A NATIONAL CHURCH is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state . The idea was notably discussed during the 19th century , during the emergence of modern nationalism .
Samuel Taylor Coleridge , in a draft discussing the question of church and state around 1828 wrote that "a National Church might exist, and has existed, without , because before the institution of the _Christian_ Church - as the Levitical Church in the Hebrew Constitution, the Druidical in the Celtic, would suffice to prove".
John Wordsworth , Bishop of Salisbury, wrote about the National Church of Sweden in 1911, interpreting the Church of Sweden and the Church of England as national churches of the Swedish and the English peoples, respectively. Lake (1987) traces the development of Presbyterianism in 16th-century England from the status of a "godly minority" which saw itself surrounded by the corrupt or hostile mass of the population, into a "genuine national church".
The concept of a national church remains alive in the Protestantism of England and Scandinavia in particular. While, in a context of England, the national church remains a common denominator for the Church of England, some of the Lutheran "folk churches" of Scandinavia, characterized as national churches in the ethnic sense as opposed to the idea of a state church, emerged in the second half of the 19th century following the lead of Grundtvig . However, in countries in which the state church (also known as the established church) has the following of the majority of citizens, the state church may also be the national church, and may be declared as such by the government e.g. Church of Denmark , Church of Greece , Church of Iceland .
* 1 Countries * 2 Criticism * 3 See also * 4 References
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COUNTRY NATIONAL CHURCH DENOMINATION
* ^ Samuel Taylor Coleridge. _On the Constitution of the Church and State_. Classic Books Company; 2001. ISBN 978-0-7426-8368-6 . p. 59. * ^ Peter Lake, Maria Dowling , _Protestantism and the national church in sixteenth century England_, Taylor & Francis, 1987, ISBN, 9780709916819, ch. 8 (193ff.) * ^ Dag Thorkildsen, "Scandinavia: Lutheranism and national identity" in _World Christianities, c. 1815-1914_, vol. 8 of _The Cambridge history of Christianity_, eds. Sheridan Gilley, Brian Stanley, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-521-81456-0 , pp. 342–358. * ^ Shadid, W. A. R. (1 January 1995). _Religious Freedom and the Position of Islam in Western Europe_. Peeters Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 9789039000656 . Denmark has declared the Evangelical Lutheran church to be that national church (par. 4 of the Constitution), which corresponds the fact that 91.5% of the population are registered members of this church. This declaration implies that the Danish State does not take a neutral stand in religious matters. Nevertheless, freedom of religion has been incorporated in the Constitution. Nielsen (1992, 77) gives a short description of the position of the minority religious communities in comparison to that of the State Church: The Lutheran established church is a department of the state. Church affairs are government by a central government ministry, and clergy are government employees. The registration of births, deaths and marriages falls under this ministry of church affairs, and normally speaking the local Lutheran pastor is also the official registrar. The other small religious communities, viz. Roman Catholics, Methodists, Baptists and Jews, have the constitutional status of 'recognised communities of faith'. ... Contrary to the minority religious communities, the Lutheran Church is fully financed by the Danish State. * ^ Enyedi, Zsolt; Madeley, John T.S. (2 August 2004). _Church and State in Contemporary Europe_. Routledge. p. 228. ISBN 9781135761417 . Both as a state church and as a national church, the Orthodox Church of Greece has a lot in common with Protestant state churches, and even with Catholicism in some countries. * ^ _Encyclopedia of Protestantism_. Infobase Publishing. 1 January 2005. p. 283. ISBN 9780816069835 . When Iceland obtained home rule in 1874, the new constitution, while granting religious freedom, maintained the Evangelical Lutheran Church as "a national church . . . supported by the State." This was reaffirmed in the 1944 constitution of the new independent Republic of Iceland. Democratic reforms were adopted early in the 20th century that allowed for some independent decision making in parish councils, and let congregations choose their own pastors. Under a 1998 law, the church became largely autonomous, though it is still designated established church, supported by government taxes. At the end of the 19th century, Lutherans who wanted freedom from the state church founded the Evangelical Free Church of Iceland, which now has in excess of 7,000 members. The majority of Icelanders are members of the state church. Almost all children are baptized as Lutheran and more than 90 percent are subsequently confirmed. The Church conducts 75 percent of all marriages and 99 percent of all funerals. * ^ Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (1 January 2009). _Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire_. Infobase Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 9781438110257 . The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes referred to as the Gregorian Armenian Church by Western scholars, serves as the national church of the Armenian people. * ^ Hall, Richard C. (1 January 2012). _The Modern Balkans: A History_. Reaktion Books. p. 51. ISBN 9781780230061 . While this did not restore the Ohrid patriarchate, it did acknowledge the separation between the Orthodox church in Constantinople and the Bulgarian Orthodox church, which was now free to develop as the Bulgarian national church. * ^ Venbrux, Eric; Quartier, Thomas; Venhorst, Claudia; Brenda Mathijssen (September 2013). _Changing European Death Ways_. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 178. ISBN 9783643900678 . Simultaneously the church tax, ministers being public servants, and the status of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark as the national church indicate that the state lends its support to the church. * ^ Britannicus (1834). _The Church of England_. p. 17. Having, in my last, arrive at the great points which I wished to establish--the apostolicity, independence, and authority of the Church of England; and that she is necessarily the National Church, because Christianity is the National Religion. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Makari, Peter E. (2007). _Conflict & Cooperation: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Egypt_. Syracuse University Press. p. 42. ISBN 9780815631446 . The Coptic Orthodox Church is the historic, and national, church of Egypt and is deeply tied to a monastic tradition of spiritual growth and preparation for ministry of monks and nuns, a tradition that continues to thrive. * ^ Elvy, Peter (1991). _Opportunities and Limitations in Religious Broadcasting_. Edinburgh: CTPI. p. 23. ISBN 9781870126151 . Denominationally Estonia is Lutheran. During the time of national independence (1918-1940), 80% of the population belonged to the Lutheran National Church, about 17% were Orthodox Christians and the rest belonged to Free Churches. * ^ Lorance, Cody (2008). _Ethnographic Chicago_. p. 140. ISBN 9780615218625 . Her findings show that the development of the national church of Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which began in the fourth century and made Christianity the state religion of Ethiopia, was also a major contributor to national development in the fields of independence, social progress, national unity and empowerment, literary development, arts, architecture, music, publication, and declaration of a national language and leadership, both spiritually and military. * ^ Proctor, James (13 May 2013). _Faroe Islands_. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 19. ISBN 9781841624563 . Religion is important to the Faroese and 84% of the population belongs to the established national church in the islands, the Evangelical—Lutheran Foroya Kirkja, which has 61 churches in the Faroes and three out of every four marriages are held in one. * ^ _Denmark, Finland, and Sweden_. Britanncia Educational Publishing. 1 June 2013. p. 77. ISBN 9781615309955 . One of Finland's national churches is the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Evankelis—luterilainen—kirkko), or simply the Church of Finland. * ^ Kaplan, Robert B.; Baldauf, Richard B. (2005). _Language Planning and Policy in Europe_. Multilingual Matters. p. 147. ISBN 9781853598111 . Currently, a clear majority of the population belongs to the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church, and 1% of the population are members of the other national church, the Finnish Orthodox Church (see Table 7). * ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (21 September 2010). _Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices_. ABC-CLIO. p. 1195. ISBN 9781598842043 . The Georgian Orthodox Church (GOC) is the Eastern Orthodox Christian body that serves as the national church of the Caucasian country of Georgia. The great majority of Georgians are members of the church. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gelder, Craig Van (2008). _The Missional Church and Denominations_. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 9780802863584 . Germany's two churches (the National Church for the Protestants and the Roman Catholic Church) were “proper”with respect to their polities. * ^ Miller, James Edward (2009). _The United States and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974_. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780807832479 . The creation of a national church of Greece, which the patriarch reluctantly recognized in 1850, set a pattern for other emerging Balkan states to form national churches independent of Constantinople. * ^ Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul (1 September 2006). _Iceland_. Marshall Cavendish. p. 85. ISBN 9780761420743 . The National Church of Iceland, formally called the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, is the state religion, and the president of Iceland is its supreme authority. * ^ Ajami, Fouad (30 May 2012). _The Syrian Rebellion_. Hoover Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780817915063 . The Maronite Church is a national church. Its creed is attachment to Lebanon and its independence. The founding ethos of the Maronites is their migration from the Syrian plains to the freedom and “purity” of their home in Mount Lebanon.
* ^ Rae, Heather (15 August 2002). _State Identities and the Homogenisation of Peoples_. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 9780521797085 . The creation of a national Church was also central to building national identity, with the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC) established in 1967, much to the outrage of the Serbian Orthodox Church. * ^ Cristofori, Rinaldo; Ferrari, Silvio (28 February 2013). _Law and Religion in the 21st Century: Relations between States and Religious Communities_. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 194. ISBN 9781409497332 . The State shall support all religious communities including the Church of Norway on an equal footing, but the Church of Norway shall 'remain the people's Church and is as such supported by the State', thereby upholding its function as a national Church. * ^ Prizel, Ilya (13 August 1998). _National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine_. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780521576970 . Although nominally a national church, the Russian Orthodox Church developed from a defensive, nativist institution to the ideological foundation of an imperial idea. * ^ Morton, Andrew R. (1994). _God's Will in a Time of Crisis: A Colloquium Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Baillie Commission_. Edinburgh: CTPI. p. 14. ISBN 9781870126274 . In October 1929, the Established Church and the United Free Church were united to form the national Church of Scotland. * ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (1 January 1975). _The Chetniks_. Stanford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 9780804708579 . He also had the support of the Serbian Orthodox Church, which as a national church long identified with the national destiny and aspirations of the Serbian people was naturally inclined to identify itself with the movement that had the backing of the king and the Servian-dominated government-in-exile. * ^ Gilley, Sheridan; Stanley, Brian (2006). _The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8, World Christianities C.1815-c.1914_. Cambridge University Press. p. 354. ISBN 9780521814560 . The Church of Sweden could be characterised as 'national church' or 'folk church', but not as 'state church', because the independence of the church was expressed by the establishment of a Church Assembly in 1863. * ^ West, Barbara A. (1 January 2009). _Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania_. Infobase Publishing. p. 845. ISBN 9781438119137 . A second important cultural feature of the Tuvaluan nation is the centrality of the national church, the Ekalesia o Tuvalu, or Church of Tuvalu, in which up to 97 percent of the population claims membership.
* ^ Velychenko, Stephen (1 January 1992). _National History as Cultural Process: A Survey of the Interpretations of Ukraine's Past in Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian Historical Writing from the Earliest Times to 1914_. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780920862759 . For this reason the Ukrainian Orthodox Church was the true democratic national church of the Ukrainian nation. * ^ _Blackwood\'s Edinburgh Magazine_. William Blackwood & Sons. 1895. p. 142. The Church in Wales ... the National Church in every sense of the word, not only theoretically but practically. * ^ Barth, _Ethnics_, ed. Braun, transl. Bromiley, New York, 1981, p. 305.
* William Reed Huntington, _A national church_, Bedell lectures, Scribner's, 1897.