Negros Oriental (Cebuano: Sidlakang Negros; Hiligaynon: Negros
Sidlangan; Filipino: Silangang Negros), also called Oriental Negros or
Eastern Negros, is a province located in the region of Central
Visayas, in the Philippines. It occupies the southeastern half of the
large island of Negros, with
Negros Occidental comprising the
northwestern half. It also includes Apo Island, a popular dive site
for both, local and foreign tourists.
Negros Oriental faces
Cebu to the east across the
Tañon Strait and
Siquijor to the south-east (which happened to be part of the province
before). The primary spoken language is Cebuano and the predominant
religious denomination is Roman Catholicism.
Dumaguete City is the
capital, seat of government and most populous city of the province.
With a population of 1,354,995 inhabitants, it is the second
most-populous province in
Central Visayas after Cebu, the fifth
most-populous province in the
Visayas and the 19th most-populous
province of the Philippines.
3 Administrative divisions
11 External links
See also: Negros Revolution
Dumaguete Church with its belfry built in the 1760s and 1870s to
warn townsfolk of attacks by marauding pirates. (circa 1891)
Negros, the second largest island in the
Visayas and fourth largest
island in the Philippines, is believed to have once been part of a
larger landmass, but was cut off by rising waters at the end of the
last ice age. Among the early inhabitants of the island were the
Negritos and the Austronesians, and later the Han Chinese, who are
mainly merchants. being the They called the island "Buglas", a
native word which is believed to mean "cut off".
Spanish explorers on the expedition of
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi first
came to the island in April 1565. Legazpi dropped anchor in
sent his men to scout the island. Because of the strong currents of
Tañon Strait between
Cebu and Negros, they were carried for
several days and forced to land on the western side of the island.
They reported seeing many dark-skinned inhabitants, and they called
the island "Negros" (Negro means "black" in Spanish). The island was
sparsely settled at the time, except for a few coastal settlements
including Ilog and Binalbagan. In 1571, Legaspi assigned encomiendas
on the island to 13 of his men. Augustinian friars began the
Christianization of the island the next year. The island was
administered as part of the jurisdiction of Oton until 1734 when it
became a military district, and Ilog became the capital of the island.
The capital was transferred to
Himamaylan in 1795. Negros became a
politico-military province in 1865 and the capital was transferred to
Due to its proximity to Mindanao, the southeastern coasts of Negros
was in constant threat from Moro marauders looking for slaves, so
watchtowers were built to protect the Christian villages. The Moro
raids and Negros Oriental's distance from the Negros capital of
Bacolod, induced 13 Recollectionist priests to petition for the
division of the island in July 1876. The island of Negros was then
divided into the provinces of
Negros Oriental and
Negros Occidental by
a royal decree executed by
Valeriano Weyler on
January 1, 1890.
Dumaguete was made the first capital of Negros
Oriental. In 1892,
Siquijor became a part of Negros Oriental, having
previously been administered by Spain under the politico-military
province of Bohol.
Philippine Revolution reached the province in 1898, disrupting
government functions but without extreme violence and bloodshed.
Revolutionary troops in the province were composed mostly of farm
labourers and other prominent people of the province of Negros
Oriental, who were organized and led by Don Diego de la Viña. The
Spanish colonial government in
Dumaguete and the rest of the island
was overthrown on November 24, 1898. Later, the
Negros Occidental area
under the leadership of Gen. Araneta only, in contrast to the Negros
Oriental area under the leadership of Don Diego de la Viña, merged to
form the Cantonal Republic of Negros, a separate government from the
Malolos Republic established in Luzon.
In 1901, the
Negros Oriental province was reorganized by the United
States and a civil government was established with
Demetrio Larena as
governor. The American government made
Siquijor a "sub-province" of
Negros Oriental became a province under the American
civil government on March 10, 1917 through Act 2711. In 1934,
Negros Oriental became a corregimiento, a separate military district.
Under the American colonial government, transportation infrastructure
was developed with improvements of roads and new bridges.
During World War II, both Negros provinces were invaded by Imperial
Japanese forces, resorting many residents to flee to the inland
Negros Island was liberated by combined Philippine &
American troops with the local
Negrense guerillas attacking the
Japanese on August 6, 1945. The 7th, 73rd, 74th and 75th Infantry
Divisions of the Philippine Commonwealth Army were established from
January 3, 1942 to June 30, 1946 and the 7th Infantry Regiment of the
Philippine Constabulary was active from October 28, 1944 to June 30,
1946 at the Military General Headquarters in Negros
Oriental.[clarification needed] They started the engagements of the
Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Negros from 1942 to 1945
against the Japanese Imperial forces.[further explanation needed]
On September 17 of 1971,
Siquijor finally became an independent
province by virtue of Republic Act No. 6396.
In 29 May 2015, the
Negros Island Region was formed when Negros
Oriental was separated from
Central Visayas and transferred to the new
region along with
Negros Occidental and Bacolod, when President
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III signed Executive Order No. 183, s. 2015. But it
was abolished on August 9, 2017 when President
Rodrigo Duterte revoked
Executive Order No. 183, s. 2015 through the signage of Executive
Order No. 38, citing the reason of the lack of funds to fully
establish the NIR according to Benjamin Diokno, the Secretary of
Budget and Management, reverting
Negros Oriental back into Central
Visayas. However, with the Philippines' current presidential
administration promoting federalism, the idea of the twin provinces of
Negros Oriental and
Negros Occidental reunified into one federal
state/region is already in the talks of local provincial politicians,
with some additional support from the native Negrenses.
Rock formations at Apo Island
Mount Talinis (also known as the Cuernos de Negros), located southwest
of Valencia, is the second highest volcanic mountain in Negros.
Negros Oriental occupies the south-eastern half of the island of
Negros Occidental comprising the north-western half. It
has a total land area of 5,385.53 km2 (2,079.36 sq mi).
A chain of rugged mountains separates
Negros Oriental from Negros
Negros Oriental faces
Cebu to the east across the Tañon
Siquijor to the southeast. The
Sulu Sea borders it to the
south to southwest. Negros is basically volcanic, making its soil
ideal for agriculture. Eighty percent of all arable land in the island
region is cultivated.
The province's topography is characterized by low, grooved mountain
ranges of which some lie close to the shoreline. At the southern end
of the province is Mount Talinis, also known as Cuernos de Negros
("Horns of Negros"), which is a dormant complex volcano which rises to
a height of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). At the northern end of the
province is the active Kanlaon Volcano, the highest peak of the island
region with a height of 2,465 metres (8,087 ft). There are a few
flatlands and plateaus in the interior to the southwest of the
province, which includes the Tablas Plateau.
One of the landmarks of
Dumaguete is the
Dumaguete Bell Tower which
stands next to the Saint Catherine of Alexandria Cathedral. It
once used to warn the city of impending pirate attacks.
Negros Oriental has a tropical climate. Because of the mountain range
running from the north to the south, the province has two types of
climatic conditions. The eastern part of the province is
characterized by unpronounced[clarification needed] maximum rainfall
with a short dry season lasting from one to three months. The western
half of the province is characterized by a distinct wet season and dry
Negros Oriental comprises 19 municipalities and 6 cities, further
subdivided into 557 barangays.
Dumaguete City is the provincial capital and seat of government. It is
also the province's most populous city, despite having the smallest
land area among all component cities and municipalities of Negros
For purposes of legislative representation, the cities and
municipalities are grouped into three congressional districts, with
each district electing a congressman to the House of Representatives
of the Philippines.
† Provincial capital and component city
∗ Component city
City or municipality[A]
9°27′49″N 123°13′36″E / 9.4636°N 123.2266°E /
9.4636; 123.2266 (Amlan)
9°51′31″N 123°08′37″E / 9.8587°N 123.1436°E /
9.8587; 123.1436 (Ayungon)
9°14′43″N 123°17′42″E / 9.2452°N 123.2951°E /
9.2452; 123.2951 (Bacong)
9°35′29″N 123°07′17″E / 9.5914°N 123.1213°E /
9.5914; 123.1213 (Bais)
9°24′36″N 122°38′27″E / 9.4099°N 122.6409°E /
9.4099; 122.6409 (Basay)
9°22′00″N 122°48′20″E / 9.3668°N 122.8055°E /
9.3668; 122.8055 (Bayawan)
9°45′21″N 123°08′27″E / 9.7557°N 123.1408°E /
9.7557; 123.1408 (Bindoy)
10°23′11″N 123°13′28″E / 10.3865°N 123.2245°E /
10.3865; 123.2245 (Canlaon)
9°11′28″N 123°15′56″E / 9.1911°N 123.2655°E /
9.1911; 123.2655 (Dauin)
9°18′19″N 123°18′29″E / 9.3054°N 123.3080°E /
9.3054; 123.3080 (Dumaguete)
10°07′12″N 123°16′22″E / 10.1199°N 123.2728°E /
10.1199; 123.2728 (Guihulngan)
9°58′45″N 123°12′01″E / 9.9791°N 123.2003°E /
9.9791; 123.2003 (Jimalalud)
10°01′35″N 123°14′02″E / 10.0264°N 123.2338°E /
10.0264; 123.2338 (La Libertad)
9°43′35″N 122°55′46″E / 9.7265°N 122.9294°E /
9.7265; 122.9294 (Mabinay)
9°40′46″N 123°08′57″E / 9.6795°N 123.1492°E /
9.6795; 123.1492 (Manjuyod)
9°28′20″N 123°07′06″E / 9.4722°N 123.1184°E /
9.4722; 123.1184 (Pamplona)
9°24′50″N 123°14′30″E / 9.4138°N 123.2417°E /
9.4138; 123.2417 (San Jose)
9°19′59″N 122°51′47″E / 9.3330°N 122.8631°E /
9.3330; 122.8631 (Santa Catalina)
9°03′51″N 123°01′56″E / 9.0641°N 123.0323°E /
9.0641; 123.0323 (Siaton)
9°21′32″N 123°17′05″E / 9.3589°N 123.2847°E /
9.3589; 123.2847 (Sibulan)
9°30′58″N 123°09′26″E / 9.5162°N 123.1573°E /
9.5162; 123.1573 (Tanjay)
9°55′23″N 123°10′20″E / 9.9231°N 123.1723°E /
9.9231; 123.1723 (Tayasan)
9°16′54″N 123°14′41″E / 9.2817°N 123.2446°E /
9.2817; 123.2446 (Valencia)
10°20′05″N 123°19′34″E / 10.3348°N 123.3260°E /
10.3348; 123.3260 (Vallehermoso)
9°06′07″N 123°11′55″E / 9.1019°N 123.1987°E /
9.1019; 123.1987 (Zamboanguita)
(see GeoGroup box)
^ Former names are italicized.
Coordinates mark the city/town center, and are sortable by latitude.
^ Municipality applying for cityhood
Population census of
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority
Languages Spoken (2000)
Other Visayan languages
The population of
Negros Oriental in the 2015 census was 1,354,995
people, with a density of 250/km2 (650/sq mi). As of 2010, its
registered voting population are 606,634. 34.5% of the population
are concentrated in the six most populous component cities of
Dumaguete, Bayawan, Guihulngan, Tanjay, Bais and Canlaon. Population
growth per year is about 0.99% over the period of 2010-2015, lower
than the national average of 1.72%.
Residents of Negros are called "Negrenses" (and less often
"Negrosanons") and many are of either pure/mixed Austronesian
heritage, with foreign ancestry (i.e. Chinese and/or Spanish) as
Negros Oriental is predominantly a Cebuano-speaking
province by 72%, due to its close proximity to Cebu. Hiligaynon is
spoken by the remaining 28% and is common in areas close to the border
with Negros Occidental. Filipino and English, though seldom used, are
generally understood and used for official, literary and educational
Christianity is the predominant religion in the province with Roman
Catholicism (77%) as the largest single denomination . However,
there is a strong and growing presence of mainline and evangelical
Protestant which forms about 12% of the province population. The
Iglesia Ni Cristo(1.4%), the Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah's
Witnesses and the Aglipayan Church, also known as the Philippine
Independent Church also has some presence. Adherents of Islam and
Buddhism constitute a minority of the population.
A Geothermal power station in Valencia
Negros Oriental has, for a long time, been a major supplier of
electricity to its neighboring provinces in the
Visayas with its
excess power capacity generated by the 192.5-MW Palinpinon geothermal
plant. This plant has recently been expanded with an additional
49MW capacity, bringing total power output of the province to over
240MW. Despite the huge power excess of the Province, other power
sources such as hydro, wind and solar are being explored to provide
additional power capacities that can be sold to neighboring areas.
With its vast fertile land resources, Negros Oriental's other major
industry is agriculture. The primary crops are sugarcane, sweetcorn,
coconut and rice. In the coastal areas, fishing is the main source
of income. People are also involved in cattle ranches, fish ponds and
rubber plantations, especially in
Bayawan City. There are also mineral
deposits like gold, silver and copper found throughout the inner areas
of the province.
The province is already emerging as a major technological center in
Visayas, with its growing business process outsourcing (BPO) that has
started to penetrate the province's secondary cities and other
technology-related industries. Vehicle assembly is a growing industry
in Amlan. Construction of mass housing and subdivisions is very
evident in the periphery of
Dumaguete City and is expected to
spillover into the province's secondary cities and fast-growing towns.
Other industries include water bottling and warehousing, as well as
cold and dry storing. Retailing has penetrated other urban areas
outside Dumaguete, with the entry of supermarkets and shopping malls
in cities such as Bayawan,
Tanjay and Bais. The town of Bacong, which
Dumaguete in the south, hosts many industrial plants geared
for the local and export markets, which can bolster economic growth.
Negros Oriental is also a notable tourist destination in the Visayas.
A motorized tricycle in
Negros Oriental has a network of roads, including a national road that
spans the circumference of Negros Island. National and provincial
roads in the province total more than 900 kilometers, though only
about half of these are paved.
A large portion of residents do not own private vehicles, and are
totally reliant on public transport. The main form of public transport
between the cities and municipalities of the province largely consists
of privately operated jeepneys that link major towns to rural areas.
For short distances within a town, motorized tricycles (locally known
as pedicabs) are available.
Dumaguete Airport located in
Sibulan is the province's only
government-operated airport. It is a domestic airport with
multiple daily flights to and from Manila, served by Philippine
Cebu Pacific. Based on 2002 statistics, an average of
5,800 outgoing passengers and 5,700 incoming passengers pass through
the airport every month. However, this airport is due for transfer to
Bacong because of congestion in its current location.
The primary seaport of the province is located in
Additionally, there are five other seaports in the province classified
Dumaguete City, the provincial capital, is known as a university city
due to the existence of many universities and colleges in the
city. These universities include:
Silliman University (1901), the
oldest American established university in Asia; St. Paul
Dumaguete (1904), the first Paulinian school in the
Philippines and oldest catholic school in
Negros Island known for its
Nursing, Tourism, Liberal Arts in History and English, Public
Administration, Mass Communication, Business Administration and
Negros Oriental State University
Negros Oriental State University (formerly NOTS-1927,
EVSAT, CVPC); and
Foundation University (1949). The Colegio de Sta.
Catalina De Alejandria (COSCA),
Negros Oriental High School (1902),
Ramon Teves Pastor Memorial-
Dumaguete Science High School (1986),
Dumaguete City High School (1967), Catherina Cittadini (St. Louis)
School, Holy Cross High School and St. Louis School-Don Bosco (1967)
can be also found in the city. There are also institutions and
colleges inside (e.g. Metro
Dumaguete College, STI, Maxino College,
PTC, AMA Computer College, Asian College) and outside the city.
Each town in
Negros Oriental celebrates an annual town fiesta, usually
dedicated to a patron saint of a particular town or city. In some of
the larger towns, there are particular fiestas for specific
neighborhoods or barangays.
Additionally, the Buglasan Festival, which was revived in 2001, is
celebrated annually in October in the provincial capital of Dumaguete
and is hailed as Negros Oriental's "festival of festivals". It is
a week-long celebration where you can see unique booths of each town
and city in
Negros Oriental featuring their native products and
tourist attractions. The highlight of the occasion is the float parade
and street dancing competition.
The province is the home of the last living remnants of the Inata
language speakers. The Sebwano language is spoken throughout the
province, while the indigenous Minagahat language is spoken in the
There are at least six local publications in general circulation
around the province. These publications include the Dumaguete
MetroPost, The Negros Chronicle,
Dumaguete Star Informer,
Times Focus, Island News and The Visayan Daily Star. Sun.Star
Dumaguete publishes news online bi-weekly. PLDT,
Globe Telecom and
their subsidiaries are major providers of network connection within
the province. Major providers, in TV and radio are ABS-CBN, GMA, TV5
and CNN Philippines. Cable TV provides access to BBC,
ESPN and other
international programs. The province is mainly served by one regional
newscast: TV Patrol
Central Visayas (shared with ABS-CBN Cebu).
^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines:
National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on
2013-01-21. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
^ a b c d e f Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the
Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20
^ a b "Files Magazine". Panay News. Archived from the original on 18
December 2005. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
^ a b c d WOW
Negros Oriental history Archived August
19, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Republic of Negros". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 22 July
^ "An Act Amending the Administrative Code" (PDF). Official Gazette of
the Republic of the Philippines. 10 March 1917. Retrieved 23 April
2016. The Province of Oriental Negros consists of territory in the
south and eastern part of the Island of Negros, with adjacent small
islands, and includes also the subprovince of Siquijor, which consists
of the island of the same name. The province contains the following
municipalities: Ayungon, Ayuquitan, Bacong, Bais, Dauin, Dumaguete
(the capital of the province), Enrique Villanueva, Guijulñgan,
Jimalalud, La Libertad, Larena, Lazi, Luzuriaga, Manjuyod, Maria, San
Juan, Siaton, Sibulan, Siquijor, (Talingting), Tanjay, Tayasan,
Tolong, Vallehermoso, and Zamboanguita. This province also contains
the municipal district of Tambo.
^ "Major Hubs 5 Major Destinations". Asia-planet.net. Retrieved 22
^ Mills, S.A., 2009, Stranded in the Philippines, Annapolis: Naval
Institute Press, ISBN 9781591144977
^ "Republic Act No. 6398 - An Act Separating the Subprovince of
Siquijor from the Province of Oriental Negros and Establishing It as
an Independent Province". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 17
September 1971. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
^ "Executive Order No. 183; Creating a
Negros Island Region and for
Other Purposes". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
Malacañan Palace, Manila, Philippines. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 8 July
^ "Duterte dissolves
Negros Island Region". Rappler. August 9, 2017.
Retrieved August 10, 2017.
^ Teresa D. Ellera (26 March 2018). "2 governors push Negros Island
state". Sun.Star. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
^ Juancho R. Gallarde (27 March 2018). "Governors want Negros federal
state". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
^ a b c "
Negros Oriental Provincial Agricultural Profile" (PDF).
Agriculture and Fisheries Market
Information System (AFMIS). 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
Dumaguete Belfry - Philippines".
Dumaguete Info: the Website of
Gentle People. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
^ Grele, Dominique; Lily Yousry-Jouve (2004). 100 Resorts in the
Philippines: Places with a Heart. Asiatype, Inc. p. 247.
ISBN 978-971-91719-7-3. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
Climate Condition". Agribiz Oriental. Archived from the original on
27 January 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
^ a b "Province: Negros Oriental". PSGC Interactive.
Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January
^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region VII (Central
Visayas)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and
Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
^ Gallarde, Juancho R. (30 August 2013). "In Negros Oriental: Valencia
town readies bid to become a city". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 3
^ Camion, Victor L. (21 November 2013). "House to hear Valencia
Sun.Star Dumaguete. Archived from the original on 24
November 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual
Growth Rates for The
Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and
Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
^ "Negros Oriental: More Than One-Third of the Houses Were Built in
the Latter 90's (Results from the 2000 Census of Population and
Housing, NSO); Table 4. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex:
Negros Oriental, 2000". Philippine Statistics Authority. 9 September
2002. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
^ "Region: NIR -
Negros Island Region". Philippine Statistics
Authority. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
^ Gatdula, Donnabelle L. (26 October 2009). "EDC takes over Tongonan,
Palinpinon geothermal plants". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 23 April
^ a b c "Transportation". Agribiz Oriental. Archived from the original
on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
^ "Negros Oriental". Department of Trade and Industry. Archived from
the original on 6 October 2003. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
^ Bangayan, Dorothy (2006-12-14). "Let's do Dumaguete!". Sun.Star
Davao. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. Retrieved
Dumaguete is also known as a university town due to the
numerous colleges including their famous Silliman.
^ Dexter R. Matilla. "Heritage diary of Negros Oriental". Philippine
Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
^ Amarado, Romy G. (25 October 2003). "The 'fantastic' Buglasan
Festival of Dumaguete". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
Philippines. Inquirer News Service. Archived from the original on 30
August 2005. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
^ "Buglasan Festival 2015 opens with 'Fiesta sa Nayon'". Sun.Star
Dumaguete. Philippine Information Agency. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 23
^ "Visayan News".
Dumaguete MetroPost. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
^ "(Home page)". The Negros Chronicle. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
Negros Oriental (home page)". The Visayan Daily Star. Retrieved 16
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
Negros Oriental travel guide from Wikivoyage
Media related to
Negros Oriental at Wikimedia Commons
Geographic data related to
Negros Oriental at OpenStreetMap
Official Website of the Provincial Government of Negros Oriental
Local Governance Performance Management System
Places adjacent to Negros Oriental
Tañon Strait / Cebu
Zamboanga del Norte
Bohol Sea / Siquijor
Province of Negros Oriental
Articles related to Negros Oriental
Central Visayas (Region VII)
Highly Urbanized Cities
President Carlos P. Garcia
Valencia (Negros Oriental)
Visayas, Republic of the Philippines
Administrative divisions of the Philippines
Manila (National Capital Region)
I – Ilocos Region
III – Central Luzon
IV-A – Calabarzon
Mimaropa – Southwestern Tagalog Region
V – Bicol Region
VI – Western Visayas
VII – Central Visayas
VIII – Eastern Visayas
IX – Zamboanga Peninsula
X – Northern Mindanao
XI – Davao Region
XII – Soccsksargen
XIII – Caraga
CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region
NCR – National Capital Region
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Sur
Davao del Norte
Davao del Sur
Lanao del Norte
Lanao del Sur
Surigao del Norte
Surigao del Sur
Zamboanga del Norte
Zamboanga del Sur
List of cities in the Philippines
List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines
Lists of barangays by province
List of primary LGUs
Formally proposed provinces
Negros Island Region
Archaic Era (900–1521)
Colonial era (1521–1946)
Spanish period (1521–1898)
American period (1898–1946)
Postcolonial era (1946–1986)
Third Republic (1946–65)
Marcos dictatorship (1965–86)
Contemporary history (1986–present)
World Heritage Sites
President pro tem
House of Representatives
Court of Appeals
Philippine legal codes
National Bureau of Investigation
National Counter-Terrorism Action Group
National Intelligence Coordinating Agency
Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency
Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippine Air Force
Philippine Marine Corps
Philippine Coast Guard
Business process outsourcing
Science and technology
Water and Sanitation
Provinces by HDI
Fashion and clothing
Coat of arms