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Nawab
Nawab
(Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab< Nabob and Nobab is an honorific title ratified and bestowed by the reigning Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
to semi-autonomous Muslim
Muslim
rulers of princely states in South Asia. "Nawab" usually refers to males; the female equivalent is "begum" or "nawab begum". The primary duty of a nawab was to uphold the sovereignty of the Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
along with the administration of a certain province. The title of "nawab" was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similar to a British peerage, to persons and families who ruled a princely state, for various services to the Government of British India. In some cases, these titles were also accompanied by jagir grants, either in cash revenues and allowances or land-holdings. During the British Raj, some of the chiefs or Sardars of large or important tribes were also given the title, in addition to traditional titles already held by virtue of chieftainship. The term "nawab" was originally used for the subahdar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire.

Contents

1 History 2 Ruling nawab families 3 Miscellaneous nawabs

3.1 Personal nawabs 3.2 Nawaab as a court rank

4 Derived titles

4.1 Nawabzada 4.2 Nabob 4.3 Naib

5 Gallery 6 Indian states formerly ruled by nawabs 7 References

History[edit]

Robert Clive, meeting with Nawab
Nawab
Mir Jafar
Mir Jafar
after the Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman

General
General
Nawab
Nawab
Sir Sadeq Mohammad Khan V, the last ruling Nawab
Nawab
of Bahawalpur

It is a Hindustani term, used in Urdu, Hindi, Bengali and many other North-Indian languages, borrowed via Persian from the Arabic, being the honorific plural of naib, or "deputy." In some areas, especially Bengal, the term is pronounced nobab. This later variation has also entered English and other foreign languages as nabob.

The winter diwan of a Mughal nawab

The term "Nawaab" is often used to refer to any Muslim
Muslim
ruler in north or south India
India
while the term "nizam" is preferred for a senior official—it literally means "governor of region". The Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
had several nawabs under him: Nawabs of Cuddapah, Sira, Rajahmundry, Kurnool, Chicacole, et al. "Nizam" was his personal title, awarded by the Mughal Government and based on the term "Nazim" as meaning "senior officer". "Nazim" is still used for a district collector in many parts of India. The term "nawab" is still technically imprecise, as the title was also awarded to Hindus and Sikhs, as well, and large zamindars and not necessarily to all Muslim rulers. With the decline of that empire, the title, and the powers that went with it, became hereditary in the ruling families in the various provinces. Under later British rule, nawabs continued to rule various princely states of Awadh, Amb, Bahawalpur, Balasinor, Baoni, Banganapalle, Bhopal, Cambay, Jaora, Junagadh, Kurnool
Kurnool
(the main city of Deccan), Kurwai, Mamdot, Multan, Palanpur, Pataudi, Radhanpur, Rampur, Malerkotla, Sachin, Rajoli and Tonk. Other former rulers bearing the title, such as the nawabs of Bengal
Bengal
and Oudh, had been dispossessed by the British or others by the time the Mughal dynasty finally ended in 1857. Some princes became Nawab
Nawab
by promotion, e.g. the ruler of Palanpur
Palanpur
was "diwan" until 1910, then "nawab sahib". Other nawabs were promoted are restyled to another princely style, or to and back, e.g. in Rajgarh a single rawat (rajah) went by nawab. The style for a nawab's queen is begum. Most of the nawab dynasties were male primogenitures, although several ruling Begums of Bhopal were a notable exception. Before the incorporation of the Subcontinent into the British Empire, nawabs ruled the kingdoms of Awadh
Awadh
(or Oudh, encouraged by the British to shed the Mughal suzerainty and assume the imperial style of Badshah), Bengal, Arcot
Arcot
and Bhopal. Ruling nawab families[edit]

Families ruling when acceding to India

Nawab
Nawab
Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur, the Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad Nawab
Nawab
of Ashwath Nawab
Nawab
Babi of Balasinor Nawab
Nawab
of Banganapalle, previously Masulipatam Nawab
Nawab
of Baoni Nawab
Nawab
of Basai, Nawab
Nawab
Khwaja Muhammad Khan Nawab
Nawab
of Berar styled Mirza
Mirza
of Berar (under the Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad) Nawab
Nawab
of Bhikampur and Datawali (Aligarh) Nawab
Nawab
of Bhopal
Bhopal
(female rulers were known as Nawab
Nawab
Begum
Begum
of Bhopal) Nawabs of Cambay
Cambay
(Kambay) the former Nawabs of the Carnatic, restyled Princes of Arcot Nawab
Nawab
of Dujana Nawab
Nawab
of Farrukhabad Nawab
Nawab
of Jaora Nawab
Nawab
Sahib of Junagadh Nawab
Nawab
of Maler Kotla Nawab
Nawab
of Muhammadgar Nawab
Nawab
Sahib of Palanpur
Palanpur
(till 1910 styled Diwan) Nawab
Nawab
of Pathari Nawab
Nawab
of Radhanpur Nawab
Nawab
of Rajoli, India Nawab
Nawab
of Rampur Nawab
Nawab
of Sachin Nawab
Nawab
of Sardhana Nawab
Nawab
of Tonk, India

Former dynasties of princely states in India
India
abolished before independence

Nawab
Nawab
of Kurwai Nawab
Nawab
of Pataudi Nawab
Nawab
of Savanur Nawab
Nawab
of Surat

Families ruling when acceding to Pakistan (including present Bangladesh)

Nawab
Nawab
of Amb Nawab
Nawab
of Bahawalpur Nawab
Nawab
of Dir Nawab
Nawab
Sahib of Junagadh Nawab
Nawab
of Karnal, (Mandal-e-Nausherwani) Nawab
Nawab
of Kharan Nawab
Nawab
of Makran Nawab
Nawab
of Maler Kotla Nawabs of Isakhel, Pakistan

Former dynasties which became political pensioners'

Nawab
Nawab
of Banda (A vassal to the Maratha polity) Padshah-i-Oudh, formerly Nawab
Nawab
Wazir of Awadh,

also imperial Wazir of all Mughal India, both hereditary

Nawabs of Bengal, as Nawabs of Murshidabad Nawab
Nawab
of Marauli Nawab
Nawab
of Patna Nawab
Nawab
of Surat

The Procession of Yusef Ali Khan, a painting depicting Yusef Khan on his way to an encampment for the durbar held at Fatehgarh
Fatehgarh
in 1859

Miscellaneous nawabs[edit] Personal nawabs[edit] The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state. For the Muslim
Muslim
elite various Mughal-type titles were introduced, including nawab. Among the noted British creations of this type were Nawab
Nawab
Hashim Ali Khan (1858–1940), Nawab
Nawab
Khwaja Abdul Ghani (1813–1896), Nawab
Nawab
Abdul Latif (1828–1893), Nawab
Nawab
Faizunnesa Choudhurani
Faizunnesa Choudhurani
(1834–1904), Nawab Ali Chowdhury (1863–1929), Nawaab Syed Shamsul Huda
Nawaab Syed Shamsul Huda
(1862–1922), Nawab
Nawab
Sirajul Islam (1848–1923), Nawab
Nawab
Alam yar jung Bahadur, M.A, Madras, B.A., B.C.L., Barr-At-Law (1890–1974). There also were the Nawabs of Dhanbari, Nawabs of Ratanpur, Nawabs of Baroda
Baroda
and such others. Nawaab as a court rank[edit]

A powerful Mughal Nawbab of Oudh

Nawaab was also the rank title—again not an office—of a much lower class of Muslim
Muslim
nobles—in fact retainers—at the court of the Nizam of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and Berar State, ranking only above Khan Bahadur and Khan, but under (in ascending order) Jang, Daula, Mulk, Umara
Umara
and Jah; the equivalent for Hindu courtiers was Raja Bahadur. Derived titles[edit] Nawabzada[edit]

The Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal, Mir Qasim

This style, adding the Persian suffix -zada which means son (or other male descendants; see other cases in prince), etymologically fits a nawbab's sons, but in actual practice various dynasties established other customs. For example, in Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
only the nawbab's heir apparent used nawabzada before his personal name, then Khan Abassi, finally Wali Ahad Bahadur (an enhancement of Wali Ehed), while the other sons of the ruling nawab used the style sahibzada before the personal name and only Khan Abassi behind. "Nawabzadi" implies daughters of the reigning nawbab. Elsewhere, rulers who were not styled nawbab yet awarded a title nawabzada. Nabob[edit] For other uses, see Nabob (other). In colloquial usage in English (since 1612),[1] adopted in other Western languages, the transliteration "nabob" refers to commoners: a merchant-leader of high social status and wealth. "Nabob" derives from the Bengali pronunciation of "nawab": Bengali: নবাব nôbab. During the 18th century in particular, it was widely used as a disparaging term for British merchants or administrators who, having made a fortune in India, returned to Britain and aspired to be recognised as having the higher social status that their new wealth would enable them to maintain. Jos Sedley in Thackeray's Vanity Fair is probably the best known example in fiction. From this specific usage it came to be sometimes used for ostentatiously rich businesspeople in general. It can also be used metaphorically for people who have a grandiose sense of their own importance, as in the famous alliterative dismissal of the news media as "nattering nabobs of negativism" in a speech that was delivered by Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
and written by William Safire.[2] Naib[edit] The word naib (Arabic: نائب‎) has been historically used to refer to any local leader in some parts of the Ottoman Empire, successive early modern Iranian kingdoms (Safavids, etc.), and in the eastern Caucasus
Caucasus
(e.g. during Caucasian Imamate). Today, the word is used to refer to directly elected legislators in lower houses of parliament in many Arabic-speaking areas to contrast them against officers of upper houses (or Shura). The term Majlis al-Nuwwab (Arabic: مجلس النواب‎, literally council of deputies) has been adopted as the name of several legislative lower houses and unicameral legislatures. Gallery[edit]

Some Nawabs of India

Azim-ud-Daula

Hyder Beg Khan of Awadh

Nawabs hunting a blackbuck with their Asiatic cheetah

Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh

Nawabs and cheetahs

Afsharids and a Mughal nawab

Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah
Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah
the Nawab
Nawab
of Carnatic

Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
the Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh

Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
and his sons and relative

Nawabs in battle during the Battle of Panipat (1761)

Nawab of the Carnatic
Nawab of the Carnatic
in battle

A nawab, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah
Shah
Jahan

Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan
Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan
the Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal

Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan
Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan
the Nawab
Nawab
of the Carnatic

Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal

Indian states formerly ruled by nawabs[edit]

Amb (Tanoli) Arcot Awadh Bahawalpur Balasinor Banganapalle Baoni Bengal Berar (nominally under Nizam
Nizam
of Hyderabad) Bhopal Cambay Dir

Farrukhabad
Farrukhabad
(Uttar Pradesh, India) Hyderabad Jhelum Jaora Junagadh Kalabagh Kurwai Malerkotla Multan Sukkur Thatta Mamdot Manavadar Warcha

Palanpur
Palanpur
(Gujarat, India) Pataudi Radhanpur Rajoli Rampur Rojhan Mazari Sachin Gumbat Tonk Ding Khola

References[edit]

^ Origin of NABOB, Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010. ^ nattering nabobs of negativism, PoliticalDictionary.com. Retrieved 7 April 2015.

Sources

Akbar, M Ali (2012). "Dhaka Nawab
Nawab
Estate". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  Islam, Sirajul (2012). "Nawab". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  Etymology OnLine RoyalArk- here Indian, see also Pakistan extensive genealogies on several dynasties WorldStatesmen more concise but more states  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Nawab". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

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