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The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國國民政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Guómín Zhèngfǔ; literally: "Chinese People's State Nation-People Government"), refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party). The name derives from the Kuomintang's translated name "Nationalist Party". The government was in place until the Government of the Republic of China
Government of the Republic of China
under the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China
Constitution of the Republic of China
was established in its place. After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
on 10 October 1911, revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was elected Provisional President and founded the Provisional Government of the Republic of China. To preserve national unity, Sun ceded the presidency to military strongman Yuan Shikai, who established the Beiyang government. After a failed attempt to install himself as Emperor of China, Yuan died in 1916, leaving a power vacuum which resulted in China being divided into several warlord fiefdoms and rival governments. They were nominally reunified in 1928 by the Nanjing-based government led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, which after the Northern Expedition, governed the country as a one-party state under the Kuomintang, and was subsequently given international recognition as the legitimate representative of China.

Republic of China (Nationalist government)

"Republic of China" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese 中華民國

Simplified Chinese 中华民国

Postal Chunghwa Minkuo

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhōnghuá mínguó

Wade–Giles Chung1-hua2 min2-kuo2

IPA [ʈʂʊ́ŋxwǎ mǐn.kwǒ]

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Jūng-wàah màhn-gwok

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Tiong-hoâ Bîn-kok

Tâi-lô Tiong-huâ bîn-kok

Contents

1 History

1.1 Founding 1.2 Nanjing
Nanjing
Decade and War with Japan 1.3 Post-World War II

2 Government

2.1 Human Rights violations

3 Military 4 Economy 5 Former Sites 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Sources

History[edit] Main article: History of the Republic of China The oldest surviving republic in East Asia, the Republic of China was formally established on 1 January 1912 in mainland China following the Xinhai Revolution, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911, replacing the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism (1915–28), Japanese invasion (1937–45), and the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(1927–49), with central authority strongest during the Nanjing
Nanjing
Decade (1927–37), when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) under an authoritarian one-party state.[1] At the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945, the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
surrendered control of Taiwan
Taiwan
and its island groups to the Allied Forces, and Taiwan
Taiwan
was placed under the Republic of China's administrative control. The legitimacy of this transfer is disputed and is another aspect of the disputed political status of Taiwan. After World War II, the civil war between the ruling Kuomintang
Kuomintang
and the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
resumed, despite attempts at mediation by the United States. The Nationalist Government began drafting the Constitution of the Republic of China
Constitution of the Republic of China
under a National Assembly, but was boycotted by the communists. With the promulgation of the constitution, the Nationalist Government abolished itself and was replaced by the Government of the Republic of China. Following their loss of the Civil War, the Nationalist Government retreated moved their capital to Taiwan
Taiwan
while claiming that they were the legitimate government of the mainland. Founding[edit] Main article: Northern Expedition After Sun's death on 12 March 1925, four months later on 1 July 1925, the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China
Government of the Republic of China
was established in Guangzhou. The following year, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
became the de facto leader of the KMT. Chiang led the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
through China with the intention of defeating the warlords and unifying the country. Chiang received the help of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Chinese Communists; however, he soon dismissed his Soviet advisors. He was convinced, not without reason, that they wanted to get rid of the KMT (also known as the Nationalists) and take over.[2] Chiang decided to strike first and purged the Communists, killing thousands of them. At the same time, other violent conflicts took place in the south of China where the Communists fielded superior numbers and were massacring Nationalist supporters. These events eventually led to the Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists. Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
pushed the Communists into the interior as he sought to destroy them, and moved the Nationalist Government to Nanjing
Nanjing
in 1927.[3] Leftists within the KMT still allied to the communists had established a rival Nationalist Government in Wuhan
Wuhan
two months earlier, but soon joined Chiang in Nanjing
Nanjing
in August 1927. By the following year, Chiang's army had captured Beijing
Beijing
after overthrowing the Beiyang government
Beiyang government
and unified the entire nation, at least nominally, marking the beginning the Nanjing
Nanjing
Decade. Nanjing
Nanjing
Decade and War with Japan[edit]

Organisational chart of the KMT regime (1934).

Further information: Nanjing
Nanjing
decade and Second Sino-Japanese War According to Sun Yat-sen's "Three Stages of Revolution" theory, the KMT was to rebuild China in three phases: the first stage was military unification, which was carried out with the Northern Expedition; the second was "political tutelage" which was a provisional government led by the KMT to educate people about their political and civil rights, and the third stage was constitutional government.[4] By 1928, the Nationalists, having taken over power militarily and reunified China, started the second phase, promulgating a provisional constitution and beginning the period of so-called "tutelage".[5] The KMT was criticized as instituting totalitarianism, but claimed it was attempting to establish a modern democratic society. Among others, they created at that time the Academia Sinica, the Central Bank of China, and other agencies. In 1932, China sent a team for the first time to the Olympic Games. Historians, such as Edmund Fung, argue that establishing a democracy in China at that time was not possible. The nation was at war and divided between Communists and Nationalists. Corruption within the government and lack of direction also prevented any significant reform from taking place. Chiang realized the lack of real work being done within his administration and told the State Council: "Our organization becomes worse and worse ... many staff members just sit at their desks and gaze into space, others read newspapers and still others sleep."[6] The Nationalist government wrote a draft of the constitution on 5 May 1936.[7] Mass killing under the nationalists were common with millions of people killed. Notable mass killings include deaths from forced army conscription and the White Terror.[8] The Nationalists faced a new challenge with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, with hostilities continuing through the Second Sino-Japanese War, part of World War II, from 1937 to 1945. The government of the Republic of China retreated from Nanjing
Nanjing
to Chongqing. In 1945, after the war of eight years, Japan
Japan
surrendered and the Republic of China, under the name "China", became one of the founding members of the United Nations. The government returned to Nanjing
Nanjing
in 1946. Post-World War II[edit] Main article: Chinese Civil war After the defeat of Japan
Japan
during World War II, Taiwan
Taiwan
was surrendered to the Allies, with ROC troops accepting the surrender of the Japanese garrison. The government of the ROC proclaimed the "retrocession" of Taiwan
Taiwan
to the Republic of China and established a provincial government on the island. The military administration of the ROC extended over Taiwan, which led to widespread unrest and increasing tensions between local Taiwanese and mainlanders.[9] The shooting of a civilian on 28 February 1947 triggered an island-wide unrest, which was brutally suppressed with military force in what is now known as the February 28 Incident. Mainstream estimates of casualties range from 18,000 to 30,000, mainly Taiwanese elites.[10][11] The 28 February Incident has had far-reaching effects on subsequent Taiwan history. From 1945 to 1947, under United States
United States
mediation, especially through the Marshall Mission, the Nationalists and Communists agreed to start a series of peace talks aiming at establishing a coalition government. The two parties agreed to open multiparty talks on post-World War II political reforms via a Political Consultative Conference. This was included in the Double Tenth Agreement. This agreement was implemented by the Nationalist Government, who organized the first Political Consultative Assembly from 10–31 January 1946. Representatives of the Kuomintang, Communist Party of China, Chinese Youth Party, and China Democratic League, as well as independent delegates, attended the conference in Chongqing. However, shortly afterward, the two parties failed to reach an agreement and the civil war resumed.[12] In the context of political and military animosity, the National Assembly was summoned by the Nationalists without the participation of the Communists and promulgated the Constitution of the Republic of China. The constitution was criticized by the Communists,[13] and led to the final break between the two sides.[14] The full-scale civil war resumed from early 1947.[15] After the National Assembly election, the drafted Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly on 25 December 1946, promulgated by the National Government on 1 January 1947, and went into effect on 25 December 1947. The Constitution was seen as the third and final stage of Kuomintang
Kuomintang
reconstruction of China. Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
was also elected as the 1st President of the Republic of China
President of the Republic of China
under the constitution by the National Assembly in 1948, with Li Zongren being elected as Vice-President. The Nationalist Government was abolished on 20 May 1948, after the Government of the Republic of China
Government of the Republic of China
was established with the presidential inauguration of Chiang. The Communists, though invited to the convention that drafted it, boycotted and declared after the ratification that not only would it not recognize the ROC constitution, but all bills passed by the Nationalist administration would be disregarded as well. Zhou Enlai challenged the legitimacy of the National Assembly in 1947 by accusing KMT hand-picked the members of the National Assembly 10 years earlier and thus could not have legal representation of the Chinese people. Government[edit]

Headquarters of the National Government in Nanjing

The National Government governed under a dual-party state apparatus under the ideology of Dang Guo, effectively making it a one-party state; however, existing parties continued to operate and new ones form. After the end of the Second World War, and particularly after the passage of the constitution in 1946, the National Government was reconstituted to include multiple parties, in preparation of full democratic government to come. In February 1928, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 2nd Kuomintang National Congress held in Nanjing
Nanjing
passed the Reorganization of the National Government Act. This act stipulated the National Government was to be directed and regulated under the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, with the Committee of the Nationalist Government being elected by KMT Central Committee. Under the National Government were seven ministries – Interior, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Transport, Justice, Agriculture and Mines, Commerce in addition institutions such as the Supreme Court, Control Yuan and the General Academy. With the promulgation of the Organic Law of the National Government in October 1928, the government was reorganized into five different branches or Yuan, namely the Executive Yuan, Legislative Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Examination Yuan
Examination Yuan
as well as the Control Yuan. The Chairman of the National Government was to be the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army. Chiang Kai-shek was appointed as the first Chairman of the National Government, a position he would retain until 1931. The Organic Law also stipulated that the Kuomintang, through its National Congress and Central Executive Committee, would exercise sovereign power during the period of political tutelage, and the KMT's Political Council would guide and superintend the National Government in the execution of important national affairs, and that the council has the power to interpret or amend the organic law.[16] Human Rights violations[edit]

KMT troops rounding up Communist prisoners.

The Nationalist government
Nationalist government
of China has been accused of mass killings, as Rudolph Rummel
Rudolph Rummel
estimates the Nationalist government
Nationalist government
of China is responsible for between 6 and 18.5 million deaths He attributes this death toll to a few major causes for example:[8]

1 million Chinese civilians starved or killed in order to fend off communist advance Hundreds of thousands peasants and communist killed in political repression. 1.75 to 2.5 million Chinese starving to death due to grain being confiscated and sold to other peasants for the profit of Nationalist Government officials. 4.2 million Chinese perishing before even entering combat due starving to death or dying from disease during horrific conscription campaigns. 440,000 to 893,000 Chinese civilians perishing in a man made flood by the Nationalist to stop a Japanese advance.

Military[edit] Main article: National Revolutionary Army See also: Republic of China Military Academy
Republic of China Military Academy
and Whampoa Military Academy

The NRA during World War II

The National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
(NRA) (traditional Chinese: 國民革命軍; simplified Chinese: 国民革命军; pinyin: Guómín Gémìng Jūn; Wade–Giles: Kuo-min Ke-ming Chün), pre-1928 sometimes shortened to 革命軍 or Revolutionary Army and between 1928 and 1947 as 國軍 or National Army was the Military Arm of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMT's period of party rule beginning in 1928. Originally organized with Soviet aid as a means for the KMT to unify China against warlordism, the National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
fought major engagements in the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
against the Chinese Beiyang Army warlords, in the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
against the Imperial Japanese Army, and in the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
against the People's Liberation Army. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the armed forces of the Communist Party of China were nominally incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army (while retaining separate commands), but broke away to form the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
shortly after the end of the war. With the promulgation of the Constitution of the Republic of China
Constitution of the Republic of China
in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army was renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces (中華民國國軍), with the bulk of its forces forming the Republic of China Army, which retreated to Taiwan
Taiwan
in 1949. The military was formed through bloody and inhumane forced conscription campaigns; these campaigns are described by Rudolph Rummel as thus:[8]

"Then there was the process of conscription. This was a deadly affair in which men were kidnapped for the army, rounded up indiscriminately by press-gangs or army units among those on the roads or in the towns and villages, or otherwise gathered together. Many men, some the very young and old, were killed resisting or trying to escape. Once collected, they would be roped or chained together and marched, with little food or water, long distances to camp. They often died or were killed along the way, sometimes less than 50 percent reaching camp alive. Then recruit camp was no better, with hospitals resembling Nazi concentration camps like Buchenwald. Probably 3,081,000 died during the Sino-Japanese War; likely another 1,131,000 during the Civil War – 4,212,000 dead in total. Just during conscription."

Economy[edit] Further information: Economic history of China (1912–1949)

A currency bill from 1930, early ROC

Boat traffic and development along Suzhou Creek, Shanghai, around 1920

After the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
reunified the country in 1928, China entered a period of relative prosperity despite civil war and Japanese aggression. In 1937, the Japanese invaded and laid China to waste in eight years of war. The era also saw the first boycott of Japanese products. Chinese industries continue to develop in the 1930s with the advent of the Nanjing
Nanjing
decade in the 1930s, when Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
unified most of the country and brought political stability. China's industries developed and grew from 1927 to 1931. Though badly hit by the Great Depression from 1931 to 1935 and Japan's occupation of Manchuria in 1931, industrial output recovered by 1936. By 1936, industrial output had recovered and surpassed its previous peak in 1931 prior to the Great Depression's effects on China. This is best shown by the trends in Chinese GDP. In 1932, China's GDP peaked at 28.8 billion, before falling to 21.3 billion by 1934 and recovering to 23.7 billion by 1935.[17] By 1930, foreign investment in China totaled 3.5 billion, with Japan
Japan
leading (1.4 billion) and the United Kingdom at 1 billion. By 1948, however, the capital stock had halted with investment dropping to only 3 billion, with the US and Britain leading.[18] However, the rural economy was hit hard by the Great Depression of the 1930s, in which an overproduction of agricultural goods lead to massive falling prices for China as well as an increase in foreign imports (as agricultural goods produced in western countries were "dumped" in China). In 1931, imports of rice in China amounted to 21 million bushels compared with 12 million in 1928. Other goods saw even more staggering increases. In 1932, 15 million bushels of grain were imported compared with 900,000 in 1928. This increased competition lead to a massive decline in Chinese agricultural prices (which were cheaper) and thus the income of rural farmers. In 1932, agricultural prices were 41 percent of 1921 levels.[19] Rural incomes had fallen to 57 percent of 1931 levels by 1934 in some areas.[19] In 1937, Japan
Japan
invaded China and the resulting warfare laid waste to China. Most of the prosperous east China coast was occupied by the Japanese, who carried out various atrocities such as the Rape of Nanjing
Nanjing
in 1937 and random massacres of whole villages. In one anti-guerilla sweep in 1942, the Japanese killed up to 200,000 civilians in a month. The war was estimated to have killed between 20 and 25 million Chinese, and destroyed all that Chiang had built up in the preceding decade.[20] Development of industries was severely hampered after the war by devastating conflict as well as the inflow of cheap American goods. By 1946, Chinese industries operated at 20 percent capacity and had 25 percent of the output of pre-war China.[21] One effect of the war was a massive increase in government control of industries. In 1936, government-owned industries were only 15% of GDP. However, the ROC government took control of many industries in order to fight the war. In 1938, the ROC established a commission for industries and mines to control and supervise firms, as well as instilling price controls. By 1942, 70 percent of the capital of Chinese industry were owned by the government.[22] Following the war with Japan, Chiang acquired Taiwan
Taiwan
from Japan
Japan
and renewed his struggle with the communists. However, the corruption of the KMT, as well as hyperinflation as a result of trying to fight the civil war, resulted in mass unrest throughout the Republic[23] and sympathy for the communists. In addition, the communists' promise to redistribute land gained them support among the massive rural population. In 1949, the communists captured Beijing
Beijing
and later Nanjing as well. The People's Republic of China was proclaimed in Beijing
Beijing
on 1 October 1949. The Republic of China central government relocated in Taipei
Taipei
on 7 December 1949, to Taiwan
Taiwan
where Japan
Japan
had laid an educational groundwork.[24] Former Sites[edit] Almost all of the former sites of the nationalist government are headquartered in the city of Nanking, the capital at the time, with only one exception.

Name Image Location Construction Date Description

Headquarters of the Nationalist Government

No.292 Changjiang Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1870-1930s The complex were served as Viceroy of Liangjiang's Office in Qing dynasty, and as the Presidential Palace in 1948.

Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
(1928)

No.19 Dongjian Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1920s The building, serving as the Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
from 1928 to 1937, is now a part of the Presidential Palace complex.

Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
(1946)

No.252-254 Zhongshan North Road, Gulou District, Nanjing 1930 The building was the headquarter of the Ministry of Railways at first, then the site of Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
from 1946-1949. After the communists took over Nanjing, it became a building of PLA Nanjing
Nanjing
Political College.

Executive Yuan
Executive Yuan
(1949)

Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1929 It was the site of Lizhi She in 1930s. In 1949, the Nationalist Government decided to move the Exevetive Yuan into this building. The building now served as a part of Zhongshan Hotel.

Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
(1928)

No.273 Baixia Road, Qinhuai District, Nanjing

It was the site of the "Mistress House". The Nationalist Government chose the house to become the seat of Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
in 1928

Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
(1946) & Control Yuan

No.105 Zhongshan North Road, Gulou District, Nanjing 1935 The building was Nanjing
Nanjing
City Hall during the Japanese occupation. After the Second World War, it became the offices of Legislative Yuan and Control Yuan. Now it is Nanjing
Nanjing
Soldiers' Club.

Judicial Yuan's Entrance

No.251 Zhongshan Road, Gulou District, Nanjing 1935 The building was destroyed by fire in April, 1949. Only the gate remains.

Examination Yuan

No.41-43 Beijing
Beijing
East Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1930s The building is now served as Nanjing
Nanjing
City Government Offices and the Committee of Nanjing, CPPCC.

Supreme Court

No.101 Zhongshan North Road, Gulou District, Nanjing 1933 The building was also served as the Supreme Prosecutor Office

Military Affairs Commission

No.292 Changjiang Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1870s This house was built in 1870s, after Taiping Rebellion. In 1930s, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
chose it to be one of the headquarters of the Military Affairs Commission. The house is located in the Presidential Palace complex and becoming a popular tourist attraction now.

National Resource Commission

No.200 Zhongshan North Road, Gulou District, Nanjing 1947 The building is now an office building of Nanjing
Nanjing
Tech University

Ministry of Economic Affairs

No.145 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing

The building is now served as the office of Nanjing
Nanjing
Sports Bureau.

Central Bank

No.15 East-1 Zhongshan Rd, Huangpu District, Shanghai 1899-1902 This was the only institution not headquartered in the city of Nanking. Once being the Shanghai
Shanghai
branch of Russo-Chinese Bank, this building now becomes Shanghai
Shanghai
Foreign Exchange Trading Center.

Ministry of Health

No.305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1931 The building was in the site of National Central Hospital complex. It is Nanjing
Nanjing
General Hospital of Nanjing
Nanjing
Military Command now.

Ministry of Education

Chengxian Street, Xuanwu District, Nanjing

The building is now occpied by some governmental officials.

Ministry of Transportation & Communications

No.303-305 Zhongshan North Road, Gulou District, Nanjing 1932-1934 Opposite was the site of the Executive Yuan. After the communists took over Nanjing, it became a building of PLA Nanjing
Nanjing
Political College.

National Assembly Hall (1936)

No.2 Sipailou, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1930s Before the National Theatre of Drama and Music was completed, the National Assembly was held in the Auditorium of National Central University.

National Assembly Hall (1946)

No.264 Changjiang Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1935 The building was served as the National Theatre of Drama and Music. After the World War II, it became the meeting place of the National Assembly. It was the site of 1948 presidential election and the birthplace of the Constitution. So this building played an important role in modern history of China.

Residence of the Chairman (1946)

Purple Mountain, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 1931-1934 Also known as "the Red Hill Mansion" and "Mei-ling Villa", the building was one of the main residences of Chiang & Soong in Nanking after the WWII. And it became one of the official residences of the President of the ROC from 1948 to 1949.

When the city of Nanking was not captured by the Nationalist Government, they chose the following buildings as their headquarters.

Name Image Location Construction Date Description

Nationalist Government in Canton (1925)

No.118 Yuehua rd, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou

In 1925, the Nationalist Government was established here. Today, all the buildings inside were demolished except the gate.

Nationalist Government in Wuhan
Wuhan
(1926)

No.708, Zhongshan Avenue, Wuhan 1917-1921 It was also called Nanyang Tobacco Building. In 1926, the National Revolutionary Army took control of Wuhan. Then, the officials of KMT chose Nanyang Tobacco Building to become the seat of the Nationalist Government.

Nationalist Government in Chungking (1939)

Yuzhong District, Chongqing

In the period of Second Sino-Japanese War, this building was served as the headquarters of the Nationalist Government until they moved back to Nanking. The building was demolished in the 1980s.

See also[edit]

China portal Taiwan
Taiwan
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nationalist Government (China).

Government of the Republic of China Kuomintang Republic of China (1912–49)

Beiyang government
Beiyang government
(1912–28) Communist-controlled China (1927–49)

Sino-German cooperation until 1941 Diplomatic history of World War II

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 55, 56. ISBN 0-8014-8805-2.  ^ Fenby 2009 ^ "南京市". 重編囯語辭典修訂本. Ministry of Education, ROC. 民國十六年,國民政府宣言定為首都,今以臺北市為我國中央政府所在地。(In the 16th Year of the Republic of China [1927], the National Government established [Nanking] as the capital. At present, Taipei
Taipei
is the seat of the central government.)  ^ (Fung 2000, p. 30) ^ Chen, Lifu; Ramon Hawley Myers (1994). Hsu-hsin Chang, Ramon Hawley Myers, ed. The storm clouds clear over China: the memoir of Chʻen Li-fu, 1900–1993. Hoover Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-8179-9272-3. After the 1930 mutiny ended, Chiang accepted the suggestion of Wang Ching-wei, Yen Hsi-shan, and Feng Yü-hsiang that a provisional constitution for the political tutelage period be drafted.  ^ (Fung 2000, p. 5) "Nationalist disunity, political instability, civil strife, the communist challenge, the autocracy of Chiang Kai-shek, the ascendancy of the military, the escalating Japanese threat, and the "crisis of democracy" in Italy, Germany, Poland, and Spain, all contributed to a freezing of democracy by the Nationalist leadership." ^ 荆, 知仁. 中华民国立宪史 (in Chinese). 联经出版公司.  ^ a b c R.J.Rummel. "CHINA'S BLOODY CENTURY".  ^ "This Is the Shame". Time Magazine. 1946-06-10.  ^ "Snow Red & Moon Angel". Time Magazine. 1947-04-07.  ^ " Taiwan
Taiwan
Timeline – Civil War". BBC News. 2000. Retrieved 2009-06-21.  ^ Inc, Time (1956). LIFE, Truman, China and History. 40. Time Inc.  ^ 评马歇尔离华声明,周恩来选集上卷,1947-1-10 ^ 首都卫戍司令部,淞沪重庆警备司令,分别致电函京沪渝中共代表,所有中共人员限期全部撤退,重庆:大公报,1947-3-1 ^ Westad, Odd Arne (2003). Decisive encounters: the Chinese Civil War, 1946–1950. ISBN 0-8047-4478-5.  ^ Wilbur, Clarence Martin. The Nationalist Revolution in China, 1923–1928. Cambridge University Press, 1983, p. 190. ^ Sun Jian, pg 1059–1071 ^ Sun Jian, pg 1353 ^ a b Sun Jian, page 1089 ^ Sun Jian, page 615-616 ^ Sun Jian, page 1319 ^ Sun Jian, pg 1237–1240 ^ Sun Jian, page 617-618 ^ Davison, Gary Marvin. A short history of Taiwan: the case for independence. Praeger Publishers. p. 64. ISBN 0-275-98131-2. Basic literacy came to most of the school-aged populace by the end of the Japanese tenure on Taiwan. School attendance for Taiwanese children rose steadily throughout the Japanese era, from 3.8 percent in 1904 to 13.1 percent in 1917; 25.1 percent in 1920; 41.5 percent in 1935; 57.6 percent in 1940; and 71.3 percent in 1943. 

Sources[edit]

Bergere, Marie-Claire. Sun Yat-Sen (1998), 480 pp, the standard biography Boorman, Howard L., ed. Biographical Dictionary of Republican China. (Vol. I-IV and Index. 1967–1979). 600 short scholarly biographies excerpt and text search

Boorman, Howard L. "Sun Yat-sen" in Boorman, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Republican China (1970) 3: 170–89, complete text online

Dreyer, Edward L. China at War, 1901–1949. (1995). 422 pp. Eastman Lloyd. Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937– 1945. (1984) Eastman Lloyd et al. The Nationalist Era in China, 1927–1949 (1991) Fairbank, John K., ed. The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 12, Republican China 1912–1949. Part 1. (1983). 1001 pp. Fairbank, John K. and Feuerwerker, Albert, eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 13: Republican China, 1912–1949, Part 2. (1986). 1092 pp. Fogel, Joshua A. The Nanjing
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Chiang Kai-shek
and the Struggle for Modern China. (2009) ISBN 978-0-674-03338-2 Westad, Odd Arne. Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946–1950. (2003). 413 pp. the standard history

Preceded by Beiyang government (1912–1928) Nationalist government 1927–1948 Succeeded by Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China (on Mainland China
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