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Coordinates: 0°32′S 166°56′E / 0.533°S 166.933°E / -0.533; 166.933 (Nauru)

Republic of Nauru Repubrikin Naoero (Nauruan)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "God's will first"

Anthem:  Nauru
Nauru
Bwiema "Nauru, our homeland"

Capital Yaren (de facto) [a]

Largest city Meneng

Official languages Nauruan

Common languages English[a]

Demonym Nauruan

Government Unitary parliamentary republic under a non-partisan democracy

• President

Baron Waqa

• Speaker of the Parliament

Cyril Buraman

Legislature Parliament

Independence

• from UN trusteeship, (from the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand)

31 January 1968

Area

• Total

21 km2 (8.1 sq mi) (193rd)

• Water (%)

0.57

Population

• October 2011 census

10,084[3] (234th)

• Density

480/km2 (1,243.2/sq mi) (25th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$160 million[4] (192nd)

• Per capita

$12,052[4] (94th)

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$114 million[4]

• Per capita

$8,570[4]

Currency Australian dollar
Australian dollar
(AUD)

Time zone (UTC+12)

Drives on the left

Calling code +674

ISO 3166 code NR

Internet TLD .nr

^ Nauru
Nauru
does not have an official capital, but Yaren is the largest settlement and the seat of parliament.

Nauru
Nauru
(Nauruan: Naoero, /nɑːˈuːruː/ nah-OO-roo or /ˈnɑːruː/ NAH-roo[5][6]), officially the Republic of Nauru
Nauru
(Nauruan: Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island
Banaba Island
in Kiribati, 300 kilometres (186 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
and south of the Marshall Islands. With 11,347 residents in a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru
Nauru
is the smallest state in the South Pacific, smallest republic and third smallest state by area in the world, behind only Vatican City
Vatican City
and Monaco. Settled by people from Micronesia
Micronesia
and Polynesia
Polynesia
c. 1000 BC, Nauru
Nauru
was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire
German Empire
in the late 19th century. After World War I, Nauru
Nauru
became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United Kingdom. During World War II, Nauru
Nauru
was occupied by Japanese troops, who were bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific. After the war ended, the country entered into UN trusteeship. Nauru
Nauru
gained its independence in 1968. Nauru
Nauru
is a phosphate rock island with rich deposits near the surface, which allowed easy strip mining operations. It has some remaining phosphate resources which, as of 2011[update], are not economically viable for extraction.[7] Nauru
Nauru
boasted the highest per-capita income enjoyed by any sovereign state in the world during the late 1960s and early 1970s. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the island's environment had been seriously harmed by mining, the trust that had been established to manage the island's wealth diminished in value. To earn income, Nauru
Nauru
briefly became a tax haven and illegal money laundering centre.[8] From 2001 to 2008, and again from 2012, it accepted aid from the Australian Government
Australian Government
in exchange for hosting the Nauru
Nauru
Regional Processing Centre. As a result of heavy dependence on Australia, many sources have identified Nauru
Nauru
as a client state of Australia.[9][10][11]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Ecology

3 Politics

3.1 Foreign relations 3.2 Administrative divisions

4 Economy 5 Population

5.1 Demographics 5.2 Ethnic groups 5.3 Languages 5.4 Religion

6 Culture

6.1 Media 6.2 Sport 6.3 Holidays

7 Public services

7.1 Education 7.2 Health

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Nauru

A Nauruan warrior, 1880

Nauru
Nauru
was first inhabited by Micronesians and Polynesians
Polynesians
at least 3,000 years ago.[12] There were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on Nauru, which are represented in the 12-pointed star on the country's flag.[13] Traditionally, Nauruans traced their descent matrilineally. Inhabitants practised aquaculture: they caught juvenile ibija fish, acclimatised them to fresh water, and raised them in the Buada Lagoon, providing a reliable source of food. The other locally grown components of their diet included coconuts and pandanus fruit.[14][15] The name "Nauru" may derive from the Nauruan word Anáoero, which means "I go to the beach."[16] The British sea captain John Fearn, a whale hunter, became the first Westerner to visit Nauru, in 1798, calling it "Pleasant Island". From around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling ships and traders who replenished their supplies (particularly fresh water) at Nauru.[15] Around this time, deserters from European ships began to live on the island. The islanders traded food for alcoholic palm wine and firearms.[17] The firearms were used during the 10-year Nauruan Tribal War that began in 1878.[18] After an agreement with Great Britain, Nauru
Nauru
was annexed by Germany in 1888 and incorporated into Germany's Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
Protectorate for administrative purposes.[19][20] The arrival of the Germans ended the civil war, and kings were established as rulers of the island. The most widely known of these was King Auweyida. Christian missionaries from the Gilbert Islands
Gilbert Islands
arrived in 1888.[21][22] The German settlers called the island Nawodo or Onawero.[23] The Germans ruled Nauru
Nauru
for almost three decades. Robert Rasch, a German trader who married a Nauruan woman, was the first administrator, appointed in 1890.[21] Phosphate
Phosphate
was discovered on Nauru
Nauru
in 1900 by the prospector Albert Fuller Ellis.[20] The Pacific Phosphate
Phosphate
Company began to exploit the reserves in 1906 by agreement with Germany, exporting its first shipment in 1907.[24] In 1914, following the outbreak of World War I, Nauru
Nauru
was captured by Australian troops. In 1919 it was agreed by the Allied and Associated Powers that His Britannic Majesty should be the administering authority under a League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate. The Nauru Island Agreement made in 1919 between the governments of the United Kingdom, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
provided for the administration of the island and for working of the phosphate deposits by an intergovernmental British Phosphate
Phosphate
Commission (BPC).[19][25] The terms of the League of Nations Mandate
League of Nations Mandate
were drawn up in 1920.[19][26] The island experienced an influenza epidemic in 1920, with a mortality rate of 18% among native Nauruans.[27] In 1923, the League of Nations
League of Nations
gave Australia
Australia
a trustee mandate over Nauru, with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and New Zealand
New Zealand
as co-trustees.[28] On 6 and 7 December 1940, the German auxiliary cruisers Komet and Orion sank five supply ships in the vicinity of Nauru. Komet then shelled Nauru's phosphate mining areas, oil storage depots, and the shiploading cantilever.[29][30]

US Army Air Force
US Army Air Force
bombing the Japanese airstrip on Nauru, 1943.[31]

Japanese troops occupied Nauru
Nauru
on 25 August 1942.[30] The Japanese built an airfield which was bombed for the first time on 25 March 1943, preventing food supplies from being flown to Nauru. The Japanese deported 1,200 Nauruans to work as labourers in the Chuuk islands,[31] which was also occupied by Japan. Nauru, which had been bypassed and left to "wither on the vine" by American forces, was finally liberated on 13 September 1945, when commander Hisayaki Soeda surrendered the island to the Australian Army
Australian Army
and the Royal Australian Navy.[32] This surrender was accepted by Brigadier J. R. Stevenson, who represented Lieutenant General Vernon Sturdee, the commander of the First Australian Army, on board the warship HMAS Diamantina.[33][34] Arrangements were made to repatriate from Chuuk the 737 Nauruans who survived Japanese captivity there. They were returned to Nauru
Nauru
by the BPC ship Trienza in January 1946.[35] In 1947, a trusteeship was established by the United Nations, with Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as trustees.[36][37] Under those arrangements, the UK, Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
were a joint administering authority. The Nauru
Nauru
Island Agreement provided for the first Administrator to be appointed by Australia
Australia
for 5 years, leaving subsequent appointments to be decided by the three governments.[19][26] However, in practice, administrative power was exercised by Australia
Australia
alone.[19][26] Nauru
Nauru
became self-governing in January 1966, and following a two-year constitutional convention it became independent in 1968 under founding president Hammer DeRoburt.[38] In 1967, the people of Nauru
Nauru
purchased the assets of the British Phosphate
Phosphate
Commissioners, and in June 1970 control passed to the locally owned Nauru
Nauru
Phosphate
Phosphate
Corporation.[24] Income from the mines gave Nauruans one of the highest standards of living in the Pacific.[39] In 1989, Nauru
Nauru
took legal action against Australia
Australia
in the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
over Australia's administration of the island, in particular Australia's failure to remedy the environmental damage caused by phosphate mining. Certain Phosphate
Phosphate
Lands: Nauru
Nauru
v.  Australia
Australia
led to an out-of-court settlement to rehabilitate the mined-out areas of Nauru.[36][40] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Nauru

Map of Nauru

Nauru
Nauru
is a 21 square kilometres (8 sq mi)[1] oval-shaped island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 55.95 kilometres (35 mi) south of the Equator.[41] The island is surrounded by a coral reef, which is exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles.[2] The presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although channels in the reef allow small boats access to the island.[42] A fertile coastal strip 150 to 300 metres (490 to 980 ft) wide lies inland from the beach.[2] Coral cliffs surround Nauru's central plateau. The highest point of the plateau, called the Command Ridge, is 71 metres (233 ft) above sea level.[43] The only fertile areas on Nauru
Nauru
are on the narrow coastal belt, where coconut palms flourish. The land around Buada Lagoon
Buada Lagoon
supports bananas, pineapples, vegetables, pandanus trees, and indigenous hardwoods, such as the tomano tree.[2] Nauru
Nauru
was one of three great phosphate-rock islands in the Pacific Ocean, along with Banaba (Ocean Island), in Kiribati, and Makatea, in French Polynesia. The phosphate reserves on Nauru
Nauru
are now almost entirely depleted. Phosphate
Phosphate
mining in the central plateau has left a barren terrain of jagged limestone pinnacles up to 15 metres (49 ft) high. Mining has stripped and devastated about 80% of Nauru's land area, and has also affected the surrounding Exclusive Economic Zone; 40% of marine life is estimated to have been killed by silt and phosphate runoff.[2][44] There are limited natural sources of fresh water on Nauru. Rooftop storage tanks collect rainwater. The islanders are mostly dependent on three desalination plants housed at Nauru's Utilities Agency. Climate[edit] Nauru's climate is hot and very humid year round because of its proximity to the equator and the ocean. Nauru
Nauru
is hit by monsoon rains between November and February, but usually no cyclones. Annual rainfall is highly variable and is influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, with several significant recorded droughts.[12][45] The temperature on Nauru
Nauru
ranges between 26 and 35 °C (79 and 95 °F) during the day and between 22 and 34 °C (72 and 93 °F) at night.[46]

Climate data for Yaren District, Nauru

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 34 (93) 37 (99) 35 (95) 35 (95) 32 (90) 32 (90) 35 (95) 33 (91) 35 (95) 34 (93) 36 (97) 35 (95) 37 (99)

Average high °C (°F) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 30 (86) 31 (88) 31 (88) 31 (88) 30.3 (86.5)

Average low °C (°F) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77) 25 (77)

Record low °C (°F) 21 (70) 21 (70) 21 (70) 21 (70) 20 (68) 21 (70) 20 (68) 21 (70) 20 (68) 21 (70) 21 (70) 21 (70) 20 (68)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 280 (11.02) 250 (9.84) 190 (7.48) 190 (7.48) 120 (4.72) 110 (4.33) 150 (5.91) 130 (5.12) 120 (4.72) 100 (3.94) 120 (4.72) 280 (11.02) 2,080 (81.89)

Average precipitation days 16 14 13 11 9 9 12 14 11 10 13 15 152

Source: [1]

Aerial view of Nauru

Ecology[edit] Fauna is sparse on the island, because of a lack of vegetation and the consequences of phosphates mining. Many indigenous birds have disappeared or become rare owing to destruction of their habitat.[47] There are about 60 recorded vascular plant species native to the island, none of which is endemic. Coconut
Coconut
farming, mining, and introduced species have seriously disturbed to the native vegetation.[12] There are no native land mammals, but there are native insects, land crabs, and birds, including the endemic Nauru
Nauru
reed warbler. The Polynesian rat, cats, dogs, pigs, and chickens have been introduced to Nauru
Nauru
from ships.[48] The diversity of the reef marine life makes fishing a popular activity for tourists on the island; also popular are SCUBA diving and snorkelling.[49] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Nauru

Baron Waqa, the incumbent President of Nauru.

Parliament of Nauru

The president of Nauru
Nauru
is Baron Waqa, who heads a 19-member unicameral parliament. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
and the Pacific Islands Forum. Nauru
Nauru
also participates in the Commonwealth and Olympic Games. Recently Nauru
Nauru
became a member country of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The Republic of Nauru
Nauru
became the 189th member of the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
in April 2016. Nauru
Nauru
is a republic with a parliamentary system of government.[38] The president is both head of state and head of government. A 19-member unicameral parliament is elected every three years.[50] The parliament elects the president from its members, and the president appoints a cabinet of five to six members.[51] Nauru
Nauru
does not have any formal structure for political parties, and candidates typically stand for office as independents; fifteen of the 19 members of the current Parliament are independents. Four parties that have been active in Nauruan politics are the Nauru
Nauru
Party, the Democratic Party, Nauru
Nauru
First, and the Centre Party. However, alliances within the government are often formed on the basis of extended family ties rather than party affiliation.[52] From 1992 to 1999, Nauru
Nauru
had a local government system known as the Nauru
Nauru
Island Council (NIC). This nine-member council was designed to provide municipal services. The NIC was dissolved in 1999 and all assets and liabilities became vested in the national government.[53] Land tenure on Nauru
Nauru
is unusual: all Nauruans have certain rights to all land on the island, which is owned by individuals and family groups. Government and corporate entities do not own any land, and they must enter into a lease arrangement with landowners to use land. Non-Nauruans cannot own land on the island.[12] Nauru
Nauru
had 17 changes of administration between 1989 and 2003.[54] Bernard Dowiyogo
Bernard Dowiyogo
died in office in March 2003 and Ludwig Scotty was elected as the president, later being re-elected to serve a full term in October 2004. Following a vote of no confidence on 19 December 2007, Scotty was replaced by Marcus Stephen. Stephen resigned in November 2011, and Freddie Pitcher became President. Sprent Dabwido then filed a motion of no confidence in Pitcher, resulting in him becoming president.[55][56] Following parliamentary elections in 2013, Baron Waqa
Baron Waqa
was elected president. Its Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice, is paramount on constitutional issues. Other cases can be appealed to the two-judge Appellate Court. Parliament cannot overturn court decisions, but Appellate Court rulings can be appealed to the High Court of Australia.[57][58] In practice this rarely happens. Lower courts consist of the District Court and the Family Court, both of which are headed by a Resident Magistrate, who also is the Registrar of the Supreme Court. There are two other quasi-courts: the Public Service Appeal Board and the Police Appeal Board, both of which are presided over by the Chief Justice.[2] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Nauru Following independence in 1968, Nauru
Nauru
joined the Commonwealth of Nations as a Special
Special
Member; it became a full member in 2000.[59] The country was admitted to the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
in 1991 and to the United Nations
United Nations
in 1999.[60] Nauru
Nauru
is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, the South Pacific Commission, and the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission.[61] The American Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
Program operates a climate-monitoring facility on the island.[62]

Nauru
Nauru
has no armed forces, though there is a small police force under civilian control.[1] Here a number of Nauruan police cadets are undergoing training.

Nauru
Nauru
has no armed forces, though there is a small police force under civilian control.[1] Australia
Australia
is responsible for Nauru's defence under an informal agreement between the two countries.[1] The September 2005 Memorandum of Understanding between Australia
Australia
and Nauru provides the latter with financial aid and technical assistance, including a Secretary of Finance to prepare the budget, and advisers on health and education. This aid is in return for Nauru's housing of asylum seekers while their applications for entry into Australia
Australia
are processed.[54] Nauru
Nauru
uses the Australian dollar
Australian dollar
as its official currency.[2] Nauru
Nauru
has used its position as a member of the United Nations
United Nations
to gain financial support from both Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) and China
China
(PRC) by changing its recognition from one to the other under the One- China
China
policy. On 21 July 2002, Nauru
Nauru
signed an agreement to establish diplomatic relations with the PRC, accepting $130 million from the PRC for this action.[63] In response, the ROC severed diplomatic relations with Nauru
Nauru
two days later. Nauru
Nauru
later re-established links with the ROC on 14 May 2005,[64] and diplomatic ties with the PRC were officially severed on 31 May 2005.[65] However, the PRC continues to maintain a representative office on Nauru.[66] In 2008, Nauru
Nauru
recognised Kosovo
Kosovo
as an independent country, and in 2009 Nauru
Nauru
became the fourth country, after Russia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, to recognise Abkhazia, a breakaway region of Georgia. Russia was reported to be giving Nauru
Nauru
$50 million in humanitarian aid as a result of this recognition.[63] On 15 July 2008, the Nauruan government announced a port refurbishment programme, financed with US$9 million of development aid received from Russia. The Nauru
Nauru
government claims this aid is not related to its recognising Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia.[67] A significant portion of Nauru's income has been in the form of aid from Australia. In 2001, the MV Tampa, a Norwegian ship that had rescued 438 refugees from a stranded 20-metre-long boat, was seeking to dock in Australia. In what became known as the Tampa affair, the ship was refused entry and boarded by Australian troops. The refugees were eventually loaded onto Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
vessel HMAS Manoora and taken to Nauru
Nauru
to be held in detention facilities which later became part of the Howard government's Pacific Solution. Nauru
Nauru
operated two detention centres known as State House and Topside for these refugees in exchange for Australian aid.[68] By November 2005, only two refugees, Mohammed Sagar and Muhammad Faisal, remained on Nauru
Nauru
from those first sent there in 2001,[69] with Sagar finally resettling in early 2007. The Australian government sent further groups of asylum-seekers to Nauru
Nauru
in late 2006 and early 2007.[70] The refugee centre was closed in 2008,[2] but, following the Australian government's re-adoption of the Pacific Solution
Pacific Solution
in August 2012, it has re-opened it.[71] Amnesty International has described the conditions of the refugees of war living in Nauru, as "horror".[72] Administrative divisions[edit] See also: List of settlements in Nauru

Map of Nauru
Nauru
showing its districts

Nauru
Nauru
is divided into fourteen administrative districts which are grouped into eight electoral constituencies and are further divided into various villages.[2][1] The most populous district is Denigomodu with a total of 1,804 residents, out of which 1,497 reside in NPC settlement called Location. The following table shows population size by district as per 2011 census.[73]

Nr. District Former Name Area (ha) Population (2011) No. of villages Density persons / ha

1 Aiwo Aiue 110 1,220 8 11.1

2 Anabar Anebwor 150 452 15 3.0

3 Anetan Añetañ 100 587 12 5.9

4 Anibare Anybody 310 226 17 0.7

5 Baitsi Beidi, Baiti 120 513 15 4.3

6 Boe Boi 50 851 4 17.0

7 Buada Arenibok 260 739 14 2.8

8 Denigomodu Denikomotu 118 1,804 17 15.3

9 Ewa Eoa 120 446 12 3.7

10 Ijuw Ijub 110 178 13 1.6

11 Meneng Meneñ 310 1,380 18 4.5

12 Nibok Ennibeck 160 484 11 3.0

13 Uaboe Ueboi 80 318 6 3.0

14 Yaren Moqua 150 747 7 4.0

  Nauru Naoero 2,120 10,084 169 4.8

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Nauru

A satellite image of Nauru, 2002.

The Nauruan economy peaked in the early 1980s, as it was dependent almost entirely on the phosphate deposits that originate from the droppings of sea birds. There are few other resources, and most necessities are imported.[2][74] Small-scale mining is still conducted by RONPhos, formerly known as the Nauru
Nauru
Phosphate
Phosphate
Corporation.[2] The government places a percentage of RONPhos's earnings into the Nauru Phosphate
Phosphate
Royalties Trust. The Trust manages long-term investments, which were intended to support the citizens once the phosphate reserves were exhausted.[75] Because of mismanagement, the Trust's fixed and current assets were reduced considerably and may never fully recover. The failed investments included financing Leonardo the Musical in 1993.[76] The Mercure Hotel in Sydney[77] and Nauru House
Nauru House
in Melbourne were sold in 2004 to finance debts and Air Nauru's only Boeing 737 was repossessed in December 2005. Normal air service resumed after the aircraft was replaced with a Boeing 737–300 airliner in June 2006.[78] In 2005, the corporation sold its property asset in Melbourne, the vacant Savoy Tavern site, for $7.5 million.[79] The value of the Trust is estimated to have shrunk from A$1.3 billion in 1991 to $138 million in 2002.[80] Nauru currently lacks money to perform many of the basic functions of government; for example, the National Bank of Nauru
Nauru
is insolvent. The CIA World Factbook estimated a GDP per capita
GDP per capita
of $5,000 in 2005.[1] The Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
2007 economic report on Nauru
Nauru
estimated GDP per capita at $2,400 to $2,715.[81] The United Nations
United Nations
(2013) estimates the GDP per capita
GDP per capita
to 15,211 and ranks it 51 on its GDP per capita country list. There are no personal taxes in Nauru. The unemployment rate is estimated to be 90%, and of those who have jobs, the government employs 95%.[1][82] The Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
notes that, although the administration has a strong public mandate to implement economic reforms, in the absence of an alternative to phosphate mining, the medium-term outlook is for continued dependence on external assistance.[80] Tourism is not a major contributor to the economy.[83]

Limestone
Limestone
pinnacles remain after phosphate mining at the site of one of Nauru's secondary mines.

In the 1990s, Nauru
Nauru
became a tax haven and offered passports to foreign nationals for a fee.[84] The inter-governmental Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) identified Nauru
Nauru
as one of 15 "non-cooperative" countries in its fight against money laundering. During the 1990s, it was possible to establish a licensed bank in Nauru
Nauru
for only $25,000 with no other requirements. Under pressure from FATF, Nauru
Nauru
introduced anti-avoidance legislation in 2003, after which foreign hot money left the country. In October 2005, after satisfactory results from the legislation and its enforcement, FATF lifted the non-cooperative designation.[85] From 2001 to 2007, the Nauru detention centre
Nauru detention centre
provided a significant source of income for the country. The Nauruan authorities reacted with concern to its closure by Australia.[86] In February 2008, the Foreign Affairs minister, Dr Kieren Keke, stated that the closure would result in 100 Nauruans losing their jobs, and would affect 10 percent of the island's population directly or indirectly: "We have got a huge number of families that are suddenly going to be without any income. We are looking at ways we can try and provide some welfare assistance but our capacity to do that is very limited. Literally we have got a major unemployment crisis in front of us."[87] The detention centre was re-opened in August 2012.[71] In July 2017 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) upgraded its rating of Nauru's standards of tax transparency. Previously Nauru
Nauru
had been listed alongside fourteen other countries that had failed to show that they could comply with international tax transparency standards and regulations. The OECD subsequently put Nauru
Nauru
through a fast-tracked compliance process and the country was given a "largely compliant" rating.[88] The Nauru
Nauru
2017/18 budget, delivered by Minister for Finance David Adeang, forecasted $128.7 million in revenues and $128.6 million in expenditures and projected modest economic growth for the nation over the next two years.[89] Population[edit] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Nauru Nauru
Nauru
had 11,347 residents as of July 2016, making it the second smallest sovereign state after Vatican City.[90] The population was previously larger, but in 2006 1,500 people left the island during a repatriation of immigrant workers from Kiribati
Kiribati
and Tuvalu. The repatriation was motivated by large force reductions in phosphate mining.[81] Nauru
Nauru
is the least populous country in Oceania. Ethnic groups[edit] 58% of people in Nauru
Nauru
are ethnically Nauruan, 26% are other Pacific Islander, 8% are European, and 8% are Han Chinese.[1] Nauruans descended from Polynesian and Micronesian seafarers. Two of the 12 original tribal groups became extinct in the 20th century.[2] Languages[edit] The official language of Nauru
Nauru
is Nauruan, a distinct Pacific island language, which is spoken by 96% of ethnic Nauruans at home.[81] English is widely spoken and is the language of government and commerce, as Nauruan is not common outside of the country.[1][2] Religion[edit] Further information: Religion in Nauru

Church in Nauru.

The main religion practised on the island is Christianity (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic).[2] The Constitution provides for freedom of religion. The government has restricted the religious practices of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
and the Jehovah's Witnesses, most of whom are foreign workers employed by the government-owned Nauru
Nauru
Phosphate
Phosphate
Corporation.[91] The Catholics are pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tarawa
Tarawa
and Nauru, with see at Tarawa
Tarawa
in Kiribati. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Nauru Angam Day, held on 26 October, celebrates the recovery of the Nauruan population after the two World Wars and the 1920 influenza epidemic.[92] The displacement of the indigenous culture by colonial and contemporary Western influences is significant.[93] Few of the old customs have been preserved, but some forms of traditional music, arts and crafts, and fishing are still practised.[94] Media[edit] There are no daily news publications on Nauru, although there is one fortnightly publication, Mwinen Ko. There is a state-owned television station, Nauru Television (NTV), which broadcasts programs from New Zealand and Australia, and a state-owned non-commercial radio station, Radio Nauru, which carries programs from Radio Australia
Australia
and the BBC.[95] Sport[edit]

Australian rules football, played at Linkbelt Oval.

Australian rules football
Australian rules football
is the most popular sport in Nauru
Nauru
– it and weightlifting are considered the country's national sports. There is an Australian Rules football league with eight teams.[96] Other sports popular in Nauru
Nauru
include volleyball, netball, fishing and tennis. Nauru
Nauru
participates in the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and has participated in the Summer Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in weightlifting and judo.[97] Nauru's national basketball team
Nauru's national basketball team
competed at the 1969 Pacific Games, where it defeated the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and Fiji. Rugby sevens
Rugby sevens
popularity has increased over the last two years, so much they have a national team. Nauru
Nauru
competed in the 2015 Oceania
Oceania
Sevens Championship in New Zealand. Holidays[edit] Independence Day is celebrated on 31 January.[98] Public services[edit] Education[edit] Further information: Education in Nauru Literacy
Literacy
on Nauru
Nauru
is 96 percent. Education is compulsory for children from six to sixteen years old, and two more non-compulsory years are offered (years 11 and 12).[99] There is a campus of the University of the South Pacific
University of the South Pacific
on Nauru. Before this campus was built in 1987, students would study either by distance or abroad.[100] Since 2011, the University of New England, Australia
Australia
has established a presence on the island with around 30 Nauruan teachers studying for an associate degree in education. These students will continue onto the degree to complete their studies.[101] This project is led by Associate Professor Pep Serow and funded by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Health[edit]

Nauruan residents walking around Nauru
Nauru
International Airport. Nauruans are amongst the most obese people in the world.[102]

Young Nauruans in 1914

Further information: Obesity in Nauru Life expectancy on Nauru
Nauru
in 2009 was 60.6 years for males and 68.0 years for females.[103] By measure of mean body mass index (BMI) Nauruans are the most overweight people in the world;[102] 97% of men and 93% of women are overweight or obese.[102] In 2012 the obesity rate was 71.7%.[104] Obesity in the Pacific
Obesity in the Pacific
islands is common. Nauru
Nauru
has the world's highest level of type 2 diabetes, with more than 40% of the population affected.[105] Other significant dietary-related problems on Nauru
Nauru
include kidney disease and heart disease.[103] See also[edit]

Index of Nauru-related articles Outline of Nauru Visa policy of Nauru

References[edit]

^ English is not an official language, but it is widely spoken by the majority of the population and it is commonly used in government, legislation and commerce alongside Nauruan. Due to Nauru's history and relationship with Australia, Australian English
Australian English
is the dominant variety.[1][2]

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Nauru
Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 9 June 2015.  ^ a b c d Nauru. International Monetary Fund ^ " Nauru
Nauru
Pronunciation in English". Cambridge English Dictionary. Cambridge University Press.  ^ " Nauru
Nauru
— Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes". Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Oxford University Press.  ^ Hogan, C Michael (2011). "Phosphate". Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Retrieved 17 June 2012.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/10/magazine/the-billion-dollar-shack.html?mcubz=1 ^ "Pacific correspondent Mike Field". Radio New Zealand. 18 June 2015.  ^ "Nauru's former chief justice predicts legal break down". SBS News. Special
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Broadcasting Service.  ^ Ben Doherty. "This is Abyan's story, and it is Australia's story". The Guardian.  ^ a b c d Nauru
Nauru
Department of Economic Development and Environment (2003). "First National Report to the United Nations
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Convention to Combat Desertification" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.  ^ Whyte, Brendan (2007). "On Cartographic Vexillology". Cartographica. 42 (3): 251–262. doi:10.3138/carto.42.3.251.  ^ Pollock, Nancy J (1995). "5: Social Fattening Patterns in the Pacific—the Positive Side of Obesity. A Nauru
Nauru
Case Study". In De Garine, I. Social Aspects of Obesity. Routledge. pp. 87–111.  ^ a b Spennemann, Dirk HR (January 2002). "Traditional milkfish aquaculture in Nauru". Aquaculture
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International. 10 (6): 551–562. doi:10.1023/A:1023900601000.  ^ West, Barbara A (2010). "Nauruans: nationality". Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. pp. 578–580. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7.  ^ Marshall, Mac; Marshall, Leslie B (January 1976). "Holy and Unholy Spirits: The Effects of Missionization on Alcohol Use in Eastern Micronesia". Journal of Pacific History. 11 (3): 135–166. doi:10.1080/00223347608572299.  ^ Reyes, Ramon E, Jr (1996). " Nauru
Nauru
v. Australia". New York Law School Journal of International and Comparative Law. 16 (1–2). CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e "Commonwealth and Colonial Law" by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 884 ^ a b Firth, Stewart (January 1978). "German Labour Policy in Nauru and Angaur, 1906–1914". The Journal of Pacific History. 13 (1): 36–52. doi:10.1080/00223347808572337.  ^ a b Hill, Robert A, ed. (1986). "2: Progress Comes to Nauru". The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. 5. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05817-0.  ^ Ellis, AF (1935). Ocean Island and Nauru – their story. Angus and Robertson Limited. pp. 29–39.  ^ Hartleben, A (1895). Deutsche Rundschau für Geographie und Statistik. p. 429.  ^ a b Manner, HI; Thaman, RR; Hassall, DC (May 1985). "Plant succession after phosphate mining on Nauru". Australian Geographer. 16 (3): 185–195. doi:10.1080/00049188508702872.  ^ Gowdy, John M; McDaniel, Carl N (May 1999). "The Physical Destruction of Nauru". Land Economics. 75 (2): 333–338. doi:10.2307/3147015.  ^ a b c Cmd. 1202 ^ Shlomowitz, R (November 1990). "Differential mortality of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the Pacific labour trade". Journal of the Australian Population Association. 7 (2): 116–127. PMID 12343016.  ^ Hudson, WJ (April 1965). "Australia's experience as a mandatory power". Australian Outlook. 19 (1): 35–46. doi:10.1080/10357716508444191.  ^ Waters, SD (2008). German raiders in the Pacific (3rd ed.). Merriam Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4357-5760-8.  ^ a b Bogart, Charles H (November 2008). "Death off Nauru" (PDF). CDSG Newsletter: 8–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ a b Haden, JD (2000). "Nauru: a middle ground in World War II". Pacific Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ Takizawa, Akira; Alsleben, Allan (1999–2000). "Japanese garrisons on the by-passed Pacific Islands 1944–1945". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016.  ^ The Times, 14 September 1945 ^ " Nauru
Nauru
Occupied by Australians; Jap Garrison and Natives Starving". The Argus. 15 September 1945. Retrieved 30 December 2010.  ^ Garrett, J (1996). Island Exiles. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. pp. 176–181. ISBN 0-7333-0485-0.  ^ a b Highet, K; Kahale, H (1993). "Certain Phosphate
Phosphate
Lands in Nauru". American Journal of International Law. 87: 282–288. doi:10.2307/2203821.  ^ Cmd. 7290 ^ a b Davidson, JW (January 1968). "The Republic of Nauru". The Journal of Pacific History. 3 (1): 145–150. doi:10.1080/00223346808572131.  ^ Squires, Nick (15 March 2008). " Nauru
Nauru
seeks to regain lost fortunes". BBC
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News Online. Retrieved 16 March 2008.  ^ Case Concerning Certain Phosphate
Phosphate
Lands in Nauru
Nauru
( Nauru
Nauru
v. Australia) Application: Memorial of Nauru. ICJ Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents. United Nations, International Court of Justice. January 2004. ISBN 978-92-1-070936-1.  ^ Google Map Developers. "Distance Finder".  ^ Thaman, RR; Hassall, DC. "Nauru: National Environmental Management Strategy and National Environmental Action Plan" (PDF). South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. p. 234.  ^ Jacobson, Gerry; Hill, Peter J; Ghassemi, Fereidoun (1997). "24: Geology and Hydrogeology of Nauru
Nauru
Island". In Vacher, H Leonard; Quinn, Terrence M. Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands. Elsevier. p. 716. ISBN 978-0-444-81520-0. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Republic of Nauru
Nauru
(1999). "Climate Change – Response" (PDF). First National Communication. United Nations
United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 9 September 2009.  ^ Affaire de certaines terres à phosphates à Nauru. International Court of Justice. 2003. pp. 107–109. ISBN 978-92-1-070936-1.  ^ "Pacific Climate Change Science Program" (PDF). Government of Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ "NAURU Information on Government, People, History, Economy, Environment, Development". Archived from the original on 27 July 2013.  ^ BirdLife International. "Important Bird Areas in Nauru". Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environmental Programme. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ " Nauru
Nauru
Ecotourism Tours – Sustainable Tourism & Conservation Laws".  ^ Matau, Robert (6 June 2013) "President Dabwido gives it another go" Archived 26 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Islands Business. ^ Levine, Stephen; Roberts, Nigel S (November 2005). "The constitutional structures and electoral systems of Pacific Island states". Commonwealth & Comparative Politics. 43 (3): 276–295. doi:10.1080/14662040500304866.  ^ Anckar, D; Anckar, C (2000). "Democracies without Parties". Comparative Political Studies. 33 (2): 225–247. doi:10.1177/0010414000033002003.  ^ Hassell, Graham; Tipu, Feue (May 2008). "Local Government in the South Pacific Islands". Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance. 1 (1): 6–30.  ^ a b "Republic of Nauru
Nauru
Country Brief". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. November 2005. Retrieved 2 May 2006.  ^ Connell, John (January 2006). "Nauru: The first failed Pacific State?". The Round Table. 95 (383): 47–63. doi:10.1080/00358530500379205.  ^ " Nauru
Nauru
profile". BBC
BBC
News Online. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2012.  ^ " Nauru
Nauru
(High Court Appeals) Act (Australia) 1976". Australian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 7 August 2006.  ^ Dale, Gregory (2007). "Appealing to Whom? Australia's 'Appellate Jurisdiction' Over Nauru". International & Comparative Law Quarterly. 56 (3). doi:10.1093/iclq/lei186.  ^ "Republic of Nauru
Nauru
Permanent Mission to the United Nations". United Nations. Archived from the original on 18 August 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2006.  ^ " Nauru
Nauru
in the Commonwealth". Commonwealth of Nations. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ " Nauru
Nauru
(04/08)". US State Department. 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2012.  ^ Long, Charles N; McFarlane, Sally A (March 2012). "Quantification of the Impact of Nauru
Nauru
Island on ARM Measurements". Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 51 (3): 628–636. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0174.1.  ^ a b Harding, Luke (14 December 2009). "Tiny Nauru
Nauru
struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2010.  ^ Su, Joy (15 May 2005). " Nauru
Nauru
switches its allegiance back to Taiwan from China". Taipei Times. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ " China
China
officially severs diplomatic ties with Nauru". Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. 31 May 2005. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ "Chinese Embassy in Nauru". Gov.cn. 18 January 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ " Nauru
Nauru
expects to earn more from exports after port upgrade with Russian aid". Radio New Zealand
New Zealand
International. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 15 July 2010.  ^ White, Michael (2002). "M/V Tampa Incident and Australia's Obligations – August 2001". Maritime Studies. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ Gordon, M (5 November 2005). "Nauru's last two asylum seekers feel the pain". The Age. Retrieved 8 May 2006.  ^ " Nauru detention centre
Nauru detention centre
costs $2m per month". ABC News. 12 February 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2007.  ^ a b "Asylum bill passes parliament". The Daily Telegraph. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.  ^ "'It's better to die from one bullet than being slowly killed every day' – refugees forsaken on Nauru". www.amnesty.org.  ^ "NAURU – The population of the districts of the Republic of Nauru". City Population. 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2015.  ^ "Big tasks for a small island". BBC
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News Online. Retrieved 10 May 2006.  ^ Seneviratne, Kalinga (26 May 1999). " Nauru
Nauru
turns to dust". Asia Times. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ Mellor, William (1 June 2004). "GE Poised to Bankrupt Nauru, Island Stained by Money-Laundering". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ Skehan, Craig (9 July 2004). "Nauru, receivers start swapping legal blows". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ "Receivers take over Nauru
Nauru
House". The Age. 18 April 2004. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ " Nauru
Nauru
sells last remaining property asset in Melbourne". RNZI. 8 April 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010.  ^ a b "Asian Development Outlook 2005 – Nauru". Asian Development Bank. 2005. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2006.  ^ a b c "Country Economic Report: Nauru" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ "Paradise well and truly lost". The Economist. 20 December 2001. Retrieved 2 May 2006.  ^ "Nauru". Pacific Islands Trade and Investment Commission. Archived from the original on 21 July 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ "The Billion Dollar Shack". New York Times. 10 December 2000. Retrieved 19 July 2011.  ^ " Nauru
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de-listed" (PDF). FATF. 13 October 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2005. Retrieved 11 May 2006.  ^ Topsfield, Hewel (11 December 2007). " Nauru
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'hit' by detention centre closure". The Age. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ http://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/334976/nauru-gets-an-oecd-upgrade ^ http://www.loopnauru.com/nauru-news/modest-economic-growth-forecast-nauru-60701 ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
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Celebrates Angam Day". United Nations. Archived from the original on 21 October 2004. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ Nazzal, Mary (April 2005). "Nauru: an environment destroyed and international law" (PDF). lawanddevelopment.org. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ "Culture of Nauru". Republic of Nauru. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ "Country Profile: Nauru". BBC
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 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State
United States Department of State
document "U.S. Relations With Nauru".  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

Further reading[edit]

Gowdy, John M; McDaniel, Carl N (2000). Paradise for Sale: A Parable of Nature. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22229-8. 

External links[edit]

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