Nazism adopted and further developed several hypotheses concerning race . Classifications of human races were made and various measurements of population samples were carried out during the 1930s.
* 1 Hierarchy
* 2 Racialist ideology
* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Ideology
* 3 Propaganda and implementation of racial theories * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography
The Nazis claimed to observe scientifically a strict hierarchy of the human race. Hitler's view towards race and people can be found throughout Mein Kampf but more specifically in chapter 11 "Nation and Race".
ARYAN: NORDIC AND GERMANIC
Hitler made references to an "Aryan Race " founding a superior type of humanity. The purest stock of Aryans according to Nazi ideology was the Nordic people of Germany, England, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway. The Nazis claimed that Germanic people specifically represented a southern branch of the Aryan-Nordic population.
The Nazis regarded Italians, Spanish, and Portuguese as sharing a similar origin with Germans from ancient Indo-Aryan migration. Despite classifying these populations as Aryans and regarding them as more superior in arts than Nordics and Germans, the Nazis considered them less industrious than Nordics, Germans, Western Europeans and Honorary Aryans, thus marginally inferior than these races.
The question of South Tyrol was largely dealt by Hitler and Mussolini pragmatically: this region of Austria's Tyrol, annexed by Italy after 1919, would not become a constituent district of Ostmark (present-day Austria). Ethnic Germans in South Tyrol were given the option of either migrating back to the German Reich or remaining in South Tyrol to undergo forced Italianization.
The Eastern Aryans refers primarily to the Indo-European ethnic
groups of Asia. This includes Persians, Kurds, Afghans, Armenians,
Georgians, and Northern Indians, according to Albert Gorter and Alfred
Rosenberg's Race Theories. Iranians were considered to be
'pure-blooded Aryans' and became immune from all
SUBHUMAN: ROMANI, SLAVS AND JEWS
Hitler shifted the blame of Germany's loss in the First World War
upon "enemies from within". In the face of economic hardship as
triggered by the
Treaty of Versailles (1919),
To expand the Lebensraum (living space) for Germans, the Nazis later applied this classification to Slavs , mainly the Poles, Serbs and Russians, along with Romani (Gypsies) east of Germany. Within the subhuman hierarchy, Slavs were generally classified slightly above the Romani and finally the Jews. Nonetheless, the Nazis' treatment to these ethnic groups shared no differentiation towards each other.
An Untermensch would be stripped of all his/her rights, treated as an animal, deemed to have a Lebensunwertes Leben (life unworthy of living) and fit only for enslavement and extermination.
Nazi ideology taught the German youth during school to understand the differences between the Nordic German "Übermenschen" and "ignoble" Jewish and Slavic "subhumans".
Chinese and Japanese, although non-Aryan in origin, were bestowed the status of Ehrenarien (Honorary Aryans) so that they could conduct lives and businesses in the German Reich without notable difficulties. Hitler respected these ancient civilizations and their strength of keeping intact their traditional cultures in the face of foreign colonisation.
Philosophers and other theoreticians participated in the elaboration
of Nazi ideology. The relationship between Heidegger and
remained a controversial subject in the history of philosophy , even
today. According to the philosopher Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger said of
Different Nazis offered a range of arguments—some pseudo-religious, others pseudoscientific—as to why the Aryan or European people was racially superior to persons of other races. But the central dogma of Aryan superiority was espoused by officials throughout the party.
Richard Walther Darré , Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture from
1933 to 1942, popularized the expression "
Blut und Boden
Fischer and Lenz were appointed to senior positions overseeing the policy of racial hygiene . The Nazi state used such ideas about the differences between European races as part of their various discriminatory and coercive policies which culminated in the Holocaust . Ironically, in Grant's first edition of his popular book The Passing of the Great Race he classified Germans as being primarily Nordic, but in his second edition, published after the USA had entered WWI, he had re-classified the now enemy power as being dominated by "inferior" Alpines, a tradition evident in the work of Harvard Professor of Anthropology Carlton Coon 's work, The Races of Europe.
Günther's work stated that the Germans are definitely not a fully
Nordic people, and divided them into Western (Mediterranean), Nordic,
Eastern (Alpine), East Baltic and Dinaric races.Hitler himself was
later to downplay the importance of Nordicism in public for this very
reason. The simplistic tripartite model of Grant which divided
Europeans into only Alpine, Mediterranean, and Nordic, Günther did
not use, and erroneously placed most of the population of Hitler's
Germany in the Alpine category, especially after the
Anschluss . This
has been used to downplay the Nordic presence in Germany. Gunther
J. Kaup led a movement opposed to Günther. Kaup took the view that a
German nation, all of whose citizens belonged to a "German race" in a
populationist sense, offered a more convenient sociotechnical tool
than Günther's concept of an ideal Nordic type to which only a very
few Germans could belong. Nazi legislation identifying the ethnic and
"racial" affinities of the
The German Jewish journalist Kurt Caro (1905–1979) who emigrated to Paris in 1933 and served in the British army from 1943, published a book under the pseudonym Manuel Humbert unmasking Hitler's Mein Kampf in which he stated the following racial composition of the Jewish population of Central Europe: 23.8% Lapponoid race, 21.5% Nordic race, 20.3% Armenoid race, 18.4% Mediterranean race, 16.0% Oriental race.
By 1939 Hitler had abandoned Nordicist rhetoric in favour of the idea
that the German people as a whole were united by distinct "spiritual"
Nazi eugenics policies continued to favor
Nordics over Alpines and other racial groups, particularly during the
war when decisions were being made about the incorporation of
conquered peoples into the Reich. The
I shall have no peace of mind until I have planted a seed of Nordic blood wherever the population stand in need of regeneration. If at the time of the migrations , while the great racial currents were exercising their influence, our people received so varied a share of attributes, these latter blossomed to their full value only because of the presence of the Nordic racial nucleus.
Hitler and Himmler planned to use the SS as the basis for the racial "regeneration" of Europe following the final victory of Nazism. The SS was to be a racial elite chosen on the basis of "pure" Nordic qualities.
Addressing officers of the SS-Leibstandarte "Adolf Hitler" Himmler stated:
The ultimate aim for those 11 years during which I have been the Reichsfuehrer SS has been invariably the same: to create an order of good blood which is able to serve Germany; which unfailingly and without sparing itself can be made use of because the greatest losses can do no harm to the vitality of this order, the vitality of these men, because they will always be replaced; to create an order which will spread the idea of Nordic blood so far that we will attract all Nordic blood in the world, take away the blood from our adversaries, absorb it so that never again, looking at it from the viewpoint of grand policy, Nordic blood, in great quantities and to an extent worth mentioning, will fight against us.
An influential figure among German racist theorists was Otto Reche
who became director of Institute for Racial and Ethnic Sciences in
PROPAGANDA AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RACIAL THEORIES
Poster in the Nazi newspaper
Nazis developed an elaborate system of propaganda to diffuse these theories. Nazi architecture , for example, was used to create the "new order" and improve the "Aryan race." Sports were also seen by the Nazis as a way to "regenerate the race" by exposing supposedly inferior peoples, namely the Jews, as slovenly, sedentary and out-of-shape. The Hitler Youth , founded in 1922, had among its basic motivations the training of future "Aryan supermen" and future soldiers who would faithfully fight for the Third Reich.
Cinema was also used to promote racist theories, under the direction
Joseph Goebbels '
Nazi racial theories soon translated into legislation, most notably
with the 1935
Despite the laws against Rassenschande, allegations of rape against Jewish women during the Holocaust by Nazi soldiers have surfaced.
The Nazi regime called for all German people wanting to be citizens of the Reich to produce proof of Aryan ancestry , certain exceptions were made when Hitler issued the " German Blood Certificate " for those people classified by the race laws to be of partial Aryan and Jewish ancestry.
During World War II,
Germanization efforts were carried out in
central and eastern Europe to cull those of "German blood" there. This
started with the classification of people into the
Volksliste . Those
selected were either sent for Germanization, or killed to prevent
"German blood" being used against the Nazis. In regions of Poland,
Western countries, such as France, were treated less roughly because
they were viewed as racially superior to the "subhuman"
An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus
Life unworthy of life "
Manifesto of Race
* ^ The German National Catechism - Deutscher National-Katechismus
* ^ A B Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. p. 240.
* ^ Iran’s Unholy Alliance with Hitler Enshrined in a Name
* ^ The Iran Documents P.2 World News Research
* ^ Our Maternal Uncle Abdol-Hossein Sardari Qajar
* ^ Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust - Page 175 Jack R.
Fischel - 2010 The policy of
Lebensraum was also the product of Nazi
racial ideology, which held that the
Slavic peoples of the east were
inferior to the Aryan race.
* ^ Hitler's Home Front: Wurttemberg Under the Nazis, Jill
Stephenson p. 135, Other non-'Aryans' included Slavs, Blacks and Roma
* ^ Race Relations Within Western Expansion - Page 98 Alan J.
Levine - 1996 Preposterously, Central European Aryan theorists, and
later the Nazis, would insist that the Slavic-speaking peoples were
not really Aryans
* ^ The Politics of Fertility in Twentieth-Century Berlin - Page
118 Annette F. Timm - 2010 The Nazis' singleminded desire to "purify"
the German race through the elimination of non-Aryans (particularly
Jews, Gypsies, and Slavs)
* ^ Curta 2001 , p. 9, 26–30.
* ^ Jerry Bergman, "
Eugenics and the Development of Nazi Race
Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
PSCF 44 (June
Götz Aly , Peter Chroust, Christian Pross, Cleansing the
Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene, The Johns Hopkins
University Press, (August 1, 1994) ISBN 0-8018-4824-5
The Holocaust and History The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed,
and the Reexamined Edited by Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J. Peck,
Indiana University Press page 59 "Pseudoracial policy of Third
Reich(...)Gypsies, Slavs, blacks, Mischlinge, and
* Biddiss, Michael D. 1970. Father of Racist Ideology: The Social and Political Thought of Count Gobineau. New York: Weybright and Talley. * Curta, Florin (2001). The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Ehrenreich, Eric. 2007 The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. * Kühl, Stefan. 1994. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. * Lombardo, Paul A. 2002. "‘The American Breed’: Nazi Eugenics and the Origins of the Pioneer Fund." Albany Law Review 65:743–830. * Mintz, Frank P. 1985. The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood. * Poliakov, Leon. 1974. Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe. New York, NY: Basic Books. * Tucker, William. 2002. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
* v * t * e
* National Socialist German Workers\' Party (NSDAP)
* Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo)
Hitler Youth (HJ)
National Socialist Flyers Corps (NSFK)
National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK)
League of German Girls
* Early timeline
* Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power
* Anti-democratic thought
* Hitler\'s political views
Mein Kampf (Hitler )
* Der Mythus des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts (Rosenberg )
National Socialist Program
* New Order
Preussentum und Sozialismus
* Religious aspects
* Women in
* Nazism in the United States
Arrow Cross Party
* Books by or about Hitler * Ideologues * Leaders and officials * Nazi Party members * Speeches given by Hitler * SS personnel
* German resistance
* Glossary of
* v * t * e
* Black * Bronze * Brown * Red * White * Yellow
* Alpine * Arabid * Armenoid * Atlantid * Borreby * Brunn * Caspian * Dinaric * East Baltic * Ethiopid * Hamitic * Dravidian * Irano-Afghan * Japhetic * Malay * Mediterranean * Neo- Mongoloid * Neo-Danubian * Nordic * Northcaucasian * Ladogan * Lappish * Pamirid * Proto- Mongoloid * Semitic * Turanid
* An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in
Different Climates (1744)
* The Outline of History of Mankind (1785)
Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849)
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)
* The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899)
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899)
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples (1907)
* Heredity in Relation to
* Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916)
The Passing of the Great Race (1916)
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920)
The Myth of the Twentieth Century