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(i) (i) (i) (i)

Nazism adopted and further developed several hypotheses concerning race . Classifications of human races were made and various measurements of population samples were carried out during the 1930s.

CONTENTS

* 1 Hierarchy

* 1.1 Aryan: Nordic and Germanic * 1.2 Mediterranean Aryans * 1.3 Eastern Aryans * 1.4 Subhuman: Romani, Slavs
Slavs
and Jews
Jews
* 1.5 Honorary Aryans

* 2 Racialist ideology

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Ideology

* 3 Propaganda and implementation of racial theories * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography

HIERARCHY

The Nazis claimed to observe scientifically a strict hierarchy of the human race. Hitler's view towards race and people can be found throughout Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
but more specifically in chapter 11 "Nation and Race".

ARYAN: NORDIC AND GERMANIC

Hitler made references to an "Aryan Race " founding a superior type of humanity. The purest stock of Aryans according to Nazi ideology was the Nordic people of Germany, England, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway. The Nazis claimed that Germanic people specifically represented a southern branch of the Aryan-Nordic population.

MEDITERRANEAN ARYANS

The Nazis regarded Italians, Spanish, and Portuguese as sharing a similar origin with Germans from ancient Indo-Aryan migration. Despite classifying these populations as Aryans and regarding them as more superior in arts than Nordics and Germans, the Nazis considered them less industrious than Nordics, Germans, Western Europeans and Honorary Aryans, thus marginally inferior than these races.

The question of South Tyrol was largely dealt by Hitler and Mussolini pragmatically: this region of Austria's Tyrol, annexed by Italy after 1919, would not become a constituent district of Ostmark (present-day Austria). Ethnic Germans in South Tyrol were given the option of either migrating back to the German Reich or remaining in South Tyrol to undergo forced Italianization.

EASTERN ARYANS

The Eastern Aryans refers primarily to the Indo-European ethnic groups of Asia. This includes Persians, Kurds, Afghans, Armenians, Georgians, and Northern Indians, according to Albert Gorter and Alfred Rosenberg's Race Theories. Iranians were considered to be 'pure-blooded Aryans' and became immune from all Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1936. Thus, they could become Reich citizens by providing an Aryan certificate , which usually only consisted of presenting an Iranian passport.

SUBHUMAN: ROMANI, SLAVS AND JEWS

Jews
Jews
, Roma , ethnic Poles
Poles
, Serbs and other Slavic peoples were not considered Aryans by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
but as subhuman, inferior race. A definition of Aryan that included all non-Jewish Europeans was deemed unacceptable by Nazis, and Expert Advisor for Population and Racial Policy included a definition defining Aryan as someone who is "tribally" related to "German blood"

Hitler shifted the blame of Germany's loss in the First World War upon "enemies from within". In the face of economic hardship as triggered by the Treaty of Versailles (1919), Jews
Jews
who resided in Germany were blamed for sabotaging the country. The Nazis therefore classified them as the most inferior race and used derogatory terms Untermensch
Untermensch
(sub-human) and Schwein (pig).

To expand the Lebensraum (living space) for Germans, the Nazis later applied this classification to Slavs
Slavs
, mainly the Poles, Serbs and Russians, along with Romani (Gypsies) east of Germany. Within the subhuman hierarchy, Slavs
Slavs
were generally classified slightly above the Romani and finally the Jews. Nonetheless, the Nazis' treatment to these ethnic groups shared no differentiation towards each other.

An Untermensch
Untermensch
would be stripped of all his/her rights, treated as an animal, deemed to have a Lebensunwertes Leben (life unworthy of living) and fit only for enslavement and extermination.

Nazi ideology taught the German youth during school to understand the differences between the Nordic German "Übermenschen" and "ignoble" Jewish and Slavic "subhumans".

HONORARY ARYANS

Chinese and Japanese, although non-Aryan in origin, were bestowed the status of Ehrenarien (Honorary Aryans) so that they could conduct lives and businesses in the German Reich without notable difficulties. Hitler respected these ancient civilizations and their strength of keeping intact their traditional cultures in the face of foreign colonisation.

RACIALIST IDEOLOGY

ORIGINS

Philosophers and other theoreticians participated in the elaboration of Nazi ideology. The relationship between Heidegger and Nazism has remained a controversial subject in the history of philosophy , even today. According to the philosopher Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger said of Spinoza
Spinoza
that he was "ein Fremdkörper in der Philosophie", a "foreign body in philosophy" – Faye notes that Fremdkörper was a term which belonged to the Nazi glossary , and not to classical German. However Heidegger did to a certain extent criticise racial science, particularly in his Nietzsche lectures, which reject biologism in general. While generally speaking even in Heidegger's most German nationalist and pro-Nazi works of the early 30s, such as his infamous Rectorial address there is a lack of any overtly racialised language. Thus it is problematic to connect Heidegger with any racial theory. Carl Schmitt elaborated a philosophy of law praising the Führerprinzip and the German people, while Alfred Baeumler instrumentalized Nietzsche\'s thought , in particular his concept of the "Will to Power ", in an attempt to justify Nazism.

IDEOLOGY

Different Nazis offered a range of arguments—some pseudo-religious, others pseudoscientific—as to why the Aryan or European people was racially superior to persons of other races. But the central dogma of Aryan superiority was espoused by officials throughout the party.

Richard Walther Darré , Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture from 1933 to 1942, popularized the expression " Blut und Boden
Blut und Boden
" ("Blood and Soil"), one of the many terms of the Nazi glossary ideologically used to enforce popular racism in the German population. There were many academic and administrative scholars of race who all had somewhat divergent views about the social misconception of racism, including Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
and Hans F. K. Günther

Fischer and Lenz were appointed to senior positions overseeing the policy of racial hygiene . The Nazi state used such ideas about the differences between European races as part of their various discriminatory and coercive policies which culminated in the Holocaust . Ironically, in Grant's first edition of his popular book The Passing of the Great Race he classified Germans as being primarily Nordic, but in his second edition, published after the USA had entered WWI, he had re-classified the now enemy power as being dominated by "inferior" Alpines, a tradition evident in the work of Harvard Professor of Anthropology Carlton Coon
Carlton Coon
's work, The Races of Europe.

Günther's work stated that the Germans are definitely not a fully Nordic people, and divided them into Western (Mediterranean), Nordic, Eastern (Alpine), East Baltic and Dinaric races.Hitler himself was later to downplay the importance of Nordicism in public for this very reason. The simplistic tripartite model of Grant which divided Europeans into only Alpine, Mediterranean, and Nordic, Günther did not use, and erroneously placed most of the population of Hitler's Germany in the Alpine category, especially after the Anschluss . This has been used to downplay the Nordic presence in Germany. Gunther considered Jews
Jews
an "Asiatic race inferior to all European races".

J. Kaup led a movement opposed to Günther. Kaup took the view that a German nation, all of whose citizens belonged to a "German race" in a populationist sense, offered a more convenient sociotechnical tool than Günther's concept of an ideal Nordic type to which only a very few Germans could belong. Nazi legislation identifying the ethnic and "racial" affinities of the Jews
Jews
reflects the populationist concept of race. Discrimination was not restricted to Jews
Jews
who belonged to the "Semitic-Oriental-Armenoid" and/or "Nubian-African/Negroid" races, but was directed against all members of the Jewish ethnic population.

The German Jewish journalist Kurt Caro (1905–1979) who emigrated to Paris in 1933 and served in the British army from 1943, published a book under the pseudonym Manuel Humbert unmasking Hitler's Mein Kampf in which he stated the following racial composition of the Jewish population of Central Europe: 23.8% Lapponoid race, 21.5% Nordic race, 20.3% Armenoid race, 18.4% Mediterranean race, 16.0% Oriental race.

By 1939 Hitler had abandoned Nordicist rhetoric in favour of the idea that the German people as a whole were united by distinct "spiritual" qualities. Nevertheless, Nazi eugenics policies continued to favor Nordics over Alpines and other racial groups, particularly during the war when decisions were being made about the incorporation of conquered peoples into the Reich. The Lebensborn program sought to extend the Nordic race. In 1942 Hitler stated in private,

I shall have no peace of mind until I have planted a seed of Nordic blood wherever the population stand in need of regeneration. If at the time of the migrations , while the great racial currents were exercising their influence, our people received so varied a share of attributes, these latter blossomed to their full value only because of the presence of the Nordic racial nucleus.

Hitler and Himmler planned to use the SS as the basis for the racial "regeneration" of Europe following the final victory of Nazism. The SS was to be a racial elite chosen on the basis of "pure" Nordic qualities.

Addressing officers of the SS-Leibstandarte "Adolf Hitler" Himmler stated:

The ultimate aim for those 11 years during which I have been the Reichsfuehrer SS has been invariably the same: to create an order of good blood which is able to serve Germany; which unfailingly and without sparing itself can be made use of because the greatest losses can do no harm to the vitality of this order, the vitality of these men, because they will always be replaced; to create an order which will spread the idea of Nordic blood so far that we will attract all Nordic blood in the world, take away the blood from our adversaries, absorb it so that never again, looking at it from the viewpoint of grand policy, Nordic blood, in great quantities and to an extent worth mentioning, will fight against us.

An influential figure among German racist theorists was Otto Reche who became director of Institute for Racial and Ethnic Sciences in Lipsk
Lipsk
and advocated genocide of Polish nation. In this position he wrote about ethnic Poles
Poles
that they "unfortunate mixture" consisting among others of Slavs, Balts and Mongolians, and they should be eliminated to avoid possible mixing with German race When Germany invaded Poland he wrote "We need Raum (space), but no Polish lice on our fur".

PROPAGANDA AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RACIAL THEORIES

Poster in the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer showing "Rassenschande" (lit. "racial defilement") between an Aryan and a Jew Romani woman with German police officer and Nazi psychologist Dr Robert Ritter A fragment of the exposition Der ewige Jude ("The Eternal Jew ") which demonstrates "typical" anatomical traits of the Jews
Jews
Around 120,000 prisoners of war from French-ruled Africa were captured by the Germans and, unlike other French captives, were not deported to Germany for fear of racial defilement Main article: Racial policy of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

Nazis developed an elaborate system of propaganda to diffuse these theories. Nazi architecture , for example, was used to create the "new order" and improve the "Aryan race." Sports were also seen by the Nazis as a way to "regenerate the race" by exposing supposedly inferior peoples, namely the Jews, as slovenly, sedentary and out-of-shape. The Hitler Youth , founded in 1922, had among its basic motivations the training of future "Aryan supermen" and future soldiers who would faithfully fight for the Third Reich.

Cinema was also used to promote racist theories, under the direction of Joseph Goebbels ' Propagandaministerium
Propagandaministerium
. The German Hygiene Museum in Dresden diffused racial theories. A 1934 poster of the museum shows a man with distinctly African features and reads, "If this man had been sterilized there would not have been born ... 12 hereditarily diseased."(sic) According to the current director Klaus Voegel, "The Hygiene Museum was not a criminal institute in the sense that people were killed here," but "it helped to shape the idea of which lives were worthy and which were worthless."

Nazi racial theories soon translated into legislation, most notably with the 1935 Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
and the July 1933 Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring . The Aktion T4
Aktion T4
euthanasia programme, in which the Kraft durch Freude (KdF, literally "Strength Through Joy") youth organisation participated, targeted people accused of representing a danger of "degeneration " towards the "Deutsche Volk ." Under the race laws, sexual relations between Aryans (cf. Aryan certificate ) and non-Aryans known as Rassenschande ("race defilement") became punishable by law. To preserve the "racial purity" of the German blood, after the beginning of the war the Nazis extended the race defilement law to include all foreigners (non-Germans).

Despite the laws against Rassenschande, allegations of rape against Jewish women during the Holocaust by Nazi soldiers have surfaced.

The Nazi regime called for all German people wanting to be citizens of the Reich to produce proof of Aryan ancestry , certain exceptions were made when Hitler issued the " German Blood Certificate " for those people classified by the race laws to be of partial Aryan and Jewish ancestry.

During World War II, Germanization efforts were carried out in central and eastern Europe to cull those of "German blood" there. This started with the classification of people into the Volksliste . Those selected were either sent for Germanization, or killed to prevent "German blood" being used against the Nazis. In regions of Poland, Poles
Poles
either mass murdered or ethnically cleansed to make room for Baltic Germans induced to emigrate after the pact with the USSR. Efforts were made to identify people of German descent with Nordic traits from pre-war citizens of Poland, once chosen if the individual passed the screening process test of being considered "racially valuable" they were then abducted from their parents to be Germanized and then sent to Germany to be raised as Germans, those children who failed racist tests were used as test subjects in medical experiments or used as slaves in German industry.

Western countries, such as France, were treated less roughly because they were viewed as racially superior to the "subhuman" Poles
Poles
that were to be enslaved and exterminated, though not as good as full Germans; a complex of racial categories was boiled down by the average German to mean "East is bad and West is acceptable." Still, extensive racial classification was practiced in France, for future uses.

SEE ALSO

* Anti-Russian sentiment * Aryan certificate * Hutu Power * An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus * " Life unworthy of life
Life unworthy of life
" * Manifesto of Race * Nazi crimes against the Polish nation
Nazi crimes against the Polish nation
* Nazi eugenics * State racism * Übermensch
Übermensch
* World War II
World War II
persecution of Serbs

REFERENCES

* ^ The German National Catechism - Deutscher National-Katechismus p.22-26 * ^ A B Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. p. 240. * ^ Iran’s Unholy Alliance with Hitler Enshrined in a Name * ^ The Iran Documents P.2 World News Research * ^ Our Maternal Uncle Abdol-Hossein Sardari Qajar * ^ Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust - Page 175 Jack R. Fischel - 2010 The policy of Lebensraum was also the product of Nazi racial ideology, which held that the Slavic peoples of the east were inferior to the Aryan race. * ^ Hitler's Home Front: Wurttemberg Under the Nazis, Jill Stephenson p. 135, Other non-'Aryans' included Slavs, Blacks and Roma . * ^ Race Relations Within Western Expansion - Page 98 Alan J. Levine - 1996 Preposterously, Central European Aryan theorists, and later the Nazis, would insist that the Slavic-speaking peoples were not really Aryans * ^ The Politics of Fertility in Twentieth-Century Berlin - Page 118 Annette F. Timm - 2010 The Nazis' singleminded desire to "purify" the German race through the elimination of non-Aryans (particularly Jews, Gypsies, and Slavs) * ^ Curta 2001 , p. 9, 26–30. * ^ Jerry Bergman, " Eugenics and the Development of Nazi Race Policy", Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith PSCF 44 (June 1992):109–124 * ^ Götz Aly , Peter Chroust, Christian Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene, The Johns Hopkins University Press, (August 1, 1994) ISBN 0-8018-4824-5 * ^ The Holocaust and History The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined Edited by Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J. Peck, Indiana University Press page 59 "Pseudoracial policy of Third Reich(...)Gypsies, Slavs, blacks, Mischlinge, and Jews
Jews
are not Aryans." * ^ Honorary Aryans: National-Racial Identity and Protected Jews
Jews
in the Independent State of Croatia Nevenko Bartulin Palgrave Macmilla, Nevenko Bartulin - 2013 page 7- "According to Jareb, the National Socialists regarded the Slavs
Slavs
as 'racially less valuable' non-Aryans" * ^ Nazi Germany,Richard Tames - 1985 -"Hitler's vision of a Europe dominated by a Nazi "Herrenvolk" in which Slavs
Slavs
and other "non-aryans" page 65 * ^ Modern Genocide: The Definitive Resource and Document Collection Paul R. Bartrop, Steven Leonard Jacobs page 1160, "This strict dualism between the "racially pure" Aryans and all others—especially Jews
Jews
and Slavs—led in Nazism to the radical outlawing of all "non-Aryans" and to their enslavement and attempted annihilation" * ^ World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1 Cyprian Blamires page 63 "the "racially pure" Aryans and all others—especially Jews
Jews
and Slavs— led in Nazism to the radical outlawing of all "non-Aryans" and to their enslavement and attempted annihilation * ^ The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1; Volume 7 By Junius P. Rodriguez page 464 * ^ Emil L. Fackenheim: A Jewish Philosopher's Response to the Holocaust David Patterson, page 23 * ^ Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust Jack R. Fischel - 2010 Lebensraum was also the product of Nazi racial ideology, which held that the Slavic peoples of the east were inferior to the Aryan race * ^ Ehrenreich, Eric (2007). The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Indiana University Press. pp. 9, 10. ISBN 978-0-253-11687-1 . * ^ Rosenberg, Alfred (1933). Der Mythos des 20. Jahrhunderts (in German). Hoheneichen Verlag. p. 234. * ^ Mineau, André (2004). Operation Barbarossa: Ideology and Ethics Against Human Dignity. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi. p. 180. ISBN 90-420-1633-7 . * ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (2005). "Project InPosterum: Poland WWII Casualties". Retrieved 15 March 2007. * ^ Łuczak, Czesław (1994). "Szanse i trudności bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945". Dzieje Najnowsze (1994/2). * ^ Simone Gigliotti, Berel Lang. The Holocaust: A Reader. Malden, Massachusetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Pp. 14. * ^ Hitler Youth, 1922–1945: An Illustrated History by Jean-Denis Lepage, p. 91 * ^ Emmanuel Faye (2005). Heidegger, L'Introduction Du Nazisme Dans La Philosophie (in French). Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2-226-14252-8 . * ^ Faye, Emmanuel; Watson, Alexis; Golsan, Richard Joseph (2006). "Nazi Foundations in Heidegger's Work". South Central Review. 23 (1): 55–66. doi :10.1353/scr.2006.0006 . * ^ Burleigh, M. (1996) CONFRONTING THE NAZI PAST: New Debates on Modern German History. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-16353-3 . 199 pp. * ^ Anton Wendt, Eradicating Differences, p.63 * ^ Wiercinski, Andrzej; Bielicki, Tadeusz (February 1962). "The Racial Analysis of Human Populations in Relation to Their Ethnogenesis". Current Anthropology. 3 (1): 2, 9–46. doi :10.1086/200244 . * ^ "Kurt Caro". German Federal Archives . Retrieved 5 May 2008. * ^ Humbert, Manuel (1936). Hitler's "Mein Kampf". Dichtung und Wahrheit. Paris: Kurt Michael Caro. p. 139. * ^ Gumkowski, Janusz; Kazimierz Leszczynski. "Poland under Nazi Occupation". Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 19 July 2007. * ^ Crossland, David. "Nazi Program to breed Master race, Lebensborn Children Break Silence". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 20 July 2007. * ^ "Opening Statement of the Prosecution in the Einsatzgruppen Trial". Nuremberg Trial Documents. Retrieved 20 July 2007. * ^ Trevor-Roper, H.R.; Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1 December 2007). Hitler\'s Table Talk: 1941 - 1944. Enigma Books. p. 475. ISBN 978-1-929631-66-7 . * ^ Hale, Christopher (2003). Himmler's Crusade. Bantam Press. pp. 74–87. ISBN 0-593-04952-7 . * ^ Russell, Stuart (1999). Heinrich Himmler's Camelot. Kressman-Backmayer. * ^ Field, Geoffrey G. (1977). "Nordic Racism". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press: 523. * ^ DOCUMENT 1918-PS "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression" Check url= value (help ). USGPO, Washington: University of North Carolina at Charlotte. 1946. pp. 553–572. Retrieved 19 July 2007. * ^ The History of a Forgotten German Camp: Nazi Ideology and Genocide at SzmalcowkaTomasz Ceran, page 40, I.B.Tauris, October 2014 * ^ Anton Weiss Wendt, Eradicating Differences: The Treatment of Minorities in Nazi-Dominated Europe, p. 66 * ^ A B Rietschel, Matthias (9 October 2006). "Nazi racial purity exhibit opens in Germany". MSNBC. Dresden, Germany: The Associated Press. Retrieved 9 February 2010. * ^ Robert Proctor (1988). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Harvard University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-674-74578-0 . * ^ David Bankier; Israel Gutman (2009). Nazi Europe and the Final Solution. Berghahn Books. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-84545-410-4 . * ^ Diemut Majer (2003). "Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe with Special
Special
Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939-1945. JHU Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8018-6493-3 . * ^ http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/europe/06/24/holocaust.rape/ * ^ Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression Volume I Chapter XIII Germanization & Spoliation * ^ Lynn H. Nicholas , Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 213-4 ISBN 0-679-77663-X * ^ Lynn H. Nicholas , Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 207-9 ISBN 0-679-77663-X * ^ Joseph W. Bendersky (11 July 2013). A Concise History of Nazi Germany. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-4422-2270-0 . * ^ Volker R. Berghahn, "Germans and Poles
Poles
1871–1945", in Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences. New York and Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999. * ^ Lynn H. Nicholas , Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 263 ISBN 0-679-77663-X * ^ Lynn H. Nicholas , Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 278 ISBN 0-679-77663-X

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Biddiss, Michael D. 1970. Father of Racist Ideology: The Social and Political Thought of Count Gobineau. New York: Weybright and Talley. * Curta, Florin (2001). The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Ehrenreich, Eric. 2007 The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. * Kühl, Stefan. 1994. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. * Lombardo, Paul A. 2002. "‘The American Breed’: Nazi Eugenics and the Origins of the Pioneer Fund." Albany Law Review 65:743–830. * Mintz, Frank P. 1985. The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood. * Poliakov, Leon. 1974. Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe. New York, NY: Basic Books. * Tucker, William. 2002. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

* v * t * e

Nazism

ORGANIZATIONS

* National Socialist German Workers\' Party (NSDAP) * Sturmabteilung (SA) * Schutzstaffel (SS) * Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) * Hitler Youth (HJ) * National Socialist Flyers Corps (NSFK) * National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) * League of German Girls (BDM) * National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (NSRL) * National Socialist Women\'s League (NSF) * Reich Labour Service (RAD) * Werwolf
Werwolf

HISTORY

* Early timeline * Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power * Machtergreifung * Re-armament * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Night of the Long Knives * Nuremberg Rally * Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
* Kristallnacht * World War II
World War II
* Tripartite Pact * The Holocaust * Nuremberg trials * Denazification
Denazification
* Consequences

IDEOLOGY

* Architecture * Gleichschaltung * Anti-democratic thought * Strasserism * Hitler\'s political views * Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
(Hitler ) * Der Mythus des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts (Rosenberg ) * National Socialist Program * New Order * Preussentum und Sozialismus * Propaganda * Religious aspects * Women in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

RACE

* Blood and Soil
Blood and Soil
* Eugenics * Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
* Heim ins Reich * Lebensborn * Master race * Racial policy * Religion

ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Final Solution * Human experimentation * Porajmos

Outside Germany

* Nazism in the United States

* American Nazi Party * German American Bund
German American Bund
* National Socialist Movement (United States)
National Socialist Movement (United States)

* Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
(Hungary) * Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party * German National Movement in Liechtenstein * Greek National Socialist Party * South African Gentile National Socialist Movement * Hungarian National Socialist Party * Nasjonal Samling (Norway) * National Movement of Switzerland * National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * National Socialist Bloc (Sweden) * National Socialist League (UK) * National Socialist Movement of Chile
National Socialist Movement of Chile
* National Socialist Workers\' Party of Denmark * National Unity Party (Canada) * Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina) * Nazism in Brazil * Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag
(South Africa) * World Union of National Socialists

LISTS

* Books by or about Hitler * Ideologues * Leaders and officials * Nazi Party members * Speeches given by Hitler * SS personnel

PEOPLE

* Adolf Hitler * Joseph Goebbels * Heinrich Himmler * Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
* Martin Bormann * Reinhard Heydrich * Gregor Strasser * Otto Strasser * Albert Speer
Albert Speer
* Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner * Adolf Eichmann * Joachim von Ribbentrop * Houston Stewart Chamberlain * Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Wilhelm Frick * Hans Frank * Rudolf Höss
Rudolf Höss
* Josef Mengele * Richard Walther Darré * Baldur von Schirach * Artur Axmann
Artur Axmann
* Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
* Dietrich Eckart * Gottfried Feder * Ernst Hanfstaengl
Ernst Hanfstaengl
* Julius Streicher * Hermann Esser * George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell

Related topics

* Esoteric Nazism * Far-right politics * German resistance * Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Nazi salute * Neo- Nazism * Social Darwinism * Stormfront * Swastika
Swastika
* Völkisch movement * Zweites Buch

* CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Historical race concepts

BY COLOR

* Black * Bronze * Brown * Red * White * Yellow

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

* Australoid * Capoid * Caucasoid * Mongoloid * Negroid

SUB-TYPES

* Alpine * Arabid * Armenoid * Atlantid * Borreby * Brunn * Caspian * Dinaric * East Baltic * Ethiopid * Hamitic * Dravidian * Irano-Afghan * Japhetic * Malay * Mediterranean * Neo- Mongoloid * Neo-Danubian * Nordic * Northcaucasian * Ladogan * Lappish * Pamirid * Proto- Mongoloid * Semitic * Turanid

MULTIRACIAL

* Miscegenation * Ethnogenesis * List of racially mixed groups

WRITERS

* Louis Agassiz * John Baker * Erwin Baur * John Beddoe
John Beddoe
* Robert Bennett Bean * François Bernier
François Bernier
* Renato Biasutti
Renato Biasutti
* Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
* Franz Boas
Franz Boas
* Paul Broca
Paul Broca
* Alice Mossie Brues * Halfdan Bryn * Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
* Charles Caldwell * Petrus Camper * Samuel A. Cartwright * Houston Stewart Chamberlain * Sonia Mary Cole * Carleton S. Coon * Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
* Jan Czekanowski * Charles Davenport * Joseph Deniker * Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt * Anténor Firmin * Eugen Fischer * John Fiske * Francis Galton * Stanley Marion Garn * Reginald Ruggles Gates * George Gliddon * Arthur de Gobineau
Arthur de Gobineau
* Madison Grant * John Grattan * Hans F. K. Günther * Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
* Frederick Ludwig Hoffman * Earnest Hooton * Julian Huxley
Julian Huxley
* Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
* Calvin Ira Kephart * Robert Knox
Robert Knox
* Robert E. Kuttner * Georges Vacher de Lapouge * Fritz Lenz * Carl Linnaeus * Cesare Lombroso * Bertil Lundman * Felix von Luschan * Dominick McCausland * John Mitchell * Ashley Montagu
Ashley Montagu
* Lewis H. Morgan
Lewis H. Morgan
* Samuel George Morton
Samuel George Morton
* Josiah C. Nott * Karl Pearson
Karl Pearson
* Oscar Peschel
Oscar Peschel
* Isaac La Peyrère * Charles Pickering * Ludwig Hermann Plate * Alfred Ploetz
Alfred Ploetz
* James Cowles Prichard
James Cowles Prichard
* Otto Reche * Gustaf Retzius * William Z. Ripley * Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Benjamin Rush * Henric Sanielevici * Heinrich Schmidt * Ilse Schwidetzky * Charles Gabriel Seligman
Charles Gabriel Seligman
* Giuseppe Sergi * Samuel Stanhope Smith * Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer
* Morris Steggerda * Lothrop Stoddard * William Graham Sumner
William Graham Sumner
* Thomas Griffith Taylor * Paul Topinard * John H. Van Evrie * Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer * Rudolf Virchow
Rudolf Virchow
* Voltaire
Voltaire
* Alexander Winchell
Alexander Winchell
* Ludwig Woltmann

WRITINGS

* An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates (1744) * The Outline of History of Mankind (1785) * Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849) * An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855) * The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899) * The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) * Race Life of the Aryan Peoples (1907) * Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (1911) * Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916) * The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race
(1916) * The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920) * The Myth of the Twentieth Century (1930) * Annihilation of Caste (1936) * The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939) * An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus (1943) * The Race Question (1950)

THEORIES

* Eugenics * Great chain of being * Monogenism * Polygenism * Pre-Adamite

RELATED

* History of anthropometry
History of anthropometry

* Racial categorization

* in India

* in Latin America

* in Brazil * in Colombia

* in Singapore * in the United States

* Scientific racism

* Nazism and race

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