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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Hitler Youth

* _ Deutsches Jungvolk _ * League of German Girls

PARAMILITARY WINGS _ Sturmabteilung _ _ Schutzstaffel _

SPORTS BODY National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise

WOMEN\'S WING National Socialist Women\'s League

MEMBERSHIP Fewer than 60 (1920) 8.5 million (1945)

IDEOLOGY Nazism Pan-Germanism Anti-Communism

POLITICAL POSITION Far-right

COLOURS Black
Black
, white , red (official, German imperial colours) Brown
Brown
(customary)

SLOGAN "_Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer _" (English: "One People, One Nation, One Leader") (unofficial)

PARTY FLAG

* Politics of Germany * Political parties * Elections

The NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS\' PARTY (German : _ Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei_ (help ·info ), abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the NAZI PARTY (/ˈnɑːtsi/ ), was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and practised the ideology of Nazism . Its precursor, the German Workers\' Party (_Deutsche Arbeiterpartei_; DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.

Part of a series on

NAZISM

Organizations

* National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) * Sturmabteilung (SA) * Schutzstaffel (SS) * Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) * Hitler Youth (HJ) * Deutsches Jungvolk (DJ) * League of German Girls (BDM) * National Socialist German Students\' League (NSDStB) * National Socialist League of the Reich
Reich
for Physical Exercise (NSRL) * National Socialist Flyers Corps (NSFK) * National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) * National Socialist Women\'s League (NSF) * Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists (KGRNS)

History

* Early timeline * Hitler\'s rise to power * Machtergreifung * German re-armament * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Religion in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Night of the Long Knives * Nuremberg Rally * Anti-Comintern Pact * Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
* World War II
World War II
* Tripartite Pact * The Holocaust * Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
* Neo- Nazism

Ideology

* Fascism * Totalitarianism * Führerprinzip * Anti-democratic thought * Houston Stewart Chamberlain * Gleichschaltung
Gleichschaltung
* Hitler\'s political views * _ Mein Kampf _ * _ The Myth of the Twentieth Century _ * Militarism * National Socialist Program * New Order * _ Preussentum und Sozialismus _ * Propaganda
Propaganda
* Religious aspects * Strasserism * Syncretic politics * Symbolism * Women in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

Racial ideology

* Aryan race * Blood and Soil * Eugenics * _ The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century _ * Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
* Heim ins Reich * Lebensraum * Master race * Racial policy of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Völkisch equality

Final Solution
Final Solution

* Concentration camps * Deportations * Doctors\' trial * Extermination camps * Genocide
Genocide
* Ghettos * Human experimentation * Labour camps * Pogroms * Racial segregation

People

* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Joseph Goebbels * Heinrich Himmler * Hermann Göring * Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
* Otto Strasser

Nazism outside of Germany

* American Nazi Party * Aria Party (Persia) * Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
(Hungary) * Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
* German American Bund * German National Movement in Liechtenstein * Greek National Socialist Party * South African Gentile National Socialist Movement * Hungarian National Socialist Party * Nasjonal Samling (Norway) * National Movement of Switzerland * National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * National Socialist Bloc (Sweden) * National Socialist League (UK) * National Socialist Movement of Chile

* National Socialist Movement (United States) * National Socialist Workers\' Party of Denmark * National Unity Party (Canada) * Nazism in Brazil * Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina) * SUMKA * Ossewabrandwag (South Africa) * World Union of National Socialists

Lists

* Books by or about Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Nazi ideologues * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leaders and officials * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members * Speeches given by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* SS personnel

Related topics

* Antisemitism * Denazification
Denazification
* Enabling Act of 1933 * Fascism * Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* The Holocaust * Neo- Nazism * Völkisch movement * _ Zweites Buch _

* _ Category
Category
* Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal _

* v * t * e

The party emerged from the German nationalist , racist , and populist _ Freikorps _ paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post- World War I
World War I
Germany. The party was created as a means to draw workers away from communism and into _völkisch _ nationalism. Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business , anti-bourgeois , and anti-capitalist rhetoric, although such aspects were later downplayed in order to gain the support of industrial entities, and in the 1930s the party's focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.

Pseudo-scientific racism theories were central to Nazism. The Nazis propagated the idea of a "people's community" (_ Volksgemeinschaft _). Their aim was to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race (_Fremdvölkische_). The Nazis sought to improve the stock of the Germanic people through racial purity and eugenics , broad social welfare programs, and a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state and the "Aryan master race ". To maintain the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews
Jews
, Romani , and Poles along with the vast majority of other Slavs , and the physically and mentally handicapped . They imposed exclusionary segregation on homosexuals , Africans , Jehovah\'s Witnesses , and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state organized the systematic murder of approximately six million Jews
Jews
and five million people from the other targeted groups, in what has become known as the Holocaust .

The party's leader since 1921, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler
Hitler
rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich
Reich
. Following the defeat of the Third Reich
Reich
at the conclusion of World War II
World War II
in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers , who carried out denazification in the years after the war.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins and early existence: 1918–1923

* 2.2 Rise to power: 1925–1933

* 2.2.1 Ascension and consolidation

* 2.3 After taking power: intertwining of party and state * 2.4 Defeat and abolition

* 3 Political program

* 4 Party composition

* 4.1 Command structure

* 4.1.1 Top leadership * 4.1.2 Reichsleiter * 4.1.3 Political leadership corps * 4.1.4 Ordinary members

* 4.2 Nazi Party
Nazi Party
offices * 4.3 Paramilitary groups * 4.4 Affiliated organizations

* 5 Regional administration

* 5.1 Nazi Party
Nazi Party
_Gaue_ * 5.2 _Gaue_ dissolved before 1945

* 5.3 Associated organizations abroad

* 5.3.1 _Gaue_ in Switzerland
Switzerland

* 6 Membership

* 6.1 General membership * 6.2 Military membership * 6.3 Student membership * 6.4 Women membership

* 6.5 Membership outside of Germany

* 6.5.1 _Deutsche Gemeinschaft_

* 7 Party symbols * 8 Ranks and rank insignia * 9 Slogans and songs * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The term "Nazi" derives from the name given in German to a party member _Nationalsozialist_ (German pronunciation: ) and was coined in response to the German term _Sozi_ (pronounced /zoːtsi/), an abbreviation of _Sozialdemokrat_ (Member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany ). Members of the party referred to themselves as _Nationalsozialisten_ (National Socialists), rarely as Nazis. The term _Parteigenosse_ (party member) was commonly used among Nazis, with the feminine form _Parteigenossin_ used when it was appropriate.

The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant , characterising an awkward and clumsy person. It derived from _Ignaz_, being a shortened version of Ignatius
Ignatius
, a common name in Bavaria , the area from which the Nazis emerged. Opponents seized on this and shortened the party's name in intentional association to the long-time existing 'Sozi' to the dismissive "Nazi".

In 1933, when Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
assumed power of the German government, usage of the designation "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term derogatorily. The use of " Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
," and "Nazi regime," was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad. Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and eventually was brought back to Germany after the Second World War.

HISTORY

ORIGINS AND EARLY EXISTENCE: 1918–1923

The party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I
World War I
. In 1918, a league called the _Freien Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden_ (Free Workers' Committee for a good Peace) was created in Bremen
Bremen
, Germany. On 7 March 1918, Anton Drexler
Anton Drexler
, an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich
Munich
. Drexler was a local locksmith who had been a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I
World War I
, and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals which followed. Drexler followed the typical views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles , having antisemitic , anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race " (_Herrenvolk_). However, he also accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany the result of the new Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses, especially the lower classes. Drexler emphasized the need for a synthesis of _völkisch_ nationalism with a form of economic socialism , in order to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge the rise of Communism
Communism
and internationalist politics . These were all well-known themes popular with various Weimar paramilitary groups such as the _ Freikorps _. Nazi Party
Nazi Party
badge emblem

Drexler's movement did receive attention and support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckhart brought military figure Count Felix Graf von Bothmer , a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement. Later in 1918, Karl Harrer (a journalist and member of the Thule Society
Thule Society
), convinced Drexler and several others to form the _Politischer Arbeiterzirkel _ (Political Workers' Circle). The members met periodically for discussions with themes of nationalism and racism directed against the Jews. In December 1918, Drexler decided that a new political party should be formed, based on the political principles that he endorsed, by combining his branch of the Workers' Committee for a good Peace with the Political Workers' Circle.

On 5 January 1919, Drexler created a new political party and proposed it be named the "German Socialist Workers' Party", but Harrer objected to the term "socialist"; so the term was removed and the party was named the German Workers\' Party (_Deutsche Arbeiterpartei_, DAP). To ease concerns among potential middle-class supporters, Drexler made clear that unlike Marxists, the party supported the middle-class, and that its socialist policy was meant to give social welfare to German citizens deemed part of the Aryan race. They became one of many _völkisch_ movements that existed in Germany. Like other _völkisch_ groups, the DAP advocated the belief that through profit-sharing instead of socialisation Germany should become a unified "people's community" (_Volksgemeinschaft_) rather than a society divided along class and party lines. This ideology was explicitly antisemitic. As early as 1920, the party was raising money by selling a tobacco called _Anti-Semit_. NSDAP membership book

From the outset, the DAP was opposed to non-nationalist political movements, especially on the left, including the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Communist
Communist
Party of Germany (KPD). Members of the DAP saw themselves as fighting against "Bolshevism " and anyone considered a part of or aiding so-called "international Jewry ". The DAP was also deeply opposed to the Versailles Treaty
Versailles Treaty
. The DAP did not attempt to make itself public, and meetings were kept in relative secrecy, with public speakers discussing what they thought of Germany's present state of affairs , or writing to like-minded societies in Northern Germany.

The DAP was a comparatively small group with fewer than 60 members. Nevertheless, it attracted the attention of the German authorities, who were suspicious of any organisation that appeared to have subversive tendencies. In July 1919 while stationed in Munich
Munich
, army _ Gefreiter _ Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was appointed a _Verbindungsmann_ (intelligence agent) of an _Aufklärungskommando_ (reconnaissance unit) of the _ Reichswehr _ (army) by Captain Mayr the head of the _Education and Propaganda
Propaganda
Department_ (Dept Ib/P) in Bavaria . Hitler was assigned to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the DAP. While attending a party meeting on 12 September 1919, Hitler
Hitler
became involved in a heated argument with a visitor, Professor Baumann, who questioned the soundness of Gottfried Feder 's arguments against capitalism and proposed that Bavaria should break away from Prussia and found a new South German nation with Austria
Austria
. In vehemently attacking the man's arguments, he made an impression on the other party members with his oratory skills and, according to Hitler, the "professor" left the hall acknowledging unequivocal defeat. Drexler encouraged him to join the DAP. On the orders of his army superiors, Hitler
Hitler
applied to join the party, and within a week was accepted as party member 555 (the party began counting membership at 500 to give the impression they were a much larger party). Among the party's earlier members were Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
of the Army's District Command VII; well-to-do journalist Dietrich Eckart
Dietrich Eckart
, who has been called the spiritual father of National Socialism.; then University of Munich student Rudolf Hess ; _Freikorps_ soldier Hans Frank ; and Alfred Rosenberg , often credited as the philosopher of the movement. All were later prominent in the Nazi regime. Hitler's membership card in the DAP (later NSDAP)

Hitler
Hitler
later claimed to be the seventh party member (he was in fact the seventh executive member of the party's central committee; he would later wear the Golden Party Badge
Golden Party Badge
number one). Anton Drexler drafted a letter to Hitler
Hitler
in 1940, which was never sent that contradicts Hitler's later claim:

No one knows better than you yourself, my Führer, that you were never the seventh member of the party, but at best the seventh member of the committee, which I asked you to join as recruitment director. And a few years ago I had to complain to a party office that your first proper membership card of the DAP, bearing the signatures of Schüssler and myself, was falsified, with the number 555 being erased and number 7 entered.

Hitler's first DAP speech was held in the Hofbräukeller on 16 October 1919. He was the second speaker of the evening and spoke to 111 people. Hitler
Hitler
later declared that this was when he realised he could really "make a good speech". At first, Hitler
Hitler
spoke only to relatively small groups, but his considerable oratory and propaganda skills were appreciated by the party leadership. With the support of Anton Drexler, Hitler
Hitler
became chief of propaganda for the party in early 1920. Hitler
Hitler
began to make the party more public, and organised their biggest meeting yet of 2000 people, on 24 February 1920 in the _Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München _. Such was the significance of this particular move in publicity that Harrer resigned from the party in disagreement. It was in this speech that Hitler, for the first time, enunciated the twenty-five points of the German Workers\' Party manifesto that had been drawn up by Drexler, Feder, and Hitler. Through these points he gave the organisation a much bolder stratagem with a clear foreign policy (abrogation of The Treaty of Versailles, a Greater Germany , Eastern expansion, exclusion of Jews
Jews
from citizenship), and among his specific points were: confiscation of war profits , abolition of unearned incomes, the State to share profits of land, and land for national needs to be taken away without compensation. In general, the manifesto was antisemitic , anti-capitalist , anti-democratic , anti-Marxist , and anti-liberal . To increase its appeal to larger segments of the population, on 24 February 1920, the same day as Hitler's _Hofbräuhaus_ speech, the DAP changed its name to the _Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei_ (National Socialist German Workers Party). That year, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
officially announced that only persons of "pure Aryan descent " could become party members; if the person had a spouse, the spouse also had to be a "racially pure" Aryan. Party members could not be related either directly or indirectly to a so-called "non-Aryan". Even before it became legally forbidden by the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935, the Nazis banned sexual relations and marriages between party members and Jews. Party members found guilty of _ Rassenschande _ (racial defilement) were persecuted heavily, some members were even sentenced to death.

Hitler
Hitler
quickly became the party's most active orator. Appearing in public as a speaker thirty-one times within the first year after his self-discovery, crowds began to flock to hear his speeches. Hitler always spoke about the same subjects: the Treaty of Versailles and the Jewish question . This deliberate technique and effective publicising of the party contributed significantly to his early success, about which a contemporary poster wrote 'Since Herr Hitler
Hitler
is a brilliant speaker, we can hold out the prospect of an extremely exciting evening'. Over the following months, the party continued to attract new members, while remaining too small to have any real significance in German politics. By the end of the year, party membership was recorded at 2000, many of whom Hitler
Hitler
and Röhm had brought into the party personally, or for whom Hitler's oratory had been their reason for joining.

Hitler's talent as an orator, and his ability to draw new members, combined with his characteristic ruthlessness, soon made him the dominant figure. However, while Hitler
Hitler
and Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin in June 1921, a mutiny broke out within the party in Munich. Members of its executive committee wanted to merge with the rival German Socialist Party (DSP). Upon returning to Munich on 11 July, Hitler
Hitler
angrily tendered his resignation. The committee members realised that his resignation would mean the end of the party. Hitler
Hitler
announced he would rejoin on the condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, and that the party headquarters would remain in Munich. The committee agreed, and he rejoined the party on 26 July as member 3,680. Hitler
Hitler
continued to face some opposition within the NSDAP: Opponents of Hitler
Hitler
had Hermann Esser expelled from the party, and they printed 3,000 copies of a pamphlet attacking Hitler
Hitler
as a traitor to the party. In the following days, Hitler
Hitler
spoke to several packed houses and defended himself and Esser, to thunderous applause.

His strategy proved successful, and at a special party congress on 29 July 1921, he replaced Drexler as party chairman, by a vote of 533 to 1. The committee was dissolved, and Hitler
Hitler
was granted nearly absolute powers as the party's sole leader. This was a post he would hold for the remainder of his life. Hitler
Hitler
soon acquired the title _ Führer _ ("leader") and, after a series of sharp internal conflicts, it was accepted that the party would be governed by the _ Führerprinzip _ ("leader principle"). Under this principle, the party was a highly centralized entity that functioned strictly from the top down, with Hitler
Hitler
at the apex as the party's absolute leader. Hitler
Hitler
saw the party as a revolutionary organization, whose aim was the overthrow of the Weimar Republic , which he saw as controlled by the socialists, Jews
Jews
and the "November criminals " who had betrayed the German soldiers in 1918. The SA ("storm troopers", also known as "Brownshirts") were founded as a party militia in 1921, and began violent attacks on other parties. _ Mein Kampf _ in its first edition cover.

For Hitler, the twin goals of the party were always German nationalist expansionism and antisemitism . These two goals were fused in his mind by his belief that Germany's external enemies – Britain, France and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
– were controlled by the Jews, and that Germany's future wars of national expansion would necessarily entail a war against the Jews. For Hitler
Hitler
and his principal lieutenants, national and racial issues were always dominant. This was symbolised by the adoption as the party emblem of the swastika or _Hakenkreuz_. In German nationalist circles, the swastika was considered a symbol of an " Aryan race "; it symbolized the replacement of the Christian Cross with allegiance to a National Socialist State.

During 1921 and 1922, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
grew significantly, partly through Hitler's oratorical skills, partly through the SA's appeal to unemployed young men, and partly because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria as Germany's economic problems deepened and the weakness of the Weimar regime became apparent. The party recruited former World War I
World War I
soldiers, to whom Hitler
Hitler
as a decorated frontline veteran could particularly appeal, as well as small businessmen and disaffected former members of rival parties. Nazi rallies were often held in beer halls, where downtrodden men could get free beer. The Hitler Youth was formed for the children of party members. The party also formed groups in other parts of Germany. Julius Streicher in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was an early recruit, and became editor of the racist magazine _ Der Stürmer _. In December 1920 the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
had acquired a newspaper, the _Völkischer Beobachter _, of which its leading ideologist Alfred Rosenberg became editor. Others to join the party around this time were World War I
World War I
flying ace Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler .

On 31 October 1922, a party with similar policies and objectives came into power in Italy, the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
under the leadership of the charismatic Benito Mussolini . The Fascists, like the Nazis, promoted a national rebirth of their country; opposed communism and liberalism; appealed to the working-class; opposed the Treaty of Versailles ; and advocated the territorial expansion of their country. The Italian Fascists used a straight-armed Roman salute and wore black-shirted uniforms. Hitler
Hitler
was inspired by Mussolini and the Fascists, borrowing their use of the straight-armed salute as a Nazi salute. When the Fascists came to power in 1922 in Italy through their coup attempt called the " March on Rome ", Hitler
Hitler
began planning his own coup.

In January 1923, France occupied the Ruhr
Ruhr
industrial region as a result of Germany's failure to meet its reparations payments. This led to economic chaos, the resignation of Wilhelm Cuno 's government, and an attempt by the German Communist
Communist
Party (KPD) to stage a revolution. The reaction to these events was an upsurge of nationalist sentiment. Nazi Party
Nazi Party
membership grew sharply, to about 20,000. By November, Hitler
Hitler
had decided that the time was right for an attempt to seize power in Munich, in the hope that the _Reichswehr_ (the post-war German military) would mutiny against the Berlin government and join his revolt. In this, he was influenced by former General Erich Ludendorff , who had become a supporter—though not a member—of the Nazis.

On the night of 8 November, the Nazis used a patriotic rally in a Munich
Munich
beer hall to launch an attempted _putsch_ (_coup d'état_). This so-called Beer Hall Putsch attempt failed almost at once when the local _Reichswehr_ commanders refused to support it. On the morning of 9 November the Nazis staged a march of about 2,000 supporters through Munich
Munich
in an attempt to rally support. Troops opened fire, and 16 Nazis were killed. Hitler, Ludendorff and a number of others were arrested, and were tried for treason in March 1924. Hitler
Hitler
and his associates were given very lenient prison sentences. While Hitler
Hitler
was in prison, he wrote his semi-autobiographical political manifesto _ Mein Kampf _ ("My Struggle").

The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was banned on 9 November 1923, though with support of the nationalist Völkisch-Social Bloc (_Völkisch-Sozialer Block_), continued to operate under the name of the "German Party" (_Deutsche Partei_ or DP) from 1924 to 1925. The Nazis failed to remain unified in the German Party, as in the north, the right-wing Volkish nationalist supporters of the Nazis moved to the new German Völkisch Freedom Party , leaving the north's left-wing Nazi members, such as Joseph Goebbels retaining support for the party.

RISE TO POWER: 1925–1933

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Hitler
Hitler
with Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members in 1930 Further information: Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power "Rise of Nazism" redirects here. For the culmination of the rise, see Nazi seizure of power .

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was released from prison on 20 December 1924. On 16 February 1925 Hitler
Hitler
convinced the Bavarian authorities to lift the ban on the NSDAP, and the party was formally refounded on 26 February 1925, with Hitler
Hitler
as its undisputed Leader. The new Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was no longer a paramilitary organization, and disavowed any intention of taking power by force. In any case, the economic and political situation had stabilized and the extremist upsurge of 1923 had faded, so there was no prospect of further revolutionary adventures. The Nazi Party of 1925 was divided into the "Leadership Corps" (_Korps der politischen Leiter_), appointed by Hitler, and the general membership (_Parteimitglieder_). The party and the SA were kept separate, and the legal aspect of the party's work was emphasized. In a sign of this, the party began to admit women. The SA and the SS members (the latter founded in 1925 as Hitler's bodyguard, and known originally as the _Schutzkommando_) had to all be regular party members.

In the 1920s the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
expanded beyond its Bavarian base. Catholic Bavaria maintained its right-wing nostalgia for a Catholic monarch; and Westphalia , along with working-class " Red
Red
Berlin", were always the Nazis' weakest areas electorally, even during the Third Reich
Reich
itself. The areas of strongest Nazi support were in rural Protestant areas such as Schleswig-Holstein , Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
, Pomerania , and East Prussia
Prussia
. Depressed working-class areas such as Thuringia also produced a strong Nazi vote, while the workers of the Ruhr
Ruhr
and Hamburg
Hamburg
largely remained loyal to the Social Democrats , the Communist Party of Germany , or the Catholic Centre Party . Nuremberg
Nuremberg
remained a Nazi Party
Nazi Party
stronghold, and the first Nuremberg Rally was held there in 1927. These rallies soon became massive displays of Nazi paramilitary power and attracted many recruits. The Nazis' strongest appeal was to the lower middle-classes – farmers, public servants, teachers, small businessmen – who had suffered most from the inflation of the 1920s, so who feared Bolshevism more than anything else. The small business class was receptive to Hitler's antisemitism, since it blamed Jewish big business for its economic problems. University students, disappointed at being too young to have served in the War of 1914–1918, and attracted by the Nazis' radical rhetoric, also became a strong Nazi constituency. By 1929, the party had 130,000 members.

The party's nominal Deputy Leader was Rudolf Hess , but he had no real power in the party. By the early 1930s the senior leaders of the party after Hitler
Hitler
were Himmler , Goebbels and Göring . Beneath the Leadership Corps were the party's regional leaders, the _Gauleiters _, each of whom commanded the party in his _Gau _ ("region"). Joseph Goebbels began his ascent through the party hierarchy as _Gauleiter_ of Berlin-Brandenburg in 1926. Streicher was _Gauleiter_ of Franconia , where he published his antisemitic newspaper _ Der Stürmer _. Beneath the _Gauleiter_ were lower-level officials, the _ Kreisleiter _ ("county leaders"), _ Zellenleiter _ ("cell leaders") and _Blockleiter _ ("block leaders"). This was a strictly hierarchical structure in which orders flowed from the top, and unquestioning loyalty was given to superiors. Only the SA retained some autonomy. Being composed largely of unemployed workers, many SA men took the Nazis' socialist rhetoric seriously. At this time, the Hitler salute (borrowed from the Italian fascists ) and the greeting "Heil Hitler!" were adopted throughout the party. Nazi Party
Nazi Party
election poster used in Vienna in 1930. Translation: "We demand freedom and bread".

The Nazis contested elections to the national parliament, the _Reichstag _, and to the state legislatures, the _Landtage _, from 1924, although at first with little success. The "National-Socialist Freedom Movement" polled 3% of the vote in the December 1924 _Reichstag_ elections , and this fell to 2.6% in 1928 . State elections produced similar results. Despite these poor results, and despite Germany's relative political stability and prosperity during the later 1920s, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
continued to grow. This was partly because Hitler, who had no administrative ability, left the party organization to the head of the secretariat, Philipp Bouhler , the party treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz , and business manager Max Amann . The party had a capable propaganda head in Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
, who was promoted to national organizational leader in January 1928. These men gave the party efficient recruitment and organizational structures. The party also owed its growth to the gradual fading away of competitor nationalist groups, such as the German National People\'s Party (DNVP). As Hitler
Hitler
became the recognized head of the German nationalists, other groups declined or were absorbed.

Despite these strengths, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
might never have come to power had it not been for the Great Depression and its effects on Germany. By 1930 the German economy was beset with mass unemployment and widespread business failures. The Social Democrats and Communists were bitterly divided and unable to formulate an effective solution: this gave the Nazis their opportunity, and Hitler's message, blaming the crisis on the Jewish financiers and the Bolsheviks , resonated with wide sections of the electorate. At the September 1930 _Reichstag_ elections , the Nazis won 18.3% of the votes and became the second-largest party in the _Reichstag_ after the SPD. Hitler proved to be a highly effective campaigner, pioneering the use of radio and aircraft for this purpose. His dismissal of Strasser and his appointment of Goebbels as the party's propaganda chief were major factors. While Strasser had used his position to promote his own leftish version of national socialism, Goebbels was totally loyal to Hitler
Hitler
and worked only to improve Hitler's image.

The 1930 elections changed the German political landscape by weakening the traditional nationalist parties, the DNVP and the DVP, leaving the Nazis as the chief alternative to the discredited SPD and the Zentrum, whose leader, Heinrich Brüning , headed a weak minority government. The inability of the democratic parties to form a united front, the self-imposed isolation of the Communists, and the continued decline of the economy, all played into Hitler's hands. He now came to be seen as _de facto_ leader of the opposition, and donations poured into the Nazi Party's coffers. Some major business figures, such as Fritz Thyssen , were Nazi supporters and gave generously, and some Wall Street figures were allegedly involved, but many other businessmen were suspicious of the extreme nationalist tendencies of the Nazis and preferred to support the traditional conservative parties instead. German NSDAP Donation Token 1932, Free State of Prussia
Prussia
Elections.

During 1931 and into 1932, Germany's political crisis deepened. In March 1932 Hitler
Hitler
ran for President against the incumbent President Paul von Hindenburg , polling 30.1% in the first round and 36.8% in the second against Hindenburg's 49 and 53%. By now the SA had 400,000 members, and its running street battles with the SPD and Communist paramilitaries (who also fought each other) reduced some German cities to combat zones. Paradoxically, although the Nazis were among the main instigators of this disorder, part of Hitler's appeal to a frightened and demoralised middle class was his promise to restore law and order. Overt antisemitism was played down in official Nazi rhetoric, but was never far from the surface. Germans voted for Hitler
Hitler
primarily because of his promises to revive the economy (by unspecified means), to restore German greatness and overturn the Treaty of Versailles , and to save Germany from communism.

On 24 April 1932 the Free State of Prussia
Prussia
elections to the Landtag resulted in 36.3 % of the votes, or 162 seats for Hitler's party NSDAP.

On 20 July 1932, the Prussian government was ousted by a coup, the _Preussenschlag_, and a few days later at the July 1932 _Reichstag_ election the Nazis made another leap forward, polling 37.4% and becoming the largest party in parliament by a wide margin. Furthermore, the Nazis and the Communists between them won 52% of the vote and a majority of seats. Since both parties opposed the established political system, and neither would join or support any ministry, this made the formation of a majority government impossible. The result was weak ministries governing by decree. Under Comintern directives, the Communists maintained their policy of treating the SPD as the main enemy, calling them "social fascists ", thereby splintering opposition to the Nazis. Later, both the SPD and the Communists accused each other of having facilitated Hitler\'s rise to power by their unwillingness to compromise.

Chancellor Franz von Papen called another _Reichstag_ election in November, hoping to find a way out of this impasse. The electoral result was the same, with the Nazis and the Communists winning 50% of the vote between them and more than half the seats, rendering this _Reichstag_ no more workable than its predecessor. But support for the Nazis had fallen to 33.1%, suggesting that the Nazi surge had passed its peak – possibly because the worst of the Depression had passed, possibly because some middle-class voters had supported Hitler
Hitler
in July as a protest, but had now drawn back from the prospect of actually putting him into power. The Nazis interpreted the result as a warning that they must seize power before their moment passed. Had the other parties united, this could have been prevented, but their shortsightedness made a united front impossible. Papen, his successor Kurt von Schleicher , and the nationalist press magnate Alfred Hugenberg spent December and January in political intrigues that eventually persuaded President Hindenburg that it was safe to appoint Hitler
Hitler
as Reich
Reich
Chancellor, at the head of a cabinet including only a minority of Nazi ministers—which he did on 30 January 1933.

Ascension And Consolidation

_ Reichsparteitag_ ( Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Rally): Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leader Adolf Hitler
Hitler
and SA-leader Ernst Röhm, August 1933.

In _ Mein Kampf _, Hitler
Hitler
directly attacked both left-wing and right-wing politics in Germany. However, a majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as being a far-right form of politics. When asked in an interview whether he and the Nazis were "bourgeois right-wing" as alleged by their opponents, Hitler
Hitler
responded that Nazism was not exclusively for any class, and indicated that it favoured neither the left nor the right, but preserved "pure" elements from both "camps", stating: "From the camp of bourgeois tradition, it takes national resolve, and from the materialism of the Marxist dogma, living, creative Socialism."

The votes that the Nazis received in the 1932 elections established the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
as the largest parliamentary faction of the Weimar Republic government. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was appointed as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933.

The _Reichstag_ fire on 27 February 1933 gave Hitler
Hitler
a pretext for suppressing his political opponents. The following day, 28 February, he persuaded Reich's President Paul von Hindenburg to issue the _Reichstag_ Fire Decree , which suspended most civil liberties . The NSDAP won the parliamentary election on 5 March 1933 with 43.9 percent of votes, but failed to win an absolute majority. After the election, hundreds of thousands of new members joined the party for opportunistic reasons, most of them civil servants and white-collar workers. They were nicknamed the "casualties of March" (German : _Märzgefallenen_) or "March violets" (German : _Märzveilchen_). To protect the party from too many non-ideological turncoats who were viewed by the so-called "old fighters" _(alte Kämpfer)_ with some mistrust, the party issued a freeze on admissions that remained in force from May 1933 to 1937.

On 23 March, the parliament passed the Enabling Act of 1933 , which gave the cabinet the right to enact laws without the consent of parliament. In effect, this gave Hitler
Hitler
dictatorial powers. Now possessing virtually absolute power, the Nazis established totalitarian control; they abolished labour unions and other political parties and imprisoned their political opponents, first at _wilde Lager_, improvised camps, then in concentration camps . Nazi Germany had been established, yet the _Reichswehr_ remained impartial: Nazi power over Germany remained virtual, not absolute.

NSDAP federal election results (1924-1933) ELECTION VOTES SEATS NOTES

# % +/– # +/–

May 1924 (as National Socialist Freedom Movement ) 1,918,300 6.5 (#6)

32 / 472

Hitler
Hitler
in prison

December 1924 (as National Socialist Freedom Movement ) 907,300 3.0 (#8) 3.5 14 / 493 18 Hitler
Hitler
released from prison

MAY 1928 810,100 2.6 (#9) 0.4 12 / 491 2

SEPTEMBER 1930 6,409,600 18.3 (#2) 15.7 107 / 577 95 After the financial crisis

JULY 1932 13,745,000 37.3 (#1) 19.0 230 / 608 123 After Hitler
Hitler
was candidate for presidency

NOVEMBER 1932 11,737,000 33.1 (#1) 4.2 196 / 584 34

MARCH 1933 17,277,180 43.9 (#1) 10.8 288 / 647 92 During Hitler's term as Chancellor of Germany

AFTER TAKING POWER: INTERTWINING OF PARTY AND STATE

During June and July 1933 all competing parties were either outlawed or dissolved themselves. Subsequently, the _Law against the founding of new parties_ of 14 July 1933 legally established the Nazi Party's monopoly. On 1 December 1933, the _Law to secure the unity of party and state_ entered into force, which was the base for a progressive intertwining of party structures and state apparatus. By this law, the SA – actually a party division – was given quasi-governmental authority and their leader was co-opted as an _ex officio_ cabinet member. By virtue of the 30 January 1934 _Law about the reorganisation of the_ Reich, the _Länder_ (states) lost their statehood and were demoted to administrative divisions of the _Reich'_s government _( Gleichschaltung
Gleichschaltung
)_. Effectively, they lost most of their power to the _Gaue _, that were originally just regional divisions of the party, but took over most competencies of the state administration in their respective sectors.

During the Röhm Purge of 30 June to 2 July 1934 (also known as the "Night of the Long Knives"), Hitler
Hitler
disempowered the SA's leadership, most of whom belonged to the Strasserist (national revolutionary) faction within the NSDAP, and ordered them killed. He accused them of having conspired to stage a coup d'état, but it is believed that this was only a pretence to justify the suppression of any intraparty opposition. The purge was executed by the SS, assisted by the Gestapo and Reichswehr units. Aside from Strasserist Nazis, they also murdered anti-Nazi conservative figures like former chancellor Kurt von Schleicher . After this, the SA continued to exist, but lost much of its importance, while the role of the SS grew significantly. Formerly only a sub-organisation of the SA, it was created a separate organisation of the NSDAP in July 1934.

After the death of President Hindenburg on 2 August 1934, Hitler merged the offices of party leader, head of state and chief of government in one, taking the title of _ Führer und Reichskanzler_. The Chancellery of the Führer , officially an organisation of the Nazi Party, took over the functions of the Office of the President (a government agency), blurring the distinction between structures of party and state even further. The SS increasingly exerted police functions, a development which was formally documented by the merger of the offices of _ Reichsführer-SS _ and Chief of the German Police on 17 June 1936; the position was held by Heinrich Himmler who derived his authority directly from Hitler. The _ Sicherheitsdienst _ (SD, formally the "Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS") that had been created in 1931 as an intraparty intelligence became the de facto intelligence agency of Nazi Germany. It was put under the Reich
Reich
Main Security Office (RSHA) in 1939, which then coordinated SD, Gestapo
Gestapo
and criminal police ; therefore functioning as a hybrid organisation of state and party structures.

NSDAP election and referendum results in the Reichstag under Nazi Germany (1933-1938) ELECTION VOTES % SEATS

NOVEMBER 1933 39,655,224 92.11 661 / 661

1936 44,462,458 98.80 741 / 741

1938 44,451,092 99.01 813 / 813

DEFEAT AND ABOLITION

Officially, the Third Reich
Reich
lasted only 12 years. The first Instrument of Surrender was signed by representatives of Nazi Germany at Reims, France on 7 May 1945. The war in Europe had come to an end. The defeat of Germany in World War II
World War II
marked the end of the Nazi Germany era. The party was formally abolished on 10 October 1945 by the Allied Control Council
Allied Control Council
and denazification began, along with trials of major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) in Nuremberg.

POLITICAL PROGRAM

Main article: National Socialist Program

The National Socialist Program was a formulation of the policies of the party. It contained 25 points and is, therefore, also known as the "25-point plan" or "25-point programme". It was the official party programme, with minor changes, from its proclamation as such by Hitler in 1920, when the party was still the German Workers' Party, until its dissolution.

PARTY COMPOSITION

COMMAND STRUCTURE

Top Leadership

At the top of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was the party chairman ("_Der Führer_"), who held absolute power and full command over the party. All other party offices were subordinate to his position and had to depend on his instructions. In 1934, Hitler
Hitler
founded a separate body for the chairman, Chancellery of the Führer , with its own sub-units.

Below the Führer's chancellery was first the "Staff of the Deputy Führer", headed by Rudolf Hess from 21 April 1933 to 10 May 1941, and then the "Party Chancellery" (_ Parteikanzlei _) headed by Martin Bormann .

Reichsleiter

Directly subjected to the Führer were the _ Reichsleiter _ ("Reich Leader(s)"—the singular and plural forms are identical in German), whose number was gradually increased to eighteen. They held power and influence comparable to the Reich
Reich
Ministers' in Hitler\'s Cabinet . The eighteen _Reichsleiter_ formed the " Reich
Reich
Leadership of the Nazi Party" (_Reichsleitung der NSDAP_), which was established at the so-called Brown
Brown
House , in Munich. Unlike a Gauleiter, a Reichsleiter did not have individual geographic areas under their command, but were responsible for specific spheres of interest.

Political Leadership Corps

The political leadership corps of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
were those persons who were most often associated as being "Nazis" in the stereotypical sense of the word, as it was these individuals who wore brown paramilitary Nazi uniforms, enforced Nazi doctrine, and ran local government affairs in accordance with instructions from the Nazi Party.

The political leadership corps encompassed a vast array of paramilitary titles at the top of which were Gauleiter , who were Party leaders of large geographical areas. From the Gauleiters extended downwards through Nazi positions encompassing county, city, and town leaders, all of whom were unquestioned rulers in their particular areas and regions.

To the very end of its existence, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
claimed to respect the traditional government of Germany and, to that end, local and state governments were allowed to exist side-by-side with regional Nazi leaders. However, by 1936, the local governments had lost nearly all power to their Nazi counterparts or were now controlled by persons who held both government and Nazi titles alike. This led to the continued existence of German titles such as _Bürgermeister _, as well as the existence of German state legislatures (_Landesrat _), but without any real power to speak of.

Ordinary Members

The general Nazi Party
Nazi Party
membership were known by the title of _Parteimitglieder_. This generic term applied to any member of the Party who did not otherwise hold a political leadership position. Translated simply as "Party Member", the _Parteimitglieder_ could (and did) hold positions in other Nazi groups, such as the SS or Sturmabteilung . The only insignia for the _Parteimitglieder_ was a Nazi Party
Nazi Party
lapel-pin; Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members who held no leadership posts had no specific designated uniform. Such persons, however, often wore uniforms of other Nazi groups, uniforms of German government agencies, and could also serve in the German armed forces. A special designation of _Parteigenosse_ (Party Comrade) was reserved for Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members who had been members of the party since the 1920s and early 30s, most of whom were also personal associates of Hitler.

NAZI PARTY OFFICES

The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
had a number of party offices dealing with various political and other matters. These included:

* _Rassenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP _ (RPA): "NSDAP Office of Racial Policy" * _Außenpolitische Amt der NSDAP _ (APA): "NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs" * _Kolonialpolitisches Amt der NSDAP _ (KPA): "NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy" * _Wehrpolitisches Amt der NSDAP _ (WPA): "NSDAP Office of Military Policy" * _ Amt Rosenberg _ (ARo): "Rosenberg Office"

PARAMILITARY GROUPS

In addition to the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
proper, several paramilitary groups existed which "supported" Nazi aims. All members of these paramilitary organizations were required to become regular Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members first and could then enlist in the group of their choice. An exception was the Waffen-SS , considered the military arm of the SS and Nazi Party, which during the Second World War allowed members to enlist without joining the Nazi Party. Foreign volunteers of the Waffen-SS were also not required to be members of the Nazi Party, although many joined local nationalist groups from their own countries with the same aims. Police officers, including members of the Gestapo
Gestapo
, frequently held SS rank for administrative reasons (known as "rank parity") and were likewise not required to be members of the Nazi Party.

A vast system of Nazi Party paramilitary ranks developed for each of the various paramilitary groups.

The major Nazi Party
Nazi Party
paramilitary groups were as follows:

* _ Schutzstaffel _ (SS): "Protection Squadron" (both Allgemeine SS and Waffen-SS ) * _ Sturmabteilung _ (SA): "Storm Division" * _Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps _ (NSFK): "National Socialist Flyers Corps" * _Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps _ (NSKK): "National Socialist Motor Corps"

The Hitler Youth was a paramilitary group divided into an adult leadership corps and a general membership open to boys aged fourteen to eighteen. The League of German Girls was the equivalent group for girls.

AFFILIATED ORGANIZATIONS

Certain nominally independent organizations had their own legal representation and own property, but were supported by the Nazi Party. Many of these associated organizations were labour unions of various professions. Some were older organizations that were nazified according to the _Gleichschaltung_ policy after the 1933 takeover.

* Reich
Reich
League of German Officials (union of civil servants, predecessor to German Civil Service Federation ) * German Labour Front (DAF) * National Socialist German Physicians' League (NSDÄB) * National Socialist League for the Maintenance of the Law (NSRB, 1936–1945, earlier National Socialist German Lawyers' League) * National Socialist War Victim\'s Care (NSKOV) * National Socialist Teachers League (NSLB) * National Socialist People\'s Welfare (NSV) * Reich Labour Service (RAD) * German Faith Movement * German Colonial League (RKB) * German Red
Red
Cross * Kyffhäuser League * Technical Emergency Relief (TENO) * Reich\'s Union of Large Families * Reichsluftschutzbund (RLB) * Reichskolonialbund (RKB) * Bund Deutscher Osten (BDO) * German American Bund

REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION

Party Gaue in 1926, 1928, 1933, 1937, 1939 and 1943 Administrative units of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in 1944. See also: Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and List of Gauleiters

For the purpose of centralization in the _ Gleichschaltung
Gleichschaltung
_ process a rigidly hierarchal structure was established in the Nazi Party, which it later carried through in the whole of Germany in order consolidate total power under the person of Hitler
Hitler
(_Führerstaat_). It was regionally sub-divided into a number of _Gaue _ (singular: _Gau_) headed by a _ Gauleiter _, who received their orders directly from Hitler. The name (originally a term for sub-regions of the Holy Roman Empire headed by a _Gaugraf_) for these new provincial structures was deliberately chosen because of its mediaeval connotations. The term is approximately equivalent to the English _shire _.

After the Anschluss a new type of administrative unit was introduced called a _ Reichsgau
Reichsgau
_. In these territories the Gauleiters also held the position of Reichsstatthalter , thereby formally combining the spheres of both party and state offices. The establishment of this type of district was subsequently carried out for any further territorial annexations of Germany both before and during World War II .

The _Gaue_ and _Reichsgaue_ (state or province) were further sub-divided into _Kreise _ (counties) headed by a _Kreisleiter_, which were in turn sub-divided into _Zellen_ (cells) and _Blocken_ (blocks), headed by a _Zellenleiter_ and _Blockleiter_ respectively.

A reorganization of the _Gaue_ was enacted on 1 October 1928. The given numbers were the official ordering numbers. The statistics are from 1941, for which the _Gau_ organization of that moment in time forms the basis. Their size and populations are not exact; for instance according to the official party statistics the _Gau_ Kurmark/Mark Brandenburg was the largest in the German Reich. By 1941, there were 42 territorial _Gaue_ for Germany, 7 of them for Austria, the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
(in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
), Danzig
Danzig
, and the Territory of the Saar Basin , along with the unincorporated regions under German control known as the Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia and the General Government
General Government
, established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1939 at the onset of World War II
World War II
. Getting the leadership of the individual _Gaue_ to cooperate with one another proved difficult at times since there was constant administrative and financial jockeying for control going on between them.

The table below uses the organizational structure that existed before its dissolution in 1945. More information on the older _Gaue_ is in the second table.

NAZI PARTY _GAUE_

NR. GAU HEADQUARTERS AREA (KM²) INHABITANTS (1941) GAULEITER (exl. deputies)

01 BADEN -ELSAß Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
, after 1940 Strasbourg
Strasbourg
23,350 2,502,023 Robert Heinrich Wagner from 1925 (later also Reichsstatthalter )

02 BAYREUTH , renaming of GAU BAYERISCHE OSTMARK (Bavarian Eastern March ) Bayreuth
Bayreuth
29,600 2,370,658 Fritz Wächtler (2 June 1942 - 19 April 1945) Ludwig Ruckdeschel from 19 April 1945.

03 GROß-BERLIN Berlin 884 4,338,756 Ernst Schlange (1925 - 1926) Joseph Goebbels (1 November 1926 - 30 April 1945)

04 DANZIG-WESTPREUßEN Danzig
Danzig
26,057 2,287,394 Hans Albert Hohnfeldt (1926 - 1928) Walter Maass (1928 - 1930) Albert Forster
Albert Forster
from 15 October 1930

05 DüSSELDORF Düsseldorf 2,672 2,261,909 Friedrich Karl Florian from 1 January 1930

06 ESSEN Essen
Essen
2,825 1,921,326 Josef Terboven ( Oberpräsident ) from 1928

07 FRANKEN Nuremberg
Nuremberg
7,618 1,077,216 Julius Streicher (1929 to 1940) Hans Zimmermann (16 February 1940 - 1942) Karl Holz from 19 March 1942

08 HALLE-MERSEBURG Halle an der Saale 10,202 1,578,292 Walter Ernst (1 August 1926 - 1927) Paul Hinkler (1927 - 1930) Rudolf Jordan (1930 - 20 April 1937) Joachim Albrecht Eggeling from 20 April 1937

09 HAMBURG Hamburg
Hamburg
747 1,711,877 Joseph Klant (1925 - 1926) Albert Krebs (1927 - 1928) Hinrich Lohse (1928 - 15 April 1929) Karl Kaufmann from 15 April 1929

10 HESSEN-NASSAU Frankfurt
Frankfurt
15,030 3,117,266 Jakob Sprenger from 1933

11 KäRNTEN Klagenfurt 11,554 449,713 Hans vom Kothen (February 1933 to July 1934) Peter Feistritzer (October 1936 - 20 February 1938) Hubert Klausner (1938 - 1939) Franz Kutschera (1940 - 1941) Friedrich Rainer (1942 - 1944)

12 KöLN-AACHEN Köln 8,162 2,432,095 Joseph Grohé from 1931

13 KURHESSEN Kassel
Kassel
9,200 971,887 Walter Schultz (1926 - 1927) Karl Weinrich (1928 - 1943) Karl Gerland from 1943

14 MAGDEBURG -ANHALT Dessau 13,910 1,820,416 Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper from 1927 to 23 October 1935 with a short replacement by Paul Hofmann in 1933 Joachim Albrecht Leo Eggeling (1935 - 1937) Rudolf Jordan from 1937

15 MAINFRANKEN , renaming of GAU UNTERFRANKEN Würzburg 8,432 840,663 Otto Hellmuth from 3 September 1928

16 MARK BRANDENBURG Berlin 38,278 3,007,933 Wilhelm Kube (6 March 1933 - 7 August 1936) Emil Stürtz

17 MECKLENBURG Schwerin
Schwerin
15,722 900,427 Friedrich Hildebrandt from 1925 onwards with a short replacement by Herbert Albrecht (July 1930 - 1931)

18 MOSELLAND , renaming of GAU KOBLENZ-TRIER in 1942 Koblenz
Koblenz
11,876 1,367,354 Gustav Simon from 1 June 1931

19 MüNCHEN-OBERBAYERN , Munich
Munich
16,411 1,938,447 Adolf Wagner (1933 - 1944) Paul Giesler from April 1944

20 NIEDERDONAU Nominal capital: Krems , District Headquarters: Vienna
Vienna
23,502 1,697,676 Roman Jäger (12 March 1938 - 24 May 1938) Hugo Jury (24 May 1938 - 8 May 1945)

21 NIEDERSCHLESIEN Breslau 26,985 3,286,539 Karl Hanke from 1940

22 OBERDONAU Linz
Linz
14,216 1,034,871 Andreas Bolek (June 1927 - 1 August 1934) August Eigruber from March 1935

23 OBERSCHLESIEN Kattowitz 20,636 4,341,084 Fritz Bracht from 27 January 1941

24 OST-HANNOVER (also known as HANNOVER-OST) Harburg , then Buchholz , after 1 April 1937 Lüneburg 18,006 1,060,509 from 1 October 1928 Otto Telschow

25 OSTPREUßEN Königsberg 52,731 3,336,777 Bruno Gustav Scherwitz (1925 - 1927) Erich Koch from 1928

26 POMMERN Stettin
Stettin
38,409 2,393,844 Theodor Vahlen (1925 - 1927) Walter von Corswant (1928 - 1931) Wilhelm Karpenstein (1931 - 1934) Franz Schwede-Coburg from 1935

27 SACHSEN Dresden
Dresden
14,995 5,231,739 Albert Wierheim around 1925/1926 Martin Mutschmann from 1925

28 SALZBURG Salzburg
Salzburg
7,153 257,226 Leopold Malina from 1926 to ?? Karl Scharizer (1932 - 1934) Friedrich Rainer (1939 - 1941) Gustav Adolf Scheel
Gustav Adolf Scheel
from 1941

29 SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN Kiel
Kiel
15,687 1,589,267 Hinrich Lohse from 1925

30 SCHWABEN Augsburg
Augsburg
10,231 946,212 Karl Wahl from 1928

31 STEIERMARK Graz
Graz
17,384 1,116,407 Walther Oberhaidacher (25 November 1928 - 1934) Sepp Helfrich (1934 - 1938) Siegfried Uiberreither from 22 May 1938

32 SUDETENLAND , until 1939 known as GAU SUDETENGAU Reichenberg 22,608 2,943,187 Konrad Henlein from 1939

33 SüDHANNOVER-BRAUNSCHWEIG Hannover
Hannover
14,553 2,136,961 Bernhard Rust
Bernhard Rust
(1 October 1928 - November 1940) Hartmann Lauterbacher from November 1940

34 THüRINGEN Weimar 15,763 2,446,182 Artur Dinter (1925 - 1927) Fritz Sauckel from 1927

35 TIROL-VORARLBERG Innsbruck
Innsbruck
13,126 486,400 Franz Hofer
Franz Hofer
from 1932

36 WARTHELAND , until 29 January 1940 known as GAU WARTHEGAU) Posen 43,905 4,693,722 Arthur Karl Greiser from 21 October 1939

37 WESER-EMS Oldenburg
Oldenburg
15,044 1,839,302 Carl Röver (1929 - 1942) Paul Wegener from 1942

38 WESTFALEN-NORD Münster 14,559 2,822,603 Alfred Meyer from 1932

39 WESTFALEN-SüD Bochum
Bochum
7,656 2,678,026 Josef Wagner (1932 - 1941) Paul Giesler (1941 - 1943/44) Albert Hoffmann from 1943/44

40 WESTMARK , renaming of GAU SAAR-PFALZ (also known as _Saarpfalz_) Neustadt an der Weinstraße , after 1940 Saarbrücken 14,713 1,892,240 Josef Bürckel (1935 - 28 September 1944) Willi Stöhr from 28 September 1944

41 WIEN Vienna
Vienna
1,216 1,929,976 Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld (1932 - 1938) Odilo Globocnik (May 1938 - January 1939) Josef Bürckel (1939 - 1940) Baldur von Schirach from 1940

42 WüRTTEMBERG -HOHENZOLLERN Stuttgart
Stuttgart
20,657 2,974,373 Eugen Mander (1925 - 1928) Wilhelm Murr from 1928

43 AUSLANDSORGANISATION (also known as NSDAP/AO) Berlin

Hans Nieland (1930 - 1933) Ernst Wilhelm Bohle from 8 May 1933

LATER GAUE:

* FLANDERS , existed from 15 December 1944 ( Gauleiter in German exile: Jef van de Wiele ) * WALLONIA , existed from 8 December 1944 ( Gauleiter in German exile: Léon Degrelle )

_GAUE_ DISSOLVED BEFORE 1945

Simple re-namings of existing _Gaue_ without territorial changes is marked with the initials _RN_ in the column "later became". The numbering is not based on any official former ranking, but merely listed alphabetically.

NR. GAU CONSISTED OF LATER BECAME ... TOGETHER WITH GAULEITER

01 ANHALT

Magdeburg-Anhalt (1927) Elbe-Havel Gustav Hermann Schmischke

02 BADEN

Baden-Elsaß (22 March 1941) _RN_

see above

03 BAYERISCHE OSTMARK Oberfranken & Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (19 January 1933) Bayreuth
Bayreuth
(2 Juni 1942) _RN_

Hans Schemm from 19 January 1933 to 5 March 1935, then from 5 March 1935 Fritz Wächtler

04 BERLIN Berlin-Brandenburg (1. Oktober 1928) Groß-Berlin _RN_

Dr. Joseph Goebbels

05 BERLIN-BRANDENBURG

Berlin & Brandenburg (1 October 1928)

Ernst Schlange from 1925 to 1926, then from 1 November 1926 Joseph Goebbels

06 BRANDENBURG Berlin-Brandenburg (1 October 1928) Kurmark (6 March 1933) Ostmark from 1 October 1928 to 1932 Emil Holtz and from 18 October 1932 to 16 March 1933 Dr. Ernst Schlange

07 BRAUNSCHWEIG

Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig (1 Oktober 1928) Hannover-Süd from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Ludolf Haase (perhaps also only for Hannover-Süd)

08 DANZIG

Danzig-Westpreußen (1939) _RN_

see above

09 ELBE-HAVEL

Magdeburg-Anhalt (1927) Anhalt from 25 November 1925 to 1926 Alois Bachschmidt

10 GROß-MüNCHEN ("_Traditionsgau_")

München-Oberbayern (1933) Oberbayern

11 HANNOVER-SüD

Süd-Hannover-Braunschweig (1 October 1928) Braunschweig from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Ludolf Haase (perhaps also only Braunschweig)

12 HESSEN-DARMSTADT

Hessen-Nassau (1933) Hessen-Nassau-Süd from 1 March 1927 to 9 January 1931 Friedrich Ringshausen , then only in 1931 Peter Gemeinder , then from 1932 to 1933 Karl Lenz

13 HESSEN-NASSAU-NORD

Kurhessen (1934)

14 HESSEN-NASSAU-SüD

Hessen-Nassau (1933) Hessen-Darmstadt from 1925 to 1926 Anton Haselmayer , then from 1926 to 1927 Dr. Walter Schultz , then from 1927 to 1933 Jakob Sprenger

15 KOBLENZ-TRIER Rheinland-Süd (1931) Moselland (1942) _merger_

16 KURMARK Ostmark & Brandenburg () Mark Brandenburg (1938) _RN_

see above

17 LüNEBURG-STADE

Ost- Hannover
Hannover
(1928) _RN_

from 22 March 1925 to 30 September 1928 Bernhard Rust
Bernhard Rust

18 MITTELFRANKEN

Franken (1929) Nuremberg-Forth-Erlangen Julius Streicher ("_Frankenführer_")

19 NIEDERBAYERN Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I) (1 Oktober 1928) Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (1 April 1932) Oberpfalz from 1 October 1928 to 1929 Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
, then from 1929 to 1 April 1932 Otto Erbersdobler

20 NIEDERBAYERN-OBERPFALZ (I)

Oberpfalz & Niederbayern (1 Oktober 1928)

from 1925 to 30 September 1928 Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser

21 NIEDERBAYERN-OBERPFALZ (II) Oberpfalz & Niederbayern (1 April 1932) Bayerische Ostmark (19 January 1933) Oberfranken from 1 April 1932 to 19 January 1933 Franz Mayerhofer

22 NIEDERöSTERREICH

Niederdonau () _RN_

from 1927 to 1937 Josef Leopold

23 NUREMBERG-FORTH-ERLANGEN

Franken (1929) Mittelfranken from 3 September 1928 Wilhelm Grimm

24 OBERBAYERN

München-Oberbayern (1933) Groß-München

25 OBERFRANKEN

Bayerische Ostmark (19 January 1933) Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) from 1928 Hans Schemm

26 OBERöSTERREICH

Oberdonau () _RN_

27 OBERPFALZ Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (I) (1 October 1928) Niederbayern-Oberpfalz (II) (1 April 1932) Niederbayern from 1 October 1928 to 1 April 1932 Franz Mayerhofer

28 OSTMARK

Kurmark (6 March 1933) Brandenburg from 2 January 1928 to 1933 Wilhelm Kube

29 RHEINLAND

Saar-Pfalz (1935) Saar(land) from 1926 Josef Bürckel (from 1 March 1933 also administrator of Saarland)

30 RHEINLAND-NORD

Ruhr
Ruhr
(1926) Westfalen from 1925 to 1926 Karl Kaufmann

31 RHEINLAND-SüD

Köln-Aachen & Koblenz-Trier (1931)

1925 Heinrich Haake (also known as "Heinz Haake"), then from 1925 to 1931 Robert Ley

32 RUHR Rheinland-Nord & Westfalen (1926) Westfalen-Nord creation of Düsseldorf nicht gesichert_ from 1926 to 1929 Karl Kaufmann, then from 1929 to 1931 Josef Wagner

33 SAARLAND, also merely _Saar_

Saar-Pfalz (1935) Rheinland from August 1929 to 28 February 1933 Karl Brück , from 1 March 1933 Josef Bürckel (also administrator of Rheinland)

34 SAAR-PFALZ, also SAARPFALZ Rheinland & Saar(land) (1935) Westmark (1937) _RN_

see above

35 SCHLESIEN

Niederschlesien "> Membership of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
from 1939. Main article: List of Nazi Party members

The general membership of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
mainly consisted of the urban and rural lower middle classes . 7% belonged to the upper class, another 7% were peasants , 35% were industrial workers and 51% were what can be described as middle class. In early 1933, just before Hitler's appointment to the chancellorship, the party showed an under-representation of "workers", who made up 29.7% of the membership but 46.3% of German society. Conversely, white-collar employees (18.6% of members and 12% of Germans), the self-employed (19.8% of members and 9.6% of Germans), and civil servants (15.2% of members and 4.8% of the German population) had joined in proportions greater than their share of the general population. These members were affiliated with local branches of the party, of which there were 1,378 throughout the country in 1928. In 1932, the number had risen to 11,845, reflecting the party's growth in this period.

When it came to power in 1933, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
had over 2 million members. In 1939, the membership total rose to 5.3 million with 81% being male and 19% being female. It continued to attract many more and by 1945 the party reached its peak of 8 million with 63% being male and 37% being female (about 10% of the German population of 80 million).

MILITARY MEMBERSHIP

Nazi members with military ambitions were encouraged to join the _ Waffen-SS _, but a great number enlisted in the _Wehrmacht_ and even more were drafted for service after World War II
World War II
began. Early regulations required that all _Wehrmacht_ members be non-political, and therefore any Nazi member joining in the 1930s was required to resign from the Nazi Party.

This regulation was soon waived, however, and there is ample evidence that full Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members served in the _Wehrmacht_ in particular after the outbreak of World War II. The _Wehrmacht_ Reserves also saw a high number of senior Nazis enlisting, with Reinhard Heydrich and Fritz Todt joining the _ Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
_, as well as Karl Hanke who served in the army.

STUDENT MEMBERSHIP

In 1926, the party formed a special division to engage the student population, known as the National Socialist German Students\' League (NSDStB). A group for university lecturers, the National Socialist German University Lecturers\' League (NSDDB), also existed until July 1944.

WOMEN MEMBERSHIP

The National Socialist Women\'s League was the women\'s organization of the party. By 1938 it had approximately 2 million members.

MEMBERSHIP OUTSIDE OF GERMANY

Party members who lived outside of Germany were pooled into the _Auslands-Organisation_ ( NSDAP/AO , "Foreign Organization"). The organization was limited only to so-called " Imperial Germans "; "Ethnic Germans" (_ Volksdeutsche _) who did not hold German citizenship were not permitted to join.

Under Beneš decree No. 16/1945 Coll. , in case of citizens of Czechoslovakia, membership of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was punishable by between five and twenty years of imprisonment.

_Deutsche Gemeinschaft_

_Deutsche Gemeinschaft_ was a branch of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
founded in 1919, created for Germans with _ Volksdeutsche _ status. It is not to be confused with the post-war right-wing _ Deutsche Gemeinschaft (de)_ founded in 1949.

Notable members included:

* Oswald Menghin ( Vienna
Vienna
) * Herbert Czaja ( Province of Silesia inside Prussia
Prussia
) * Hermann Neubacher who was responsible for invading Yugoslavia. * Rudolf Much ( Vienna
Vienna
) * Arthur Seyß-Inquart ( Vienna
Vienna
)

PARTY SYMBOLS

* Nazi flags : The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colours were said to represent _Blut und Boden _ ("blood and soil"). Another definition of the flag describes the colours as representing the ideology of National Socialism, the swastika representing the Aryan race and the Aryan nationalist agenda of the movement; white representing Aryan racial purity; and red representing the socialist agenda of the movement. Black, white and red were in fact the colours of the old North German Confederation flag (invented by Otto von Bismarck , based on the Prussian colours black and white and the red used by northern German states). In 1871, with the foundation of the German Reich, the flag of the North German Confederation became the German _Reichsflagge_ (" Reich
Reich
flag"). Black, white and red became the colours of the nationalists through the following history (for example World War I
World War I
and the Weimar Republic ).

The _Parteiflagge_ design, with the centred swastika disc, served as the party flag from 1920. Between 1933 (when the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
came to power) and 1935, it was used as the National flag (_Nationalflagge_) and Merchant flag (_Handelsflagge_), but interchangeably with the black-white-red horizontal tricolour . In 1935, the black-white-red horizontal tricolour was scrapped (again), and the flag with the _off-centre_ swastika and disc was instituted as the national flag, and remained as such until 1945. The flag with the _centred_ disk continued to be used after 1935, but exclusively as the _Parteiflagge_, the flag of the party.

* German eagle : The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
used the traditional German eagle , standing atop of a swastika inside a wreath of oak leaves. It is also known as the _Iron Eagle._ When the eagle is looking to its left shoulder, it symbolises the Nazi Party, and was called the _Parteiadler_. In contrast, when the eagle is looking to its right shoulder, it symbolises the country (_ Reich
Reich
_), and was therefore called the _ Reichsadler _. After the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
came to national power in Germany, they replaced the traditional version of the German eagle with the modified party symbol throughout the country and all its institutions.

*

_Parteiflagge_ ("party flag"), used 1920-45. Also used as the national flag between 1933 and 1935, interchangeably with the black-white-red horizontal tricolour . *

Flag with the _off-centre_ swastika and disc. Used as the national flag of Germany after 1935, it was never used to represent the party. *

_Parteiadler_ design, used as party emblem *

_ Reichsadler _ design, representing Germany in general as the national insignia (_Hoheitszeichen_) *

5-Reichsmark coins before (1936) and after adding the Nazi swastika (1938)

RANKS AND RANK INSIGNIA

Main article: Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party 1: Anwärter (not party member), 2: Anwärter, 3: Helfer, 4: Oberhelfer, 5: Arbeitsleiter, 6: Oberarbeitsleiter, 7: Hauptarbeitsleiter, 8: Bereitschaftsleiter, 9: Oberbereitschaftsleiter, 10: Hauptbereitschaftsleiter 11: Einsatzleiter, 12: Obereinsatzleiter, 13: Haupteinsatzleiter, 14: Gemeinschaftsleiter, 15: Obergemeinschaftsleiter, 16: Hauptgemeinschaftsleiter, 17: Abschnittsleiter, 18: Oberabschnittsleiter, 19: Hauptabschnittsleiter 20: Bereichsleiter, 21: Oberbereichsleiter, 22: Hauptbereichsleiter, 23: Dienstleiter, 24: Oberdienstleiter, 25: Hauptdienstleiter, 26: Befehlsleiter, 27: Oberbefehlsleiter, 28: Hauptbefehlsleiter, 29: Gauleiter, 30: Reichsleiter

SLOGANS AND SONGS

* Nazi slogan: " Sieg Heil !" * Nazi slogan: "Heil Hitler
Hitler
" * Nazi anthem: _ Horst-Wessel-Lied _

SEE ALSO

* Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* List of books about Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* List of Nazi Party leaders and officials * Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Neo- Nazism * Sino-German cooperation until 1941 * Socialist Reich
Reich
Party * _ Volkssturm _

NOTES

* ^ Rick Steves. _Rick Steves' Snapshot Munich, Bavaria New York, New York, USA: Avalon Travel, 2010. p. 28. "Though the Nazis eventually gained power in Berlin, they remembered their roots, dubbing Munich
Munich
"Capital of the Movement". The Nazi headquarters stood near today's obelisk on Brienner Strasse..." * ^ _A_ _B_ McNab, Chris (2011). _Hitler's Master Plan_, Amber Books Ltd. pp. 22, 23. ISBN 1-907446-96-6 * ^ Davidson, Eugene. _The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and Rise of Nazism_. University of Missouri Press. p. 241. * ^ Orlow, Dietrich. _The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
1919–1945: A Complete History_. Enigma Books. p. 29. * ^ German Imperial colours * ^ Thomas D. Grant. _Stormtroopers and Crisis in the Nazi Movement: Activism, Ideology and Dissolution_. London, England, UK; New York, New York, US: Routledge, 2004. pp. 30–34, 44. * ^ Otis C. Mitchell. _Hitler's Stormtroopers and the Attack on the German Republic, 1919–1933_. Jefferson, North Carolina, USA: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2008. p. 47. * ^ Frank McDonough. _ Hitler
Hitler
and the Rise of the Nazi Party_. Pearson/Longman, 2003. p. 64. * ^ Michael Wildt (15 July 2012). _Hitler's Volksgemeinschaft and the Dynamics of Racial Exclusion: Violence Against Jews
Jews
in Provincial Germany, 1919–1939_. Berghahn Books. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0-85745-322-8 . * ^ Simone Gigliotti, Berel Lang. _The Holocaust: a reader_. Malden, Massachusetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. p. 14. * ^ Arendt, Hannah. _The Origins of Totalitarianism_. London; New York; San Diego: Harvest Book. p. 306. * ^ Curtis, Michael. _Totalitarianism._ New Brunswick (US); London: Transactions Publishers, 1979. p. 36. * ^ Burch, Betty Brand. _ Dictatorship and Totalitarianism: Selected Readings_. 1964. p. 58. * ^ Bruhn, Jodi; Hans Maier. _ Totalitarianism and Political Religions: Concepts for the Comparison of Dictatorships._ Routledge: Oxon (UK); New York, 2004. p. 32. * ^ Elzer, Herbert, ed. (2003). _Dokumente Zur Deutschlandpolitik_. First half band - Appendix B, Section XI, §39. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftverlag. p. 602. ISBN 3-486-56667-9 . * ^ or _Sozialdemokrat_ (pronounced /zo'tsjaːldemoˌkraːt/) (social democrat ). * ^ _A_ _B_ Franz H. Mautner (1944). "Nazi und Sozi". _Modern Language Notes_. 59 (2): 93–100. JSTOR 2910599 . doi :10.2307/2910599 . Dass _Nazi_ eine Abkürzung von _Nationalsozialist_ ist ... nd zwar eine Verkürzung des Wortes auf seine ersten zwei Silben, aber nicht eine Zusammenziehung aus _Na_tionalso_zi_alist' ...

* ^ Hitler, Adolf (1936). _Die Reden des Führers am Parteitag der Ehre, 1936_ (in German). Munich: Zentralverlag der NSDAP. p. 10. "Parteigenossen! Parteigenossinnen! Nationalsozialisten! * ^ Gottlieb, Henrik; Morgensen, Jens Erik, eds. (2007). _Dictionary Visions, Research and Practice: Selected Papers from the 12th International Symposium on Lexicography, Copenhagen, 2004_ (illustrated ed.). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 247. ISBN 9789027223340 . Retrieved 22 October 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Harper, Douglas. "Nazi". _etymonline.com_. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rabinbach, Anson; Gilman, Sander, eds. (2013). _The Third Reich
Reich
Sourcebook_. Berkeley, Calif.: California University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780520955141 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 82. * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 34. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Spector, Robert, _World Without Civilization: Mass Murder and the Holocaust, History, and Analysis_ (University of America Press, 2004), p. 137 * ^ Griffen, Roger (ed). 1995. Fascism. New York: Oxford University Press. P. 105. * ^ Theodore Fred Abel. _The Nazi Movement_. Aldine Transaction, 2012 (original edition in 1938). P. 55. * ^ Carlsten, F. L. The Rise of Fascism. University of California Press. P. 91 * ^ Carlsten, Pp. 91 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Fest, Joachim, _The Face of the Third Reich_ (Penguin books, 1979), pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-0201407143 . * ^ Dan van der Vat : The Good Nazi: The Life and Lies of Albert Speer, p. 30. George Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997 ISBN 0-297-81721-3 * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 33. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 71–82. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 75. * ^ Evans 2003 , p. 170. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 75, 76. * ^ Mitcham 1996 , p. 67. * ^ Blamires, Cyprian P. (2006). _World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-1-57607-940-9 . Retrieved 13 March 2013. * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 43. * ^ T. L. Jaman, _The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany_ (New York University Press, 1956), pg. 88 * ^ _A_ _B_ Rees, Laurence, _The Nazis – A Warning from History_ (BBC Books, 2 March 2006), p. 23 * ^ Ian Kershaw, _Hitler: 1889-1936 Hubris_, p. 127 * ^ Ian Kershaw _Hitler:1889–1936 Hubris_. Penguin, 1998. p. 140 * ^ _A_ _B_ T. L. Jaman, _The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany_ (New York University Press, 1956), pg. 89 * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 36. * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 37. * ^ Johnson, Paul, _A History of the Modern World: From 1917 to the 1980s_ (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 13 September 1984), pg. 133 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Fest, Joachim, _The Face of the Third Reich_ (Penguin books, 1979), pg.42. ISBN 978-0201407143 . * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 87. * ^ Zentner & Bedurftig 1997 , p. 629. * ^ Eric Ehrenreich (2007). _The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution_. Indiana University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-253-11687-2 . * ^ Richard Weikart (21 July 2009). _Hitler's Ethic_. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-230-62398-9 . * ^ Sarah Ann Gordon (1984). _Hitler, Germans, and the "Jewish Question"_. Princeton University Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-691-10162-0 . * ^ Fest, Joachim, _The Face of the Third Reich_ (Penguin books, 1979), pg.39. ISBN 978-0201407143 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 89. * ^ Franz-Willing, _Die Hilterbewegung_ * ^ Shirer 1991 , p. 38. * ^ Fest, Joachim, _The Face of the Third Reich_ (Penguin books, 1979), pg.40. ISBN 978-0201407143 . * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 100, 101. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 102. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 103. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 83, 103. * ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). _A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz_. New York: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 0-19-509514-6 . * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 110. * ^ Jablonsky, David. 1989. _The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in Dissolution: Hitler and the Verbotzeit, 1923–1925_. Routledge. Pp. 57 * ^ Jablonsky, Pp. 57 * ^ Weale 2010 , pp. 26–29. * ^ Koehl 2004 , p. 34. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 194. * ^ Evans 2005 , p. 372. * ^ Sutton, Antony C.: _Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler_ (1976, 1999) * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 224. * ^ " Social democracy is objectively the moderate wing of fascism. ... These organisations (ie Fascism and social democracy) are not antipodes, they are twins." (J.V. Stalin : Concerning the International Situation _(September 1924), in_ Works_, Volume 6, 1953; p.294.) This later led Otto Wille Kuusinen to conclude that "The aims of the fascists and the social-fascists are the same." (Report To the 10th Plenum of ECCI, in_ International Press Correspondence_, Volume 9, no.40, (20 August 1929), p.848.)_ * ^ Hitler
Hitler
stated: "Today our left-wing politicians in particular are constantly insisting that their craven-hearted and obsequious foreign policy necessarily results from the disarmament of Germany, whereas the truth is that this is the policy of traitors But the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews
Jews
who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms." Adolf Hitler. _Mein Kampf_. Bottom of the Hill Publishing, 2010. p. 287. * ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; Eatwell, Roger, _Fascism, A History_, Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp. xvii–xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–140, 352. Griffin, Roger . 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) _Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560–1991_, Routledge, London. * ^ Adolf Hitler, Max Domarus. _The Essential Hitler: Speeches and Commentary_. pp. 171, 172-173. * ^ Beck, H (2013). _The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives and Nazis in 1933: The_ Machtergreifung _in a New Light_. Berghahn Books. p. 259. ISBN 9780857454102 . * ^ Hermann Beck (2008). _The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives and Nazis in 1933—The_ Machtergreifung _in a New Light_. Beghahn Books. p. 259. * ^ Christian Ingrao (2010). _Hitlers Elite: Die Wegbereiter des nationalsozialistischen Massenmords_. Propyläen. * ^ Kolb, Eberhard (2005) . _The Weimar Republic_. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 224–225. ISBN 978-0-415-34441-8 . * ^ Dieter Kuntz (2011). _ Hitler
Hitler
and the functioning of the Third Reich_. _The Routledge History of the Holocaust_. Routledge. p. 73. * ^ Thomas Schaarschmidt (2014). _Mobilizing German Society for War: The National Socialist_ Gaue. _Visions of Community in Nazi Germany_. Oxford University Press. pp. 104–105. * ^ Richard J. Evans (2015). _The Third Reich
Reich
in History and Memory_. Oxford University Press. p. 98. * ^ Chris McNab (2013). _Hitler's Elite: The SS 1939-45_. Osprey. p. 20. * ^ Dieter Kuntz (2011). _ Hitler
Hitler
and the functioning of the Third Reich_. _The Routledge History of the Holocaust_. Routledge. p. 74. * ^ Jacques Delarue (2008). _The Gestapo: A History of Horror_. Frontline Books. pp. x–xi. * ^ McNab 2009 , p. 25. * ^ McNab 2009 , pp. 25, 26. * ^ Zentner, Christian Ed; Bedürftig, Friedemann Ed (1991). "The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich". New York: Macmillan. p 631 * ^ _ Deutsche Uniformen _, National Socialist German Workers Part (1938) * ^ Speer, Albert (1970). _Inside the Third Reich_. New York and Toronto: Macmillan * ^ _Buchquelle zur Gaugröße Kurmarks/Mark-Brandenburgs_. Google Books. 1995. ISBN 978-3-05-002508-7 . Retrieved 12 November 2010. * ^ The 43rd _Gau_ known as the Auslandsorganisation is non-territorial. * ^ German Historical Institute (2008). "Administrative Structure under National Socialism
Socialism
(1941)" Washington DC. Online map (accessed 9 January 2014). * ^ Martin Broszat, _The Hitler
Hitler
State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich_ (London and New York: Longman, 1985), pp. 44-47. * ^ Walter Wolf (1969). _Faschismus in der Schweiz_. Flamberg, p 121, 253, 283. (in German) * ^ Alan Morris Schom. "Examples of NSDAP and National Front meetings and agendas in northern Switzerland, 1935, 1937". _A Survey of Nazi and Pro-Nazi Groups in Switzerland: 1930–1945_. Simon Wiesenthal Center . Retrieved 17 October 2010. * ^ Historischer Verein des Kantons Bern (1973). _Archiv des Historischen Vereins des Kantons Bern, vol 57–60_. Stämpfliche Verlagshandlung. p. 150. * ^ Beat Glaus (1969). _Die Nationale front_. Zürich. p. 147. * ^ _A_ _B_ Panayi, P. _Life and Death in a German Town: Osnabrück from the Weimar Republic to World War II
World War II
and Beyond_. New York: Tauris Academic Studies, 2007. p 40. * ^ "German population in 1945". Retrieved 28 August 2015. * ^ Fakty wypaczone przez Erikę Steinbach Bogdan Musiał 24 06 2009 Rzeczpospolita * ^ Wolfgang Rosar: _Deutsche Gemeinschaft. Seyss-Inquart und der Anschluß_. Europa-Verlag, Wien 1971. ISBN 3-203-50384-0 .

REFERENCES

* Evans, Richard J. (2003). _The Coming of the Third Reich
Reich
_. New York; Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8 . * Evans, Richard J. (2005). _The Third Reich
Reich
in Power_. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3 . * Höhne, Heinz (2000) . _The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS (Der Orden unter dem Totenkopf: Die Geschichte der SS)_. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-139012-3 . * Kershaw, Ian (2008). _Hitler: A Biography_. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06757-2 . * Koehl, Robert (2004). _The SS: A History 1919–45_. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 978-0-75242-559-7 . * McNab, Chris (2009). _The Third Reich_. Amber Books. ISBN 978-1-906626-51-8 . * Mitcham, Samuel W. (1996). _Why Hitler?: The Genesis of the Nazi Reich_. Westport, Conn: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95485-7 . * Shirer, William L. (1991) . _The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich _. London: Arrow Books. ISBN 978-009942176-4 . * Weale, Adrian (2010). _The SS: A New History_. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1-4087-0304-5 . * Zentner, Christian; Bedurftig, Friedemann (1997) . _The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich
Reich
_. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-3068079-3-0 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* _ Media related to National Socialist German Workers\' Party at Wikimedia Commons * Text of Mein Kampf_ * Program of the Nazi Party, its "Manifesto" * (in German) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche

.