Naturism, or nudism, is a cultural and political movement practising,
advocating, and defending personal and social nudity, most but not all
of which takes place on private property. The term may also refer to a
lifestyle based on personal, family, or social nudism.
take a number of forms. It may be practiced individually, within a
family, socially, or in public. Additionally, there is also militant
naturism, including campaigning, and extreme naturism is sometimes
considered a separate category.
1 Definition and lexicology
2 Personal and family nudity
3 Social nudism
3.1 Naturist facilities
3.2 Nude beaches
Naturism and sports
3.4 Festival naturism
3.5 Summer naturism
Gymnosophy and religious nakedness
5.2 Naturist writers
5.3 Naturist ideals
Naturism and the romantics
Naturism for health
5.6 World Naked Bike Ride
7 In Europe
7.10 United Kingdom
8 In North America
8.2 United States
9 In Asia
10 Issues in social nudity
10.1 Issues for the naturist community
10.3 Photography, films and videos
11 See also
14.2 Journal articles
14.3 Newspaper articles
14.5 A bibliography of the economic impacts of naturism
15 External links
Definition and lexicology
The XIV Congress of the
International Naturist Federation
International Naturist Federation (Agde,
France, 1974) defined naturism as:
a way of life in harmony with nature characterised by the practice of
communal nudity with the intention of encouraging self-respect,
respect for others and for the environment.
Several other terms ("social nudity", "public nudity", "skinny
dipping", "sunning", and "clothes-free") have been proposed as
alternative terms for naturism, but none has found the same widespread
public acceptance as the older terms "naturism" and (in much of the
United States) "nudism".
People interested in social nudity can attend clothes-free beaches and
other types of ad-hoc nudist events. At these venues, participants
generally need not belong to a nudist club.
Many contemporary naturists and naturist organisations feel that the
practice of social nudity should be asexual. For various social,
cultural, and historical reasons the lay public, the media, and many
contemporary naturists and their organisations often oversimplify the
relationship between naturism and sexuality. Current research has
begun to explore this complex relationship.
Sign at a naturist swimming pool with a warning that no clothing
(including underwear) is permitted.
International Naturist Federation
International Naturist Federation explains:
"Each country has its own kind of naturism, and even each club has its
own special character, for we too, human beings, have each our own
character which is reflected in our surroundings."[a]
The usage and definition of these terms varies geographically and
historically.[b] Though in the United States, naturism and nudism have
the same meaning, in Britain there is a clear distinction.[c]
Nudism is the act of being naked, while naturism is a lifestyle which
at various times embraced nature, environment, respect for others,
self-respect, crafts, healthy eating, vegetarianism, teetotalism,
non-smoking, yoga, physical exercise and pacifism as well as
In naturist parlance, textile or textilist is a non-naturist person,
non-naturist behaviour or non-naturist facilities. e.g. the textile
beach starts at the flag, they are a mixed couple – he is
naturist, she is textile. Textile is the predominant term used in the
UK ('textilist' is unknown in British naturist magazines including
H&E naturist), although some naturists avoid it due to perceived
negative or derogatory connotations. Textilist is said to be used
interchangeably, but no dictionary definition to this effect exists,
nor are there any equivalent examples of use in mainstream literature
such as those for textile. Clothing optional and nude optional (US
specific) describe a policy or a venue that allows or encourages
nudity but tolerates the wearing of clothes. The opposite is clothing
compulsory; that is, prohibiting nudity. Adjectival phrases clothes
free and clothing free prescribe where naturism is permitted in an
otherwise textile environment, or define the preferred state of a
The social nudity movement includes a large range of variants
including "naturism", "nudism", "
Freikörperkultur (FKK)", the "free
beach movement" as well as generalized "public lands/public nudity"
advocacy. There is a large amount of shared history and common themes,
issues and philosophy, but differences between these separate
movements remain contentious.
See also: labels, associations and terminology for an extended
discussion and disambiguation.
Personal and family nudity
Personal nudity: Carl Larsson, Model Writing Postcards, watercolor,
Nudity § Private nudity
Many people are often nude in the privacy of their home or garden,
either alone or with members of the family; naturists normally refer
to them as at-home-nudists or closet-nudists. This may be occasional
nudity or as a naturist lifestyle. There are differences of opinion as
to whether, and if so to what extent, parents should appear naked in
front of their children, and whether children should be nude within
the home in the view of their family as well as visitors. This has
attracted a great deal of academic study.
United States study by
Alfred Kinsey (1948–1953) found that 75% of
the participants stated that there was never nudity in the home when
they were growing up, 5% of the participants said that there was
"seldom" nudity in the home, 3% said "often", and 17% said that it was
"usual". The study found that there was no significant difference
between what was reported by men and by women with respect to
frequency of nudity in the home.
Gordon and Schroeder in 1995 reported that parental nudity varies
considerably from family to family. They say that "there is nothing
inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing
naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an
opportunity for parents to provide important information. They note
that by ages 5 to 6 children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and
recommend to parents who wish to be sensitive to their children's
wishes that they limit such activities from that age onwards.
Barbara Bonner in 1999 cautioned against nudity in the home if
children exhibit sexual play of a type that is considered
In a 1995 review of the literature, Paul Okami concluded that there
was no reliable evidence linking exposure to parental nudity to any
negative effect. Three years later, his team finished an 18-year
longitudinal study that showed that, if anything, such exposure was
associated with slight beneficial effects, particularly for boys.
Smith and Sparks in their study on the effects of social nudity on
children conclude that "the viewing of the unclothed body, far from
being destructive to the psyche, seems to be either benign and totally
harmless or to actually provide positive benefits to the individuals
The rhetoric of the nudism and anti-nudism movements emphasizes
freedom from many of the normal constraints which regulate human
interaction in nudist settings, although for different reasons. Using
data from French and German beaches, this hypothesis was tested using
five different indicators. Little significant variation between
nudists and non-nudists within French and German settings is found in
their patterns of interactional spacing, while more significant main
effects for differences of cultures are found regardless of nudity
status. As a subculture, nudists would appear to differ from
nonnudists only in their propensity to like to sunbathe in the nude.
Their nude status would appear to have none of the de-inhibiting
effects often attributed to nudism. By contrast, clear cultural
differences between German and French cultures are shown consistent
with Hall's high-low context distinction and the Francoeur's hot-cool
At naturist organised events or venues clothing is usually optional,
except by swimming pools or sunbathing lawns where complete nudity is
expected, weather permitting. This rule is sometimes a source of
controversy among some naturists. Staff at a naturist facility are
usually required to be clothed due to health and safety
Facilities for naturists are classified in various ways. A landed or
members' naturist club is one that owns its own facilities, while
non-landed (or travel) clubs meet at various locations, such as
private residences, swimming pools, hot springs, landed clubs and
resorts, and rented facilities. Landed clubs can be run by members on
democratic lines or by one or more owners who make the rules. In
either case, they can determine membership criteria and the
obligations of members. This usually involves sharing work necessary
to maintain or develop the site.
Families swimming nude at a hot spring in Taiwan
Some clubs have stricter entrance requirements than some traditional
'country clubs', including the requirement to supply references, a
sponsoring member, a trial membership, committee approval or, criminal
background checks. UK clubs are now required to have child-protection
policies in place, and designated child-protection officers. Many
clubs promote frequent social activities.
The international naturist organizations were mainly composed of
representatives of landed clubs.
Nudist colony is no longer a
favored term, but it is used by naturists as a term of derision for
landed clubs that have rigid non-inclusive membership criteria, and in
meta-data on naturist websites.
A holiday centre is a facility that specializes in providing
apartments, chalets and camping pitches for visiting holidaymakers.
The center is run commercially, and visitors are not members and have
no say in the management. Most holiday centers expect visitors to hold
an INF card, that is, be a member of their national organization, but
some have relaxed this restriction, relying on the carrying of a trade
card. Holiday centers can be quite small, just a couple of hectares or
large occupying over 300 hectares.[f] In a large holiday centre there
will be swimming pools, sports pitches, an entertainment program,
kids' clubs, restaurants and supermarkets. Some holiday centres allow
regular visitors to purchase their own chalets, and generations of the
same families will visit each year. Holiday centres are more
tolerant of clothing than members-only clubs; total nudity is usually
compulsory in the swimming pools and may be expected on the beaches,
while on the football pitches, or in the restaurants in the evening,
it is rare.
A naturist resort is, to a European, an essentially urban development
where naturism is the norm.
Cap d'Agde in France, naturist village
Charco del Palo
Charco del Palo on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Vera Playa in Spain
and Vritomartis in
Greece are examples. Some residents use these
resorts as a year-round home.
In US usage, a naturist resort can mean a holiday centre.
Freikörperkultur (FKK) literally translated as 'free body culture' is
the name for the general movement in Germany. The abbreviation is
widely recognised all over Europe and often found on informal signs
indicating the direction to a remote naturist beach.
A sign at a nude beach in Maldonado, Uruguay.
Clothing is optional at nude beaches (or "free beaches"). A feature of
bathing on a nude beach is the anonymity it offers, with membership of
a club not being required, nor detailed application processes, nor
pre-booking of visits.[original research?]
In some European countries, such as Denmark, all beaches are
clothing optional, while in others like
Germany and experimentally in
France, there are naturist sunbathing areas in public parks, e.g.,
in Munich and Berlin. Beaches in some holiday destinations,
such as Crete, are also clothing-optional, except some central urban
beaches. There are two centrally located clothes-optional beaches
Naturism and sports
Nude recreation and
Nudity in sport
Naturism encourages a healthy life style, and many naturist clubs at
times organize and encourage members to take part in local and
international sport events and competitions. The German Association
for Free Body
Culture (DFK) promotes recreational sports and is a
member of the
German Olympic Sport Federation
German Olympic Sport Federation (DOSB).
Naturist couple at the
Nambassa festival, New Zealand, 1981
Woodstock to Edinburgh, and
Nambassa in the southern hemisphere
communal nudity is commonly recorded at music and counterculture
The series of 1970s
Nambassa hippie festivals held in New Zealand is a
further example of non-sexualized naturism. Of the 75,000 patrons who
attended the 1979
Nambassa 3 day counterculture Festival an estimated
35% of festival attendees spontaneously chose to remove their
clothing, preferring complete or partial nudity.'
Roskilde festival in Denmark hosts a naked run, that has become one of
the most popular events there.
Perhaps nowadays the biggest and most famous festival where
participants spontaneously decide to go naked or take part in nude
events is Burning Man: it's got its own naked bike ride aka 'Naked Pub
Crawl', and a few camps organize activities in the nude, including the
famous oil wrestling by camp Gymnasium.
Naked participant at
Burning Man 2016 posing as Leonardo da
Vinci's Vitruvian Man.
Florida Young Naturists has organized seasonal "Bashes" hosted by
several Florida nudist/naturist clubs and resorts since 2008.
Organized by the Federación Nudista de México (Mexican Nudist
Federation) since 2016 when
Zipolite beach nudity was
legalized, FESTIVAL NUDISTA ZIPOLITE occurs annually on the
first weekend of February.
Nudist festivals are also held to celebrate particular days of the
year, and in many such events nude bodypainting is also common, such
as Neptune Day Festival held in Koktebel,
Crimea to depict
mythological events; the
Solstice Cyclists nudist events
celebrating the summer solstice held in Fremont, Seattle, United
Naked Pumpkin Run
Naked Pumpkin Run held in US to celebrate Halloween; and
World Naked Gardening Day
World Naked Gardening Day held to celebrate gardening.
The prevalence of naturism tends to increase during the summer months
especially when the temperature is higher with some regions
experiencing first-time naturists and people who have transitioned to
becoming a naturist. Some studies have observed that among some of
these naturists, they are clothed during other seasons, thus making
them seasonal naturists. This quiddity has caught the public
perception and comprehension of public nudity, and thus it is
frequently equated with summer destinations such as beaches.
Nudity in History
See also: Timeline of non-sexual social nudity
Nudity in social contexts has been practised in various forms by many
cultures at all time periods. In Western society nowadays, social
nudity is most frequently encountered in the contexts of bathing,
swimming and in saunas, whether in single-sex groups, within the
family or with mixed-sex friends, but throughout history and in many
tropical cultures until now, nudity is a norm at many sports events
It is difficult to nominate exactly when naturism started as a
movement. The word 'naturism' was used for the first time in 1778 by a
French-speaking Belgian, Jean Baptiste Luc Planchon (1734–1781), and
was advocated as a means of improving the hygiène de vie or healthy
The earliest known naturist club in the "western" sense of the word
was established in British
India in 1891. The 'Fellowship of the Naked
Trust' was founded by Charles Edward Gordon Crawford, a widower, who
was a District and Sessions Judge for the
Bombay Civil Service. The
commune was based in
Matheran and had just three members at the
beginning; Crawford and two sons of an
Anglican missionary, Andrew and
Kellogg Calderwood.[h] The commune fell apart when Crawford was
transferred to Ratnagiri; he died soon after in 1894.
Max Koch's Freilicht, 1897
In 1902, a series of philosophical papers was published in
Dr. Heinrich Pudor, under the pseudonym Heinrich Scham, who coined the
term Nacktkultur. In 1906 he went on to write a three volume treatise
with his new term as its title, which discussed the benefits of nudity
in co-education and advocated participating in sports while being free
of cumbersome clothing.
Richard Ungewitter (Nacktheit, 1906,
Nackt, 1908, etc.) proposed that combining physical fitness, sunlight,
and fresh air bathing, and then adding the nudist philosophy,
contributed to mental and psychological fitness, good health, and an
improved moral-life view. Major promoters of these ideas included
Adolf Koch and Hans Suren.
Germany published the first journal of
nudism between 1902 and 1932.
The wide publication of those papers and others, contributed to an
explosive worldwide growth of nudism, in which nudists participated in
various social, recreational, and physical fitness activities in the
nude. The first organized club for nudists on a large scale,
Freilichtpark (Free-Light Park), was opened near
Hamburg in 1903 by
Paul Zimmerman. In 1919, German doctor Kurt Huldschinsky
discovered that exposure to sunlight helped to cure rickets in many
children, causing sunlight to be associated with improved health.
France in the early 20th century, the brothers Gaston and André
Durville, both of them physicians, studied the effects of psychology,
nutrition, and environment on health and healing. They became
convinced of the importance of natural foods and the natural
environment on human well-being and health. They named this concept
French: naturisme. The profound effect of clean air and sunlight on
human bodies became evident to them and so nudity became a part of
Naturism became a more widespread phenomenon in the 1920s, in Germany,
the United Kingdom,
France and other European countries and spread to
United States where it became established in the 1930s.
By 1951, the national federations united to form the International
Naturist Federation or INF. Some naturists preferred not to join
clubs, and after 1945, pressure was put to designate beaches for
naturist use. From the middle of the 20th century, with changing
leisure patterns, commercial organisations began opening holiday
resorts to attract naturists who expected the same – or
better – standards of comfort and amenity offered to
non-naturists. More recently, naturist holiday options have expanded
to include cruises.
Naturism had many different philosophical sources and means many
things to different people. There is no one definition. In 1974,
the INF defined naturism as:
a way of life in harmony with nature characterised by the practice of
social nudity with the intention of encouraging self-respect, respect
for others and for the environment.
At one end of the spectrum are the nudists who just enjoy a nude life
style, and at the other are the naturists, who have deeply held
beliefs and see communal nudity as just one of many important
The naturist philosophy has several sources, many of which can be
traced back to early 20th century health and fitness philosophies in
Germany and England, although the concepts of returning to nature and
creating equality have much deeper roots.
Gymnosophy and religious nakedness
Gymnosophist and American Gymnosophical Association
In the 4th century BC,
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great encountered, in India,
wandering groups of naked holy men whom he dubbed the naked
philosophers. (Gr gymnos: naked; sophist: knowledge). The philosopher
Onesicritus investigated their beliefs and lifestyle.
Sceptic was impressed and incorporated nudity into his philosophy. The
Gymnosophists were Hindus, but
Ajivika monks practiced nudity
as a statement that they had given up all worldly goods.
not a new concept to the Greeks as the
Olympic Games (founded in 776
BC) were exclusively male and nude events. Gymnastics and gymnasium
share the same root word (Gr gymnos).
Historically, the Adamites, a
Gnostic sect, practiced religious
nudism. Another religious sect, the Doukhobors, migrated from Russia
to western Canada. They practice or practiced occasional nudity, such
as while working in the farm fields. Members of one of the three
subdivisions of Canadian Doukhobors, the small radical Sons of Freedom
group, went so far in the 1900s as to publicly strip in mass public
demonstrations to protest against government policies which were meant
to assimilate them. Today,
Christian naturism contains various
members associated with most denominations. Although beliefs vary, a
common theme is that much of Christianity has misinterpreted the
events regarding the Garden of Eden, and God was displeased with Adam
and Eve for covering their bodies with fig leaves.
The first English naturists adopted the name
Gymnosophy as a thinly
disguised euphemism for their pastime. The English Gymnosophical
Society was formed in 1922 and became the
New Gymnosophy Society
New Gymnosophy Society in
1926; they purchased land at 'Bricketts Wood' to become Britain's
first nudist colony. One of the first members was Gerald Gardner, who
in 1945 established the 'Five Acres Club' nearby, ostensibly as a
nudist club, but as a front for Wiccans, as witchcraft was illegal in
England until 1951.
The Digambar, one of the two main divisions of the
Jain religion of
India, remain skyclad, or naked, though generally it is practiced by
Digambar means 'clothed with the sky'. Wiccans
have adopted this wording and some practice their rituals skyclad.
Elton Raymond Shaw was a
Methodist churchman and publisher who wrote
on the Body Taboo.
Heinrich Pudor wrote on methods to improve social hygiene in his book
Nackende Menschen und Jauchzen der Zukunft (Naked people and the
future of Mankind) and then Nacktkultur (Nude Culture). It prescribes
an austere lifestyle and nudity.0
Paul Zimmermann opened the Freilicht Park in Lübeck which was open to
those who subscribed to Nacktkultur principles.
Richard Ungewitter wrote Die Nacktheit (Nakedness) which sold 90,000
copies, prescribed a similar Utopian lifestyle, where everyone would
be nude, eat only vegetables and abstain from alcohol and tobacco. In
his Utopia, everyone was to be Germanic with blue eyes and blonde
Adolf Koch, a left-wing primary-school teacher, sought to use social
nudity to free the people from 'authority fixated conditioning which
held proletarians in deference of their masters: parental authority,
paternalism of the church, the mass media and organs of law and order.
He used Organic-Rhythmic exercises in
Berlin schools in the 1920s. In
1932 there were about 100,000 Germans involved with Naturism, of which
70,000 were in Koch's Körperschülen schools.
Hans Surén taught nude gymnastics to soldiers for five years, and on
being forced to leave the army, he wrote in 1924, Mensch und die Sonne
(Men and the Sun) which ran to 61 reprints. Later, in 1936, Surén
proposed physical exercise and naturism as a means of creating a pure
German race and of beauty. In the early 1940s he was out of favour and
arrested. By 1945, he had turned full circle and was writing religious
texts. Though never a member of any FKK club he was awarded honorary
membership of the DFK in 1952.
Werner Zimmermann was Swiss. He promoted Progressive education,
Physical education to eliminate body guilt and to
encourage openness that would lift the repression of the human spirit,
which he saw as the cause of sexual deviation. The basic position was
that the human body, in and of itself, was neither sinful nor obscene.
This was adopted into the emerging philosophy that created the modern
Western nudist movement.
Family in Praia do Abricó, Brazil
Individuals have formed naturist groups for a variety of specific
purposes. It is generally agreed by naturist organisations that
eroticism and blatant sexuality have no place in naturism and are, in
fact, antithetical to its ideals. Reasons that have at times been
Ecological or environmental — rapport with the natural world.
Health — bathing in the sun, fresh air and water
(balneotherapy, thalassotherapy, heliotherapy). Sun is a form of
Naturism has at times been associated with claims made
for moderation with alcohol, meat, tobacco, drugs; leading to a
teetotal, vegetarian or vegan lifestyle.
Psychologically — rapport with other humans including equality and
respect. Being nude in groups makes all feel more accepted –
physically, intellectually and emotionally.
Spirituality — nudity, well being and direct contact to nature
helps feel closer to the Creator.
Pedagogy — children should be respected as equals instead of
being patronised
Equality — clothes build social barriers. Social nudity leads
to acceptance in spite of differences in age, body shape, fitness, and
Liberty — no one has the right to tell others or their children
that they must wear clothes.
Naturism and the romantics
Walt Whitman American writer, A Sun-bathed Nakedness:
Never before did I get so close to Nature; never before did she come
so close to me...
Nature was naked, and I was also... Sweet, sane,
still Nakedness in Nature! - ah if poor, sick, prurient humanity in
cities might really know you once more! Is not nakedness indecent? No,
not inherently. It is your thought, your sophistication, your fear,
your respectability, that is indecent. There come moods when these
clothes of ours are not only too irksome to wear, but are themselves
Henry David Thoreau, In wildness is the preservation of the world.,
We cannot adequately appreciate this aspect of nature if we approach
it with any taint of human pretense. It will elude us if we allow
artifacts like clothing to intervene between ourselves and this Other.
To apprehend it, we cannot be naked enough.
Naturism was part of a literary movement in the late 1800s (see the
writings of André Gide) which also influenced the art movements of
the time specifically
Henri Matisse and other Fauve painters. This
movement was based on the French concept of joie de vivre, the idea of
reveling freely in physical sensations and direct experiences and a
spontaneous approach to life.
Naturism for health
Sunlight has been shown to be beneficial in some skin conditions and
enables the body to make vitamin D, but with the increased
awareness of skin cancer, wearing of sunscreen is now part of the
culture. Sun exposure prompts the body to produce nitric oxide
that helps support the cardiovascular system and the feelgood
There are also documented psychological benefits of naturist
activities including greater life satisfaction, more positive body
image, and higher self-esteem.
World Naked Bike Ride
WNBR passing Holborn underground station 11 June 2016
World Naked Bike Ride
World Naked Bike Ride (WNBR) is an international clothing-optional
bike ride and exercise in public nudity, that has developed outside
the organised naturism movement. Participants plan, meet and ride
together en masse on human-powered transport (the vast majority on
bicycles, but some on skateboards and inline skates), to "deliver a
vision of a cleaner, safer, body-positive world." The WNBR shares
some aspects of the philosophy of naturism in that it promotes a
return to healthy exercise in unpolluted air at the same time
promoting positive body image.
In 1999, the
Federation of Canadian Naturists commissioned a national
survey on Canadian attitudes towards nudity which found that 8.9%
of Canadian have visited or would visit a naturist facility. A further
11.6% have gone or would go skinny dipping in mixed company; that 39%
go naked in their own homes; that naturists tend to have above average
incomes; that urban dwellers are more likely to be naturist than
country dwellers; and that the under 25s are the most likely to be
In 1983, the Naturist Society in the
United States sponsored a Gallup
poll, which was repeated in 2000, which found the following:
USA: 1983/2000 Gallup poll
Do you believe that people who enjoy nude sunbathing should be able to
do so without interference from officials as long as they do so at a
beach that is accepted for that purpose?
Local and state governments now set aside public land for special
types of recreation such as snowmobiling, surfing and hunting. Do you
think special and secluded areas should be set aside for people who
enjoy nude sunbathing?
Have you, personally, ever gone "skinny dipping" or nude sunbathing in
a mixed group of men and women at a beach, at a pool, or somewhere
In 2005 the British CCBN commissioned a survey of members, which
found that, among British people:
How we (British people) discovered naturism:
Beach in UK
Ever been member of a club?
Do you use UK naturist beaches?
If you use a naturist holiday facility abroad:
Bed and Breakfast
Main article: List of social nudity places in Europe
In Finnish culture, nudism is considered to be a relatively normal way
to live. It is not uncommon to see entire families spending time
together naked. Families may be naked while bathing in a sauna,
swimming in a pool, or playing on a beach, and it's not unusual to see
children playing naked in a kindergarten or family yard for example.
Nudity as a whole is considered less taboo than many other
Naturism in France
In 1903 la
Revue des deux mondes
Revue des deux mondes published a report on German naturism
and S. Gay created a naturist community at Bois-Fourgon. In 1907,
supported by his superiors, Abbé Legrée encouraged the students at
his Catholic college to bathe nude on the rocky beaches near
Cap d'Agde mentioning that it is obligatory to be nude at this
Marcel Kienné de Mongeot is credited with starting naturism in France
in 1920. His family had suffered from tuberculosis, and he saw
naturism as a cure and a continuation of the traditions of the ancient
Greeks. In 1926, he started the magazine Vivre intégralement (later
called Vivre) and the first French naturist club, Sparta Club at
Garambouville, near Evreux. The court action that he initiated,
established that nudism was legal on private property that was fenced
Randonue in Les Concluses, Gard, 2008
Drs. André and
Gaston Durville bought a 70 hectare site on the Île
du Levant where they established the village of Héliopolis. The
village was open to the public. In 1925 Dr François Fougerat de David
de Lastours wrote a thesis on heliotherapy. and in that year opened
the Club gymnique de France. In 1936, the naturist movement was
Albert and Christine Lecocq were active members of many of these
clubs, but after disagreements left and In 1944 Albert and Christine
Lecocq founded the Club du Soleil with members in 84 cities. In 1948
they founded the FFN, in 1949 they started the magazine, Vie au Soleil
and in 1950 opened the CHM Montalivet, the world's first naturist
holiday centre where the INF was formed.
The naturist village
Cap d'Agde offers a different form of
social nudity. Euronat is the largest holiday centre (335ha) situated
10 km north of Montalivet.
Naturism employs more than 3000
people, and is estimated to be worth 250 million Euro to the French
France is represented on the INF by the FFN.
Naturism in Germany
See also: Freikörperkultur
German naturism was part of the
Lebensreform movement and the
Wandervogel youth movement of 1896, from Steglitz,
promoted ideas of fitness and vigour. At the same time doctors of the
Natural Healing Movement were using heliotherapy, treating diseases
such as TB, rheumatism and scrofula with exposure to sunlight.
Nude beach on the Unterbacher See, near Düsseldorf, Germany
Nacktkultur, a term coined in 1903 by Heinrich Pudor, flourished.
Nacktkultur connected nudity, vegetarianism and social reform. It was
practised in a network of 200 members clubs. The movement gained
prominence in the 1920s as offering a health giving life-style with
Germany published the first naturist journal between
1902 and 1932. It became politicised by radical socialists who
believed it would lead to classlessness and a breaking down of
society. It became associated with pacificism.
Adolf Koch established a school of naturism in Berlin;
encouraging a mixing of the sexes, open air exercises, and a programme
of "sexual hygiene". In 1929, the
Berlin school hosted the first
International Congress on Nudity.
Young East German women at a naturist beach in 1988
During the National Socialist
Gleichschaltung era, all naturist clubs
had to register with the Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, which meant
excluding Jews and Communists. Also, they had to keep all activities
hidden in the countryside where there was little chance of being seen
by others. The status as a West German sports federation member gave
the clubs rights and privileges (e.g. tax exemptions) so the naturist
clubs remained in the federation after the war had ended.
After the war, East Germans were free to practice naturism, chiefly at
beaches rather than clubs (private organizations being regarded as
Naturism became a large element in DDR
politics. The Proletarische Freikörperkulturbewegung subsection of
the Workers Sports Organisation had 60,000 members. Today,
following reunification there are many clubs, parks and beaches open
to naturists. though nudity has become less common in the former
eastern zone. Germans are typically the most commonly seen
foreigners at nude beaches in
France and around Europe.
Public nudity is prohibited in
Greece and there are no official nude
beaches. There are, however, numerous unofficial nude beaches
especially on the islands frequented by tourists, like Crete,
Karpathos but also on smaller islands like
Skiathos where nudity is tolerated, usually at the more remote
ends or secluded areas of beaches.
Public nudity is prohibited in
Italy and can be punished with high
fines, but in the recent decade, a few regions have created
naturism laws to help the tourism
industry.[better source needed] There are only a few
permitted nude beaches in those regions, where nudity is allowed
without risking legal consequences. On all other public beaches in
Italy as well as normally tolerated nude beaches, police can
potentially impose substantial fines.
First reported naturist society was established in 1897 in Grudziądz.
In pre-war and post-war Poland, naturism was practised in closed and
secluded areas. Reported places for naturism were
today's Ukraine) and Otwock. Under the communism regime, Poland's
naturism became unofficial and was practiced mostly by the artistic
boheme near Krynica Morska,
Misdroy and Dębki.
In the early 1980s naturism became popular mostly due to increased
interest in media. As the pop song "
Chałupy Welcome To" (about the
naturist beach in Chałupy, featuring beach nudity in the clip) became
the 1985 summer hit in Poland, the nude seaside locations like
Chałupy or Rowy became known to an average Polish sunbather. Polish
Naturist Society was formed and after the number of lawsuits, naturism
became tolerated in selected "unofficial" beaches and distant spots.
Nude men at the Przystanek
Woodstock festival, 2014
Poland naturism is practiced in number of the seaside and
inland beaches. Most Polish beaches are actually clothes-optional
rather than naturist. Among the most popular locations are
Misdroy-Lubiewo, Grzybowo, Rowy, Dębki, Gdańsk-Stogi and Piaski. The
most popular inland locations include
Warsaw (Wał Miedzeszyński),
Kazimierz Dolny and Kryspinów near Kraków. In the winter season,
naturism is practiced by organized groups in
Warsaw and Tri-City.
Public naturist events are held bi-monthly in Poznań-Koziegłowy and
Łódź waterpark.
Naturism in Portugal
Naturism in Portugal had its first historical record around 1920,
linked to the Portuguese Naturist Society, of which the
anarcho-syndicalist José Peralta was a prominent member.
already being practiced on
Costa da Caparica
Costa da Caparica beaches. With the
beginning of the New State authoritarian regime in the 1930s, the
naturist movement was limited to vegetarian and alternative medicines,
since nudity was banned and associated to the crime of "indecency".
Only after the end of the New State regime in 1974 (April, 25th) the
activities linked to the practice of nudity were resumed.
The Federação Portuguesa de Naturismo (Portuguese Naturist
Federation) or FPN was founded on the March 1st, 1977, at a meeting in
At the present, there are seven official naturist beaches in Portugal.
Besides these, there are several dozens of beaches were the practice
of naturism is common. There are also several naturist campings and
Beginnings of naturism in Slovenia started in the year 1852, when a 29
year old Swiss physician
Arnold Rikli visited
Bled for the first time.
In the following years he started to promote healthy way of living,
because he considered water, air and light to be the source for
his healing therapy. He continued to build spa centers which included
light therapy and hydrotherapy treatment. His first visitors were
most likely pilgrims from Slovenia and
Friuli-Venezia Giulia region
who visited the church on
Bled island. When the word has spread across
Europe, other visitors started visiting
Bled known for Rikli's healing
therapy. A method used in the healing therapy process included
sunbathing and visitors were often seen walking nude in public. Rikli
continued to promote his healing tourism for the next 52 years, when
he lived in Bled.
Nudist man and textile woman on a beach in Spain.
Public nudity in Spain is not illegal since there is no law banning
its practice. Spanish legislation foresees felony for exhibitionism
but restricts its scope to obscene exposure in front of children or
mentally impaired individuals, i.e. with sexual connotation.
However, people do not normally use this right to be naked to do it
anywhere, and most usually perform this activity in places where
nudism is a tradition.
There are however some municipalities (like San Pedro del Pinatar)
where public nudity has been regulated (banned) by means of byelaws.
Other municipalities (like Barcelona, Salou, Platja de Palma and Sant
Antoni de Portmany) have also used these provisions to regulate the
practice of semi-nudism, forcing people to cover their torso on the
streets. Some naturist associations have appealed these byelaws on the
grounds that a fundamental right (freedom of expression, as they
understand that nudism is a way of self-expression) cannot be
regulated with this mechanism. Some judicial instances have ruled in
favour of nudist associations.
Nudism in Spain is normally practised by the seaside, on beaches or
small coves with a tradition on naturism. In Vera (Andalusia), there
is a wide residential area formed by nudist urbanisations that
constitute some kind of nudist town.
Nudist organisations may organise
some activities elsewhere in inner territory (like hiking on the
mountains close to Madrid), but these kind of activities are
negligible. Madrid municipality enables nudist use of some of their
public swimming pools one day during summer.
Textile use of traditionally nudist public spaces (like beaches or
streets nearby) is allowed, mainly due to lack of regulation. Mixed
groups of nudist and textile individuals are frequent in these kind of
spaces. In order to chase voyeuristic persons away, nudist people will
normally clap their hands.
Legal aspects regarding topless are analogue to those regarding
nudism, but social tolerance towards topless is higher. This let
people not cover their breasts in public swimming pools and on any
beach in Spain.
Main article: British Naturism
Duke's Mound, Brighton. The naturist section of the beach is protected
by an artificial bank of shingle
Enjoying the sun on Pedn Vounder naturist beach, Cornwall
In the United Kingdom, the first official nudist club was established
Essex in 1924. According to Michael Farrar, writing for
British Naturism the club adopted the name "Moonella Group" from the
name of the owner of the ground, Moonella, and called its site The
Camp. Moonella, who was still living in 1965 but whose identity
remains to be discovered, had inherited a house with land in 1923 and
made it available to certain members of the New
This society had been founded a few years before by H.C. Booth, M.H.
Sorensen and Rex Wellbye under the name of the English Gymnosophical
Society. It met for discussions at the Minerva Cafe at 144 High
Holborn in London, the headquarters of the Women's Freedom League.
Those who were permitted to join the Moonella Group were carefully
selected, and the club was run by an "aristocracy" of the original
members, all of whom had "club names" to preserve their anonymity. The
club closed in 1926 because of building on adjacent land.
By 1943 there were a number of these so-called "sun clubs" and
together they formed the
British Sun Bathers Association
British Sun Bathers Association or BSBA. In
1954 a group of clubs unhappy with the way the BSBA was being run
split off to form the Federation of British Sun Clubs or FBSC. In
1961, the BSBA Annual Conference agreed that the term nudist was
inappropriate and should be discarded in favour of naturist. The
two organisations rivalled each other before eventually coming
together again in 1964 as the Central Council for
British Naturism or
CCBN. This organisation structure has remained much the same but it is
British Naturism which is often abbreviated to BN. BN
is currently[when?] converting to a company limited by guarantee.
The first official nude beach was opened at
Fairlight Glen in
Covehurst Bay near
Hastings in 1978 (not to be confused with Fairlight
Cove, which is 2 km to the east) followed later by the beaches at
Brighton and Fraisthorpe.
Bridlington opened in April 1980.
In North America
In Canada, individuals around the country became interested in nudism,
skinny-dipping, and physical culture in the early part of the 20th
century. After 1940 they had their own Canadian magazine, Sunbathing
& Health, which occasionally carried local news. Canadians had
scattered groups in several cities during the 1930s and 1940s, and
some of these groups attracted enough interest to form clubs on
private land. The most significant clubs were the Van Tan Club,
formed in 1939, and continues today in North Vancouver, BC., and,
in Ontario, the Sun Air Club.
Canadians who served in the military during the Second World War met
like-minded souls from across the country, and often visited clubs
while in Europe. They were a ready pool of recruits for post-war
organizers. A few years later, the wave of post-war immigration
brought many Europeans with their own extensive experience, and they
not only swelled the ranks of membership, but often formed their own
clubs, helping to expand nudism from coast to coast.
Most of those clubs united in the Canadian
which affiliated with the American
Sunbathing Association in 1954.
Several disagreements between eastern and western members of the CSA
resulted in the breakup of CSA into the Western Canadian Sunbathing
Association (WCSA) and the Eastern Canadian
(ECSA) in 1960. The ECSA endured much in-fighting over the next decade
and a half, leading to its official demise in 1978. The WCSA continues
today as the American Association for Nude Recreation – Western
Canadian Region (www.aanr-wc.com), a region of the American
Association for Nude Recreation (AANR) which itself was formerly known
as the ASA.
In 1977 the Fédération québécoise de naturisme (FQN) was founded
in Quebec, by Michel Vaïs, who had experienced European naturism at
Montalivet. In 1985 the
Federation of Canadian Naturists (FCN) was
formed with the support of the FQN. In 1988 the FQN and FCN formed the
FQN-FCN Union as the official Canadian representative in the
International Naturist Federation
International Naturist Federation (INF).
A group of naturists at Haulover Park, USA
American Association for Nude Recreation
American Association for Nude Recreation and List of social
nudity places in the United States
In 1925, Katherine and Herman Shoshinki were familiar with nudism from
Germany from 1918 to 1923.
Kurt Barthel founded the American League
Culture in 1929 and organized the first nudist event. In
about 1930 they organized the American Gymnosophical Association.
Barthel founded America's first official nudist camp, Sky Farm in New
Jersey, in May, 1932. Around 1932, AGA established the Rock Lodge
Club as a nudist facility in Stockholm,
New Jersey and Ilsley Boone, a
Dutch Reformed minister, formed the
Christian naturism movement.
Naturism began expanding nationwide. Nudism venues
were teetotal until 1970,
American Association for Nude Recreation
American Association for Nude Recreation (AANR) is the national
Arnd Krüger compared nudists in
United States and came to the conclusion that in
racial aspects (Zuchtwahl) were important for the breakthrough (e.g.
the Commanding General of the Army served as patron for nudists
events), while in the U.S. nudism was far more commercial and had thus
more difficulties. The AANR withdrew from the INF in
2010.[clarification needed]
In 2008, a young adults group organized as Florida Young Naturists
held their first Naked Bash which has since been repeated 3-4 times a
year, growing into one of the largest young naturist gatherings in the
In 2009, a campaign to promote Nudism in the
United States occurred
with an effort by AANR to record the largest simultaneous Skinny Dip
at several U.S. Clubs and beaches, occurring on July 11 of that
In 2010, A new organization formed called Young Naturists and Nudists
America which was mostly focused around the younger generation as well
as social issues, such as body image. Young Naturists and Nudists
America closed in 2017.
In 2014, an organization called Unconstitutional
Arkansas was created
to highlight the unconstitutionality of laws that prohibit or impede
nudism. The organization uses
Arkansas law § 5-68-204 as a case
study, but claims all anti-nudism laws infringe the constitutional
right to assemble.
Banner announcing 2016 legalization of nudity at Playa Zipolite
Beach nudity in
Playa Zipolite is legal. Elsewhere, Mexican law
condemns only "immorality" and thus the issue ends up being a matter
of the judge's criteria. Private libertine/lifestyle type resorts
exist in Mexico that might not be characterized as Naturist. (see List
of social nudity places in North America#Mexico)
Oaxaca As of 2016,
Playa Zipolite is Mexico's first and only
legal public nude beach. A "free beach" and unofficially nudist
for more than 30 years, this beach is reputed to be the best place for
nudism in the country. The numerous nudists, and the long tradition,
make it safe for nudism and naturism. Annually since 2016, on the
first weekend of February,
Zipolite has hosted Festival Nudista
Zipolite organized by the Federación Nudista de México.
Hotel Nude is Zipolite's first nude-optional resort/hotel.
Generally, public nudity in Asia is not tolerated. However, some
traditional, religious or cultural nudity has survived the
introduction of Western moral values against nudity, such as the Jain
Digambara monks in India, hot springs in Taiwan and Japan, and some
traditional tribes in Papua. Nudism and naked recreation is slowly
developing in some countries, mainly Indonesia (Bali) and Thailand.
Nudists meet on the internet (e.g. Bareskinasia.com) and organize
activities in remote or private locations. Several nudists also have
their own blogs.
In the seventies, nudity on Bali's remote and deserted beaches was
common but with the massive growth of tourism, this practice has
disappeared. In 2002, nudity was declared illegal on Petitenget Beach,
the last beach in
Seminyak that tolerated discreet nudity. Individuals
began to practice nudity in private villas and resorts. Laki Uma
Villa, the first naturist facility to open, was for gay men only. Bali
au Naturel, the first adult-only nudist resort for both genders,
opened its doors in 2004. It subsequently expanded from 3 to 15 rooms
and added from two more swimming pools.
Nudism is considered taboo in Nepal. Although there are no laws
governing nudism, people may be detained, arrested and fined for
public nudity. Nevertheless, many
Hindu male sages practice nudism and
they are not legally detained.
Nudist sages can be seen in
Nudism has been successfully introduced in
Pattaya (Chan Resort and
more recently La Sala Villa), and several other small nudist resorts
have been created all over Thailand. A gay hotel and sauna (Sansuk
Hotel) located in
Pattaya now also authorizes nudity in and around the
Issues in social nudity
Main article: Issues in social nudity
Naturism addresses, challenges and explores a myriad of sometimes
taboo subjects: stereotypes and mores relating to the nude appearance
of the human body, mixed sex nudity, personal space, human sexuality,
gymnophobia, modesty, physical attractiveness, vanity,
objectification, exploitation and consent. It can thus be
controversial. Descamps assembled a list of criticisms of naturism: it
is too cold; normal bodies look ugly—it is only for the physically
beautiful; it is too embarrassing; it is against the laws of nature,
against the law, or against religion; "nudism makes me think of sex";
it is for primitive people or animals.
Naturism can sometimes contain aspects of eroticism, although the
debate about this is often simplified and seen negatively in the media
and the public mind and by many modern naturists and naturist
organisations. Historically the experience and discussion of erotic
feelings during naturist activities such as dance and gymnastics
played an important part in early Germanic naturism and formed part of
its 'positive' connection with nature. However, it was when naturism
arrived in the more sexually conservative cultures of the UK and the
United States that the expression and discussion of eroticism within
naturism became frowned upon.
the main reason younger people are not becoming naturists is the
inability of modern naturism to engage with the issue of sexuality.
While it is true that "naturism became popular in Germany...as a
healthy outdoor lifestyle", this lifestyle also included a recognition
that, socially, nudity could sometimes be erotic. It was only when
naturism arrived in a more sexually conservative Britain that sexual
feelings were censored out to make naturism culturally acceptable.
This statement is in response to the quote "The world of naturism is
in trouble. Membership is falling, and fewer young people than ever
are getting involved. Has the great nude adventure run its course?
Smith and King pose the further points in their 2009 peer reviewed
Naturism and Sexuality:broadening our approach to sexual
Issues for the naturist community
Many countries and states have laws which adversely affect naturists.
Oftentimes, these laws are intended to address "indecent exposure",
but are so broadly written that they criminalize ordinary, non-sexual
nudity. Some laws, however, specifically target naturism. For example,
Arkansas in the United States, not only is nudism illegal (even on
private property), it is a crime to "promote" or "advocate" (i.e.
express a favourable opinion about) nudism.
Any social group is said to go through four phases: forming, storming,
norming, performing, wrote
Bruce Tuckman in 1965. In this context one
can understand some of the current pressures on various aspects of
Naturist club isolation: established clubs excluding new members and
rejecting new ideas.
A family movement in a time of social change: a change in needs and
expectations, away from one of a permanent commitment towards one of
change and choice.
Multi-gen preferences: each generation is a specific social group
which needs to have its own norms that are consistent with common
Clubs vs. holiday centres: organizations with different roots find it
difficult to establish common rules. The contention between those
espousing a year-round commitment to an ideal, and those who see it as
summer-only recreation. Club naturism is declining, while the number
of people that assume naturist facilities will be available at any
holiday resort is rising. The number of users of free beaches may
exceed the number of people who wish to join a club.
Paid staff and volunteers: many clubs were established as
cooperatives, but the values change when a few members put in the
capital or work needed. This became more difficult when some
members were paid to act as site managers.
Infiltration by other groups: for many years clubs had strict "No
singles" policies to maintain the family nature of the club. Many
other social groups practice non-family nudism, whether it be social
singles, gay naturists or swingers.
Exhibitionists and voyeurs: as unwelcome in a naturist community as in
a clothed community.
Risk of being filmed in nude without permission, such as at nude
beach. Such photos and videos can then be put on internet.
Sunburn and skin cancer.
Large numbers of clothed people visit clothing optional and nudist
beaches and make the naturists feel uncomfortable, "like they've
become a spectacle".
An issue, a decade ago in naturist resorts like
Cap d'Agde has been
the clash between "fundamentalist" naturists and the échangistes who
are sexually open on the naturist beaches and bars.
Magazines published by, for or purportedly about naturists can be
Magazines published by an "official" national organisation, such as BN
(British Naturism), Going Natural/Au naturel (FCN/FQN), Nude &
Natural Magazine TNS, gonatural (New Zealand Naturist Federation).
Independent magazines published for naturists, such as Naturally,
H&E naturist and TAN (acronym of The Australian Naturist).
Magazines that print photographs only or primarily of young female
professional models, which are disapproved of by many naturists and
Magazines in the second and, occasionally, third grouping feature
naturist editorial and advertising, while some naturists argue over
which magazines belonged in which of these categories – these
views may change as publishers and editors change. Many clubs and
groups have benefitted from magazines which, while not exclusively or
even predominantly naturist in character, made naturist information
available to many who would not otherwise have been aware of it.
(These days, the information and advertising provided online, and the
wide availability of free online porn, has meant the disappearance of
old-style 'skin' magazines presenting significant glamour content
masquerading as or alongside naturist content. Naturist magazines have
to appeal strongly to naturists to succeed – they cannot sit on
the fence between naturism and glamour.) Some naturists still feel
that the worthwhile editorial content in some magazines is not a fair
balance for the disapproved-of photographic content.
Photography, films and videos
Some naturist clubs have been willing to allow filming by the media on
their grounds, though content that proved not to be of genuine
naturism can end up being parodied by the media as the norm.
Some commercial 'naturist' DVDs are dominated by imagery of naked
children. Such material can be marketed in ways that appear to appeal
directly to paedophile inclinations, and ownership of these DVDs (and
their earlier video cassette incarnations) has resulted in successful
British prosecutions for possession of indecent images of
children. One case was appealed, unsuccessfully, to the
European Court of Human Rights. The precedents set by the court
cases mean that possession in Britain of any naturist image of a child
is, potentially, grounds for prosecution.
Photo shoots, including major high-profile works by Spencer Tunick,
are done on public places including beaches.[i]
Breastfeeding in public
Clothing-optional bike ride
Clothes free organizations
List of places where social nudity is practised
Timeline of non-sexual social nudity
Young Naturists America
Streaking at educational institutions
^ The Hannover based Bund für freies Lebensgestaltung wrote "Naturism
is a new lifestyle caring for the body, the soul and the spirit in
society. We live the ideal of freedom, conscious of its limits, taking
up our responsibility. The expression of our will is nudity, our
admission of sincerity.
^ In his book, Cinema Au Naturel, author
Mark Storey states "two
related terms that we will continually run across are nudist and
naturist. Although, the meanings of the two terms are virtually
identical, they often have different connotations for those who prefer
one to the other. In America people who believe that it is physically,
socially, emotionally, and perhaps spiritually healthy to go about
fully nude individually and in groups of mixed sex whenever weather
permits and others are not offended generally refer to themselves as
"nudists". In Europe such people more often than not refer to
themselves as "naturists".
^ The English version of the Agde definition was translated
differently in Guide Mondial de Naturisme 96 97.
"nudism") is a way of life in harmony with nature characterised by the
practice of communal nudity with the intention of encouraging
self-respect, respect for others and the environment.
^ Ray Connett, Sunny Trails, in
Health Sept 1947 p 8,
July 1957 p 14 writes that
Naturism is a weasel word that can mean
Mark Storey is authoring an article detailing historical
use of the terms naturism and nudism and how they differ between
different cultures, countries, and time periods in history. In a
telephone interview by Daniel Johnson on 15 April 2006 with Storey he
stated that "a draft of the piece was posted on the "References" page
The Naturist Society web site for a few weeks". At the time of its
former release in October 2004 it was titled Naturism, Nudism, or
Nameless? A History of Terms He is planning on publishing a revised
article as soon as additional information and errors are corrected.
^ The three biggest centres on the
Médoc are Euronat 335 ha, CHM 175
ha with a 3 km beach, and La Jenny 127 ha
^ "Le naturisme est la doctrine qui consiste à laisser agir la nature
plutot que d'intervenir de manière artificielle".
^ Crawford wrote a series of letters discussing his new club and its
philosophy to the socialist
Edward Carpenter between 1891 and 1892. In
his letters to Carpenter, Crawford described his daily activities.
"Calderwood and I were up at
Matheran having two days’ holiday to
spend naked from breakfast to evening [...] in June, Calderwood and I
had a grand day. We went away to a bungalow in the
Tulsi Lake without
servants and spent from dinner time Saturday till 5 pm Sunday in
The club's dress code required full nudity, with exceptions made for
accessories such as rings and glasses. Members of the club had to be
plainspoken about sexual related matters and all taboos were
consciously discarded. Carpenter suggested that a female branch should
be added to the commune, although this was not achieved.
^ Photography in public nude beaches Nudists who visit public nude
beaches may be photographed by street photographers, social
documentary photographers, photojournalists or other kinds of
photographers without the nudists' knowledge and in the United States
and most democratic countries the photographers have the law on their
side as no individual has an expectation of privacy in a public place
and photographers are not required to have the naturists' consent
before photographing them or publishing and selling the pictures or
videos. In many countries there exist private nudist areas in
which photography is not allowed and naturists who wish to not be
photographed can enjoy their activities there. However, naturists who
wish to not be photographed in public nude beaches have found various
ways to make the photographers leave the beach, such as photographing
the photographer and publishing such photos. Some nude beaches provide
fences that block the view from nearby streets.
^ a b c d Choin 2002.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Descamps 1987.
^ a b Deschênes, Stéphane (4 January 2016). "The Official INF-FNI
Definition of Naturism" (PDF). INF-FNI. International Naturist
Federation. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
^ a b c d Smith & King 2009.
^ Storey 2003, p. 11.
^ a b c Montananaturist.org.
^ Anon 1997.
^ Mars-Jones 1991, p. 152.
^ Bancroft 2003.
^ Gordon & Schroeder 1995, p. 16.
^ Bonner 2000, p. 209-.
^ Okami 1995.
^ Okami et al 1998.
^ Smith & Sparks 1986, p. 183.
^ Smith 1980.
^ a b c d e f g h i Woycke 2003.
^ Vera Playa history article, retrieved 2007-11-22
^ Schneider 2009, p. 41.
^ "For a relaxed explanation". Sunnyfun.com. Archived from the
original on 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
^ Naturist net Archived 2012-04-29 at the Wayback Machine. Scandinavia
^ "Revealed: Paris opens first nudist park but no voyeurs allowed".
The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 3
^ Ganz Muenchen article, retrieved 2007-11-27
^ "Berlin". active naturists. 2008-07-08. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
^ "Crete". active naturists. 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
^ "Barcelona". active naturists. 2012-04-20. Retrieved
Public nudity at Nambassa". Nambassa.com. Retrieved
^ Jones & Broadley 1979.
^ "Naked ambition: 5 ways to holiday in the nude". The Independent.
2016-10-05. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
^ "Gymnasium theme camp". Active Naturists. 2015-11-07. Retrieved
^ αNaturist (2016-11-28). "camp Gymnasium at
Burning Man 2016".
Active Naturists. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
^ a b "Florida Young Naturists (FYN)".
^ a b "Federación Nudista de México (FNM)".
^ "Declaration of the distinction of
Zipolite and Playa del Amor as
nudist beaches by the municipality of San Pedro Pochutla, Pochutla,
Oaxaca" (PDF). 2016-01-27.
^ "Federación Nudista de México Events (Festival Nudista
^ deGeneration X: Buck Naked Jazz on a Black Sea Beach
^ Video of
Nudist Neptune Festival 2014 in Crimea
^ McLellan, Josie (2007). "State socialist bodies: East German nudism
from ban to boom". The Journal of Modern History. 79 (1): 48–79.
^ Casler, Lawrence (1964). "Some sociopsychological observations in a
nudist camp: A preliminary study". The Journal of social psychology.
64 (2): 307–323. doi:10.1080/00224545.1964.9919569.
^ Moon, Storm. Naked In the Woods: A Guide to Spiritual Nudity. Lulu
Press, Inc, 2012.
^ "nudity as a social norm". active naturists. Retrieved
^ "naked sport events throughout history". active naturists.
2012-08-30. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
^ Planchon, Jean Baptiste Luc (1778). La naturisme, ou La nature
considérée dans les maladies & leur traitement conforme à la
doctrine & à la pratique d'Hippocrate et de ses sectateurs.
^ "World's first nudist colony was in Thane (and this man proved it)".
^ Farrar 2005.
^ a b c d Buchy 2005.
^ a b Kennedy 2013.
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