Coordinates: 0°32′S 166°56′E / 0.533°S 166.933°E /
-0.533; 166.933 (Nauru)
Republic of Nauru
Repubrikin Naoero (Nauruan)
Coat of arms
Motto: "God's will first"
"Nauru, our homeland"
Yaren (de facto) [a]
Unitary parliamentary republic under a non-partisan democracy
• Speaker of the Parliament
• from UN trusteeship, (from the United Kingdom, Australia, and
31 January 1968
21 km2 (8.1 sq mi) (193rd)
• Water (%)
• October 2011 census
480/km2 (1,243.2/sq mi) (25th)
$160 million (192nd)
• Per capita
• Per capita
Australian dollar (AUD)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Nauru does not have an official capital, but Yaren is the largest
settlement and the seat of parliament.
Nauru (Nauruan: Naoero, /nɑːˈuːruː/ nah-OO-roo or /ˈnɑːruː/
NAH-roo), officially the Republic of
Nauru (Nauruan: Repubrikin
Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in
Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its
nearest neighbour is
Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres
(186 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north
of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast
of the Federated States of
Micronesia and south of the Marshall
Islands. With 11,347 residents in a 21-square-kilometre
(8.1 sq mi) area,
Nauru is the smallest state in the South
Pacific, smallest republic and third smallest state by area in the
world, behind only
Vatican City and Monaco.
Settled by people from
Polynesia c. 1000 BC,
annexed and claimed as a colony by the
German Empire in the late 19th
century. After World War I,
Nauru became a League of Nations
mandate administered by Australia,
New Zealand and the United Kingdom.
During World War II,
Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops, who
were bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific. After the war
ended, the country entered into UN trusteeship.
Nauru gained its
independence in 1968.
Nauru is a phosphate rock island with rich deposits near the surface,
which allowed easy strip mining operations. It has some remaining
phosphate resources which, as of 2011[update], are not economically
viable for extraction.
Nauru boasted the highest per-capita income
enjoyed by any sovereign state in the world during the late 1960s and
early 1970s. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the
island's environment had been seriously harmed by mining, the trust
that had been established to manage the island's wealth diminished in
value. To earn income,
Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal
money laundering centre. From 2001 to 2008, and again from 2012, it
accepted aid from the
Australian Government in exchange for hosting
Nauru Regional Processing Centre. As a result of heavy dependence
on Australia, many sources have identified
Nauru as a client state of
3.1 Foreign relations
3.2 Administrative divisions
5.2 Ethnic groups
7 Public services
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Main article: History of Nauru
A Nauruan warrior, 1880
Nauru was first inhabited by Micronesians and
Polynesians at least
3,000 years ago. There were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on
Nauru, which are represented in the 12-pointed star on the country's
flag. Traditionally, Nauruans traced their descent matrilineally.
Inhabitants practised aquaculture: they caught juvenile ibija fish,
acclimatised them to fresh water, and raised them in the Buada Lagoon,
providing a reliable source of food. The other locally grown
components of their diet included coconuts and pandanus fruit.
The name "Nauru" may derive from the Nauruan word Anáoero, which
means "I go to the beach."
The British sea captain John Fearn, a whale hunter, became the first
Westerner to visit Nauru, in 1798, calling it "Pleasant Island". From
around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling ships
and traders who replenished their supplies (particularly fresh water)
Around this time, deserters from European ships began to live on the
island. The islanders traded food for alcoholic palm wine and
firearms. The firearms were used during the 10-year Nauruan Tribal
War that began in 1878.
After an agreement with Great Britain,
Nauru was annexed by Germany in
1888 and incorporated into Germany's
Marshall Islands Protectorate for
administrative purposes. The arrival of the Germans ended the
civil war, and kings were established as rulers of the island. The
most widely known of these was King Auweyida. Christian missionaries
Gilbert Islands arrived in 1888. The German settlers
called the island Nawodo or Onawero. The Germans ruled
almost three decades. Robert Rasch, a German trader who married a
Nauruan woman, was the first administrator, appointed in 1890.
Phosphate was discovered on
Nauru in 1900 by the prospector Albert
Fuller Ellis. The Pacific
Phosphate Company began to exploit the
reserves in 1906 by agreement with Germany, exporting its first
shipment in 1907. In 1914, following the outbreak of World War I,
Nauru was captured by Australian troops. In 1919 it was agreed by the
Allied and Associated Powers that His Britannic Majesty should be the
administering authority under a
League of Nations
League of Nations mandate. The Nauru
Island Agreement made in 1919 between the governments of the United
New Zealand provided for the administration of
the island and for working of the phosphate deposits by an
Phosphate Commission (BPC). The
terms of the
League of Nations Mandate
League of Nations Mandate were drawn up in 1920.
The island experienced an influenza epidemic in 1920, with a mortality
rate of 18% among native Nauruans.
In 1923, the
League of Nations
League of Nations gave
Australia a trustee mandate over
Nauru, with the
United Kingdom and
New Zealand as co-trustees. On
6 and 7 December 1940, the German auxiliary cruisers Komet and
Orion sank five supply ships in the vicinity of Nauru. Komet then
shelled Nauru's phosphate mining areas, oil storage depots, and the
US Army Air Force
US Army Air Force bombing the Japanese airstrip on Nauru, 1943.
Japanese troops occupied
Nauru on 25 August 1942. The Japanese
built an airfield which was bombed for the first time on 25 March
1943, preventing food supplies from being flown to Nauru. The Japanese
deported 1,200 Nauruans to work as labourers in the Chuuk islands,
which was also occupied by Japan. Nauru, which had been bypassed and
left to "wither on the vine" by American forces, was finally liberated
on 13 September 1945, when commander Hisayaki Soeda surrendered the
island to the
Australian Army and the Royal Australian Navy.
This surrender was accepted by Brigadier J. R. Stevenson, who
represented Lieutenant General Vernon Sturdee, the commander of the
First Australian Army, on board the warship HMAS Diamantina.
Arrangements were made to repatriate from Chuuk the 737 Nauruans
who survived Japanese captivity there. They were returned to
the BPC ship Trienza in January 1946.
In 1947, a trusteeship was established by the United Nations, with
Australia, New Zealand, and the
United Kingdom as trustees.
Under those arrangements, the UK,
New Zealand were a
joint administering authority. The
Nauru Island Agreement provided for
the first Administrator to be appointed by
Australia for 5 years,
leaving subsequent appointments to be decided by the three
governments. However, in practice, administrative power was
Nauru became self-governing in January 1966, and following a two-year
constitutional convention it became independent in 1968 under founding
president Hammer DeRoburt. In 1967, the people of
the assets of the British
Phosphate Commissioners, and in June 1970
control passed to the locally owned
Income from the mines gave Nauruans one of the highest standards of
living in the Pacific. In 1989,
Nauru took legal action against
Australia in the
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice over Australia's
administration of the island, in particular Australia's failure to
remedy the environmental damage caused by phosphate mining. Certain
Australia led to an out-of-court
settlement to rehabilitate the mined-out areas of Nauru.
Main article: Geography of Nauru
Map of Nauru
Nauru is a 21 square kilometres (8 sq mi) oval-shaped
island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 55.95 kilometres
(35 mi) south of the Equator. The island is surrounded by a
coral reef, which is exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles.
The presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport,
although channels in the reef allow small boats access to the
island. A fertile coastal strip 150 to 300 metres (490 to
980 ft) wide lies inland from the beach.
Coral cliffs surround Nauru's central plateau. The highest point of
the plateau, called the Command Ridge, is 71 metres (233 ft)
above sea level.
The only fertile areas on
Nauru are on the narrow coastal belt, where
coconut palms flourish. The land around
Buada Lagoon supports bananas,
pineapples, vegetables, pandanus trees, and indigenous hardwoods, such
as the tomano tree.
Nauru was one of three great phosphate-rock islands in the Pacific
Ocean, along with Banaba (Ocean Island), in Kiribati, and Makatea, in
French Polynesia. The phosphate reserves on
Nauru are now almost
Phosphate mining in the central plateau has left a
barren terrain of jagged limestone pinnacles up to 15 metres
(49 ft) high. Mining has stripped and devastated about 80% of
Nauru's land area, and has also affected the surrounding Exclusive
Economic Zone; 40% of marine life is estimated to have been killed by
silt and phosphate runoff.
There are limited natural sources of fresh water on Nauru. Rooftop
storage tanks collect rainwater. The islanders are mostly dependent on
three desalination plants housed at Nauru's Utilities Agency.
Nauru's climate is hot and very humid year round because of its
proximity to the equator and the ocean.
Nauru is hit by monsoon rains
between November and February, but usually no cyclones. Annual
rainfall is highly variable and is influenced by the El
Niño–Southern Oscillation, with several significant recorded
droughts. The temperature on
Nauru ranges between 26 and
35 °C (79 and 95 °F) during the day and between 22 and
34 °C (72 and 93 °F) at night.
Climate data for Yaren District, Nauru
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Aerial view of Nauru
Fauna is sparse on the island, because of a lack of vegetation and the
consequences of phosphates mining. Many indigenous birds have
disappeared or become rare owing to destruction of their habitat.
There are about 60 recorded vascular plant species native to the
island, none of which is endemic.
Coconut farming, mining, and
introduced species have seriously disturbed to the native
There are no native land mammals, but there are native insects, land
crabs, and birds, including the endemic
Nauru reed warbler. The
Polynesian rat, cats, dogs, pigs, and chickens have been introduced to
Nauru from ships. The diversity of the reef marine life makes
fishing a popular activity for tourists on the island; also popular
are SCUBA diving and snorkelling.
Main article: Politics of Nauru
Baron Waqa, the incumbent President of Nauru.
Parliament of Nauru
The president of
Nauru is Baron Waqa, who heads a 19-member unicameral
parliament. The country is a member of the United Nations, the
Commonwealth of Nations, the
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank and the Pacific
Nauru also participates in the Commonwealth and Olympic
Nauru became a member country of the International
Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The Republic of
Nauru became the
189th member of the
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund in April 2016.
Nauru is a republic with a parliamentary system of government. The
president is both head of state and head of government. A 19-member
unicameral parliament is elected every three years. The parliament
elects the president from its members, and the president appoints a
cabinet of five to six members.
Nauru does not have any formal structure for political parties, and
candidates typically stand for office as independents; fifteen of the
19 members of the current Parliament are independents. Four
parties that have been active in Nauruan politics are the
the Democratic Party,
Nauru First, and the Centre Party. However,
alliances within the government are often formed on the basis of
extended family ties rather than party affiliation.
From 1992 to 1999,
Nauru had a local government system known as the
Nauru Island Council (NIC). This nine-member council was designed to
provide municipal services. The NIC was dissolved in 1999 and all
assets and liabilities became vested in the national government.
Land tenure on
Nauru is unusual: all Nauruans have certain rights to
all land on the island, which is owned by individuals and family
groups. Government and corporate entities do not own any land, and
they must enter into a lease arrangement with landowners to use land.
Non-Nauruans cannot own land on the island.
Nauru had 17 changes of administration between 1989 and 2003.
Bernard Dowiyogo died in office in March 2003 and
Ludwig Scotty was
elected as the president, later being re-elected to serve a full term
in October 2004. Following a vote of no confidence on 19 December
2007, Scotty was replaced by Marcus Stephen. Stephen resigned in
November 2011, and
Freddie Pitcher became President. Sprent Dabwido
then filed a motion of no confidence in Pitcher, resulting in him
becoming president. Following parliamentary elections in 2013,
Baron Waqa was elected president.
Its Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice, is paramount on
constitutional issues. Other cases can be appealed to the two-judge
Appellate Court. Parliament cannot overturn court decisions, but
Appellate Court rulings can be appealed to the High Court of
Australia. In practice this rarely happens. Lower courts
consist of the District Court and the Family Court, both of which are
headed by a Resident Magistrate, who also is the Registrar of the
Supreme Court. There are two other quasi-courts: the Public Service
Appeal Board and the Police Appeal Board, both of which are presided
over by the Chief Justice.
Main article: Foreign relations of Nauru
Following independence in 1968,
Nauru joined the Commonwealth of
Nations as a
Special Member; it became a full member in 2000. The
country was admitted to the
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank in 1991 and to the
United Nations in 1999.
Nauru is a member of the Pacific Islands
Forum, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, the South
Pacific Commission, and the South Pacific Applied Geoscience
Commission. The American
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program
operates a climate-monitoring facility on the island.
Nauru has no armed forces, though there is a small police force under
civilian control. Here a number of Nauruan police cadets are
Nauru has no armed forces, though there is a small police force under
Australia is responsible for Nauru's defence
under an informal agreement between the two countries. The
September 2005 Memorandum of Understanding between
Australia and Nauru
provides the latter with financial aid and technical assistance,
including a Secretary of Finance to prepare the budget, and advisers
on health and education. This aid is in return for Nauru's housing of
asylum seekers while their applications for entry into
Nauru uses the
Australian dollar as its official
Nauru has used its position as a member of the
United Nations to gain
financial support from both
Taiwan (ROC) and
China (PRC) by changing
its recognition from one to the other under the One-
China policy. On
21 July 2002,
Nauru signed an agreement to establish diplomatic
relations with the PRC, accepting $130 million from the PRC for
this action. In response, the ROC severed diplomatic relations
Nauru two days later.
Nauru later re-established links with the
ROC on 14 May 2005, and diplomatic ties with the PRC were
officially severed on 31 May 2005. However, the PRC continues to
maintain a representative office on Nauru.
Kosovo as an independent country, and in
Nauru became the fourth country, after Russia, Nicaragua, and
Venezuela, to recognise Abkhazia, a breakaway region of Georgia.
Russia was reported to be giving
Nauru $50 million in
humanitarian aid as a result of this recognition. On 15 July 2008,
the Nauruan government announced a port refurbishment programme,
financed with US$9 million of development aid received from
Nauru government claims this aid is not related to its
Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
A significant portion of Nauru's income has been in the form of aid
from Australia. In 2001, the MV Tampa, a Norwegian ship that had
rescued 438 refugees from a stranded 20-metre-long boat, was
seeking to dock in Australia. In what became known as the Tampa
affair, the ship was refused entry and boarded by Australian troops.
The refugees were eventually loaded onto
Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy vessel
HMAS Manoora and taken to
Nauru to be held in detention facilities
which later became part of the Howard government's Pacific Solution.
Nauru operated two detention centres known as State House and Topside
for these refugees in exchange for Australian aid. By November
2005, only two refugees,
Mohammed Sagar and Muhammad Faisal, remained
Nauru from those first sent there in 2001, with Sagar finally
resettling in early 2007. The Australian government sent further
groups of asylum-seekers to
Nauru in late 2006 and early 2007. The
refugee centre was closed in 2008, but, following the Australian
government's re-adoption of the
Pacific Solution in August 2012, it
has re-opened it. Amnesty International has described the
conditions of the refugees of war living in Nauru, as "horror".
See also: List of settlements in Nauru
Nauru showing its districts
Nauru is divided into fourteen administrative districts which are
grouped into eight electoral constituencies and are further divided
into various villages. The most populous district is Denigomodu
with a total of 1,804 residents, out of which 1,497 reside in NPC
settlement called Location. The following table shows population size
by district as per 2011 census.
persons / ha
Main article: Economy of Nauru
A satellite image of Nauru, 2002.
The Nauruan economy peaked in the early 1980s, as it was dependent
almost entirely on the phosphate deposits that originate from the
droppings of sea birds. There are few other resources, and most
necessities are imported. Small-scale mining is still conducted
by RONPhos, formerly known as the
Phosphate Corporation. The
government places a percentage of RONPhos's earnings into the Nauru
Phosphate Royalties Trust. The Trust manages long-term investments,
which were intended to support the citizens once the phosphate
reserves were exhausted.
Because of mismanagement, the Trust's fixed and current assets were
reduced considerably and may never fully recover. The failed
investments included financing
Leonardo the Musical in 1993. The
Mercure Hotel in Sydney and
Nauru House in Melbourne were sold in
2004 to finance debts and Air Nauru's only Boeing 737 was
repossessed in December 2005. Normal air service resumed after the
aircraft was replaced with a Boeing 737–300 airliner in June
2006. In 2005, the corporation sold its property asset in
Melbourne, the vacant Savoy Tavern site, for $7.5 million.
The value of the Trust is estimated to have shrunk from
A$1.3 billion in 1991 to $138 million in 2002. Nauru
currently lacks money to perform many of the basic functions of
government; for example, the National Bank of
Nauru is insolvent. The
CIA World Factbook estimated a
GDP per capita
GDP per capita of $5,000 in 2005.
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank 2007 economic report on
Nauru estimated GDP
per capita at $2,400 to $2,715. The
United Nations (2013)
GDP per capita
GDP per capita to 15,211 and ranks it 51 on its GDP per
capita country list.
There are no personal taxes in Nauru. The unemployment rate is
estimated to be 90%, and of those who have jobs, the government
employs 95%. The
Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank notes that, although
the administration has a strong public mandate to implement economic
reforms, in the absence of an alternative to phosphate mining, the
medium-term outlook is for continued dependence on external
assistance. Tourism is not a major contributor to the economy.
Limestone pinnacles remain after phosphate mining at the site of one
of Nauru's secondary mines.
In the 1990s,
Nauru became a tax haven and offered passports to
foreign nationals for a fee. The inter-governmental Financial
Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) identified
Nauru as one
of 15 "non-cooperative" countries in its fight against money
laundering. During the 1990s, it was possible to establish a licensed
Nauru for only $25,000 with no other requirements. Under
pressure from FATF,
Nauru introduced anti-avoidance legislation in
2003, after which foreign hot money left the country. In October 2005,
after satisfactory results from the legislation and its enforcement,
FATF lifted the non-cooperative designation.
From 2001 to 2007, the
Nauru detention centre
Nauru detention centre provided a significant
source of income for the country. The Nauruan authorities reacted with
concern to its closure by Australia. In February 2008, the Foreign
Affairs minister, Dr Kieren Keke, stated that the closure would result
in 100 Nauruans losing their jobs, and would affect
10 percent of the island's population directly or indirectly: "We
have got a huge number of families that are suddenly going to be
without any income. We are looking at ways we can try and provide some
welfare assistance but our capacity to do that is very limited.
Literally we have got a major unemployment crisis in front of us."
The detention centre was re-opened in August 2012.
In July 2017 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) upgraded its rating of Nauru's standards of tax
Nauru had been listed alongside fourteen
other countries that had failed to show that they could comply with
international tax transparency standards and regulations. The OECD
Nauru through a fast-tracked compliance process and
the country was given a "largely compliant" rating.
Nauru 2017/18 budget, delivered by Minister for Finance David
Adeang, forecasted $128.7 million in revenues and $128.6 million in
expenditures and projected modest economic growth for the nation over
the next two years.
Main article: Demographics of Nauru
Nauru had 11,347 residents as of July 2016, making it the second
smallest sovereign state after Vatican City. The population was
previously larger, but in 2006 1,500 people left the island
during a repatriation of immigrant workers from
Kiribati and Tuvalu.
The repatriation was motivated by large force reductions in phosphate
Nauru is the least populous country in Oceania.
58% of people in
Nauru are ethnically Nauruan, 26% are other Pacific
Islander, 8% are European, and 8% are Han Chinese. Nauruans
descended from Polynesian and Micronesian seafarers. Two of the
12 original tribal groups became extinct in the 20th century.
The official language of
Nauru is Nauruan, a distinct Pacific island
language, which is spoken by 96% of ethnic Nauruans at home.
English is widely spoken and is the language of government and
commerce, as Nauruan is not common outside of the country.
Further information: Religion in Nauru
Church in Nauru.
The main religion practised on the island is Christianity (two-thirds
Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic). The Constitution provides
for freedom of religion. The government has restricted the religious
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the
Jehovah's Witnesses, most of whom are foreign workers employed by the
Phosphate Corporation. The Catholics are
pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of
Tarawa and Nauru,
with see at
Tarawa in Kiribati.
Main article: Culture of Nauru
Angam Day, held on 26 October, celebrates the recovery of the Nauruan
population after the two World Wars and the 1920 influenza
epidemic. The displacement of the indigenous culture by colonial
and contemporary Western influences is significant. Few of the old
customs have been preserved, but some forms of traditional music, arts
and crafts, and fishing are still practised.
There are no daily news publications on Nauru, although there is one
fortnightly publication, Mwinen Ko. There is a state-owned television
Nauru Television (NTV), which broadcasts programs from New
Zealand and Australia, and a state-owned non-commercial radio station,
Radio Nauru, which carries programs from Radio
Australia and the
Australian rules football, played at Linkbelt Oval.
Australian rules football
Australian rules football is the most popular sport in
Nauru – it
and weightlifting are considered the country's national sports. There
is an Australian Rules football league with eight teams. Other
sports popular in
Nauru include volleyball, netball, fishing and
Nauru participates in the
Commonwealth Games and has
participated in the Summer
Olympic Games in weightlifting and
Nauru's national basketball team
Nauru's national basketball team competed at the 1969 Pacific Games,
where it defeated the
Solomon Islands and Fiji.
Rugby sevens popularity has increased over the last two years, so much
they have a national team.
Nauru competed in the 2015
Oceania Sevens Championship in New Zealand.
Independence Day is celebrated on 31 January.
Further information: Education in Nauru
Nauru is 96 percent. Education is compulsory for
children from six to sixteen years old, and two more non-compulsory
years are offered (years 11 and 12). There is a campus of the
University of the South Pacific
University of the South Pacific on Nauru. Before this campus was built
in 1987, students would study either by distance or abroad. Since
2011, the University of New England,
Australia has established a
presence on the island with around 30 Nauruan teachers studying for an
associate degree in education. These students will continue onto the
degree to complete their studies. This project is led by
Associate Professor Pep Serow and funded by the Australian Department
of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Nauruan residents walking around
Nauru International Airport. Nauruans
are amongst the most obese people in the world.
Young Nauruans in 1914
Further information: Obesity in Nauru
Life expectancy on
Nauru in 2009 was 60.6 years for males and
68.0 years for females.
By measure of mean body mass index (BMI) Nauruans are the most
overweight people in the world; 97% of men and 93% of women are
overweight or obese. In 2012 the obesity rate was 71.7%.
Obesity in the Pacific
Obesity in the Pacific islands is common.
Nauru has the world's highest level of type 2 diabetes, with more than
40% of the population affected. Other significant dietary-related
Nauru include kidney disease and heart disease.
Index of Nauru-related articles
Outline of Nauru
Visa policy of Nauru
^ English is not an official language, but it is widely spoken by the
majority of the population and it is commonly used in government,
legislation and commerce alongside Nauruan. Due to Nauru's history and
relationship with Australia,
Australian English is the dominant
^ a b c d e f g h i j
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency (2015). "Nauru". The
World Factbook. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008.
Retrieved 8 June 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Background Note: Nauru". State
Department Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. September 2005.
Retrieved 11 May 2006.
^ "National Report on Population ad Housing" (PDF).
Nauru Bureau of
Statistics. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
^ a b c d Nauru. International Monetary Fund
Nauru Pronunciation in English". Cambridge English Dictionary.
Cambridge University Press.
Nauru — Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes".
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
^ Hogan, C Michael (2011). "Phosphate". Encyclopedia of Earth.
National Council for Science and the Environment. Retrieved 17 June
^ "Pacific correspondent Mike Field". Radio New Zealand. 18 June
^ "Nauru's former chief justice predicts legal break down". SBS News.
Special Broadcasting Service.
^ Ben Doherty. "This is Abyan's story, and it is Australia's story".
^ a b c d
Nauru Department of Economic Development and Environment
(2003). "First National Report to the
United Nations Convention to
Combat Desertification" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
^ Whyte, Brendan (2007). "On Cartographic Vexillology". Cartographica.
42 (3): 251–262. doi:10.3138/carto.42.3.251.
^ Pollock, Nancy J (1995). "5: Social Fattening Patterns in the
Pacific—the Positive Side of Obesity. A
Nauru Case Study". In De
Garine, I. Social Aspects of Obesity. Routledge.
^ a b Spennemann, Dirk HR (January 2002). "Traditional milkfish
aquaculture in Nauru".
Aquaculture International. 10 (6): 551–562.
^ West, Barbara A (2010). "Nauruans: nationality". Encyclopedia of the
Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. pp. 578–580.
^ Marshall, Mac; Marshall, Leslie B (January 1976). "Holy and Unholy
Spirits: The Effects of Missionization on Alcohol Use in Eastern
Micronesia". Journal of Pacific History. 11 (3): 135–166.
^ Reyes, Ramon E, Jr (1996). "
Nauru v. Australia". New York Law School
Journal of International and Comparative Law. 16 (1–2). CS1
maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ a b c d e "Commonwealth and Colonial Law" by Kenneth Roberts-Wray,
London, Stevens, 1966. P. 884
^ a b Firth, Stewart (January 1978). "German Labour Policy in Nauru
and Angaur, 1906–1914". The Journal of Pacific History. 13 (1):
^ a b Hill, Robert A, ed. (1986). "2: Progress Comes to Nauru". The
Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. 5.
University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05817-0.
^ Ellis, AF (1935). Ocean Island and Nauru – their story. Angus
and Robertson Limited. pp. 29–39.
^ Hartleben, A (1895). Deutsche Rundschau für Geographie und
Statistik. p. 429.
^ a b Manner, HI; Thaman, RR; Hassall, DC (May 1985). "Plant
succession after phosphate mining on Nauru". Australian Geographer. 16
(3): 185–195. doi:10.1080/00049188508702872.
^ Gowdy, John M; McDaniel, Carl N (May 1999). "The Physical
Destruction of Nauru". Land Economics. 75 (2): 333–338.
^ a b c Cmd. 1202
^ Shlomowitz, R (November 1990). "Differential mortality of Asians and
Pacific Islanders in the Pacific labour trade". Journal of the
Australian Population Association. 7 (2): 116–127.
^ Hudson, WJ (April 1965). "Australia's experience as a mandatory
power". Australian Outlook. 19 (1): 35–46.
^ Waters, SD (2008). German raiders in the Pacific (3rd ed.). Merriam
Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4357-5760-8.
^ a b Bogart, Charles H (November 2008). "Death off Nauru" (PDF). CDSG
Newsletter: 8–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October
2013. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
^ a b Haden, JD (2000). "Nauru: a middle ground in World War II".
Pacific Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012.
Retrieved 16 June 2012.
^ Takizawa, Akira; Alsleben, Allan (1999–2000). "Japanese garrisons
on the by-passed Pacific Islands 1944–1945". Forgotten Campaign: The
Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. Archived from the original on
6 January 2016.
^ The Times, 14 September 1945
Nauru Occupied by Australians; Jap Garrison and Natives Starving".
The Argus. 15 September 1945. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
^ Garrett, J (1996). Island Exiles. Australian Broadcasting
Corporation. pp. 176–181. ISBN 0-7333-0485-0.
^ a b Highet, K; Kahale, H (1993). "Certain
Phosphate Lands in Nauru".
American Journal of International Law. 87: 282–288.
^ Cmd. 7290
^ a b Davidson, JW (January 1968). "The Republic of Nauru". The
Journal of Pacific History. 3 (1): 145–150.
^ Squires, Nick (15 March 2008). "
Nauru seeks to regain lost
BBC News Online. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
^ Case Concerning Certain
Phosphate Lands in
Australia) Application: Memorial of Nauru. ICJ Pleadings, Oral
Arguments, Documents. United Nations, International Court of Justice.
January 2004. ISBN 978-92-1-070936-1.
^ Google Map Developers. "Distance Finder".
^ Thaman, RR; Hassall, DC. "Nauru: National Environmental Management
Strategy and National Environmental Action Plan" (PDF). South Pacific
Regional Environment Programme. p. 234.
^ Jacobson, Gerry; Hill, Peter J; Ghassemi, Fereidoun (1997). "24:
Geology and Hydrogeology of
Nauru Island". In Vacher, H Leonard;
Quinn, Terrence M. Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands.
Elsevier. p. 716. ISBN 978-0-444-81520-0. CS1 maint:
Uses editors parameter (link)
^ Republic of
Nauru (1999). "Climate Change – Response" (PDF).
First National Communication.
United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
^ Affaire de certaines terres à phosphates à Nauru. International
Court of Justice. 2003. pp. 107–109.
^ "Pacific Climate Change Science Program" (PDF). Government of
Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012.
Retrieved 10 June 2012.
^ "NAURU Information on Government, People, History, Economy,
Environment, Development". Archived from the original on 27 July
^ BirdLife International. "Important Bird Areas in Nauru". Secretariat
of the Pacific Regional Environmental Programme. Retrieved 18 June
Nauru Ecotourism Tours – Sustainable Tourism & Conservation
^ Matau, Robert (6 June 2013) "President Dabwido gives it another go"
Archived 26 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Islands Business.
^ Levine, Stephen; Roberts, Nigel S (November 2005). "The
constitutional structures and electoral systems of Pacific Island
states". Commonwealth & Comparative Politics. 43 (3): 276–295.
^ Anckar, D; Anckar, C (2000). "Democracies without Parties".
Comparative Political Studies. 33 (2): 225–247.
^ Hassell, Graham; Tipu, Feue (May 2008). "Local Government in the
South Pacific Islands". Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance. 1
^ a b "Republic of
Nauru Country Brief". Australian Department of
Foreign Affairs and Trade. November 2005. Retrieved 2 May 2006.
^ Connell, John (January 2006). "Nauru: The first failed Pacific
State?". The Round Table. 95 (383): 47–63.
BBC News Online. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 17 June
Nauru (High Court Appeals) Act (Australia) 1976". Australian Legal
Information Institute. Retrieved 7 August 2006.
^ Dale, Gregory (2007). "Appealing to Whom? Australia's 'Appellate
Jurisdiction' Over Nauru". International & Comparative Law
Quarterly. 56 (3). doi:10.1093/iclq/lei186.
^ "Republic of
Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations". United
Nations. Archived from the original on 18 August 2006. Retrieved 10
Nauru in the Commonwealth". Commonwealth of Nations. Retrieved 18
Nauru (04/08)". US State Department. 2008. Retrieved 17 June
^ Long, Charles N; McFarlane, Sally A (March 2012). "Quantification of
the Impact of
Nauru Island on ARM Measurements". Journal of Applied
Meteorology and Climatology. 51 (3): 628–636.
^ a b Harding, Luke (14 December 2009). "Tiny
Nauru struts world stage
by recognising breakaway republics". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June
^ Su, Joy (15 May 2005). "
Nauru switches its allegiance back to Taiwan
from China". Taipei Times. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
China officially severs diplomatic ties with Nauru". Asia Africa
Intelligence Wire. 31 May 2005. Archived from the original on 11 May
2013. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
^ "Chinese Embassy in Nauru". Gov.cn. 18 January 2006. Retrieved 18
Nauru expects to earn more from exports after port upgrade with
Russian aid". Radio
New Zealand International. 15 July 2010. Retrieved
15 July 2010.
^ White, Michael (2002). "M/V Tampa Incident and Australia's
Obligations – August 2001". Maritime Studies. Retrieved 18 June
^ Gordon, M (5 November 2005). "Nauru's last two asylum seekers feel
the pain". The Age. Retrieved 8 May 2006.
Nauru detention centre
Nauru detention centre costs $2m per month". ABC News. 12 February
2007. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
^ a b "Asylum bill passes parliament". The Daily Telegraph. 16 August
2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
^ "'It's better to die from one bullet than being slowly killed every
day' – refugees forsaken on Nauru". www.amnesty.org.
^ "NAURU – The population of the districts of the Republic of
Nauru". City Population. 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
^ "Big tasks for a small island".
BBC News Online. Retrieved 10 May
^ Seneviratne, Kalinga (26 May 1999). "
Nauru turns to dust". Asia
Times. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
^ Mellor, William (1 June 2004). "GE Poised to Bankrupt Nauru, Island
Stained by Money-Laundering". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on
9 March 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
^ Skehan, Craig (9 July 2004). "Nauru, receivers start swapping legal
blows". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
^ "Receivers take over
Nauru House". The Age. 18 April 2004. Retrieved
19 June 2012.
Nauru sells last remaining property asset in Melbourne". RNZI. 8
April 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
^ a b "Asian Development Outlook 2005 – Nauru". Asian
Development Bank. 2005. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011.
Retrieved 2 May 2006.
^ a b c "Country Economic Report: Nauru" (PDF). Asian Development
Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 20
^ "Paradise well and truly lost". The Economist. 20 December 2001.
Retrieved 2 May 2006.
^ "Nauru". Pacific Islands Trade and Investment Commission. Archived
from the original on 21 July 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
^ "The Billion Dollar Shack". New York Times. 10 December 2000.
Retrieved 19 July 2011.
Nauru de-listed" (PDF). FATF. 13 October 2005. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 30 December 2005. Retrieved 11 May 2006.
^ Topsfield, Hewel (11 December 2007). "
Nauru fears gap when camps
close". The Age. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
Nauru 'hit' by detention centre closure". The Age. 7 February 2008.
Retrieved 19 June 2012.
^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom
data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September
^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2003 – Nauru". US
Department of State. 2003. Retrieved 2 May 2005.
Nauru Celebrates Angam Day". United Nations. Archived from the
original on 21 October 2004. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
^ Nazzal, Mary (April 2005). "Nauru: an environment destroyed and
international law" (PDF). lawanddevelopment.org. Retrieved 19 June
^ "Culture of Nauru". Republic of Nauru. Archived from the original on
4 January 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
^ "Country Profile: Nauru".
BBC News Online. Retrieved 2 May
Nauru Australian Football Association". Australian Football League.
Archived from the original on 31 December 2008. Retrieved 19 June
Nauru Olympic Committee History".
Nauru Olympic Committee.
Retrieved 20 June 2012.
^ Stahl, Dean A.; Landen, Karen (2001). Abbreviations Dictionary (10
ed.). CRC Press. p. 1436. ISBN 9781420036640.
^ Waqa, B (1999). "UNESCO Education for all Assessment Country report
1999 Country: Nauru". Archived from the original on 25 May 2006.
Retrieved 2 May 2006.
Nauru Campus". University of the South Pacific. Retrieved 19
Nauru Teacher Education Project".
^ a b c "Fat of the land:
Nauru tops obesity league". The Independent.
26 December 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
^ a b "Nauru". World health report 2005. World Health Organization.
Retrieved 2 May 2006.
^ Nishiyama, Takkaki (27 May 2012). "Nauru: An island plagued by
obesity and diabetes". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 28
May 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
^ King, H; Rewers M (1993). "Diabetes in adults is now a Third World
problem". Ethnicity & Disease. 3: S67–74.
This article incorporates public domain material from the
United States Department of State
United States Department of State document "U.S. Relations With
This article incorporates public domain material from the
CIA World Factbook website
Gowdy, John M; McDaniel, Carl N (2000). Paradise for Sale: A Parable
of Nature. University of California Press.
Find more aboutNauruat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Government of Nauru
"Nauru". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Nauru at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Wikimedia Atlas of Nauru
Nauru from UCB Libraries GovPubs
Nauru profile from the
BBC News Online
Nauru International Airport
Countries and territories of Oceania
Federated States of Micronesia
Papua New Guinea
Juan Fernández Islands
of New Zealand
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
Wallis and Futuna
Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)
Papua New Guinea
Commonwealth of Nations
Wallis and Futuna
Northern Mariana Islands
Asian Development Bank
Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)
BNF: cb11968895r (data)