the ballet Ariel (MacDonald 2001). Other important Spanish neoclassical composers are found amongst the members of the Generación de la República (also known as the Generación del 27), including Julián Bautista, Fernando Remacha, Salvador Bacarisse, and Jesús Bal y Gay (Pérez Castillo 2001; Heine 2001a; Heine 2001b; Salgado 2001a). A neoclassical aesthetic was promoted in Italy by Alfredo Casella, who had been educated in Paris and continued to live there until 1915, when he returned to Italy to teach and organize concerts, introducing modernist composers such as Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg
to the provincially minded Italian public. His neoclassical compositions were perhaps less important than his organizing activities, but especially representative examples include Scarlattiana of 1926, using motifs from Domenico Scarlatti's keyboard sonatas, and the Concerto
Concerto
romano of the same year (Waterhouse and Bernardoni 2001). Casella's colleague Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco
Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco
wrote neoclassically-inflected works which hark back to early Italian music and classical models: the themes of his Concerto
Concerto
italiano in G minor of 1924 for violin and orchestra echo Vivaldi as well as 16th- and 17th-century Italian folksongs, while his highly successful Guitar Concerto
Concerto
No. 1 in D of 1939 consciously follows Mozart's concerto style (Westby 2001). Portuguese representatives of neoclassicism include two members of the "Grupo de Quatro", Armando José Fernandes and Jorge Croner de Vasconcellos, both of whom studied with Nadia Boulanger
Nadia Boulanger
(Moody 1996, 4). In South America, neoclassicism was of particular importance in Argentina, where it differed from its European model in that it did not seek to redress recent stylistic upheavals which had simply not occurred in Latin America. Argentine composers associated with neoclassicism include Jacobo Ficher, José María Castro (es), Luis Gianneo, and Juan José Castro
Juan José Castro
(Hess 2013, 205–206). The most important 20th-century Argentine composer, Alberto Ginastera, turned from nationalistic to neoclassical forms in the 1950s (e.g., Piano Sonata No. 1 and the Variaciones concertantes) before moving on to a style dominated by atonal and serial techniques. Roberto Caamaño, professor of Gregorian chant at the Institute of Sacred Music in Buenos Aires, employed a dissonant neoclassical style in some works and a serialist style in others (Béhague and Ruíz 2001). Although the well-known Bachianas Brasileiras of Heitor Villa-Lobos (composed between 1930 and 1947) are cast in the form of Baroque suites, usually beginning with a prelude and ending with a fugal or toccata-like movement and employing neoclassical devices such as ostinato figures and long pedal notes, they were not intended so much as stylized recollections of the style of Bach as a free adaptation of Baroque harmonic and contrapuntal procedures to music in a Brazilian style (Béhague 2001a; Béhague 2001d). Brazilian composers of the generation after Villa-Lobos more particularly associated with neoclassicism include Radamés Gnattali
Radamés Gnattali
(in his later works), Edino Krieger, and the prolific Camargo Guarnieri, who had contact with but did not study under Nadia Boulanger
Nadia Boulanger
when he visited Paris in the 1920s. Neoclassical traits figure in Guarnieri's music starting with the second movement of the Piano Sonatina of 1928, and are particularly notable in his five piano concertos (Béhague 2001a; Béhague 2001b; Béhague 2001c). The Chilean composer Domingo Santa Cruz Wilson (es) was so strongly influenced by the German variety of neoclassicism that he became known as the "Chilean Hindemith" (Hess 2013, 205). In Cuba, José Ardévol initiated a neoclassical school, though he himself moved on to a modernistic national style later in his career (Béhague and Moore 2001; Eli Rodríguez 2001; Hess 2013, 205). Even the atonal school, represented by Arnold Schoenberg, showed the influence of neoclassical ideas. The forms of Schoenberg's works after 1920, beginning with opp. 23, 24, and 25 (all composed at the same time), have been described as "openly neoclassical", and represent an effort to integrate the advances of 1908 to 1913 with the inheritance of the 18th and 19th centuries (Cowell 1933, 150; Rosen 1975, 70–73). Schoenberg attempted in those works to offer listeners structural points of reference with which they could identify, beginning with the Serenade, op. 24, and the Suite for piano, op. 25 (Keillor 2009). Schoenberg's pupil Alban Berg
Alban Berg
actually came to neoclassicism before his teacher, in his Three Pieces for Orchestra, op. 6 (1913–14), and the opera Wozzeck
Wozzeck
(Rosen 1975, 87), which uses closed forms such as suite, passacaglia, and rondo as organizing principles within each scene. Anton Webern
Anton Webern
also achieved a sort of neoclassical style through an intense concentration on the motif (Rosen 1975, 102). However, his 1935 orchestration of the six-part ricercar from Bach's Musical Offering is not regarded as neoclassical because of its concentration on the fragmentation of instrumental colours (Simms 1986, 462). Other neoclassical composers[edit] Some composers below may have only written music in a neoclassical style during a portion of their careers. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Arthur Berger Carlos Chávez
Carlos Chávez
(Oja 2000, 275–79) Salvador Contreras Lukas Foss Pierre Gabaye Harald Genzmer Vagn Holmboe Stefan Kisielewski Iša Krejčí Ernst Krenek Marcel Mihalovici Goffredo Petrassi
Goffredo Petrassi
(1904–2003) Gabriel Pierné
Gabriel Pierné
(Hurwitz n.d.; Lewis n.d.; Sharpe 2009) Maurice Ravel Knudåge Riisager Albert Roussel Harold Shapero Alexandre Tansman Michael Tippett Dag Wirén

See also[edit]

Neoromanticism Neotonality

Sources[edit]

Albright, Daniel (2004). Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.  Béhague, Gerard (2001a). "Brazil". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Béhague, Gerard (2001b). "Guarnieri, (Mozart) Camargo". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Béhague, Gerard (2001c). "Krieger, Edino". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Béhague, Gerard (2001d). "Villa-Lobos, Heitor". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Béhague, Gerard, and Robin Moore (2001). "Cuba, Republic of". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Béhague, Gerard, and Irma Ruiz (2001). "Argentina (i)". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Bónis, Ferenc. 1983. "Zoltán Kodály, a Hungarian Master of Neoclassicism". Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25, nos. 1–4:73–91. Busoni, Ferruccio (1957). The Essence of Music, and Other Papers, translated by Rosamond Ley. London: Rockliff. Cowell, Henry (1933). "Towards Neo-Primitivism". Modern Music 10, no. 3 (March–April): 149–53. Reprinted in Essential Cowell: Selected Writings on Music by Henry Cowell
Henry Cowell
1921–1964, edited by Richard Carter Higgins and Bruce McPherson, preface by Kyle Gann, 299–303. Kingston, New York: Documentext, 2002. ISBN 978-0-929701-63-9. Eli Rodríguez, Victoria (2001). "Ardévol (Gimbernat), José". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Heine, Christiane. 2001a. "Bacarisse (Chinoria), Salvador". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Heine, Christiane. 2001b. "Remacha (Villar), Fernando". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Heisler, Wayne (2009). The Ballet
Ballet
Collaborations of Richard Strauss. Rochester: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1-58046-321-8 Hess, Carol A. (2001a). Manuel de Falla
Manuel de Falla
and Modernism in Spain, 1898–1936. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-33038-9.  Hess, Carol A. (2001b). "Falla (y Matheu), Manuel de". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Hess, Carol A. (2013). "Copland in Argentina: Pan Americanist Politics, Folklore, and the Crisis in Modern Music". Journal of the American Musicological Society 66, no. 1 (Spring): 191–250. Hurwitz, David (n.d.). "Pierne Timpani TEN C". ClassicsToday.com (accessed 1 July 2015). Keillor, John (2009). "Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31". Allmusic.com website. (Accessed 4 April 2010). Large, Brian (1976). Martinu. Teaneck NJ: Holmes & Meier. ISBN 978-0841902565.  Lewis, Uncle Dave (n.d.). “Christian Ivaldi / Solistes de l'orchestre Philharmonique du Luxembourg: Gabriel Pierné: La Musique de Chambre, Vol. 2” AllMusic Review (accessed 1 July 2015). Malipiero, Gian Francesco. 1952. [Essay?]. In L'opera di Gian Francesco Malipiero: Saggi di scrittori italiani e stranieri con una introduzione di Guido M. Gatti, seguiti dal catalogo delle opere con annotazioni dell'autore e da ricordi e pensieri dello stesso, edited by Guido Maggiorino Gatti,[page needed] Treviso: Edizioni di Treviso. Moody, Ivan (1996). "'Mensagens': Portuguese Music in the 20th Century". Tempo, new series, no. 198 (October): 2–10. Oja, Carol J. 2000. Making Music Modern: New York in the 1920s. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516257-8. Pérez Castillo, Belén. 2001. "Spain, §I: Art Music 6: 20th Century". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Prokofiev, Sergey (1991). "Short Autobiography", translated by Rose Prokofieva, revised and corrected by David Mather. In Soviet Diary 1927 and Other Writings.[page needed] London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-16158-8. Rosen, Charles (1975). Arnold Schoenberg. Modern Masters. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-13316-7 (cloth) ISBN 0-670-01986-0 (pbk). UK edition, titled simply Schoenberg. London: Boyars; Glasgow: W. Collins ISBN 0-7145-2566-9 Paperback reprint, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981. ISBN 0-691-02706-4. Ross, Alex (2010). "Strauss's Place in the Twentieth Century". In The Cambridge Companion to Richard Strauss, edited by Charles Youmans, 195–212. Cambridge Companions to Music. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-72815-7. Salgado, Susana (2001a). "Bautista, Julián". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Salgado, Susana (2001b). "Caamaño, Roberto". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Samson, Jim (1977). Music in Transition: A Study of Tonal Expansion and Atonality, 1900–1920. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-02193-9. Sharpe, Roderick L. (2009). " Gabriel Pierné
Gabriel Pierné
(b. Metz, Loraine, 16 August 1863 – d. Ploujean, Finistère, 17 July 1937): Voyage au Pays du Tendre (d'après la Carte du Tendre)". Konrad von Abel & Phenomenology of Music: Repertoire & Opera
Opera
Explorer: Vorworte—Prefaces. Munich: Musikproduktion Jürgen Höflich. Simms, Bryan R. 1986. "Twentieth-Century Composers Return to the Small Ensemble". In The Orchestra: A Collection of 23 Essays on Its Origins and Transformations, edited by Joan Peyser, 453–74. New York: Charles Scribners Sons. Reprinted in paperback, Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4234-1026-3. Sorce Keller, Marcello. 1978. "A Bent for Aphorisms: Some Remarks about Music and about His Own Music by Gian Francesco Malipiero". The Music Review 39, nos. 3–4:231–239. Stravinsky, Igor (1970). Poetics of Music in the Form of Six Lessons (from the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures delivered in 1939–1940). Harvard College, 1942. English translation by Arthur Knodell and Ingolf Dahl, preface by George Seferis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-67855-9. Walsh, Stephen (2001). "Stravinsky, Igor". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Waterhouse, John C. G., and Virgilio Bernardoni (2001). "Casella, Alfredo". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Westby, James (2001). "Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Mario". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Whittall, Arnold (1980). "Neo-classicism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Publishers. Whittall, Arnold (2001). "Neo-classicism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.

Further reading[edit]

Lanza, Andrea (2008). "An Outline of Italian Instrumental Music in the 20th Century". Sonus: A Journal of Investigations into Global Musical Possibilities 29, no. 1:1–21. ISSN 0739-229X Messing, Scott (1988). Neoclassicism in Music: From the Genesis of the Concept Through the Schoenberg/Stravinsky Polemic. Rochester, New York: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1-878822-73-4. 

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Georges Auric Béla Bartók Alfredo Casella Carlos Chávez Aaron Copland Louis Durey George Enescu Manuel de Falla Radamés Gnattali Camargo Guarnieri Paul Hindemith Arthur Honegger Zoltán Kodály Bohuslav Martinů Darius Milhaud Francis Poulenc Maurice Ravel Igor Stravinsky Germaine Tailleferre Heitor Villa-Lobos

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in C Symphony
Symphony
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(1959)

Ballets

Les biches (1922) Aubade (1929) Les Animaux modèles
Les Animaux modèles
(1941)

Orchestral music

Sinfonietta (1947)

Concertos

Concert champêtre
Concert champêtre
(1927) Concerto
Concerto
for Two Pianos and Orchestra
Orchestra
(1932) Organ Concerto
Concerto
(1938) Piano Concerto
Concerto
(1949)

Chamber music

Rapsodie nègre
Rapsodie nègre
(1917) Sonata for two clarinets (1918) Sonata for clarinet and bassoon
Sonata for clarinet and bassoon
(1922) Sonata for horn, trumpet and trombone (1922) Trio for oboe, bassoon and piano
Trio for oboe, bassoon and piano
(1926) Sextet (1932) Villanelle (1934) Suite française (1935) Violin Sonata (1942) Cello Sonata (1948) Flute sonata (1957) Clarinet Sonata (1962) Oboe Sonata (1962)

Piano music

Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919) Piano Suite (1920) Trois novelettes (1927) Soirées de Nazelles (1936) L'Histoire de Babar, le petit éléphant
L'Histoire de Babar, le petit éléphant
(1940) La Courte Paille (1960)

Songs

Chanson à boire (1922) Fiançailles pour rire (1939) Les Chemins de l'amour (1940) Banalités (1940)

Choir a cappella

Messe en sol majeur (1937) Sécheresses (1937) Quatre motets pour un temps de pénitence (1939) Figure humaine
Figure humaine
(1943)

Choir and orchestra

Litanies à la Vierge Noire
Litanies à la Vierge Noire
(1936) Stabat Mater (1950) Gloria (1959) Sept répons des ténèbres (1963)

Collaborations

L'Album des Six (1919) Les mariés de la tour Eiffel (1921) L'éventail de Jeanne (1927) Variations sur le nom de Marguerite Long (1956)

Incidental music

Le Gendarme incompris (1920) Intermezzo (1933) Léocadia
Léocadia
(1940) L'Invitation au château (1947) Amphitryon (1947) Renaud et Armide (1962)

Related articles

List of works for piano Les Six Neoclassicism "L'adieu du cavalier (Tailleferre)"

Portal:Classical music

v t e

Sergei Prokofiev

Operas

The Giant Maddalena The Gambler The Love for Three Oranges The Fiery Angel Semyon Kotko Betrothal in a Monastery War and Peace The Story of a Real Man

Ballets

Ala i Lolli Chout Trapeze Le pas d'acier The Prodigal Son On the Dnieper Romeo and Juliet (Montagues and Capulets) Cinderella The Tale of the Stone Flower

Symphonies

Symphony
Symphony
No. 1 in D major ("Classical") Symphony
Symphony
No. 2 in D minor (orig & rev) Symphony
Symphony
No. 3 in C minor Symphony
Symphony
No. 4 in C major (orig & rev) Symphony
Symphony
No. 5 in B♭ major Symphony
Symphony
No. 6 in E♭ minor Symphony
Symphony
No. 7 in C♯ minor

Concertos

Piano

Piano Concerto
Concerto
No. 1 in D♭ major Piano Concerto
Concerto
No. 2 in G minor Piano Concerto
Concerto
No. 3 in C major Piano Concerto
Concerto
No. 4 in B♭ major (left-hand) Piano Concerto
Concerto
No. 5 in G major Piano Concerto
Concerto
No. 6 (unfinished)

Other

Violin Concerto
Concerto
No. 1 in D major Violin Concerto
Concerto
No. 2 in G minor Cello Concerto
Concerto
in E minor Symphony- Concerto
Concerto
for Cello in E minor Cello Concertino in G minor (unfinished)

Orchestra
Orchestra
works

Suites (3) from Romeo and Juliet Suites (3) from Cinderella Suites (4) from The Tale of the Stone Flower Scythian Suite
Scythian Suite
from Ala i Lolli Suite from Chout Suite from The Love for Three Oranges Suite from The Fiery Angel Suite from Le pas d'acier Suite from The Prodigal Son Suite from The Gambler Suite from On the Dnieper Suite from Lieutenant Kijé Suite from Semyon Kotko Sinfonietta in A major (orig & rev) Summer Night Symphonic Song Russian Overture The Year 1941 Peter and the Wolf Pushkin Waltzes Waltz Suite

Film music

Alexander Nevsky Ivan the Terrible Lieutenant Kijé

Vocal music

Alexander Nevsky Cantata for 20th Anniv of October Revolution Flourish, Mighty Land Seven, They Are Seven Songs of Our Days Zdravitsa

Chamber music

Overture on Hebrew Themes Quintet in G minor String Quartet No. 1 String Quartet No. 2 Violin Sonata No. 1 Violin Sonata No. 2 Flute Sonata in D major Cello Sonata in C major Sonata for Two Violins in C major Sonata for Solo Violin Sonata for Solo Cello in C♯ minor

Piano music

Sonatas

Piano Sonata No. 1 in F minor Piano Sonata No. 2 in D minor Piano Sonata No. 3 in A minor Piano Sonata No. 4 in C minor Piano Sonata No. 5 in C major (orig & rev) Piano Sonata No. 6 in A major Piano Sonata No. 7 in B♭ major ("Stalingrad") Piano Sonata No. 8 in B♭ major Piano Sonata No. 9 in C major Piano Sonata No. 10 (unfinished) Piano Sonata No. 11 (unrealized)

Other

Toccata in D minor Visions fugitives Tales of an Old Grandmother March and Scherzo from The Love for Three Oranges Three Pieces from War and Peace Ten Pieces from Romeo and Juliet Three Pieces & Six Pieces & Ten Pieces from Cinderella

Related articles

List of compositions by Sergei Prokofiev Ballets Russes Sergei Diaghilev George Balanchine Sviatoslav Richter Mstislav Rostropovich Nikolai Myaskovsky Neoclassicism Prokofiev (crater)

v t e

Ottorino Respighi

Operas

Belfagor La bella dormente nel bosco La campana sommersa La fiamma Lucrezia Maria egiziaca Marie Victoire Re Enzo Semirâma

Ballets

La Boutique fantasque

Orchestral works

Ancient Airs and Dances

Suite 1 Suite 2 Suite 3

Violin Concerto
Concerto
in A major Fountains of Rome Pines of Rome Roman Festivals Rossiniana The Birds

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List of works List of operas Musical historicism Neoclassicism Romanticism

Portal:Classical music

v t e

Arnold Schoenberg

Orchestral

Pelleas und Melisande, Op. 5 Chamber Symphony
Symphony
No. 1, Op. 9 Five Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 16 Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31 Chamber Symphony
Symphony
No. 2, Op. 38

Concertante

Violin Concerto, Op. 36 Piano Concerto, Op. 42 Concerto
Concerto
for String Quartet and Orchestra
Orchestra
(1933)

Chamber

String quartets (1897, Opp. 7, 10, 30, 37) Verklärte Nacht, Op. 4 Wind Quintet, Op. 26

Instrumental

Drei Klavierstücke, Op. 11 Sechs kleine Klavierstücke, Op. 19 Suite for Piano, Op.25 Zwei Klavierstücke, Op. 33

Opera

Erwartung, Op. 17 Die glückliche Hand, Op. 18 Moses und Aron
Moses und Aron
(1930-32) Von heute auf morgen, Op. 32

Oratorio

Gurre-Lieder
Gurre-Lieder
(1900-1911) Die Jakobsleiter
Die Jakobsleiter
(1917-22) Prelude to Genesis Suite, Op. 44 A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46

Vocal

Das Buch der hängenden Gärten, Op. 15 (1908/09) Herzgewächse, Op.20 Pierrot Lunaire, Op. 21 Four Orchestral Songs, Op. 22

Other pages

Expressionist music Sprechstimme Students Neoclassicism 6-20 6-Z44

List of compositions by Arnold Schoenberg

v t e

Richard Strauss

Operas

Guntram (1894) Feuersnot
Feuersnot
(1901) Salome (1905) Elektra (1909) Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier
(1911) Ariadne auf Naxos
Ariadne auf Naxos
(1912/16) Die Frau ohne Schatten
Die Frau ohne Schatten
(1919) Intermezzo (1924) Die ägyptische Helena
Die ägyptische Helena
(1928) Arabella
Arabella
(1933) Die schweigsame Frau
Die schweigsame Frau
(1935) Friedenstag
Friedenstag
(1938) Daphne (1938) Die Liebe der Danae
Die Liebe der Danae
(1940) Capriccio (1942)

Ballets

Josephslegende
Josephslegende
(1914) Schlagobers
Schlagobers
(1924) Verklungene Feste (1940)

Orchestral

Symphony
Symphony
No. 1 (1880) Violin Concerto
Concerto
in D minor (1881–82) Horn Concerto
Concerto
No. 1 (1882–83) Symphony
Symphony
No. 2 (1883–84) Burleske
Burleske
(1885–86) Le bourgeois gentilhomme (1911–17) Dance suite from keyboard pieces by François Couperin
Dance suite from keyboard pieces by François Couperin
(1923) Olympische Hymne
Olympische Hymne
(1936) Japanese Festival Music
Japanese Festival Music
(1940) Divertimento for chamber orchestra after keyboard pieces by Couperin (1941) Horn Concerto
Concerto
No.2 (1942) Metamorphosen
Metamorphosen
(1945) Oboe Concerto
Concerto
in D major (1945) Duet concertino for clarinet and bassoon
Duet concertino for clarinet and bassoon
(1947)

Tone poems

Aus Italien (1886) Macbeth (1888) Don Juan (1888) Death and Transfiguration
Death and Transfiguration
(1889) Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
(1895) Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1896) Don Quixote
Don Quixote
(1897) Ein Heldenleben
Ein Heldenleben
(1898) Symphonia Domestica
Symphonia Domestica
(1903) An Alpine Symphony
Symphony
(1911–15)

Chamber music

Piano Sonata in B minor (1881) Cello Sonata in F major (1883) Violin Sonata in E-flat (1888) Enoch Arden (1897)

Lieder

"Zueignung" (1885) "Die Nacht" (1885) "Allerseelen" (1885) "Winternacht" (1886) "Ständchen" (1886) "Ruhe, meine Seele!" (1894) "Cäcilie" (1894) "Heimliche Aufforderung" (1894) "Morgen!" (1894) "Traum durch die Dämmerung" (1895) "Sehnsucht" (1896) "Der Arbeitsmann" (1898) "Befreit" (1898) "Notturno" (1899) "Des Dichters Abendgang" (1900) "Freundliche Vision" (1900) "Frühlingsfeier" (1906) "Der Krämerspiegel" (1918) Four Last Songs
Four Last Songs
(1948)

Choral

Wandrers Sturmlied
Wandrers Sturmlied
(1884) Utan svafvel och fosfor
Utan svafvel och fosfor
(1889) Taillefer (1903) Die Tageszeiten
Die Tageszeiten
(1928)

Film adaptations

Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier
(1926 film)

Family and peers

Franz Strauss
Franz Strauss
(father) Pauline de Ahna
Pauline de Ahna
(wife) Hans von Bülow Hugo von Hofmannsthal Max Reinhardt Stefan Zweig Joseph Gregor

Related articles

Elektra chord Treatise on Instrumentation Modernism Neoclassicism Neo-romanticism

List of compositions

v t e

Igor Stravinsky

Operas and musical dramas

The Flood L'Histoire du soldat Mavra The Nightingale Oedipus rex Perséphone The Rake's Progress Renard

Ballets

Agon Apollo Le baiser de la fée The Firebird Jeu de cartes Les noces Petrushka Pulcinella Orpheus The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring
(discography) Scènes de ballet

Symphonies and concertos

Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra Concerto
Concerto
for Piano and Wind Instruments Concerto
Concerto
in D Concerto
Concerto
in E♭ ("Dumbarton Oaks") Ebony Concerto Symphonies of Wind Instruments Symphony
Symphony
in C Symphony
Symphony
in E♭ major Symphony
Symphony
in Three Movements Violin Concerto
Concerto
in D

Choral

Cantata Canticum Sacrum Mass Requiem Canticles Le roi des étoiles A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer Symphony
Symphony
of Psalms Threni

Piano and pianola

Scherzo Les cinq doigts Concerto
Concerto
for Two Pianos Étude pour pianola Five Easy Pieces Piano-Rag-Music Piano Sonata Piano Sonata in F♯ minor Quatre études Serenade in A Sonata for Two Pianos Tango Three Easy Pieces Trois mouvements de Petrouchka

Other

Abraham and Isaac Berceuses du chat Le chant du rossignol Circus Polka Danses concertantes Double Canon (in Memoriam Raoul Dufy) Duo Concertant Élégie Elegy for J.F.K. Epitaphium Fanfare for a New Theatre Feu d'artifice Monumentum pro Gesualdo Movements for Piano and Orchestra Octet Ode Pastorale Pribaoutki Scherzo à la russe Scherzo fantastique Septet Three Pieces for Solo Clarinet Three Pieces for String Quartet Variations

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Compositions Danses concertantes Discography George Balanchine Ballets Russes Vera de Bosset Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
(film) Sergei Diaghilev Neoclassicism Petrushka chord Psalms chord Werner Reinhart Serialism Fyodor Stravinsky Soulima Stravinsky Stravinsky Fountain

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