The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China (), also known as Second Republic of China but most commonly known simply as the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China
between 1 July 1925 and 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang
(KMT, literally "Nationals' Party"). The name derives from the Kuomintang's translated name "Nationalist Party".
After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution
on 10 October 1911, revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen was elected Provisional President
and founded the Provisional Government of the Republic of China
. To preserve national unity, Sun ceded the presidency to military strongman Yuan Shikai
, who established the Beiyang government
. After a failed attempt
to install himself as Emperor of China
, Yuan died in 1916, leaving a power vacuum which resulted in China being divided into several warlord fiefdoms
and rival governments. They were nominally reunified
in 1928 by the Nanjing
-based government led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
, which after the Northern Expedition
governed the country as a one-party state
under the Kuomintang
, and was subsequently given international recognition
as the legitimate representative of China. The Nationalist government would then experience many challenges such as the Second Sino-Japanese War
, the Chinese Civil War
and World War II
. The government was in place until it was replaced
by the current Government of the Republic of China
in the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China
The oldest surviving republic in East Asia
, the Republic of China was formally established on 1January 1912 in mainland China
following the Xinhai Revolution
, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising
on 10October 1911, replacing the Qing dynasty
and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule
in China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism
(1915–28), Japanese invasion
(1937–45), and the Chinese Civil War
(1927–49), with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade
(1927–37), when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang
(KMT) under an authoritarian one-party state
At the end of World War II
in 1945, the Empire of Japan
surrendered control of Taiwan
and its island groups
to the Allies
, and Taiwan was placed under the Republic of China's administrative control. The legitimacy of this transfer is disputed and is another aspect of the disputed political status of Taiwan
After World War II, the civil war
between the ruling Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China
resumed, despite attempts at mediation by the United States
. The Nationalist Government began drafting the Constitution of the Republic of China
under a National Assembly, but was boycotted by the communists. With the promulgation of the constitution, the Nationalist Government abolished itself and was replaced by the Government of the Republic of China
. Following their loss of the Civil War, the Nationalist Government retreated moved their capital to Taipei
while claiming that they were the legitimate government of the mainland.
After Sun's death on , four months later on , the National Government of the Republic of China
was established in Guangzhou
The following year, Chiang Kai-shek
became the ''de facto
'' leader of the Kuomintang
(KMT), or Chinese Nationalist Party. Chiang led the Northern Expedition
through China with the intention of defeating the warlords
and unifying the country. Chiang received the help of the Soviet Union
and the Chinese Communist Party
; however, he soon dismissed his Soviet advisors. He was convinced, not without reason, that they wanted to get rid of the KMT and take over.
Chiang decided to strike first
and purged the Communists
, killing thousands of them. At the same time, other violent conflicts took place in the south of China where the Communist Party fielded superior numbers and were massacring Nationalist supporters. These events eventually led to the Chinese Civil War
between the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party. Chiang Kai-shek pushed the Communist Party into the interior as he sought to destroy them, and moved the Nationalist Government to Nanjing
within the KMT still allied to the communists, led by Wang Jingwei
, had established a rival Nationalist Government
two months earlier, but soon joined Chiang in Nanjing in August 1927. By the following year, Chiang's army had captured Beijing after overthrowing the Beiyang government
and unified the entire nation
, at least nominally, marking the beginning the Nanjing Decade
Nanjing Decade and War with Japan
According to Sun Yat-sen's "Three Stages of Revolution" theory, the KMT was to rebuild China in three phases: the first stage was military unification, which was carried out with the Northern Expedition; the second was "political tutelage" which was a provisional government led by the KMT to educate people about their political and civil rights, and the third stage was the constitutional government. By 1928, the Nationalists, having taken over power militarily and reunified China, started the second phase, promulgating a provisional constitution and beginning the period of so-called "tutelage". The KMT was criticized for instituting authoritarianism
, but claimed it was attempting to establish a modern democratic society.
Among other institutions, they created at that time the Academia Sinica
, the Central Bank of China
, and other agencies. In 1932, China sent a team for the first time to the Olympic Games
. Historians, such as Edmund Fung, argue that establishing a democracy in China at that time was not possible. The nation was at war and divided between Communists and Nationalists. Corruption within the government and lack of direction also prevented any significant reform from taking place. Chiang realized the lack of real work being done within his administration and told the State Council: "Our organization becomes worse and worse ... many staff members just sit at their desks and gaze into space, others read newspapers and still others sleep." The Nationalist government wrote a draft constitution
on 5 May 1936. Mass killing under the nationalists were common with millions of people killed. Notable mass killings include deaths from forced army conscription and the White Terror
The Nationalists faced a new challenge with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria
in 1931, with hostilities continuing through the Second Sino-Japanese War
, part of World War II
, from 1937 to 1945. The government of the Republic of China retreated from Nanjing to Chongqing
. In 1945, after the war of eight years, Japan surrendered and the Republic of China, under the name "China", became one of the founding members of the United Nations
. The government returned to Nanjing in 1946.
Post-World War II
After the defeat of Japan
during World War II
, Taiwan was surrendered to the Allies
, with ROC troops accepting the surrender of the Japanese garrison. The government of the ROC proclaimed the "retrocession
" of Taiwan to the Republic of China and established a provincial government
on the island. The military administration of the ROC extended over Taiwan, which led to widespread unrest and increasing tensions between local Taiwanese and mainlanders. The shooting of a civilian on 28 February 1947 triggered an island-wide unrest, which was brutally suppressed with military force in what is now known as the February 28 Incident
. Mainstream estimates of casualties range from 18,000 to 30,000, mainly Taiwanese elites.
The 28 February Incident has had far-reaching effects on subsequent Taiwanese history
From 1945 to 1947, under United States mediation, especially through the Marshall Mission
, the Nationalists and Communists agreed to start a series of peace talks aiming at establishing a coalition government. The two parties agreed to open multiparty talks on post-World War II political reforms via a Political Consultative Conference. This was included in the Double Tenth Agreement
. This agreement was implemented by the Nationalist Government, who organized the first Political Consultative Assembly from 10–31 January 1946. Representatives of the Kuomintang, Communist Party of China, Chinese Youth Party
, and China Democratic League
, as well as independent delegates, attended the conference in Chongqing. However, shortly afterward, the two parties failed to reach an agreement and the civil war resumed. In the context of political and military animosity, the National Assembly was summoned by the Nationalists without the participation of the Communists and promulgated the Constitution of the Republic of China
. The constitution was criticized by the Communists, and led to the final break between the two sides. The full-scale civil war resumed from early 1947.
After the National Assembly election
, the drafted Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly
on , promulgated by the National Government on , and went into effect on . The Constitution was seen as the third and final stage of Kuomintang reconstruction of China. Chiang Kai-shek was also elected as the 1st President of the Republic of China
under the constitution by the National Assembly in 1948, with Li Zongren
being elected as Vice-President. The Nationalist Government was abolished on , after the Government of the Republic of China was established with the presidential inauguration of Chiang. The Communists, though invited to the convention that drafted it, boycotted and declared after the ratification that not only would it not recognize the ROC constitution, but all bills passed by the Nationalist administration would be disregarded as well. Zhou Enlai
challenged the legitimacy of the National Assembly in 1947 by accusing the KMT of hand-picking the members of the National Assembly 10 years earlier; claiming they thus could not legitimately represent the Chinese people.
The National Government governed under a dual-party state apparatus under the ideology of Dang Guo
, effectively making it a one-party state
; however, existing parties continued to operate and new ones formed. After the end of the Second World War, and particularly after the passage of the constitution in 1946, the National Government was reconstituted to include multiple parties, in preparation for a full democratic government to come.
In February 1928, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 2nd Kuomintang National Congress held in Nanjing passed the Reorganization of the National Government Act. This act stipulated the national government was to be directed and regulated under the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, with the Committee of the Nationalist Government being elected by KMT Central Committee. Under the national government was seven ministries – Interior, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Transport, Justice, Agriculture and Mines, and Commerce. There were also additional institutions such as the Supreme Court, Control Yuan, and the General Academy.
With the promulgation of the Organic Law of the National Government in October 1928, the government was reorganized into five different branches or Yuan, namely the Executive Yuan
, Legislative Yuan
, Judicial Yuan
, Examination Yuan
as well as the Control Yuan
. The Chairman of the National Government was to be the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army
. Chiang Kai-shek was appointed as the first Chairman of the National Government
, a position he would retain until 1931. The Organic Law also stipulated that the Kuomintang, through its National Congress and Central Executive Committee, would exercise sovereign power during the period of political tutelage, and the KMT's Political Council would guide and superintend the National Government in the execution of important national affairs and that the council has the power to interpret or amend the organic law.
Human Rights violations
The Nationalist government of China has been accused of mass killings, as Rudolph Rummel
estimates the Nationalist government of China is responsible for between 6 and 18.5 million deaths. He attributes this death toll to a few major causes for example:
* 1 million Chinese civilians starved or killed in order to fend off communist advance
* Hundreds of thousands of peasants and communists killed in political repression
* 1.75 to 2.5 million Chinese starving to death due to grain being confiscated
and sold to other peasants for the profit of Nationalist Government officials.
* 4.2 million Chinese perishing before entering combat due to starving to death or dying from the disease during conscription campaigns
* 440,000 to 893,000 Chinese civilians perishing in a man-made flood by the Nationalists
to stop a Japanese advance.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (), pre-1928 sometimes shortened to or Revolutionary Army and between 1928 and 1947 as or National Army was the Military Arm of the Kuomintang
(KMT) from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army
of the Republic of China
during the KMT's period of party rule
beginning in 1928.
Originally organized with Soviet
aid as a means for the KMT to unify China against warlordism
, the National Revolutionary Army fought major engagements in the Northern Expedition
against the Chinese Beiyang Army warlords
, in the Second Sino-Japanese War
against the Imperial Japanese Army
, and in the Chinese Civil War
against the People's Liberation Army
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the armed forces of the Communist Party of China
were nominally incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army (while retaining separate commands), but broke away to form the People's Liberation Army shortly after the end of the war. With the promulgation of the Constitution of the Republic of China
in 1947 and the formal end of the KMT party-state, the National Revolutionary Army has renamed the Republic of China Armed Forces
(), with the bulk of its forces forming the Republic of China Army
, which retreated to Taiwan in 1949
The military was formed through bloody and inhumane forced conscription campaigns; these campaigns are described by Rudolph Rummel
"''Then there was the process of conscription. This was a deadly affair in which men were kidnapped for the army, rounded up indiscriminately by press-gangs or army units among those on the roads or in the towns and villages, or otherwise gathered together. Many men, some the very young and old, were killed resisting or trying to escape. Once collected, they would be roped or chained together and marched, with little food or water, long distances to camp. They often died or were killed along the way, sometimes less than 50 percent reaching camp alive. Then recruit camp was no better, with hospitals resembling Nazi concentration camps like Buchenwald. Probably 3,081,000 died during the Sino-Japanese War; likely another 1,131,000 during the Civil War – 4,212,000 dead in total. Just during conscription.''"
After the Kuomintang reunified the country in 1928, China entered a period of relative prosperity despite civil war and Japanese aggression. In 1937, the Japanese invaded
and laid China to waste in eight years of war. The era also saw additional boycott of Japanese products
Chinese industries continued to develop in the 1930s with the advent of the Nanjing decade
in the 1930s when Chiang Kai-shek unified most of the country and brought political stability. China's industries developed and grew from 1927 to 1931. Though badly hit by the Great Depression
from 1931 to 1935 and Japan's occupation of Manchuria
in 1931, industrial output recovered by 1936. By 1936, industrial output had recovered and surpassed its previous peak in 1931 prior to the Great Depression's effects on China. This is best shown by the trends in Chinese GDP
. In 1932, China's GDP peaked at $
28.8 billion, before falling to $21.3 billion by 1934 and recovering to $23.7 billion by 1935. By 1930, foreign investment in China
totaled $3.5 billion, with Japan leading ($1.4 billion) and the United Kingdom at 1 billion. By 1948, however, the capital stock had halted with investment dropping to only $3 billion, with the US and Britain leading.
However, the rural economy was hit hard by the Great Depression of the 1930s, in which an overproduction
of agricultural goods lead to massive falling prices for China as well as an increase in foreign imports (as agricultural goods produced in western countries were "dumped" in China). In 1931, imports of rice in China amounted to 21 million bushel
s compared with 12 million in 1928. Other goods saw even more staggering increases. In 1932, 15 million bushels of grain were imported compared with 900,000 in 1928. This increased competition leads to a massive decline in Chinese agricultural prices (which were cheaper) and thus the income of rural farmers. In 1932, agricultural prices were 41 percent of 1921 levels.
[Sun Jian, p. 1089.]
Rural incomes had fallen to 57 percent of 1931 levels by 1934 in some areas.
In 1937, Japan invaded China and the resulting warfare laid waste to China. Most of the prosperous east China coast was occupied by the Japanese, who carried out various atrocities such as the Rape of Nanjing
in 1937 and random massacres of whole villages. In one anti-guerrilla sweep in 1942, the Japanese killed up to 200,000 civilians in a month. The war was estimated to have killed between 20 and 25 million Chinese and destroyed all that Chiang had built up in the preceding decade. Development of industries was severely hampered after the war by devastating conflict as well as the inflow of cheap American goods. By 1946, Chinese industries operated at 20 percent capacity and had 25 percent of the output of pre-war China.
One effect of the war was a massive increase in government control of industries. In 1936, government-owned industries were only 15% of GDP. However, the ROC government took control of many industries in order to fight the war. In 1938, the ROC established a commission for industries and mines to control and supervise firms, as well as instilling price controls. By 1942, 70 percent of the capital of Chinese industry was owned by the government.
Following the war with Japan, Chiang acquired Taiwan from Japan and renewed his struggle with the Communists
. However, the corruption of the KMT, as well as hyperinflation
as a result of trying to fight the civil war, resulted in mass unrest throughout the Republic and sympathy for the communists. In addition, the Communists' promise to redistribute land
gained them support among the massive rural population. In 1949, the People's Liberation captured Beijing and later Nanjing as well. The People's Republic of China was proclaimed in Beijing
on . The Republic of China central government relocated to Taipei
in , to Taiwan where Japan had laid an educational groundwork
Almost all of the former sites of the nationalist government are headquartered in the city of Nanking, the capital at the time, with only one exception.
When the city of Nanking was not captured by the Nationalist Government, they chose the following buildings as their headquarters.
Government of the Republic of China
* Republic of China (1912–1949)
** Beiyang government
** Communist-controlled China (1927–1949)
* Sino-German cooperation (1926–1941)
* Diplomatic history of World War II
* Nanjing Decade
* Bergere, Marie-Claire. ''Sun Yat-Sen'' (1998), 480 pages, the standard biography
* Boorman, Howard L., ed. ''Biographical Dictionary of Republican China.'' (Vol. I-IV and Index. 1967–1979). 600 short scholarly biographieexcerpt and text search
** Boorman, Howard L. "Sun Yat-sen" in Boorman, ed. ''Biographical Dictionary of Republican China'' (1970) 3: 170–89 complete text online
* Dreyer, Edward L. ''China at War, 1901–1949.'' (1995). 422 pp.
* Eastman Lloyd. ''Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937– 1945.'' (1984)
* Eastman Lloyd et al. ''The Nationalist Era in China, 1927–1949'' (1991)
* Fairbank, John K., ed. ''The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 12, Republican China 1912–1949. Part 1.'' (1983). 1001 pp.
* Fairbank, John K. and Feuerwerker, Albert, eds. ''The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 13: Republican China, 1912–1949, Part 2.'' (1986). 1092 pp.
* Fogel, Joshua A. ''The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography'' (2000)
* Gordon, David M. "The China-Japan War, 1931–1945," ''The Journal of Military History'' v70#1 (2006) 137–182; major historiographical overview of all important books and interpretations
* Hsiung, James C. and Steven I. Levine, eds. ''China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937–1945'' (1992), essays by scholarsonline from Questia
* Hsi-sheng, Ch'i. ''Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945'' (1982)
* Hung, Chang-tai. ''War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937–1945'' (1994complete text online free
* Lara, Diana. ''The Chinese People at War: Human Suffering and Social Transformation, 1937–1945'' (2010)
* Rubinstein, Murray A., ed. ''Taiwan: A New History'' (2006), 560pp
* Shiroyama, Tomoko. ''China during the Great Depression: Market, State, and the World Economy, 1929–1937'' (2008)
* Shuyun, Sun. ''The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth'' (2007)
* Taylor, Jay. ''The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China.'' (2009)
* Westad, Odd Arne. ''Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946–1950.'' (2003). 413 pages.
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