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NECTANEBO II ( Manetho 's transcription of Egyptian Nḫt-Ḥr-(n)-Ḥbyt, "Strong is Horus
Horus
of Hebit " ), ruled in 360—342 BC ) was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt .

Under Nectanebo II, Egypt prospered. During his reign, the Egyptian artists delivered a specific style that left a distinctive mark on the reliefs of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
. Like his indirect predecessor Nectanebo I , Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
showed enthusiasm for many of the cults of the gods within ancient Egyptian religion , and more than a hundred Egyptian sites bear evidence of his attentions. Nectanebo II, however, undertook more constructions and restorations than Nectanebo I , commencing in particular the enormous Egyptian temple
Egyptian temple
of Isis
Isis
(the Iseum ).

For several years, Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
was successful in keeping Egypt safe from the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
. However, betrayed by his former servant, Mentor of Rhodes , Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
was ultimately defeated by the combined Persian and Greek forces in the Battle of Pelusium (343 BC) . The Persians occupied Memphis and then seized the rest of Egypt, incorporating the country into the Achaemenid Empire. Nectanebo fled south and preserved his power for some time; his subsequent fate is unknown.

CONTENTS

* 1 Portraits * 2 Rise to power * 3 Reign * 4 Nectanebo and the Alexander Romance * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

PORTRAITS

The greywacke statue of Nectanebo II.

Except for the small-scale greywacke statue in the Metropolitan Museum of Art , which shows Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
standing before the image of Horus
Horus
, no other annotated portraits of Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
are known. In the greywacke statue, Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
is shown in a nemes and uraeus . His bent arm with the sword stands for the hieroglyph nakht, the falcon represents Horus, while the hieroglyph in Nectanebo's right hand stands for heb. Other portraits attributed to Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
(all featuring the khepresh ) include a quartzite head in the museum of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
, a basalt head in Alexandria
Alexandria
, a granite head acquired by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and a damaged quartzite head.

RISE TO POWER

In 525 BC Egypt was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. Because of internal struggles for the Persian imperial succession, Egypt managed to regain independence in 404 BC. In 389 BC, Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Hakor negotiated a treaty with Athens and for three years (from 385 to 383 BC) managed to withstand Persian aggression. However, following the conclusion of the Peace of Antalcidas in 387 BC between the Achaemenids and the Greek city-states , Egypt and Cyprus
Cyprus
became the only obstacles to Persian hegemony in the Mediterranean.

In the beginning of 360 BC, Nectanebo's predecessor Teos started preparations for war against intruders. In the same year, the Egyptian army set off, traveling along the coast by land and sea. Nectanebo II accompanied his uncle Teos in that campaign and was in charge of the machimoi .

In an attempt to raise finances for the war quickly, Teos imposed taxes on Egyptians and seized temple property. Egyptians, particularly the priests, resented those measures but supported Nectanebo II. Teos asked Spartan military leader Agesilaus and Athenian general Chabrias to preserve support for him. Agesilaus, however, said he was sent to aid Egypt and not to wage war against it. Chabrias returned home with his mercenaries. Teos decided to flee to the Achaemenid court, where he ultimately died of natural causes.

Nectanebo contended with an unnamed pretender to the throne from the town of Mendes
Mendes
, who proclaimed himself pharaoh. The revolt was probably led by one of the descendants of Nepherites I , whose family had ruled the town before. The claimant sent messengers to Agesilaus in an attempt to persuade Agesilaus to his side. Agesilaus remained loyal to Nectanebo, fearing to become a turncoat. At one of the towns in the Nile Delta
Nile Delta
the troops of Nectanebo and Agesilaus were besieged by the usurper, who had gained many sympathisers. Despite the enemy's numerical superiority, Nectanebo and Agesilaus were victorious and the revolt was put down in the fall of 360 BC. Acknowledging Agesilaus, Nectanebo sent him 220 talents of gold.

REIGN

Obverse of an Egyptian gold stater of Nectanebo II.

Religion played an important part in Nectanebo's domestic policy. He began his reign by officiating over the funeral of an Apis bull in Memphis . There Nectanebo added a relief decoration to the eastern and western temples of Apis. Among notable sanctuaries, erected under Nectanebo II, are a temple of Khnum
Khnum
in Abu and a temple of Amun
Amun
at Sekhtam . He also dedicated a diorite naos to Anhur-Shu (a fragment of it was found in the temples of Tjebnutjer ). Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
was responsible for the increasing popularity of the Buchis cult. Under Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
a decree, forbidding the stone quarrying in the so-called Mysterious Mountains in Abydos , was issued.

Foreign affairs under Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
were thwarted by repeated Achaemenid attempts to reoccupy Egypt. Before the accession of Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
to the throne, Persians attempted to reclaim Egypt in 385, 383, and 373 BC. Nectanebo used the peace to build up a new army and employed Greek mercenaries, which was a usual practice at the time. In about 351 BC the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
embarked on a new attempt to reclaim Egypt. After a year of fighting, Nectanebo and his allied generals, Diophantus of Athens and Lamius of Sparta
Sparta
, managed to defeat the Achaemenids. Having scored a resounding victory, Nectanebo II was acclaimed "Nectanebo the divine falcon" by his people and cults were set up in his name.

In 345/44 BC Nectanebo supported the Phoenician rebellion against the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
led by the king of Sidon
Sidon
, Tennes, and dispatched military aid in the form of 4000 Greek mercenaries, led by Mentor of Rhodes. However, having heard of the approach of the forces of Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III
, Mentor opened communication with the Persians in collusion with Tennes. Black siltstone obelisk of Pharaoh Nectanebo II. According to the vertical inscriptions he set up this obelisk at the doorway of the sanctuary of Thoth
Thoth
, the Twice-Great, Lord of Hermopolis
Hermopolis
. Today, it is located in the British Museum
British Museum
, London
London
.

At the end of 344 BC, ambassadors of Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III
arrived in Greece asking for the Greeks' participation in a campaign against Egypt. Athens and Sparta
Sparta
treated the ambassadors with courtesy, but refrained from concluding an alliance against Egypt. Other cities, however, decided to support the Persians: Thebes sent 1000 hoplites and Argos 3000.

In the winter of 343 BC, Artaxerxes set off for Egypt. The Egyptian army, headed by Nectanebo, consisted of 60,000 Egyptians, 20,000 Libu and as many Greek mercenaries. In addition Nectanebo had a number of flat-bottomed boats to prevent an enemy from entering the Nile mouths. The vulnerable points along his Mediterranean sea border and east boundary were protected by strongholds, fortifications and entrenched camps. Persian forces were strengthened by Mentor and his men, well acquainted with the eastern border of Egypt, and by 6000 Ionians
Ionians
.

Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
was ultimately defeated and, in the summer of 342 BC, Artaxerxes entered Memphis and installed a satrap . Nectanebo fled to Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
and finally to Nubia
Nubia
, where he was granted asylum. He, however, preserved a degree of power there for some time. With the help of Khabash , Nectanebo made a vain attempt to regain the throne.

NECTANEBO AND THE ALEXANDER ROMANCE

Main article: Alexander romance

There is an apocryphal tale appearing in the pseudo-historical Alexander romance that details another end for the last native pharaoh. Soon after Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
's godhood was confirmed by the Libyan Sibyl of Zeus Ammon at the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
, a rumor was begun that Nectanebo II, following defeat in his last battle, did not travel to Nubia
Nubia
but instead to the court of Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
in the guise of an Egyptian magician . There, while Philip was away on campaign, Nectanebo convinced Philip's wife Olympias
Olympias
that Amun
Amun
was to come to her and that they would father a son. Nectanebo, disguising himself as Amun, slept with Olympias
Olympias
and from his issue came Alexander.

This myth would hold strong appeal for the Egyptians, who desired continuity and harbored a strong dislike for foreign rule. In art of this event, Nectanebo is usually depicted as having dragon-like features, for example in the Speculum Historiale . Papyrus of the Dream of Nectanebo, ca. 160–150 BC

In the early Ptolemaic tale of Nectanebo and Petesis, only preserved in a Greek fragment from the Memphis Serapeum
Serapeum
, the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
has a prophetic dream of Isis
Isis
in which the god Onuris is angry with him because of his unfinished temple in Sebennytos . Nectanebo calls in the best sculptor of the realm, Petesis, to finish the job, but he bungles his assignment when he gets drunk and chases a beautiful girl instead. The narrative ends abruptly here, but this is probably the preface to the fall of Egypt. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
's A History of India reproduces the story.

NOTES

a ^ : According to J. von Beckerath 360–343 BC according to N. Grimal and 359/58–342/41 BC according to D. Arnold .

REFERENCES

* ^ I. A. Ladynin (2009). ""Nectanebos-the-Falcons": Sculpture Images of Nectanebo II
Nectanebo II
Before the God Horus
Horus
and Their Concept". Vestnik drevnej istorii. Retrieved March 1, 2011. * ^ Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). Encyclopedic dictionary of archaeology. Springer. p. 384. ISBN 0-306-46158-7 . * ^ "Nakhthorhebyt". Digital Egypt for Universities. Retrieved March 1, 2011. * ^ A B Myśliwiec, Karol (2000). The twilight of ancient Egypt: first millennium B.C.E. Cornell University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-8014-8630-0 . * ^ A B C Grimal, Nicolás; Nicolas-Christophe Grimal (1994). A history of ancient Egypt. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 379. ISBN 0-306-46158-7 . * ^ Sharpe, Samuel (1838). The history of Egypt under the Ptolomies. E.Maxon. p. 19. * ^ A B "An Egyptian Colossal Quartzite
Quartzite
Head of the Pharaoh Nectanebo II". Christie\'s . Retrieved March 5, 2011. * ^ "The God Horus
Horus
Protecting King Nectanebo II". David Rumsey Map Collection/AMICA Library. Retrieved March 5, 2011. * ^ Grimal, p. 374 * ^ Grimal, p. 377 * ^ Educational Britannica Educational (2010). Ancient Egypt: From Prehistory to the Islamic Conquest. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 88–89. ISBN 1-61530-210-7 . * ^ A B C D E Dandamaev, M. A. (1989). A political history of the Achaemenid empire. BRILL. p. 301. ISBN 90-04-09172-6 . * ^ Sharpe, Samuel (1859). The history of Egypt from the earliest times till the conquest by the Arabs: A. D. 640. Moxon. p. 211. * ^ Myśliwiec, p. 171 * ^ Assmann, Jan (2005). Death and salvation in ancient Egypt. Cornell University Press. p. 190. ISBN 0-8014-4241-9 . * ^ Blyth, Elizabeth (2006). Karnak: evolution of a temple. Taylor & Francis. p. 222. ISBN 0-415-40486-X . * ^ Brosius, Maria (2006). The Persians: an introduction. Taylor & Francis. p. 29. ISBN 0-415-32089-5 . * ^ A B C H. R. Hall. "Cambridge\'s Ancient History of Greece". Third Millennium Library. Retrieved March 4, 2011. * ^ A B C Dandamaev, p. 309 * ^ Dandamaev, p. 310 * ^ A B Maspero, G. (2003). History of Egypt. Kessinger Publishing. p. 309. ISBN 0-7661-3512-8 . * ^ Brosiu