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Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
is a monument in Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
in central London built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The monument was constructed between 1840 and 1843 to a design by William Railton
William Railton
at a cost of £47,000. It is a column of the Corinthian order[1] built from Dartmoor
Dartmoor
granite. The Craigleith sandstone statue of Nelson is by E.H. Baily, and the four bronze lions on the base, added in 1867, were designed by Sir Edwin Landseer.[2] The pedestal is decorated with four bronze relief panels, each 18 feet (5.5 m) square, cast from captured French guns. They depict the Battle of Cape St Vincent, the Battle of the Nile, the Battle of Copenhagen, and the death of Nelson at Trafalgar. The sculptors were Musgrave Watson, William F. Woodington, John Ternouth, and John Edward Carew, respectively. It was refurbished in 2006 at a cost of £420,000, at which time it was surveyed and found to be 14 ft 6 in (4.4 m) shorter than previously supposed.[3][4] The whole monument is 169 ft 3 in (51.6 m) tall from the bottom of the pedestal to the top of Nelson's hat.

Contents

1 Construction and history 2 Refurbishment 3 Publicity stunts and protests 4 Other monuments to Nelson 5 Gallery 6 References 7 External links

Construction and history[edit]

The column under construction, 1843. William Henry Fox Talbot

The column looking south towards Whitehall
Whitehall
and the Palace of Westminster

In February 1838 a group of 121 peers, MPs and other gentry formed a committee to raise a monument to Lord Nelson, funded by public subscription, and the Government agreed to provide a site in Trafalgar Square, in front of the newly completed National Gallery. A competition was held for designs with an estimated budget of between £20,000 and £30,000. The deadline for submissions was 31 January 1839. The winning entry, chosen by the sub-committee headed by the Duke of Wellington was a design by William Railton
William Railton
for a Corinthian column, surmounted by a statue of Nelson, and flanked by four sculpted lions. Flights of steps would lead up between the lions to the pedestal of the column.[5] Several other entrants also submitted schemes for columns. The second prize was won by Edward Hodges Baily
Edward Hodges Baily
who suggested an obelisk surrounded by sculptures.[6] Criticism of the organisation of the competition caused it to be re-run. Railton submitted a slightly revised design, and was once again declared the winner, with the stipulation that the statue of Nelson should be made by EH Baily. The original plan was for a column 203 feet (62 m) high, including the base and statue, but this was reduced to 170 feet (52 m) with a shaft of 98 feet (30 m) due to concerns over stability.[7] The base was to have been of granite and the shaft of Craigleith sandstone, but before construction began it was decided that the shaft should also be of granite.[1] Excavations for the brick foundations had begun by July 1840. On 30 September 1840, the first stone of the column was laid by Charles Davison Scott, honorary secretary of the committee (and son of Nelson's secretary, John Scott), at a ceremony conducted, according to the Nautical Magazine, "in a private manner, owing to the noblemen and gentlemen comprising the committee being absent from town".[8] Construction of the monument, by the contractors Grissell and Peto, progressed slowly, and the stonework, ready for the installation of the statue, was not completed until November 1843. In 1844 the Nelson Memorial Committee ran out of money, having only raised £20,485 in public subscriptions,[9] and the Government, in the form of the Office of Woods and Forests took over the project.[5] Installation of the bronze reliefs on the pedestal did not begin until late 1849, when John Edward Carew's depiction of the death of Nelson was put in place on the side facing Whitehall. This was followed early the next year by William F. Woodington's relief of the Battle of the Nile on the opposite side.[10][11] Carew's relief was cast by Adams, Christie and Co. of Rotherhithe. [10] The other three were cast by Moore, Fressange and Moore. The last to be made, The Battle of Cape St Vincent became the subject of legal action, when it was discovered that the bronze had been adulterated with iron. The partners in the company were jailed for fraud and the relief was completed by Robinson and Cottam. [12] It was finally put in place in May 1854.[13]

The sandstone statue by Edward Hodges Baily

The 5.5-metre (18 ft 1 in) statue at the top was sculpted by Edward Hodges Baily
Edward Hodges Baily
R.A. from three pieces of Craigleith sandstone donated by the Duke of Buccleuch, former chairman of the Nelson Memorial Committee, from his own quarries.[14] The statue stands on a fluted column built from solid blocks of granite from the Foggintor quarries on Dartmoor.[15] The Corinthian capital is made of bronze elements, cast from cannon salvaged from the wreck of HMS Royal George[16] at the Woolwich Arsenal foundry. It is based on the Temple of Mars Ultor
Temple of Mars Ultor
in Rome, and was modelled by C.H. Smith.. The bronze pieces, some weighing as much as 900 pounds (410 kg) are fixed to the column by the means of three large belts of metal lying in grooves in the stone. [17] The four identical bronze Barbary lions[18] at the column's base were not added until 1867. At one stage, they were intended to be of granite, and the sculptor John Graham Lough
John Graham Lough
was chosen to carve them. However, in 1846, after consultations with Railton, he turned down the commission, unwilling to work under the restrictions imposed by the architect.[19][20] The sculptures eventually installed, commissioned in 1858, were designed by Sir Edwin Landseer
Sir Edwin Landseer
in collaboration with Baron Marochetti. Their design may have been influenced by Marschalko János's lions at each abutment to the Széchenyi Lánchíd
Széchenyi Lánchíd
(Chain Bridge) in Budapest, installed 6 years before the Trafalgar Square lions were commissioned. Landseer was paid £6,000 for his services, and Marochetti £11,000.[20] In 2011, consultants for the Greater London
London
Authority reported that tourists climbing onto the backs of the lions have caused considerable damage and recommended banning tourists from climbing them.[21] The column also had a symbolic importance to Adolf Hitler. If Hitler's plan to invade Britain, Operation Sea Lion, had been successful, he planned to move it to Berlin.[22] Refurbishment[edit] The column was refurbished in 2006, during which time it was scaffolded from top to bottom for access. Steam cleaning was used together with gentle abrasives to minimise any harmful impact on the bronze and stonework.[23] The £420,000 cost was covered by Zurich Financial Services, which advertised on the scaffolding for the duration of the work. Before restoration began, laser surveys were taken during which it was found that the column was significantly shorter than the usually quoted 185 ft (56.4 m). In fact, it measures 169 ft (51.5 m) from the bottom of the first step to the tip of the admiral's hat.[3][4] Publicity stunts and protests[edit] John Noakes
John Noakes
of the BBC
BBC
TV children's programme Blue Peter
Blue Peter
climbed the column in the late 1970s. Television presenter and entertainer Gary Wilmot climbed the column in 1989 for LWT's 'Six O' Clock Show' to recreate the 'topping out' ceremony of 1843. Dressed in Victorian attire and sporting a boater hat, Wilmott enjoyed tea and sandwiches at the top of the column before climbing down. The column has also been climbed on several occasions as a publicity stunt to draw attention to social or political causes. Ed Drummond made the first such climb in 1979 for the Anti-Apartheid Movement, making use of the lightning conductor en route. On 31 March 1988 Joe Simpson and John Stevenson climbed the column as part of a Greenpeace Campaign against Acid Rain. On 14 June 1992 it was climbed by Martin Cotterrel, Joe Simpson and John Stevenson on behalf of Greenpeace
Greenpeace
to protest against the first Earth Summit meeting in Brazil. On 13 April 1995, Simon Nadin free-climbed Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
with Noel Craine, Jerry Moffat and Johnny Dawes
Johnny Dawes
following on top rope, and graded the climb as "E6 6b/5a". This protest time was on behalf of Survival International to publicize the plight of Canada's Inuit people. On 13 May 1998 the Column was climbed by Al Baker, Peter Morris and John Cunningham on behalf of Greenpeace
Greenpeace
to protest against Old growth logging activity in British Columbia. In May 2003, BASE jumper and stuntman Gary Connery parachuted from the top of the column, in a stunt designed to draw attention to the Chinese policies in Tibet. In December 2015, Disney
Disney
paid £24,000 to cover it in lights to make it resemble a giant lightsaber, to promote Star Wars: The Force Awakens.[24] On 18 April 2016, in the early hours of the morning, Greenpeace activists climbed up the column and placed a breathing mask on Admiral Lord Nelson in protest of dangerous air pollution levels.[25] Other monuments to Nelson[edit] Main article: Monuments and memorials to Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson The first civic monument to be erected in Nelson's honour was a 44-metre high obelisk on Glasgow Green
Glasgow Green
in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1806. Also in Scotland, the Nelson Monument
Monument
stands on top of Calton Hill, Edinburgh, and there is also a Nelson's Tower in Forres, Moray
Moray
which opened in 1812. In Dublin, Ireland, Nelson's Pillar
Nelson's Pillar
was erected in 1808 but was destroyed by republicans in 1966, and in the Bull Ring, Birmingham, England, there is a Grade II* listed bronze statue of Nelson by Richard Westmacott, dating from 1809. Sir Richard Westmacott also designed the elaborate monument to Nelson in Liverpool. In Portsmouth, Nelson's Needle, on top of Portsdown Hill, was paid for by the company of HMS Victory after arriving back in Portsmouth. There is a column topped with a decorative urn in the Castle Green, Hereford
Hereford
– a statue was planned in place of the urn, but insufficient money was raised.[26] The Britannia Monument, Great Yarmouth, England (1819) is a 144 feet high doric column design. Elsewhere in the world, Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
in Montreal
Montreal
was erected by both British and Canadian citizens in 1809, and there is also a Mount Nelson, near Invermere, British Columbia. As at London, the column in Montreal
Montreal
has the admiral standing with his back to the waves. A much shorter statue of Lord Nelson in Trafalgar Square, Bridgetown, Barbados
Barbados
is older than its counterpart in London.[27][28][29] Gallery[edit]

The Battle of Cape St Vincent by Musgrave Watson
Musgrave Watson
and William F. Woodington, the relief on the west face of the plinth

The Battle of the Nile
Battle of the Nile
by William F. Woodington, the relief on the north face of the plinth

The Battle of Copenhagen by John Ternouth, the relief on the east face of the plinth

The Death of Nelson at Trafalgar by John Edward Carew, the relief on the south face of the plinth

One of the four lions designed by Landseer at the base

The column during the Great Smog
Great Smog
of 1952

References[edit]

^ a b "The Selected Design for the Nelson Testimonial". The Art Union. 1: 100. 1839. Retrieved 30 May 2011. , p.100 ^ White, Colin (2002), The Nelson Encyclopaedia, Park House, Russell Gardens, London.: Chatham Publishing, Lionel Leventhal Limited, p. 178, ISBN 1-86176-253-4  ^ a b "Restored naval hero is revealed", BBC
BBC
News, 11 July 2006  ^ a b Dawar, Anil (13 July 2006), " Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
is 16ft shorter than everybody thought", The Telegraph, London, retrieved 20 May 2010  ^ a b "Lot No: 35 An important mid 19th century carved bathstone architect's 1:40 scale model of Nelson's column". Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ The Civil engineer and architect's journal, Volume 2, 1839 ^ Report from the Select Committee on Trafalgar Square. London. 1840.  ^ "The Nelson Memorial". The Nautical magazine. 9: 887–8. 1840. Retrieved 14 July 2011.  ^ Hansards Parliamentary Debates, Vol. CXLIV, p.1220 ^ a b "The Nelson Column, Trafalgar Square". The Times. 6 December 1849. p. 3.  ^ "The Nelson Column". The Times. 5 April 1850. p. 5.  ^ " Bronze
Bronze
sculpture founders: a short history". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 12 September 2011.  ^ Mace, Rodney (1976). Trafalgar Square: Emblem of Empire. London: Lawrence and Wishart. p. 107.  ^ "Granton Quarry". Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ "Holiday Geology Guides – Trafalgar Square". British Geological Survey. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ " BBC
BBC
News – The wreck that revealed the Mary Rose". Bbc.co.uk. 4 September 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2011.  ^ Timbs, John (1858). Curiosities of London. London. p. 284. Retrieved 27 October 2011.  ^ "The lion: A victim of its own power?". BBC. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ "Landseers Lions in Trafalgar Square". Retrieved 30 May 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ a b "Origins of Nelson Column". The Times. 22 November 1943. p. 6.  ^ "Ban tourists from Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
lions before they destroy them, report says". Telegraph.co.uk. 19 June 2011.  ^ MacLean, Rory (1 October 2007). " London
London
illuminated". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 May 2010.  ^ Project of Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
Restoration, David Ball Restoration, archived from the original on 15 June 2008, retrieved 30 September 2008  ^ "Video: 'Star Wars: The Force Awakens': Disney
Disney
pay £24,000 to turn Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
into a lightsaber - Telegraph". Telegraph.co.uk. 17 December 2015.  ^ "Eight arrests after Greenpeace
Greenpeace
protesters scale London
London
monuments". BBC
BBC
News. 18 April 2016.  ^ Patrick Burns (30 August 2011). " BBC
BBC
site with photograph". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2011.  ^ Lord Nelson Statue. FunBarbados.com ^ Barbados
Barbados
Tourism Encyclopaedia – Lord Nelson's Bronze
Bronze
Statue ^ The Government of Barbados
Barbados
Archived 13 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – Lord Nelson's Bronze
Bronze
Statue

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nelson's Column.

Nelson's broken arm to be X-rayed – From BBC
BBC
News, 26 April 2006 Web cam of Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
including Nelson's Column John Timbs, Curiosities of London, 1867 Entry in Victorian London
London
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