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Nazism
Nazism
and race concerns the Nazi Party's adoption and further development of several hypotheses concerning their concept of race. Classifications of human races were made and various measurements of population samples were carried out during the 1930s.

Contents

1 Racial hierarchy

1.1 Aryan: Nordic and Germanic 1.2 Lower classes

1.2.1 Britain 1.2.2 France

1.3 Mediterranean Aryans 1.4 Persians 1.5 Subhuman: Romani, Slavs
Slavs
and Jews

1.5.1 Subhuman: Poles

1.6 Honorary Aryans

2 Racialist ideology

2.1 Ideology

3 In philosophy 4 Propaganda and implementation of racial theories 5 See also 6 References

Racial hierarchy[edit] The Nazis claimed to observe scientifically a strict hierarchy of the human race. Hitler's view towards race and people can be found throughout Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
but more specifically in chapter 11 "Nation and Race". The standard-issue propaganda text issued to members of the Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
contained a chapter on "the race of the German people" that heavily cited the works of Hans F. K. Günther. The text seems to address the European races in descending orders on the Nazi hierarchy, with the Nordic race
Nordic race
(plus the subrace of Phalic) first, the Western (Mediterranean) race second, Dinarics third, Eastern (Alpine) people fourth, and finally East Baltics last.[1] Aryan: Nordic and Germanic[edit] Hitler made references to an "Aryan Race" founding a superior type of humanity. The purest stock of Aryans according to Nazi ideology was the Nordic people of Germany, England, Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway. The Nazis defined Nordics as being identified by tall stature (average 175 cm), long faces, prominent chins, narrow and straight noses with a low bridge, lean builds, doliocephalic skulls, straight light hair, light eyes, and fair skin.[2] The Nazis claimed that Germanic people specifically represented a southern branch of the Aryan-Nordic population.[3] The Nazis did not consider all Germans to be of the Nordic type (which predominated the north), and stated that Germany also had a large "Alpine" population (identified by, among other features, lower stature, stocky builds, flatter noses, and higher incidences of darker hair and eyes). Hitler and Nazi racial theorist Hans F. K. Günther
Hans F. K. Günther
framed this as an issue to be corrected through selective breeding for "Nordic" traits.[4][5] Hitler Youth propaganda emphasized the "Nordic" nature of Germans, with the text issued to all Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
members stating: "the principal ingredient of our people is the Nordic race
Nordic race
(55%). That is not to say that half our people are pure Nordics. All of the aforementioned races appear in mixtures in all parts of our fatherland. The circumstance, however, that the great part of our people is of Nordic descent justifies us taking a Nordic standpoint when evaluating our character and spirit, bodily structure, and physical beauty."[6] Lower classes[edit] Britain[edit] According to Gunther, the purest Nordic regions were Scandinavia and northern Germany, particularly Norway and Sweden, specifying: "We may, perhaps, take the Swedish blood to be over 80 per cent Nordic, the Norwegian blood about 80 per cent." Britain and southern Germany by contrast were not considered entirely Nordic. Germany was said to be 55% Nordic, and the rest Alpine (particularly southern Germany), Dinaric, or East Baltic (particularly eastern Germany). On the British Isles, Gunther stated: "we may adopt the following racial proportions for these islands: Nordic blood, 60 percent; Mediterranean, 30 percent; Alpine, 10 percent." He added that "The Nordic strain in Germany seems to be rather more distributed over the whole people than in England, where it seems to belong far more to the upper classes."[7] Hitler echoed this sentiment, referring to the English lower classes as "racially inferior."[8] France[edit] Hitler viewed the French as close to the Germans racially, but not quite their peers. He said of their racial character: "France remains hostile to us. She contains, in addition to her Nordic blood, a blood that will always be foreign to us."[9] Gunther echoed this sentiment, saying that the French were predominantly Alpine and Mediterranean rather than Nordic, but that a heavy Nordic strain was still present. He characterized the French as possessing the following racial proportions: Nordic, 25%; Alpine or Dinaric, 50%; Mediterranean, 25%. These types were said to be most prevalent in north, central, and southern France respectively.[10] Hitler planned to remove a large portion of the French population to make way for German settlement. The Zone interdite
Zone interdite
of eastern France was set aside and planned to be made part of the German Reich after the rest of France was fully subdued. The French residents of the zone, some 7 million people accounting for nearly 20% of the French population at the time, were to be deported, and the land then occupied by at least a million German settlers. The plan was either postponed or abandoned after Operation Barbarossa in favor of expediting the settlement of the east instead, and was never put into place owing to the German defeat in the Second World War.[11] Mediterranean Aryans[edit] The Nazis regarded central/southern Italians, Spanish, Portuguese, southern French, and Greeks as sharing a similar origin with Germans from ancient Indo-Aryan migration, but being almost purely of a distinct so-called Mediterranean race. Despite classifying these populations as Aryans, and regarding them as superior in the arts compared to Nordics and Germans, the Nazis considered them less industrious than predominantly Nordic peoples like the Germans and English, and thus marginally inferior to the Nordic race. The "Mediterranean" race was described in Nazi propaganda
Nazi propaganda
as brown-haired, brown-eyed, brownish-skinned, and short (average 162 cm), with doliocephalic or mesocephalic skulls, and lean builds. People of this category were described as "lively, even loquacious" and "excitable, even passionate", but "prone to act more on feeling than on reason", and as a result, "this race has produced only a few outstanding men."[12] The question of South Tyrol was largely dealt by Hitler and Mussolini pragmatically: this region of Austria's Tyrol, annexed by Italy after 1919, would not become a constituent district of Ostmark (present-day Austria). Ethnic Germans in South Tyrol were given the option of either migrating back to the German Reich or remaining in South Tyrol to undergo forced Italianization. Persians[edit] Beginning in 1933, the Nazi leadership in Germany made efforts to increase their influence in Iran, and they financed and managed a racist journal, Iran-e Bastan, co-edited by a pro-Nazi Iranian, Sheikh Abdul-Rahman Seif. This and other chauvinistic publications in the 1930s were popular among Iranian elites; they "highlighted the past and the pre-Islamic glories of the Persian nation and blamed the supposedly 'savage Arabs and Turks' for the backwardness of Iran."[13] In Iran:

The Nazis found a favorable climate amongst the Iranian elite to spread fascistic and racist propaganda. The Nazi propaganda
Nazi propaganda
machine advocated the (supposedly) common Aryan ancestry of "the two Nations." In order to further cultivate racist tendencies, in 1936 the Reich Cabinet issued a special decree exempting Iranians from the restrictions of the Nuremberg Racial Laws on the grounds that they were 'pure-blooded' Aryans ... In various pro-Nazi publications, lectures, speeches, and ceremonies, parallels were drawn among Reza Shah, Hitler, and Mussolini to emphasize the charismatic resemblance among these leaders."[13]

Nazi ideology was most common among Persian officials, elites, and intellectuals, but "even some members of non-Persian groups were eager to identify themselves with the Nazis" and a supposed Aryan race.[13] Hitler declared Iran to be an "Aryan state"; the changing of Persia's name to Iran in 1935 was done by the Shah at the suggestion of the German ambassador to Iran as an act of "Aryan solidarity."[14] In 1936, the Nazi Office of Racial Politics, in response to a question from the German Foreign Ministry, classified non-Jewish Turks as Europeans, but "left unanswered the question of how to think about the obviously non-European Arabs, Persians, and Muslims."[15] Later the year, ahead of the Summer Olympic Games in Berlin, the Nazis responded to questions from the Egyptians by saying that the Nuremberg racial laws did not apply to them, and after the Iranian ambassador to Berlin "assured German officials that 'there was no doubt that the Iranian, as an Aryan,' was 'racially kindred (artverwandt) with the Germans," the German Foreign Ministry "assured the Iranian Embassy in Berlin that the correct distinction between was not between "Aryans and non-Aryans" but rather between "persons of German and related blood on one hand and Jews
Jews
as well as racially alien on the other."[15] Historian Jeffrey Herf writes:

As a result of the discussions of spring and summer 1936, Nazi officials had reassured Arab diplomats that Nazi ideology and policy were directed against the Jews, not non-Jewish Semites. Nazism
Nazism
viewed Arabs and Muslims as different but, in clear contrast to the racial hierarchy presented in Mein Kampf, not as racially inferior. But as it was best that races not mix, non-Jewish Germans should marry other non-Jewish Germans. These abstruse discussions of the meaning of blood and race in summer 1936 offered a legal and conceptual foundation for reconciling German racial ideology and legislation with close and ongoing work with non-Jewish Semites, that is, Arabs and Muslims, before and during World War II. As a consequence of the exchanges of spring and summer 1936 and the Egyptian and Iranian decisions to attend the summer Olympics, German officials learned that they could reconcile Nazi Germany's anti-Jewish policies with efforts to find allies among non-Jewish Semites. They also learned that at least some Arab and Persian diplomats had no principled opposition to anti-Semitism so long as it was only aimed at Jews
Jews
and even had become accustomed to thinking about peoples and nations in the racist categories emerging from the National Socialist regime.[15]

Race

Categorization

Genetics
Genetics
and differences

Race and genetics Human genetic variation

Society

Historical concepts

Race

in Brazil in the United States

Racial inequality in the United States Racial wage gap in the United States Racial profiling

Racism in the United States Scientific racism

Race and...

Crime in the United Kingdom Crime in the United States

Race and health

in the United States

Intelligence History of the race and intelligence controversy

Sports Video games

Related topics

Ethnic group Eugenics Genetics Human evolution

Index Category

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Subhuman: Romani, Slavs
Slavs
and Jews[edit] The Nazis thought Eastern Europe, namely the areas speaking Slavic languages, to be racially the lowest part of Europe, and very distinct from the rest of Europe. Hans Günther stated: "The east of Europe shows a gradual transition of the racial mixtures of Central Europe into predominantly East Baltic and Inner Asiatic regions... Owing to the likeness between East Baltic and Inner Asiatic bodily characters it will often be hard to fix a sharp boundary between these two races." Russia was thought to be 25% Nordic, other regions less.[16] Jews, Roma and Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
(including Poles, Serbs
Serbs
and Russians) were not considered Aryans by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
but as subhuman, inferior races.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] A definition of Aryan that included all non-Jewish Europeans was deemed unacceptable by Nazis, and Expert Advisor for Population and Racial Policy included a definition defining Aryan as someone who is "tribally" related to "German blood".[32] Hitler shifted the blame of Germany's loss in the First World War upon "enemies from within". In the face of economic hardship as triggered by the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
(1919), Jews
Jews
who resided in Germany were blamed for sabotaging the country. The Nazis therefore classified them as the most inferior race and used derogatory terms Untermensch (sub-human) and Schwein (pig). To expand the Lebensraum
Lebensraum
(living space) for Germans, the Nazis later applied this classification to Slavs, mainly the Poles, Serbs
Serbs
and Russians, along with Romani (Gypsies) east of Germany.[33] Within the subhuman hierarchy, Slavs
Slavs
were generally classified slightly above the Romani and finally the Jews. Nonetheless, the Nazis' treatment to these ethnic groups shared no differentiation towards each other. An Untermensch
Untermensch
would be stripped of all his/her rights, treated as an animal, deemed to have a Lebensunwertes Leben (life unworthy of living) and fit only for enslavement and extermination.[34][35][36][37] Nazi ideology taught the German youth during school to understand the differences between the Nordic German "Übermenschen" and "ignoble" Jewish and Slavic "subhumans".[38] Subhuman: Poles[edit] Pseudoscientist and Nazi geneticist Hans Günther, on whom Hitler based much of his ideology, wrote extensively about the supposed racial origins of the Poles
Poles
and other West Slavs. Originally, the West Slavs
Slavs
were supposed to be Nordic, but were diluted by mixture with inferior races starting in the 12th century. The dominant type among Poles
Poles
in the modern day then became the East Baltic race.[16] However, some Poles
Poles
were considered to have enough Nordic admixture to be assimilated, supposedly being descended from the Nordic ruling class of the old West Slavs. Others, especially in the southern regions of the country, had a strong amount of "Inner Asiatic" racial ancestry, and as East Baltic/Inner Asiatic mixes were the most inferior.[39] Of the Poles
Poles
and predominantly East Baltic people in general, Günther said that they were mentally slow and incapable of long term planning, which influenced Nazi perception of the Poles: "after weeks of dreary toil the East Baltic man will often heedlessly squander all that he has earned... 'Nihilism' lies deep in the East Baltic soul. He seldom knows how to keep the wealth he has earned; riches make him extravagant and fond of show. His mind is not capable of quick decision, but with all its slowness it is penetrating... He has little cleanliness, whether personal or in the home."[40] He also characterized Poles
Poles
as predisposed to violence, and blamed crime in the German border regions on racemixing, saying: "The East Baltic man inclines to brutality in his sexual relations, and, indeed, to brutality in general. The German districts with most East Baltic blood have a heavy proportion of crime."[41] Honorary Aryans[edit] Chinese and Japanese, although non-Aryan in origin, were bestowed the status of Ehrenarier (Honorary Aryans) so that they could conduct lives and businesses in the German Reich without notable difficulties. Hitler respected these ancient civilizations and their ability to keep their traditional cultures intact in the face of foreign colonisation.[3] Günther generally considered the Chinese to be of an inferior 'Eastern Asiatic' race, but stated that "often we find, especially in the upper classes, a decidedly long skull and an almost white skin, sometimes combined with handsome European features." He stated that the upper class Chinese were close to the Nordic race, and that their ancestors were mostly Nordic. As supporting evidence, he cited "the very un-Asiatic behavior of the leaders of Mongolian and Turkish tribes, who led their tribesmen on far journeys of conquest", saying that only Nordic leaders would be capable of such a thing. He speculates that the Chinese must have mixed with the Scythians, who he said were also Nordic.[42] Racialist ideology[edit] Ideology[edit] Different Nazis offered a range of arguments—some pseudo-religious, others pseudoscientific—as to why the Aryan or European people were racially superior to people of other races. But the central dogma of Aryan superiority was espoused by officials throughout the party. Richard Walther Darré, Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture from 1933 to 1942, popularized the expression "Blut und Boden" ("Blood and Soil"), one of the many terms of the Nazi glossary ideologically used to enforce popular racism in the German population. There were many academic and administrative scholars of race who all had somewhat divergent views about the social misconception of racism, including Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
and Hans F. K. Günther
Hans F. K. Günther
[43] Fischer and Lenz were appointed to senior positions overseeing the policy of racial hygiene. The Nazi state used such ideas about the differences between European races as part of their various discriminatory and coercive policies which culminated in the Holocaust. Ironically, in Grant's[citation needed] first edition of his popular book The Passing of the Great Race[citation needed] he classified Germans as being primarily Nordic, but in his second edition, published after the USA had entered WWI, he had re-classified the now enemy power as being dominated by "inferior" Alpines, a tradition evident in the work of Harvard Professor of Anthropology Carlton Coon's work, The Races of Europe. Günther's work stated that the Germans are definitely not a fully Nordic people, and divided them into Western (Mediterranean), Nordic, Eastern (Alpine), East Baltic and Dinaric races. Hitler himself was later to downplay the importance of Nordicism in public for this very reason. The simplistic tripartite model of Grant which divided Europeans into only Alpine, Mediterranean, and Nordic, Günther did not use, and erroneously placed most of the population of Hitler's Germany in the Alpine category, especially after the Anschluss. This has been used to downplay the Nordic presence in Germany. Gunther considered Jews
Jews
an "Asiatic race inferior to all European races".[44] J. Kaup led a movement opposed to Günther. Kaup took the view that a German nation, all of whose citizens belonged to a "German race" in a populationist sense, offered a more convenient sociotechnical tool than Günther's concept of an ideal Nordic type to which only a very few Germans could belong. Nazi legislation identifying the ethnic and "racial" affinities of the Jews
Jews
reflects the populationist concept of race. Discrimination was not restricted to Jews
Jews
who belonged to the "Semitic-Oriental-Armenoid" and/or "Nubian-African/Negroid" races, but was directed against all members of the Jewish ethnic population.[45] The German Jewish journalist Kurt Caro (1905–1979) who emigrated to Paris in 1933 and served in the British army from 1943,[46] published a book under the pseudonym Manuel Humbert unmasking Hitler's Mein Kampf in which he stated the following racial composition of the Jewish population of Central Europe: 23.8% Lapponoid race, 21.5% Nordic race, 20.3% Armenoid race, 18.4% Mediterranean race, 16.0% Oriental race.[47] By 1939 Hitler had abandoned Nordicist rhetoric in favour of the idea that the German people as a whole were united by distinct "spiritual" qualities. Nevertheless, Nazi eugenics
Nazi eugenics
policies continued to favor Nordics over Alpines and other racial groups, particularly during the war when decisions were being made about the incorporation of conquered peoples into the Reich. The Lebensborn
Lebensborn
program sought to extend the Nordic race.[48][49][50] In 1942 Hitler stated in private,

I shall have no peace of mind until I have planted a seed of Nordic blood wherever the population stand in need of regeneration. If at the time of the migrations, while the great racial currents were exercising their influence, our people received so varied a share of attributes, these latter blossomed to their full value only because of the presence of the Nordic racial nucleus.[51]

Hitler and Himmler planned to use the SS as the basis for the racial "regeneration" of Europe following the final victory of Nazism. The SS was to be a racial elite chosen on the basis of "pure" Nordic qualities.[52][53][54] Addressing officers of the SS-Leibstandarte "Adolf Hitler" Himmler stated:

The ultimate aim for those 11 years during which I have been the Reichsfuehrer SS has been invariably the same: to create an order of good blood which is able to serve Germany; which unfailingly and without sparing itself can be made use of because the greatest losses can do no harm to the vitality of this order, the vitality of these men, because they will always be replaced; to create an order which will spread the idea of Nordic blood so far that we will attract all Nordic blood in the world, take away the blood from our adversaries, absorb it so that never again, looking at it from the viewpoint of grand policy, Nordic blood, in great quantities and to an extent worth mentioning, will fight against us.[55]

An influential figure among German racist theorists was Otto Reche
Otto Reche
who became director of the Institute for Racial and Ethnic Sciences in Lipsk
Lipsk
and advocated the genocide of the Polish nation. In this position he wrote that ethnic Poles
Poles
were "an unfortunate mixture" consisting among others of Slavs, Balts and Mongolians, and that they should be eliminated to avoid possible mixing with the German race[56] When Germany invaded Poland he wrote "We need Raum (space), but no Polish lice on our fur".[57] In philosophy[edit] Philosophers and other theoreticians participated in the elaboration of Nazi ideology. The relationship between Heidegger and Nazism
Nazism
has remained a controversial subject in the history of philosophy, even today. According to the philosopher Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger said of Spinoza
Spinoza
that he was "ein Fremdkörper in der Philosophie", a "foreign body in philosophy" – Faye notes that Fremdkörper was a term which belonged to the Nazi glossary,[58][59] and not to classical German. However Heidegger did to a certain extent criticise racial science, particularly in his Nietzsche lectures, which reject biologism in general. While generally speaking even in Heidegger's most German nationalist and pro-Nazi works of the early 30s, such as his infamous Rectorial address there is a lack of any overtly racialised language. Thus it is problematic to connect Heidegger with any racial theory. Carl Schmitt
Carl Schmitt
elaborated a philosophy of law praising the Führerprinzip
Führerprinzip
and the German people, while Alfred Baeumler instrumentalized Nietzsche's thought, in particular his concept of the "Will to Power", in an attempt to justify Nazism. Propaganda and implementation of racial theories[edit]

Poster in the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer
Der Stürmer
showing "Rassenschande" (lit. "racial defilement") between an Aryan and a Jew

Romani woman with German police officer and Nazi psychologist Dr Robert Ritter

Racial theory on the origin of Jews

A fragment of the exposition Der ewige Jude ("The Eternal Jew") which demonstrates "typical" anatomical traits of the Jews

Around 120,000 prisoners of war from French-ruled Africa were captured by the Germans and, unlike other French captives, were not deported to Germany for fear of racial defilement

Main article: Racial policy of Nazi Germany Nazis developed an elaborate system of propaganda to diffuse these theories. Nazi architecture, for example, was used to create the "new order" and improve the "Aryan race." Sports were also seen by the Nazis as a way to "regenerate the race" by exposing supposedly inferior peoples, namely the Jews, as slovenly, sedentary and out-of-shape. The Hitler Youth, founded in 1922, had among its basic motivations the training of future "Aryan supermen" and future soldiers who would faithfully fight for the Third Reich. Cinema was also used to promote racist theories, under the direction of Joseph Goebbels' Propagandaministerium. The German Hygiene Museum in Dresden diffused racial theories. A 1934 poster of the museum shows a man with distinctly African features and reads, "If this man had been sterilized there would not have been born ... 12 hereditarily diseased."(sic)[60] According to the current director Klaus Voegel, "The Hygiene Museum was not a criminal institute in the sense that people were killed here," but "it helped to shape the idea of which lives were worthy and which were worthless."[60] Nazi racial theories soon translated into legislation, most notably with the 1935 Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
and the July 1933 Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring. The Aktion T4
Aktion T4
euthanasia programme, in which the Kraft durch Freude
Kraft durch Freude
(KdF, literally "Strength Through Joy") youth organisation participated, targeted people accused of representing a danger of "degeneration" towards the "Deutsche Volk." Under the race laws, sexual relations between Aryans (cf. Aryan certificate) and non-Aryans known as Rassenschande
Rassenschande
("race defilement") became punishable by law.[61][62] To preserve the "racial purity" of the German blood, after the beginning of the war the Nazis extended the race defilement law to include all foreigners (non-Germans).[63] Despite the laws against Rassenschande, allegations of rape against Jewish women during the Holocaust by Nazi soldiers have surfaced.[64] The Nazi regime called for all German people wanting to be citizens of the Reich to produce proof of Aryan ancestry, certain exceptions were made when Hitler issued the "German Blood Certificate" for those people classified by the race laws to be of partial Aryan and Jewish ancestry. During World War II, Germanization
Germanization
efforts were carried out in central and eastern Europe to cull those of "German blood" there. This started with the classification of people into the Volksliste. Those selected were either sent for Germanization, or killed to prevent "German blood" being used against the Nazis.[65] In regions of Poland, Poles either mass murdered or ethnically cleansed to make room for Baltic Germans[66] induced to emigrate after the pact with the USSR.[67] Efforts were made to identify people of German descent with Nordic traits from pre-war citizens of Poland, once chosen if the individual passed the screening process test of being considered "racially valuable" they were then abducted from their parents to be Germanized and then sent to Germany to be raised as Germans, those children who failed racist tests were used as test subjects in medical experiments or used as slaves in German industry.[68][69] Western countries, such as France, were treated less roughly because they were viewed as racially superior to the "subhuman" Poles
Poles
that were to be enslaved and exterminated, though not as good as full Germans; a complex of racial categories was boiled down by the average German to mean "East is bad and West is acceptable."[70] Still, extensive racial classification was practiced in France, for future uses.[71] See also[edit]

Anti-Russian sentiment Anti-Slavic sentiment Aryan certificate Hutu Power An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus "Life unworthy of life" Manifesto of Race Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Nazi eugenics State racism Übermensch World War II
World War II
persecution of Serbs

References[edit] Notes

^ Harwood L. Childs (translator). "The Nazi Primer." New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1938. Page 34. ^ The German National Catechism - Deutscher National-Katechismus p.22-26 ^ a b Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. p. 240.  ^ Günther (1927), p.97. ^ Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. p. 247.  ^ Harwood L. Childs (translator). "The Nazi Primer." New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1938. Page 34. ^ Gunther 1927, Chapter: Distribution of European Races in Europe: Britain, France, Germany, and Belgium. Pages 62 to 66. ^ Adolf Hitler: table talk November 5th, 1941 (in: Hitler's Table Talk, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1953). ^ Adolf Hitler: table talk January 31st, 1942 (in: Hitler's Table Talk, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1953). ^ Gunther 1927, p. 65 ^ Kroener, Bernhard R.; Müller, Rolf-Dieter; Umbreit, Hans (2000). "Germany and the Second World War: Organization and mobilization of the German sphere of power. Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources 1939-1941." Oxford University Press. pp. 160–162. ISBN 0-19-822887-2. ^ Harwood L. Childs (translator). "The Nazi Primer." New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1938. Page 24-25. ^ a b c Asgharzadeh, Alireza. Iran and the Challenge of Diversity: Islamic Fundamentalism, Aryanist Racism, and Democratic Struggles. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 91-94. ^ Hiro, Dilip. Iran Under the Ayatollahs. Routledge & Kegan Paul Inc., p. 296. ^ a b c Jeffrey Herf, Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World (Yale University Press, 2009), pp. 18-24. ^ a b Günther (1927), p.171-72 (Chapter 10)ü ^ Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust - Page 175 Jack R. Fischel - 2010 The policy of Lebensraum
Lebensraum
was also the product of Nazi racial ideology, which held that the Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
of the east were inferior to the Aryan race. ^ Hitler's Home Front: Wurttemberg Under the Nazis, Jill Stephenson p. 135, Other non-'Aryans' included Slavs, Blacks and Roma . ^ Race Relations Within Western Expansion - Page 98 Alan J. Levine - 1996 Preposterously, Central European Aryan theorists, and later the Nazis, would insist that the Slavic-speaking peoples were not really Aryans ^ The Politics of Fertility in Twentieth-Century Berlin - Page 118 Annette F. Timm - 2010 The Nazis' singleminded desire to "purify" the German race through the elimination of non-Aryans (particularly Jews, Gypsies, and Slavs) ^ Curta 2001, p. 9, 26–30. ^ Jerry Bergman, " Eugenics
Eugenics
and the Development of Nazi Race Policy", Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
PSCF
PSCF
44 (June 1992):109–124 ^ Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, Christian Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene, The Johns Hopkins University Press, (August 1, 1994) ISBN 0-8018-4824-5 ^ The Holocaust
The Holocaust
and History The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined Edited by Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J. Peck, Indiana University Press page 59 "Pseudoracial policy of Third Reich(...)Gypsies, Slavs, blacks, Mischlinge, and Jews
Jews
are not Aryans." ^ Honorary Aryans: National-Racial Identity and Protected Jews
Jews
in the Independent State of Croatia Nevenko Bartulin Palgrave Macmilla, Nevenko Bartulin - 2013 page 7- "According to Jareb, the National Socialists regarded the Slavs
Slavs
as 'racially less valuable' non-Aryans" ^ Nazi Germany,Richard Tames - 1985 -"Hitler's vision of a Europe dominated by a Nazi "Herrenvolk" in which Slavs
Slavs
and other "non-aryans" page 65 ^ Modern Genocide: The Definitive Resource and Document Collection Paul R. Bartrop, Steven Leonard Jacobs page 1160, "This strict dualism between the "racially pure" Aryans and all others—especially Jews and Slavs—led in Nazism
Nazism
to the radical outlawing of all "non-Aryans" and to their enslavement and attempted annihilation" ^ World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1 Cyprian Blamires page 63 "the "racially pure" Aryans and all others—especially Jews and Slavs— led in Nazism
Nazism
to the radical outlawing of all "non-Aryans" and to their enslavement and attempted annihilation ^ The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1; Volume 7 By Junius P. Rodriguez page 464 ^ Emil L. Fackenheim: A Jewish Philosopher's Response to the Holocaust David Patterson, page 23 ^ Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust Jack R. Fischel - 2010 Lebensraum
Lebensraum
was also the product of Nazi racial ideology, which held that the Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
of the east were inferior to the Aryan race[page needed] ^ Ehrenreich, Eric (2007). The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Indiana University Press. pp. 9, 10. ISBN 978-0-253-11687-1.  ^ Rosenberg, Alfred (1933). Der Mythos des 20. Jahrhunderts (in German). Hoheneichen Verlag. p. 234.  ^ Mineau, André (2004). Operation Barbarossa: Ideology
Ideology
and Ethics Against Human Dignity. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi. p. 180. ISBN 90-420-1633-7.  ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (2005). "Project InPosterum: Poland WWII Casualties". Retrieved 15 March 2007.  ^ Łuczak, Czesław (1994). "Szanse i trudności bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945". Dzieje Najnowsze (1994/2).  ^ Simone Gigliotti, Berel Lang. The Holocaust: A Reader. Malden, Massachusetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Pp. 14. ^ Hitler Youth, 1922–1945: An Illustrated History by Jean-Denis Lepage, p. 91 ^ Günther (1927), p.74 (Chapter 6) ^ Günther (1927), p.41 (Chapter 3) ^ Günther (1927), p.40 (Chapter 3) ^ Günther (1927), p.99 (Chapter 8) ^ Burleigh, Michael (1996) Confronting the Nazi Past: New Debates on Modern German History. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-16353-3. p.199 pp. ^ Anton Wendt, Eradicating Differences, p.63 ^ Wiercinski, Andrzej; Bielicki, Tadeusz (February 1962). "The Racial Analysis of Human Populations in Relation to Their Ethnogenesis". Current Anthropology. 3 (1): 2, 9–46. doi:10.1086/200244.  ^ "Kurt Caro". German Federal Archives. Retrieved 5 May 2008.  ^ Humbert, Manuel (1936). Hitler's "Mein Kampf". Dichtung und Wahrheit. Paris: Kurt Michael Caro. p. 139.  ^ Gumkowski, Janusz; Kazimierz Leszczynski. "Poland under Nazi Occupation". Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 19 July 2007.  ^ Crossland, David. "Nazi Program to breed Master race, Lebensborn Children Break Silence". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 20 July 2007.  ^ "Opening Statement of the Prosecution in the Einsatzgruppen Trial". Nuremberg Trial Documents. Archived from the original on 17 April 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007.  ^ Trevor-Roper, H.R.; Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1 December 2007). Hitler's Table Talk: 1941 - 1944. Enigma Books. p. 475. ISBN 978-1-929631-66-7.  ^ Hale, Christopher (2003). Himmler's Crusade. Bantam Press. pp. 74–87. ISBN 0-593-04952-7.  ^ Russell, Stuart (1999). Heinrich Himmler's Camelot. Kressman-Backmayer.  ^ Field, Geoffrey G. (1977). "Nordic Racism". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press: 523.  ^ "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression". USGPO, Washington: University of North Carolina at Charlotte. 1946. pp. 553–572. Archived from DOCUMENT 1918-PS the original Check url= value (help) on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2007.  ^ Ceran, Tomasz (October 2014), The History of a Forgotten German Camp: Nazi Ideology
Ideology
and Genocide
Genocide
at Szmalcowka, I.B.Tauris, p. 40  ^ Weiss-Wendt, Anton (2010), Eradicating Differences: The Treatment of Minorities in Nazi-Dominated Europe, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. 66  ^ Emmanuel Faye (2005). Heidegger, L'Introduction Du Nazisme Dans La Philosophie (in French). Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2-226-14252-8.  ^ Faye, Emmanuel; Watson, Alexis; Golsan, Richard Joseph (2006). "Nazi Foundations in Heidegger's Work". South Central Review. 23 (1): 55–66. doi:10.1353/scr.2006.0006.  ^ a b Rietschel, Matthias (9 October 2006). "Nazi racial purity exhibit opens in Germany". MSNBC. Dresden, Germany: The Associated Press. Retrieved 9 February 2010.  ^ Robert Proctor (1988). Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis. Harvard University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-674-74578-0.  ^ David Bankier; Israel Gutman (2009). Nazi Europe and the Final Solution. Berghahn Books. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-84545-410-4.  ^ Diemut Majer (2003). "Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe with Special
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Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939-1945. JHU Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8018-6493-3.  ^ http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/europe/06/24/holocaust.rape/ ^ Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression Volume I Chapter XIII Germanization & Spoliation Archived 3 December 2003 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 213-4 ISBN 0-679-77663-X ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 207-9 ISBN 0-679-77663-X ^ Joseph W. Bendersky (11 July 2013). A Concise History of Nazi Germany. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-4422-2270-0.  ^ Volker R. Berghahn, "Germans and Poles
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Bibliography

Biddiss, Michael D. 1970. Father of Racist Ideology: The Social and Political Thought of Count Gobineau. New York: Weybright and Talley. Curta, Florin (2001). The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Günther, Hans (1927) The Racial Elements of European History. G. C. Wheeler (translator) Ehrenreich, Eric. 2007 The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Kühl, Stefan. 1994. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Lombardo, Paul A. 2002. "‘The American Breed’: Nazi Eugenics
Eugenics
and the Origins of the Pioneer Fund." Albany Law Review 65:743–830. Mintz, Frank P. 1985. The Liberty Lobby and the American Right: Race, Conspiracy, and Culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Poliakov, Leon. 1974. Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe. New York, NY: Basic Books. Tucker, William. 2002. The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

v t e

Nazism

Organizations

National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
(HJ) National Socialist Flyers Corps
National Socialist Flyers Corps
(NSFK) National Socialist Motor Corps
National Socialist Motor Corps
(NSKK) League of German Girls
League of German Girls
(BDM) National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise
National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise
(NSRL) National Socialist Women's League
National Socialist Women's League
(NSF) Reich Labour Service
Reich Labour Service
(RAD) Werwolf

History

Early timeline Adolf Hitler's rise to power Machtergreifung Re-armament Nazi Germany Night of the Long Knives Nuremberg Rally Anti-Comintern Pact Kristallnacht World War II Tripartite Pact The Holocaust Nuremberg trials Denazification Consequences

Ideology

Architecture Gleichschaltung Anti-democratic thought Strasserism Hitler's political views Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
(Hitler) Der Mythus des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts (Rosenberg) National Socialist Program New Order Preussentum und Sozialismus Propaganda Religious aspects Women in Nazi Germany

Race

Blood and Soil Eugenics Greater Germanic Reich Heim ins Reich Lebensborn Master race Racial policy Religion

Atrocities

Action T4 Final Solution Human experimentation Porajmos

Outside Germany

United States

American Nazi Party German American Bund National Socialist Movement

Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
(Hungary) Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party German National Movement in Liechtenstein Greek National Socialist Party South African Gentile National Socialist Movement Hungarian National Socialist Party Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
(Norway) National Movement of Switzerland National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands National Socialist Bloc (Sweden) National Socialist League
National Socialist League
(UK) National Socialist Movement of Chile National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark National Unity Party (Canada) Nationalist Liberation Alliance
Nationalist Liberation Alliance
(Argentina) Nazism
Nazism
in Brazil Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag
(South Africa) World Union of National Socialists

Lists

Books by or about Hitler Ideologues Leaders and officials Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members Speeches given by Hitler SS personnel

People

Adolf Hitler Joseph Goebbels Heinrich Himmler Hermann Göring Martin Bormann Reinhard Heydrich Gregor Strasser Otto Strasser Albert Speer Rudolf Hess Ernst Kaltenbrunner Adolf Eichmann Joachim von Ribbentrop Houston Stewart Chamberlain Alfred Rosenberg Wilhelm Frick Hans Frank Rudolf Höss Josef Mengele Richard Walther Darré Baldur von Schirach Artur Axmann Ernst Röhm Dietrich Eckart Gottfried Feder Ernst Hanfstaengl Julius Streicher Hermann Esser George Lincoln Rockwell

Related topics

Esoteric Nazism Far-right politics German resistance Glossary of Nazi Germany Nazi salute Neo-Nazism Social Darwinism Stormfront Swastika Völkisch movement Zweites Buch

Category

v t e

Historical race concepts

By color

Black Bronze Brown Red White Yellow

Anthropological

Australoid Capoid Caucasoid Mongoloid Negroid

Sub-types

Alpine Arabid Armenoid Atlantid Borreby Brunn Caspian Dinaric East Baltic Ethiopid Hamitic Dravidian Irano-Afghan Japhetic Malay Mediterranean Neo-Mongoloid Neo-Danubian Nordic Northcaucasian Ladogan Lappish Pamirid Proto-Mongoloid Semitic Turanid

Multiracial

Miscegenation Ethnogenesis List of racially mixed groups

Writers

Louis Agassiz John Baker Erwin Baur John Beddoe Robert Bennett Bean François Bernier Renato Biasutti Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Franz Boas Paul Broca Alice Mossie Brues Halfdan Bryn Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Charles Caldwell Petrus Camper Samuel A. Cartwright Houston Stewart Chamberlain Sonia Mary Cole Carleton S. Coon Georges Cuvier Jan Czekanowski Charles Davenport Joseph Deniker Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt Anténor Firmin Eugen Fischer John Fiske Francis Galton Stanley Marion Garn Reginald Ruggles Gates George Gliddon Arthur de Gobineau Madison Grant John Grattan Hans F. K. Günther Ernst Haeckel Frederick Ludwig Hoffman Earnest Hooton Julian Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley Calvin Ira Kephart Robert Knox Robert E. Kuttner Georges Vacher de Lapouge Fritz Lenz Carl Linnaeus Cesare Lombroso Bertil Lundman Felix von Luschan Dominick McCausland John Mitchell Ashley Montagu Lewis H. Morgan Samuel George Morton Josiah C. Nott Karl Pearson Oscar Peschel Isaac La Peyrère Charles Pickering Ludwig Hermann Plate Alfred Ploetz James Cowles Prichard Otto Reche Gustaf Retzius William Z. Ripley Alfred Rosenberg Benjamin Rush Henric Sanielevici Heinrich Schmidt Ilse Schwidetzky Charles Gabriel Seligman Giuseppe Sergi Samuel Stanhope Smith Herbert Spencer Morris Steggerda Lothrop Stoddard William Graham Sumner Thomas Griffith Taylor Paul Topinard John H. Van Evrie Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer Rudolf Virchow Voltaire Alexander Winchell Ludwig Woltmann

Writings

An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates (1744) The Outline of History of Mankind (1785) Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849) An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
(1855) The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899) The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
(1907) Heredity in Relation to Eugenics
Eugenics
(1911) Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916) The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race
(1916) The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
(1920) The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
(1930) Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste
(1936) The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939) An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus (1943) The Race Question
The Race Question
(1950)

Theories

Eugenics Great chain of being Monogenism Polygenism Pre-Adamite

Related

History of anthropometry Racial categorization

in India in Latin America

in Brazil in Colombia

in Singapore in the United States

Scientific racism

Nazism
Nazism
and race

Racial hygiene Olive skin Whiteness

in the United States

Whitening

Branqueamento/Blanqueamiento

Passing Racial stereotypes Martial race Master race Color names

Coloris

.