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Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Nefertiti
Nefertiti
(/ˌnɛfərˈtiːti/[3]) (c. 1370 – c. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife
(chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history.[4] Some scholars believe that Nefertiti
Nefertiti
ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
after her husband's death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate.[5][6] If Nefertiti did rule as Pharaoh, her reign was marked by the fall of Amarna
Amarna
and relocation of the capital back to the traditional city of Thebes.[7] Nefertiti
Nefertiti
had many titles including Hereditary Princess (iryt-p`t); Great of Praises (wrt-hzwt); Lady of Grace (nbt-im3t), Sweet of Love (bnrt-mrwt); Lady of The Two Lands (nbt-t3wy); Main King's Wife, his beloved (hmt-niswt-‘3t meryt.f); Great King's Wife, his beloved (hmt-niswt-wrt meryt.f), Lady of all Women (hnwt-hmwt-nbwt); and Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt (hnwt-Shm’w-mhw).[8] She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin's Neues Museum, shown to the right. The bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop. The bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Family 2 Life

2.1 Possible reign as Pharaoh

3 Death

3.1 Old theories 3.2 New theories

4 Burial

4.1 "Younger Lady"

5 Hittite letters 6 Iconic status 7 In the arts

7.1 Film 7.2 Literature 7.3 Music 7.4 Television

8 Gallery 9 References 10 External links

Family[edit] See also: Eighteenth Dynasty
Dynasty
of Egypt family tree

Limestone column fragment showing a cartouche of Nefertiti. Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

A "house altar" depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and three of their daughters; limestone; New Kingdom, Amarna
Amarna
period, 18th dynasty; c. 1350 BC - Collection: Ägyptisches Museum Berlin, Inv. 14145

Nefertiti, Egyptian Nfr.t-jy.tj, original pronunciation approximately Nafteta,[dubious – discuss] for ("the beauty has come"). Nefertiti's parentage is not known with certainty, but one often cited theory is that she was the daughter of Ay, later to be pharaoh. However, this hypothesis is likely wrong since Ay and his wife Tey
Tey
are never called the father and mother of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and Tey's only connection with her was that she was the "nurse of the great queen" Nefertiti.[9] Nefertiti's Scenes in the tombs of the nobles in Amarna
Amarna
mention the queen's sister who is named Mutbenret
Mutbenret
(previously read as Mutnodjemet).[10][11] Another theory that gained some support identified Nefertiti
Nefertiti
with the Mitanni
Mitanni
princess Tadukhipa.[12] However, Tadukhipa
Tadukhipa
was already married to Akhenaten's father and there is no evidence for any reason why this woman would need to alter her name in a proposed marriage to Akhenaten or any evidence of a foreign non-Egyptian background for Nefertiti. The exact dates when Nefertiti
Nefertiti
married Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and became the king's great royal wife of Egypt are uncertain. Their six known daughters (and estimated years of birth) were:[11][12]

Meritaten: No later than year 1, possibly later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten. Meketaten: Year 4. Ankhesenpaaten, also known as Ankhesenamen, later queen of Tutankhamun Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tasherit: Year 8, possibly later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten. Neferneferure: Year 9. Setepenre: Year 11.

Life[edit]

A standing/striding figure of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
made of limestone. Originally from Amarna, part of the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin
Ägyptisches Museum Berlin
collection.

Alabaster sunken relief depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and daughter Meritaten. Early Aten
Aten
cartouches on king's arm and chest. From Amarna, Egypt. 18th Dynasty. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Nefertiti
Nefertiti
first appears in scenes in Thebes. In the damaged tomb (TT188) of the royal butler Parennefer, the new king Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
is accompanied by a royal woman, and this lady is thought to be an early depiction of Nefertiti. The king and queen are shown worshiping the Aten. In the tomb of the vizier Ramose, Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is shown standing behind Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
in the Window of Appearance during the reward ceremony for the vizier.[12]

Close-up of a limestone relief depicting Nefertiti
Nefertiti
smiting a female captive on a royal barge. On display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

During the early years in Thebes, Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(still known as Amenhotep IV) had several temples erected at Karnak. One of the structures, the Mansion of the Benben (hwt-ben-ben), was dedicated to Nefertiti. She is depicted with her daughter Meritaten
Meritaten
and in some scenes the princess Meketaten
Meketaten
participates as well. In scenes found on the talatat, Nefertiti
Nefertiti
appears almost twice as often as her husband. She is shown appearing behind her husband the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
in offering scenes in the role of the queen supporting her husband, but she is also depicted in scenes that would have normally been the prerogative of the king. She is shown smiting the enemy, and captive enemies decorate her throne.[13] In the fourth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
decided to move the capital to Akhetaten
Akhetaten
(modern Amarna). In his fifth year, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten, and Nefertiti
Nefertiti
was henceforth known as Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti. The name change was a sign of the ever-increasing importance of the cult of the Aten. It changed Egypt's religion from a polytheistic religion to a religion which may have been better described as a monolatry (the depiction of a single god as an object for worship) or henotheism (one god, who is not the only god).[14] The boundary stelae of years 4 and 5 mark the boundaries of the new city and suggest that the move to the new city of Akhetaten
Akhetaten
occurred around that time. The new city contained several large open-air temples dedicated to the Aten. Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and her family would have resided in the Great Royal Palace in the centre of the city and possibly at the Northern Palace as well. Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and the rest of the royal family feature prominently in the scenes at the palaces and in the tombs of the nobles. Nefertiti's steward during this time was an official named Meryre II. He would have been in charge of running her household.[5][12] Inscriptions in the tombs of Huya and Meryre II
Meryre II
dated to Year 12, 2nd month of Peret, Day 8 show a large foreign tribute. The people of Kharu (the north) and Kush (the south) are shown bringing gifts of gold and precious items to Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and Nefertiti. In the tomb of Meryre II, Nefertiti's steward, the royal couple is shown seated in a kiosk with their six daughters in attendance.[5][12] This is one of the last times princess Meketaten
Meketaten
is shown alive. Two representations of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
that were excavated by Flinders Petrie appear to show Nefertiti
Nefertiti
in the middle to later part of Akhenaten's reign 'after the exaggerated style of the early years had relaxed somewhat'.[15] One is a small piece on limestone and is a preliminary sketch of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
wearing her distinctive tall crown with carving began around the mouth, chin, ear and tab of the crown. Another is a small inlay head (Petrie Museum Number UC103) modeled from reddish-brown quartzite that was clearly intended to fit into a larger composition. Meketaten
Meketaten
may have died in year 13 or 14. Nefertiti, Akhenaten, and three princesses are shown mourning her.[16] Nefertiti
Nefertiti
disappears from the scene soon after that.[12] Possible reign as Pharaoh[edit] See main article: Neferneferuaten Many scholars believe Nefertiti
Nefertiti
had a role elevated from that of Great Royal Wife, and was promoted to co-regent by her husband Pharaoh Akhenaten
Akhenaten
before his death.[17] She is depicted in many archaeological sites as equal in stature to a King, smiting Egypt's enemies, riding a chariot, and worshipping the Aten
Aten
in the manner of a Pharaoh.[18] When Nefertiti's name disappears from historical records, it is replaced by that of a co-regent named Neferneferuaten, who became a female Pharaoh.[19] It seems likely that Nefertiti, in a similar fashion to the previous female Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Hatshepsut, assumed the kingship under the name Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
after her husband's death. It is also possible that, in a similar fashion to Hatshepsut, Nefertiti
Nefertiti
disguised herself as a male and assumed the male alter-ego of Smenkhkare; in this instance she could have elevated her daughter Meritaten
Meritaten
to the role of Great Royal Wife. If Nefertiti
Nefertiti
did rule Egypt as Pharaoh, it has been theorized that she would have attempted damage control and may have re-instated the Ancient Egyptian religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
and the Amun
Amun
priests, and had Tutankhamun raised in with the traditional gods.[20] Archaeologist and Egyptologist Dr. Zahi Hawass
Zahi Hawass
theorized that Nefertiti
Nefertiti
returned to Thebes from Amarna
Amarna
to rule as Pharaoh, based on ushabti and other feminine evidence of a female Pharaoh
Pharaoh
found in Tutankhamun's tomb, as well as evidence of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
smiting Egypt's enemies which was a duty reserved to kings.[21] Death[edit]

Nefertiti
Nefertiti
worshipping the Aten. She is given the title of Mistress of the Two Lands. On display at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Further information: Amarna
Amarna
succession Old theories[edit]

Fragment with cartouche of Akhenaten, which is followed by epithet Great in his Lifespan and the title of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
Great King's Wife. Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Pre-2012 Egyptological theories thought that Nefertiti
Nefertiti
vanished from the historical record around Year 12 of Akhenaten's reign, with no word of her thereafter. Explanations included a sudden death, by a plague that was sweeping through the city, or some other natural death. This theory was based on the discovery of several ushabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti
Nefertiti
(now located in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums). A previous theory, that she fell into disgrace, was discredited when deliberate erasures of monuments belonging to a queen of Akhenaten were shown to refer to Kiya
Kiya
instead.[11] During Akhenaten's reign (and perhaps after), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
enjoyed unprecedented power. By the twelfth year of his reign, there is evidence she may have been elevated to the status of co-regent:[22] equal in status to the pharaoh — as may be depicted on the Coregency Stela. It is possible Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is the ruler named Neferneferuaten. Some theories believe that Nefertiti
Nefertiti
was still alive and held influence on the younger royals. If this is the case, that influence and presumably Nefertiti's own life would have ended by year 3 of Tutankhaten's reign (1331 BC). In that year, Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun. This is evidence of his return to the official worship of Amun, and abandonment of Amarna
Amarna
to return the capital to Thebes.[5] New theories[edit] Discovered in 2012, a Regnal Year 16, month 3 of Akhet, day 15 inscription, dated explicitly to Akhenaten's reign, mentions the presence of the "Great Royal Wife, His Beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Nefertiti".[23][24] The barely legible five line text "mentions a building project in Amarna" (Egypt's political capital under Akhenaten).[25][26] The inscription was found in a limestone quarry at Dayr Abū Ḥinnis, just north of Dayr al-Barshā, north of Amarna.[27] The inscription has now been published in a 2014 journal article by Athena Van der Perre who states that the five-line building inscription was found in a limestone quarry at Dayr Abū Ḥinnis.[28] Van der Perre notes that Dayr Abū Ḥinnis is located "on the eastern side of the Nile, about ten kilometers north of Amarna" and records that the building work inscription refers equally to both the ruling king Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and his great wife Nefertiti
Nefertiti
under the authority of the king's scribe Penthu.[29] Penthu
Penthu
was presumably the owner of Amarna
Amarna
Tomb 5—where one of his titles given was "first servant of the Aten
Aten
in the Mansion of Aten
Aten
in Akhetaten"; due to the rarity of his name and his position as chief priest within the Aten priesthood, it cannot be coincidental—as van der Perre writes—that the same Penthu
Penthu
would have been placed in charge of quarrying stone for the Aten
Aten
temple.[30] However, as Van der Perre stresses:[31]

...The importance of the inscription from Dayr Abū Ḥinnis lies in the first part of the text. This inscription offers incontrovertible evidence that both Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and Nefertiti
Nefertiti
were still alive in the 16th year of his (ie. Akhenaten's) reign and, more importantly, that they were still holding the same positions as at the start of their reign. This makes it necessary to rethink the final years of the Amarna
Amarna
Period.

This means that Nefertiti
Nefertiti
was alive in the second to last year of Akhenaten's reign, (this pharaoh's final year was his Year 17) and demonstrates that Akhenaten
Akhenaten
still ruled alone, with his wife by his side. Therefore, the rule of the female Amarna
Amarna
pharaoh known as Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
must be placed between the death of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and the accession of Tutankhamun. This female pharaoh used the epithet 'Effective for her husband' in one of her cartouches,[32] which means she was either Nefertiti
Nefertiti
or her daughter Meritaten
Meritaten
(who was married to king Smenkhkare). Burial[edit]

Limestone trial piece showing head of Nefertiti. Mainly in ink, but the lips were cut out. Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

There are many theories regarding Nefertiti's death and burial but, to date, the mummy of this famous queen, her parents, and her children have not been found or formally identified. In 1898, archeologist Victor Loret found two female mummies inside the tomb of Amenhotep II in KV35
KV35
in the Valley of the Kings. These two mummies, named 'The Elder Lady' and 'The Younger Lady', were likely candidates of her remains. The KMT suggested in 2001 that the Elder Lady may be Nefertiti's body.[33] It was argued that the evidence suggests that the mummy is around her mid-thirties or early forties, Nefertiti's guessed age of death. More evidence to support this identification was that the mummy's teeth look like that of a 29- to 38-year-old, Nefertiti's most likely age of death. Also, unfinished busts of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
appear to resemble the mummy's face, though other suggestions included Ankhesenamun. Due to recent age tests on the mummy's teeth, it eventually became apparent that the 'Elder Lady' is in fact Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and that the DNA of the mummy is a close, if not direct, match to the lock of hair found in Tutankhamun's tomb. The lock of hair was found in a coffinette bearing an inscription naming Queen Tiye.[34] Results have discovered that she was the daughter of Yuya and Thuya, who were the parents of Queen Tiye, thus ruling her out as Nefertiti.[34] In 2015, English archaeologist Nicholas Reeves announced that he had discovered evidence in high resolution scans of Tutankhamun's tomb "indications of two previously unknown doorways, one set within a larger partition wall and both seemingly untouched since antiquity...'To the north (there) appears to be signaled a continuation of tomb KV62, and within these uncharted depths an earlier royal interment – that of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
herself."[35] "Younger Lady"[edit] Main article: The Younger Lady On June 9, 2003, archaeologist Joann Fletcher, a specialist in ancient hair from the University of York
University of York
in England, announced that Nefertiti's mummy may have been the Younger Lady. Fletcher suggested that Nefertiti
Nefertiti
was the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Smenkhkare. Some Egyptologists hold to this view though the majority believe Smenkhkare
Smenkhkare
to have been a separate person. Fletcher led an expedition funded by the Discovery Channel to examine what they believed to have been Nefertiti's mummy. However, it is well known that an independent researcher, Marianne Luban, was the first person to suggest that the KV35
KV35
Young Lady could be Nefertiti
Nefertiti
in an online article, "Do We Have the Mummy of Nefertiti?" published in 1999.[36] The team claimed that the mummy they examined was damaged in a way suggesting the body had been deliberately desecrated in antiquity. Mummification techniques, such as the use of embalming fluid and the presence of an intact brain, suggested an eighteenth-dynasty royal mummy. Other elements which the team used to support their theory were the age of the body, the presence of embedded nefer beads, and a wig of a rare style worn by Nefertiti. They further claimed that the mummy's arm was originally bent in the position reserved for pharaohs, but was later snapped off and replaced with another arm in a normal position. Most Egyptologists, among them Kent Weeks and Peter Lacovara, generally dismiss Fletcher's claims as unsubstantiated. They say that ancient mummies are almost impossible to identify as a particular person without DNA. As bodies of Nefertiti's parents or children have never been identified, her conclusive identification is impossible. Any circumstantial evidence, such as hairstyle and arm position, is not reliable enough to pinpoint a single, specific historical person. The cause of damage to the mummy can only be speculated upon, and the alleged revenge is an unsubstantiated theory. Bent arms, contrary to Fletcher's claims, were not reserved to pharaohs; this was also used for other members of the royal family. The wig found near the mummy is of unknown origin, and cannot be conclusively linked to that specific body. Finally, the 18th dynasty was one of the largest and most prosperous dynasties of ancient Egypt. A female royal mummy could be any of a hundred royal wives or daughters from the 18th dynasty's more than 200 years on the throne. In addition to that, there was controversy about both the age and sex of the mummy. On June 12, 2003, Egyptian archaeologist Dr. Zahi Hawass, head of Egypt's Supreme Council for Antiquities, also dismissed the claim, citing insufficient evidence. On August 30, 2003, Reuters
Reuters
further quoted Hawass: "I'm sure that this mummy is not a female", and "Dr Fletcher has broken the rules and therefore, at least until we have reviewed the situation with her university, she must be banned from working in Egypt."[37] On different occasions, Hawass has claimed that the mummy is female and male.[38] In a more recent research effort led by Hawass, the mummy was put through CT scan analysis. Researchers concluded that she may be Tutankhamun's biological mother, an unnamed daughter of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye, not Nefertiti. Fragments of shattered bone were found in the sinus, and blood clots were found. The theory that the damage was inflicted post-mummification was rejected, and a murder scenario was deemed more likely. The broken-off bent forearm found near the mummy, which had been proposed to have belonged to it, was conclusively shown not to actually belong to the Younger Lady. Scholars think that, after Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
returned Egypt to the traditional religion, he moved his closest relatives - father, grandmother, and biological mother - to the Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
to be buried with him (according to the list of figurines and drawings in his tomb).[citation needed] Hittite letters[edit] A document was found in the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa
Hattusa
which dates to the Amarna
Amarna
period; the so-called "Deeds" of Suppiluliuma I. The Hittite ruler receives a letter from the Egyptian queen, while being in siege on Karkemish. The letter reads:[39]

My husband has died and I have no son. They say about you that you have many sons. You might give me one of your sons to become my husband. I would not wish to take one of my subjects as a husband... I am afraid.

This document is considered extraordinary, as Egyptians traditionally considered foreigners to be inferior. Suppiluliuma I
Suppiluliuma I
was surprised and exclaimed to his courtiers:[40]

Nothing like this has happened to me in my entire life!

Understandably, he was wary, and had an envoy investigate the situation, but by so doing, he missed his chance to bring Egypt into his empire. He eventually did send one of his sons, Zannanza, but the prince died, perhaps murdered, en route.[41] The identity of the queen who wrote the letter is uncertain. She is called Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
in the Hittite annals, a possible translation of the Egyptian title Tahemetnesu (The King's Wife).[42] The possible candidates are Nefertiti, Meritaten,[43] and Ankhesenamun. Ankhesenamun
Ankhesenamun
once seemed likely since there were no candidates for the throne on the death of her husband, Tutankhamun, whereas Akhenaten
Akhenaten
had at least two legitimate successors.[39] but this was based on a 27-year reign for the last 18th dynasty pharaoh Horemheb
Horemheb
who is now accepted to have had a shorter reign of only 14 years. This makes the deceased Egyptian king appear to be Akhenaten
Akhenaten
instead rather than Tutankhamun. Furthermore, the phrase regarding marriage to 'one of my subjects' (translated by some as 'servants') is possibly either a reference to the Grand Vizier Ay or a secondary member of the Egyptian royal family line. Since Nefertiti
Nefertiti
was depicted as powerful as her husband in official monuments smiting Egypt's enemies, she might be the Dakhamunzu
Dakhamunzu
in the Amarna
Amarna
correspondence as Nicholas Reeves believes.[44] Iconic status[edit]

Portrait study of Nefertiti

Further information: Nefertiti
Nefertiti
bust

Bust of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
in the flag of the Minya Governorate, Egypt

In the arts[edit]

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances; add references to reliable sources if possible. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2017)

Film[edit]

In The Egyptian
The Egyptian
(1954), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is played by Anitra Stevens In Nefertiti, Queen of the Nile
Nefertiti, Queen of the Nile
(1961), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is played by Jeanne Crain In Nefertiti, figlia del sole
Nefertiti, figlia del sole
(1994), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is played by Michela Rocco di Torrepadula In musical mini-film Remember the Time
Remember the Time
(1992), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is played by Iman

Literature[edit] (Alphabetical by author's last name)

A God Against the Gods (1976) and Return to Thebes (1977) by Allen Drury chronicle the story of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and Nefertiti In Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth
Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth
(1985) by Naguib Mahfouz, Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is one of the characters who reflects on Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and the Amarna
Amarna
period Nefertiti: A Novel (2008), by Michelle Moran The fourth section of James Rollins' sixth Sigma Force
Sigma Force
novel, The Doomsday Key (2009), is titled The Dark Madonna, and throughout the book the characters piece together Egyptian, pagan, and Christian myths, theology, and facts to find the Doomsday Key and Saint Malachy's original and complete book of Doomsday Prophecies. They ultimately find the key in a canopic jar, held by a preserved body in a glass casket bearing the inscription: "Here lies Meritaten, daughter of King Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and Queen Nefertiti. She who crossed the seas and brought the sun god Ra to these cold lands".[45] The Egyptian
The Egyptian
(1945) is an historical novel by Mika Waltari

Music[edit]

Nefertiti
Nefertiti
(1967) is a studio album by American jazz musician Miles Davis Nefertiti
Nefertiti
(2014), a classical ballet by American composer John Craton African Queens
African Queens
(Ritchie Family, 1978 Disco Album) Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is mentioned as part of a concept album regarding three famous African queens: Nefertiti, Cleopatra and the Queen of Sheba. Each Queen gets her own story verse in the course 18 minute medley.

Television[edit]

In Prophet Joseph (2008), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is played by Leila Boloukat In Doctor Who, "Dinosaurs on a Spaceship" (2012), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is played by Riann Steele In The Loretta Young
Loretta Young
Show, "Queen Nefertiti" (6 Jan. 1957, alternate title "Letter to Loretta"), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
is played by Loretta Young In "City of the Dead" in Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, Nefertiti is played by Gabriella Larkin.[46]

Gallery[edit]

Red granite head and neck of a statue. Probably a queen (Nefertiti) or a royal princess. Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Headless bust of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
or Nefertiti. Part of a composite red quartzite statue. Intentional damage. Four pairs of early Aten cartouches. Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Limestone statuette of Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and a princess. Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Limestone relief fragment. A princess holding sistrum behind Nefertiti, who is partially seen. Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Siliceous limestone fragment relief of Nefertiti. Extreme style of portrait. Reign of Akhenaten, probably early Amarna
Amarna
Period. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Granite head statue of Nefertiti. The securing post at head apex, allows for different hairstyles to adorn the head, Altes Museum, Berlin.

Head statue of Nefertiti, Altes Museum, Berlin.

Akhenaten, Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and their daughters before the Aten, Stela of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and his family, Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Nefertiti
Nefertiti
offering oil to the Aten, Brooklyn Museum.

Talatat
Talatat
showing Nefertiti
Nefertiti
worshipping the Aten, Altes Museum.

Relief fragment with Nefertiti, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
.

Akhenaten
Akhenaten
and Nefertiti, Louvre Museum, Paris.

Nefertiti
Nefertiti
presenting an image of the goddess Maat
Maat
to the Aten, Brooklyn Museum.

Talatat
Talatat
representing Nefertiti
Nefertiti
worshipping the Aten, Royal Ontario Museum.

Boundary stele of Amarna
Amarna
with Nefertiti
Nefertiti
and her daughter, princess Meketaten, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art.

Limestone relief of Nefertiti
Nefertiti
kissing one of her daughters, Brooklyn Museum.

Talatat
Talatat
with an aged Nefertiti, Brooklyn Museum.

References[edit]

^ "Akhenaton". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2007-05-26.  ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997), p.190 ^ "Nefertit or Nofretete". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ RE Freed, S D'Auria, YJ Markowitz, (1999) "Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamen" (Museum of Fine Arts, Leiden) ^ a b c d Dodson, Aidan, Amarna
Amarna
Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation. The American University in Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN 978-977-416-304-3 ^ Van de Perre, Athena. 2014. "The Year 16 graffito of Akhenaten
Akhenaten
in Dayr Abū Ḥinnis: A contribution to the study of the later years of Nefertiti." Journal of Egyptian History 7:67-108. ^ Badger Utopia (2017-08-11), Nefertiti
Nefertiti
- Mummy Queen of Mystery, retrieved 2017-10-30  ^ Grajetzki, Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Golden House Publications, London, 2005, ISBN 978-0-9547218-9-3 ^ Jacobus Van Dijk, Horemheb
Horemheb
and the Struggle for the Throne of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nefertiti.

Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
and Papyrus Collection C. Nicholas Reeves: The Burial of Nefertiti? Habicht M. et al: Who else might be in Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Tutankhamun's tomb (KV 62, c. 1325 BC)? A 3D model of a bust of Nefertiti

v t e

Amarna
Amarna
Period

Pharaohs

Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten Tutankhamun Ay

Royal family

Tiye Nefertiti Kiya "The Younger Lady" Tey

Children

Meritaten Meketaten Ankhesenamun Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tasherit Neferneferure Setepenre Meritaten
Meritaten
Tasherit Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit

Nobles Officials

Mutbenret Aperel Bek Huya Meryre II Nakhtpaaten Panehesy Parennefer Penthu Thutmose

Locations

Akhetaten Karnak KV55 KV62 Amarna
Amarna
Tombs

Other

Amarna
Amarna
letters Amarna
Amarna
succession Aten Atenism Dakhamunzu Amarna
Amarna
Art Style

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 16015127 LCCN: n50032731 ISNI: 0000 0000 9338 2861 GND: 11858846X BNF: cb12098341n (da

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