NATIONAL SOCIALISM (German : Nationalsozialismus), more commonly
known as NAZISM (/ˈnɑːtsɪzəm, ˈnæ-/ ), is the ideology and set
of practices associated with the 20th-century German
Nazi Party , Nazi
Germany , and other far-right groups. Sometimes characterised as a
form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism ,
Nazism's development was influenced by
German nationalism (especially
Pan-Germanism ), the
Völkisch movement and the anti-communist
Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged during the Weimar Republic
after Germany's defeat in First World War .
Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social
Darwinism , identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis
regarded as an
Aryan or Nordic master race . It aimed to overcome
social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on
racial purity which represented a people's community
Volksgemeinschaft ). The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in
historically German territory, as well as gain additional lands for
German expansion under the doctrine of
Lebensraum , and exclude those
who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term
"National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist
redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both international
socialism and free market capitalism .
Nazism rejected the Marxist
concept of class conflict , opposed cosmopolitan internationalism ,
and sought to convince all parts of the new German society to
subordinate their personal interests to the "common good " and accept
political interests as the main priority of economic organization.
The Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and
antisemitic German Workers\' Party , was founded on 5 January 1919. By
the early 1920s,
Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization and
renamed it the National Socialist
German Workers' Party to broaden its
National Socialist Program , adopted in 1920, called for a
Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to
Jews or those of
Jewish descent, while also supporting land reform and the
nationalization of some industries. In
Mein Kampf , written in 1924,
Hitler outlined the antisemitism and anti-communism at the heart of
his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for parliamentary
democracy and his belief in Germany’s right to territorial
In 1933, with the support of traditional conservative nationalists,
Hitler was appointed
Chancellor of Germany and the Nazis gradually
established a one-party state , under which Jews, political opponents
and other "undesirable" elements were marginalised, and eventually,
several million people were imprisoned and killed.
Hitler purged the
party’s more socially and economically radical factions in the
Night of the Long Knives and, after the death of President
Hindenburg , political power was concentrated in his hands, and he
became Germany's head of state with the title of
Führer or "leader".
Holocaust and Germany's defeat in
World War II
World War II , only a
few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis , still
describe themselves as followers of National Socialism.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Position within the political spectrum
* 3 Origins
* 3.1 Völkisch nationalism
* 3.2 Racial theories and antisemitism
* 3.3 Response to
World War I
World War I and Italian
Nationalism and racialism
Irredentism and expansionism
* 4.1.2 Racial theories
* 4.3 Sex and gender
* 4.3.1 Opposition to homosexuality
* 4.4 Religion
* 4.5 Economics
* 5 Post-war
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 7.1 Notes
* 7.2 Bibliography
* 8 External links
Flag of the
Nazi Party , similar but not identical to the
national flag of
Nazi Germany (1933–45).
The full name of Adolf Hitler's party was Nationalsozialistische
Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (acronym: NSDAP; English: National-Socialist
German Workers' Party). The shorthand Nazi was formed from the first
two syllables of the German pronunciation of the word "national" (IPA:
The term was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and
derogatory word for a backwards peasant , characterizing an awkward
and clumsy person. It was derived from Ignaz, which is a shortened
Ignatius , a common name in
Bavaria , the area from which
the Nazis emerged. Opponents seized on this and shortened the first
word of the party's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive
The NSDAP briefly adopted the Nazi designation, attempting to
reappropriate the term, but it soon gave up this effort and generally
avoided using the term while it was in power. The use of "Nazi
Germany ", "
Nazi regime ", and so on was popularised by German exiles.
From them, the term spread into other languages and it was eventually
brought back into Germany after World War II. In English,
Nazism is a
common name for the ideology which the party advocated; a rarer
alternative spelling, though representing a common pronunciation, is
Naziism (/ˈnɑːtsi.ɪzəmˌ ˈnæ-/ ).
POSITION WITHIN THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
Foreground, left to right:
Adolf Hitler ; Hermann
Göring ; Minister of
Joseph Goebbels ;
Nazis alongside members of the far-right reactionary and monarchist
German National People\'s Party (DNVP), during the brief NSDAP–DNVP
alliance in the
Harzburg Front from 1931 to 1932
The majority of scholars identify
Nazism in both theory and practice
as a form of far-right politics . Far-right themes in
the argument that superior people have a right to dominate other
people and purge society of supposed inferior elements. Adolf Hitler
and other proponents denied the view that
Nazism was either left-wing
or right-wing, instead they officially portrayed
Nazism as a syncretic
Hitler directly attacked both left-wing and
right-wing politics in Germany, saying:
Today our left-wing politicians in particular are constantly
insisting that their craven-hearted and obsequious foreign policy
necessarily results from the disarmament of Germany, whereas the truth
is that this is the policy of traitors ... But the politicians of the
Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was through their
miserable cowardice that those ruffians of
Jews who came into power in
1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms.
When asked whether he supported the "bourgeois right-wing", Hitler
Nazism was not exclusively for any class, and he also
indicated that it favoured neither the left nor the right, but
preserved "pure" elements from both "camps", stating: "From the camp
of bourgeois tradition , it takes national resolve, and from the
materialism of the Marxist dogma, living, creative Socialism".
The Nazis were strongly influenced by the post-
World War I
World War I far right
in Germany, which held common beliefs such as anti-Marxism,
anti-liberalism, and antisemitism, along with nationalism , contempt
Treaty of Versailles , and condemnation of the Weimar Republic
for signing the armistice in November 1918 which later led it to sign
the Treaty of Versailles. A major inspiration for the Nazis were the
Freikorps , paramilitary organizations that
engaged in political violence after World War I. Initially, the
World War I
World War I German far right was dominated by monarchists , but
the younger generation, which was associated with Völkisch
nationalism, was more radical and it did not express any emphasis on
the restoration of the German monarchy. This younger generation
desired to dismantle the
Weimar Republic and create a new radical and
strong state based upon a martial ruling ethic that could revive the
"Spirit of 1914" which was associated with German national unity
The Nazis, the far-right monarchists, the reactionary German National
People\'s Party (DNVP), and others, such as monarchist officers in the
German Army and several prominent industrialists, formed an alliance
in opposition to the
Weimar Republic on 11 October 1931 in Bad
Harzburg , officially known as the "National Front", but commonly
referred to as the
Harzburg Front . The Nazis stated that the
alliance was purely tactical and they continued to have differences
with the DNVP. The Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and
they called themselves an anti-bourgeois party. After the elections
of 1932, the alliance broke down when the DNVP lost many of its seats
in the Reichstag. The Nazis denounced them as "an insignificant heap
of reactionaries". The DNVP responded by denouncing the Nazis for
their socialism, their street violence, and the "economic experiments"
that would take place if the Nazis ever rose to power.
Kaiser Wilhelm II , who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee
into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany,
initially supported the Nazi Party. His four sons, including Prince
Eitel Friedrich and Prince Oskar , became members of the Nazi Party,
in hopes that in exchange for their support, the Nazis would permit
the restoration of the monarchy.
There were factions within the Nazi Party, both conservative and
radical. The conservative Nazi
Hermann Göring urged
conciliate with capitalists and reactionaries . Other prominent
conservative Nazis included
Heinrich Himmler and
Reinhard Heydrich .
The radical Nazi
Joseph Goebbels hated capitalism, viewing it as
Jews at its core, and he stressed the need for the party to
emphasize both a proletarian and a national character. Those views
were shared by
Otto Strasser , who later left the
Nazi Party in the
Hitler had betrayed the party's socialist goals by
allegedly endorsing capitalism. Large segments of the Nazi Party
staunchly supported its official socialist, revolutionary, and
anti-capitalist positions and expected both a social and an economic
revolution when the party gained power in 1933. Many of the million
members of the
Sturmabteilung (SA) were committed to the party's
official socialist program. The leader of the SA,
Ernst Röhm ,
pushed for a "second revolution" (the "first revolution" being the
Nazis' seizure of power) that would entrench the party's official
socialist program. Furthermore, Röhm desired that the SA absorb the
much smaller German Army into its ranks under his leadership.
Before he became an antisemite and a Nazi,
Hitler had lived a
bohemian lifestyle as a wandering watercolour artist in
southern Germany, though he maintained elements of it later in life.
Hitler served in World War I. After the war, his battalion was
absorbed by the
Bavarian Soviet Republic from 1918 to 1919, where he
was elected Deputy Battalion Representative. According to historian
Hitler attended the funeral of communist
Kurt Eisner (a
German Jew), wearing a black mourning armband on one arm and a red
communist armband on the other, which he took as evidence that
Hitler's political beliefs had not yet solidified. In Mein Kampf,
Hitler never mentioned any service with the Bavarian Soviet Republic,
and he stated that he became an antisemite in 1913 during his years in
Vienna. This statement has been disputed by the contention that he was
not an antisemite at that time.
Hitler altered his political views in response to the signing of the
Treaty of Versailles in June 1919, and it was then that he became an
antisemitic, German nationalist. As a Nazi,
opposition to capitalism, regarding it as having Jewish origins. He
accused capitalism of holding nations ransom to the interests of a
parasitic cosmopolitan rentier class.
Hitler took a pragmatic position between the conservative and radical
factions of the Nazi Party, accepting private property and allowing
capitalist private enterprises to exist so long as they adhered to the
goals of the Nazi state. However, if a capitalist private enterprise
resisted Nazi goals, he sought to destroy it. Once the Nazis achieved
power, Röhm's SA launched attacks against individuals deemed to be
associated with conservative reaction, without Hitler's authorization.
Hitler considered Röhm's independent actions to be both a violation
and a threat to his leadership, as well as a threat to the regime
because they alienated both the conservative President Paul von
Hindenburg and the conservative-oriented German Army and jeopardized
the regime's relationship with them. This resulted in
Röhm and other radical members of the SA in what came to be known as
Night of the Long Knives .
Although he opposed communist ideology,
Hitler publicly praised the
Soviet Union 's leader
Joseph Stalin and
Stalinism on numerous
Hitler commended Stalin for seeking to purify the
Communist Party of the
Soviet Union of Jewish influences, noting
Stalin's purging of Jewish communists such as
Leon Trotsky , Grigory
Lev Kamenev , and
Karl Radek . While
Hitler had always
intended to bring Germany into conflict with the
Soviet Union so he
Lebensraum (living space), he supported a temporary
strategic alliance between
Nazi Germany and the
Soviet Union to form a
common anti-liberal front so they could crush liberal democracies,
Early timeline of Nazism
Johann Gottlieb Fichte , considered one of the fathers of German
One of the most significant ideological influences on the Nazis was
the German nationalist
Johann Gottlieb Fichte , whose works had served
as an inspiration to
Hitler and other
Nazi Party members, including
Dietrich Eckart and
Arnold Fanck . In Speeches to the German Nation
(1808), written amid Napoleonic France's occupation of Berlin, Fichte
called for a German national revolution against the French occupiers,
making passionate public speeches, arming his students for battle
against the French, and stressing the need for action by the German
nation so it could free itself. Fichte's nationalism was populist and
opposed to traditional elites, spoke of the need for a "People's War"
(Volkskrieg), and put forth concepts similar to those which the Nazis
adopted. Fichte promoted German exceptionalism and stressed the need
for the German nation to purify itself (including purging the German
language of French words, a policy that the Nazis undertook upon their
rise to power).
Another important figure in pre-Nazi völkisch thinking was Wilhelm
Heinrich Riehl , whose work—Land und Leute (Land and People, written
between 1857 and 1863)—collectively tied the organic German
its native landscape and nature, a pairing which stood in stark
opposition to the mechanical and materialistic civilization which was
then developing as a result of industrialization . Geographers
Friedrich Ratzel and
Karl Haushofer borrowed from Riehl's work as did
Alfred Rosenberg and Paul Schultze-Naumburg; both of
whom employed some of Riehl’s philosophy in arguing that "each
nation-state was an organism that required a particular living space
in order to survive". Riehl’s influence is overtly discernible in
Blut und Boden (Blood and Soil) philosophy introduced by Oswald
Spengler , which the Nazi agriculturalist Walther Darré and other
prominent Nazis adopted.
Völkisch nationalism denounced soulless materialism , individualism
, and secularised urban industrial society, while advocating a
"superior" society based on ethnic German "folk" culture and German
"blood". It denounced foreigners and foreign ideas, and declared that
Jews, Freemasons , and others were "traitors to the nation" and
unworthy of inclusion. Völkisch nationalism saw the world in terms
of natural law and romanticism ; it viewed societies as organic,
extolling the virtues of rural life, condemning the neglect of
tradition and the decay of morals, denounced the destruction of the
natural environment, and condemned "cosmopolitan" cultures such as
Jews and Romani.
Georg Ritter von Schönerer
Georg Ritter von Schönerer , a major exponent
During the era of Imperial Germany, Völkisch nationalism was
overshadowed by both Prussian patriotism and the federalist tradition
of various states therein. The events of World War I, including the
end of the Prussian monarchy in Germany, resulted in a surge in
revolutionary Völkisch nationalism. The Nazis supported such
revolutionary Völkisch nationalist policies and they claimed that
their ideology was influenced by the leadership and policies of German
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck , the founder of the
German Empire . The
Nazis declared that they were dedicated to continuing the process of
creating a unified German nation state that Bismarck had begun and
desired to achieve. While
Hitler was supportive of Bismarck's
creation of the German Empire, he was critical of Bismarck's moderate
domestic policies. On the issue of Bismarck's support of a
Kleindeutschland ("Lesser Germany", excluding Austria) versus the
Pan-German Großdeutschland ("Greater Germany") which the Nazis
Hitler stated that Bismarck's attainment of
Kleindeutschland was the "highest achievement" Bismarck could have
achieved "within the limits possible at that time". In
Mein Kampf (My
Hitler presented himself as a "second Bismarck".
During his youth in Austria,
Hitler was politically influenced by
Austrian Pan-Germanist proponent
Georg Ritter von Schönerer
Georg Ritter von Schönerer , who
German nationalism , antisemitism, anti-Catholicism
, anti-Slavic sentiment , and anti-Habsburg views. From von
Schönerer and his followers,
Hitler adopted for the Nazi movement the
Heil greeting, the
Führer title, and the model of absolute party
Hitler was also impressed by the populist antisemitism
and the anti-liberal bourgeois agitation of
Karl Lueger , who as the
Vienna during Hitler's time in the city used a rabble-rousing
style of oratory that appealed to the wider masses. Unlike von
Schönerer, however, Lueger was not a German nationalist, instead, he
was a pro-Catholic Habsburg supporter and only used German nationalist
notions occasionally for his own agenda. Although
Hitler praised both
Lueger and Schönerer, he criticized the former for not applying a
racial doctrine against the
Jews and Slavs.
RACIAL THEORIES AND ANTISEMITISM
Arthur de Gobineau, one of the key inventors in the theory of
The concept of the
Aryan race , which the Nazis promoted, stems from
racial theories asserting that
Europeans are the descendants of
Indo-Iranian settlers, people of ancient
India and ancient Persia .
Proponents of this theory based their assertion on the fact that words
in European languages and words in Indo-Iranian languages have similar
pronunciations and meanings.
Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder argued that the
Germanic peoples held close racial connections with the ancient
Indians and the ancient Persians, who he claimed were advanced peoples
that possessed a great capacity for wisdom, nobility, restraint, and
science. Contemporaries of Herder used the concept of the
to draw a distinction between what they deemed to be "high and noble"
Aryan culture versus that of "parasitic" Semitic culture.
Notions of white supremacy and
Aryan racial superiority combined in
the 19th century, with white supremacists maintaining the belief that
certain groups of white people were members of an
Aryan "master race"
that is superior to other races, and particularly superior to the
Semitic race, which they associated with "cultural sterility". Arthur
de Gobineau , a French racial theorist and aristocrat, blamed the fall
of the ancien régime in
France on racial degeneracy caused by racial
intermixing , which he argued had destroyed the purity of the Aryan
race, a term which he only reserved for Germanic people. Gobineau's
theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany, emphasized
the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between
and Jewish cultures.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain , whose book
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century would prove to be a seminal
work in the history of
Aryan mysticism claimed that
Christianity originated in Aryan
religious tradition and that
Jews had usurped the legend from Aryans.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain , an English proponent of racial theory,
supported notions of Germanic supremacy and antisemitism in Germany.
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899),
praised Germanic peoples for their creativity and idealism while
asserting that the Germanic spirit was threatened by a "Jewish" spirit
of selfishness and materialism . Chamberlain used his thesis to
promote monarchical conservatism while denouncing democracy ,
liberalism , and socialism . The book became popular, especially in
Germany. Chamberlain stressed a nation's need to maintain its racial
purity in order to prevent its degeneration, and he argued that racial
Jews should never be permitted. In 1923,
Chamberlain met Hitler, whom he admired as a leader of the rebirth of
the free spirit.
Madison Grant 's work The Passing of the Great Race
Nordicism and proposed that a eugenics program should
be implemented in order to preserve the purity of the Nordic race.
After reading the book,
Hitler called it "my Bible".
In Germany, the belief that
Jews were economically exploiting Germans
became prominent due to the ascendancy of many wealthy
prominent positions upon the unification of Germany in 1871.
Empirical evidence demonstrates that from 1871 to the early 20th
Jews were overrepresented in Germany's upper and
middle classes while they were underrepresented in Germany's lower
classes, particularly in the fields of agricultural and industrial
labour. German Jewish financiers and bankers played a key role in
fostering Germany's economic growth from 1871 to 1913, and they
benefited enormously from this boom. In 1908, amongst the twenty-nine
wealthiest German families with aggregate fortunes of up to 55 million
marks at the time, five were Jewish, and the Rothschilds were the
second wealthiest German family. The predominance of
Germany's banking, commerce, and industry sectors during this time
period was very high, even though
Jews were estimated to account for
only 1% of the population of Germany. The overrepresentation of Jews
in these areas fueled resentment among non-Jewish Germans during
periods of economic crisis. The 1873 stock market crash and the
ensuing depression resulted in a spate of attacks on alleged Jewish
economic dominance in Germany and antisemitism increased .
At this time period in the 1870s, German Völkisch nationalism began
to adopt antisemitic and racist themes and it was also adopted by a
number of radical right political movements.
Antisemitism was promoted by prominent advocates of Völkisch
Eugen Diederichs ,
Paul de Lagarde
Paul de Lagarde , and Julius
Langbehn . De Lagarde called the
Jews a "bacillus , the carriers of
decay ... who pollute every national culture ... and destroy all
faiths with their materialistic liberalism", and he called for the
extermination of the Jews. Langbehn called for a war of annihilation
against the Jews; his genocidal policies were published by the Nazis
and given to soldiers on the front during
World War II
World War II . One
antisemitic ideologue of the period, Friedrich Lange , even used the
term "national socialism" to describe his own anti-capitalist take on
the Völkisch nationalist template.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte accused
Jews in Germany of having been, and
inevitably of continuing to be, a "state within a state" that
threatened German national unity. Fichte promoted two options in
order to address this: his first one being the creation of a Jewish
state in Palestine so the
Jews could be impelled to leave Europe. His
second option was violence against Jews, and he said that the goal of
the violence would be "to cut off all their heads in one night, and
set new ones on their shoulders, which should not contain a single
Jewish idea". Caricatures of
Vladimir Lenin ,
Karl Radek ,
Julius Martov , and
Emma Goldman . from Alfred Rosenberg
The Jewish Bolshevism asserting that
Bolshevism is a Jewish
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1912) is an antisemitic forgery
created by the secret service of the Russian Empire, the
Many antisemites believed it was real and the Protocols became widely
popular after World War I. The Protocols claimed that there was a
secret international Jewish conspiracy to take over the world. Hitler
had been introduced to The Protocols by
Alfred Rosenberg , and from
1920 onwards, he focused his attacks by claiming that
Marxism were directly connected, that
Bolsheviks were one and
the same, and that
Marxism was a Jewish ideology, this became known as
Jewish Bolshevism .
Hitler believed that The Protocols were
Prior to the Nazi ascension to power,
Hitler often blamed moral
Rassenschande (racial defilement), a way to assure his
followers of his continuing antisemitism, which had been toned down
for popular consumption. Prior to the induction of the Nuremberg Race
Laws in 1935 by the Nazis, many German nationalists such as Roland
Freisler strongly supported laws to ban
Rassenschande between Aryans
Jews as racial treason. Even before the laws were officially
passed, the Nazis banned sexual relations and marriages between party
members and Jews. Party members found guilty of
severely punished; some party members were even sentenced to death.
The Nazis claimed that Bismarck was unable to complete German
national unification because
Jews had infiltrated the German
parliament, and they claimed that their abolition of parliament had
ended this obstacle to unification. Using the stab-in-the-back myth ,
the Nazis accused Jews—and other populations who it considered
non-German—of possessing extra-national loyalties, thereby
exacerbating German antisemitism about the Judenfrage (the Jewish
Question), the far-right political canard which was popular when the
Völkisch movement and its politics of
Romantic nationalism for
establishing a Großdeutschland was strong.
Nazism's racial policy positions may have developed from the views of
important biologists of the 19th century, including French biologist
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck , through
Ernst Haeckel 's idealist version of
Lamarckism and the father of genetics , German botanist Gregor Mendel
. However, Haeckel's works were later condemned and banned from
bookshops and libraries by the Nazis as inappropriate for
"National-Socialist formation and education in the Third Reich". This
may have been because of his "monist" atheistic, materialist
philosophy, which the Nazis disliked. Unlike Darwinian theory,
Lamarckian theory officially ranked races in a hierarchy of evolution
from apes while Darwinian theory did not grade races in a hierarchy of
higher or lower evolution from apes, but simply stated that all humans
as a whole had progressed in their evolution from apes. Many
Lamarckians viewed "lower" races as having been exposed to
debilitating conditions for too long for any significant "improvement"
of their condition to take place in the near future. Haeckel utilised
Lamarckian theory to describe the existence of interracial struggle
and put races on a hierarchy of evolution, ranging from wholly human
to subhuman .
Mendelian inheritance , or Mendelism, was supported by the Nazis, as
well as by mainstream eugenicists of the time. The Mendelian theory of
inheritance declared that genetic traits and attributes were passed
from one generation to another. Eugenicists used Mendelian
inheritance theory to demonstrate the transfer of biological illness
and impairments from parents to children, including mental disability;
others also utilised Mendelian theory to demonstrate the inheritance
of social traits, with racialists claiming a racial nature behind
certain general traits such as inventiveness or criminal behaviour.
RESPONSE TO WORLD WAR I AND ITALIAN FASCISM
During World War I, German sociologist
Johann Plenge spoke of the
rise of a "National Socialism" in Germany within what he termed the
"ideas of 1914 " that were a declaration of war against the "ideas of
French Revolution ). According to Plenge, the "ideas of
1789" which included the rights of man, democracy, individualism and
liberalism were being rejected in favour of "the ideas of 1914" which
included the "German values" of duty, discipline, law, and order.
Plenge believed that ethnic solidarity (
Volksgemeinschaft ) would
replace class division and that "racial comrades" would unite to
create a socialist society in the struggle of "proletarian" Germany
against "capitalist" Britain. He believed that the "Spirit of 1914"
manifested itself in the concept of the "People's League of National
Socialism". This National
Socialism was a form of state socialism
that rejected the "idea of boundless freedom" and promoted an economy
that would serve the whole of Germany under the leadership of the
state. This National
Socialism was opposed to capitalism due to the
components that were against "the national interest" of Germany, but
insisted that National
Socialism would strive for greater efficiency
in the economy. Plenge advocated an authoritarian, rational ruling
elite to develop National
Socialism through a hierarchical
technocratic state. Plenge's ideas formed the basis of Nazism.
Oswald Spengler , a philosopher of history
Oswald Spengler , a German cultural philosopher, was a major
influence on Nazism, although, after 1933, Spengler became alienated
Nazism and was later condemned by the Nazis for criticising Adolf
Hitler. Spengler's conception of national socialism and a number of
his political views were shared by the Nazis and the Conservative
Revolutionary movement . Spengler's views were also popular amongst
Italian Fascists , including
Benito Mussolini .
The Decline of the West
The Decline of the West (1918) written during the
final months of
World War I
World War I , addressed the claim of decadence of
modern European civilisation, which he claimed was caused by atomising
and irreligious individualisation and cosmopolitanism . Spengler's
major thesis was that a law of historical development of cultures
existed involving a cycle of birth, maturity, ageing, and death when
it reaches its final form of civilisation. Upon reaching the point of
civilisation, a culture will lose its creative capacity and succumb to
decadence until the emergence of "barbarians " creates a new epoch.
Spengler considered the
Western world as having succumbed to decadence
of intellect, money, cosmopolitan urban life, irreligious life,
atomised individualisation , and was at the end of its biological and
"spiritual" fertility. He believed that the "young" German nation as
an imperial power would inherit the legacy of
Ancient Rome , lead a
restoration of value in "blood " and instinct, while the ideals of
rationalism would be revealed as absurd.
Spengler's notions of "Prussian socialism" as described in his book
Preussentum und Sozialismus ("Prussiandom and Socialism", 1919),
Nazism and the
Conservative Revolutionary movement .
Spengler wrote: "The meaning of socialism is that life is controlled
not by the opposition between rich and poor, but by the rank that
achievement and talent bestow. That is our freedom, freedom from the
economic despotism of the individual." Spengler adopted the
anti-English ideas addressed by Plenge and Sombart during World War I
that condemned English liberalism and English parliamentarianism while
advocating a national socialism that was free from
Marxism and that
would connect the individual to the state through corporatist
organisation. Spengler claimed that socialistic Prussian
characteristics existed across Germany, including creativity,
discipline, concern for the greater good, productivity, and
self-sacrifice. He prescribed war as a necessity, saying "War is the
eternal form of higher human existence and states exist for war: they
are the expression of the will to war." The Marinebrigade
Erhardt during the
Kapp Putsch in Berlin, 1920. The Marinebrigade
Erhardt used the swastika as its symbol, as seen on their helmets and
on the truck; it inspired the
Nazi Party to adopt it as the movement's
Spengler's definition of socialism did not advocate a change to
property relations. He denounced
Marxism for seeking to train the
proletariat to "expropriate the expropriator", the capitalist, and
then to let them live a life of leisure on this expropriation. He
claimed that "
Marxism is the capitalism of the working class" and not
true socialism. True socialism, according to Spengler, would be in
the form of corporatism, stating that: "local corporate bodies
organised according to the importance of each occupation to the people
as a whole; higher representation in stages up to a supreme council of
the state; mandates revocable at any time; no organised parties, no
professional politicians, no periodic elections". The book Das
Dritte Reich (1923), translated as "The Third Reich", by Arthur
Moeller van den Bruck
Wilhelm Stapel, an antisemitic German intellectual, utilised
Spengler's thesis on the cultural confrontation between
Jews as whom
Spengler described as a Magian people versus
Europeans as a Faustian
people. Stapel described
Jews as a landless nomadic people in pursuit
of an international culture whereby they can integrate into Western
civilisation. As such, Stapel claims that
Jews have been attracted to
"international" versions of socialism, pacifism, or capitalism because
as a landless people the
Jews have transgressed various national
Arthur Moeller van den Bruck was initially the dominant figure of the
Conservative Revolutionaries influenced Nazism. He rejected
reactionary conservatism, while proposing a new state, that he coined
the "Third Reich", which would unite all classes under authoritarian
rule. Van den Bruck advocated a combination of the nationalism of the
right and the socialism of the left.
Fascism was a major influence on Nazism. The seizure of power by
Italian Fascist leader
Benito Mussolini in the
March on Rome
March on Rome in 1922
drew admiration by Hitler, who less than a month later had begun to
model himself and the
Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists.
Hitler presented the Nazis as a form of German fascism. In November
1923, the Nazis attempted a "March on Berlin", modelled after the
March on Rome, which resulted in the failed
Beer Hall Putsch in Munich
Hitler spoke of
Nazism being indebted to the success of Fascism's
rise to power in Italy. In a private conversation in 1941 he said
"the brown shirt would probably not have existed without the black
shirt", the "brown shirt" referring to the Nazi militia and the "black
shirt" referring to the Fascist militia. He also said in regards to
the 1920s "If Mussolini had been outdistanced by Marxism, I don't know
whether we could have succeeded in holding out. At that period
Socialism was a very fragile growth."
Other Nazis—especially those at the time associated with the
party's more radical wing such as
Gregor Strasser , Joseph Goebbels,
and Heinrich Himmler—rejected Italian Fascism, accusing it of being
too conservative or capitalist.
Alfred Rosenberg condemned Italian
Fascism for being racially confused and having influences from
philosemitism . Strasser criticised the policy of
being created by Mussolini, and considered its presence in
Nazism as a
foreign imported idea. Throughout the relationship between Nazi
Germany and Fascist Italy, a number of lower-ranking Nazis scornfully
viewed fascism as a conservative movement that lacked a full
NATIONALISM AND RACIALISM
Nazism and race and Racial policy of Nazi
German nationalism , including both
irredentism and expansionism.
Nazism held racial theories based upon
the belief of the existence of an
Aryan master race that was superior
to all other races. The Nazis emphasised the existence of racial
conflict between the
Aryan race and others—particularly Jews, whom
the Nazis viewed as a mixed race that had infiltrated multiple
societies, and was responsible for exploitation and repression of the
Aryan race. The Nazis also categorised
Irredentism And Expansionism
Beginning of Lebensraum, the Nazi German expulsion of
central Poland , 1939
Nazi Party supported German irredentist claims to Austria
Alsace-Lorraine , the region now known as the
Czech Republic , and
the territory known since 1919 as the
Polish Corridor . A major policy
of the German
Nazi Party was
Lebensraum ("living space") for the
German nation based on claims that Germany after
World War I
World War I was
facing an overpopulation crisis and that expansion was needed to end
the country's overpopulation within existing confined territory, and
provide resources necessary to its people's well-being. Since the
Nazi Party publicly promoted the expansion of Germany into
territories held by the Soviet Union.
Hitler stated that
Lebensraum would be acquired in
Eastern Europe, especially Russia. In his early years as the Nazi
Hitler had claimed that he would be willing to accept friendly
relations with Russia on the tactical condition that Russia agree to
return to the borders established by the German–Russian peace
agreement of the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed by
Vladimir Lenin of
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic in 1918 which gave
large territories held by Russia to German control in exchange for
Hitler in 1921 had commended the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk as
opening the possibility for restoration of relations between Germany
and Russia, saying:
Through the peace with Russia the sustenance of Germany as well as
the provision of work were to have been secured by the acquisition of
land and soil, by access to raw materials, and by friendly relations
between the two lands. —
Adolf Hitler Topographical map of
Nazi Party declared support for Drang nach Osten
(expansion of Germany east to the Ural Mountains), that is shown on
the upper right side of the map as a brown diagonal line.
Hitler from 1921 to 1922 evoked rhetoric of both the achievement of
Lebensraum involving the acceptance of a territorially reduced Russia
as well as supporting Russian nationals in overthrowing the Bolshevik
government and establishing a new Russian government. Hitler's
attitudes changed by the end of 1922, in which he then supported an
alliance of Germany with Britain to destroy Russia. Later Hitler
declared how far he intended to expand Germany into Russia:
Asia, what a disquieting reservoir of men! The safety of Europe will
not be assured until we have driven Asia back behind the Urals. No
organized Russian state must be allowed to exist west of that line.
Lebensraum planned mass expansion of Germany's borders to
eastwards of the
Ural Mountains .
Hitler planned for the "surplus"
Russian population living west of the Urals to be deported to the east
of the Urals.
In its racial categorization ,
Nazism viewed what it called the Aryan
race as the master race of the world—a race that was superior to all
other races. It viewed Aryans as being in racial conflict with a
mixed race people, the
Jews , whom the Nazis identified as a dangerous
enemy of the Aryans. It also viewed a number of other peoples as
dangerous to the well-being of the
Aryan race. In order to preserve
the perceived racial purity of the
Aryan race, a set of race laws was
introduced in 1935 which came to be known as the
Nuremberg Laws . At
first these laws only prevented sexual relations and marriages between
Germans and Jews, but they were later extended to the "Gypsies ,
Negroes , and their bastard offspring", who were described by the
Nazis as people of "alien blood". Such relations between Aryans (cf.
Aryan certificate ) and non-Aryans were now punishable under the race
Rassenschande or "race defilement". After the war began, the
race defilement law was extended to include all foreigners
(non-Germans). At the bottom of the racial scale of non-Aryans were
Jews , Romanis ,
Slavs and blacks . To maintain the "purity and
strength" of the
Aryan race, the Nazis eventually sought to
exterminate Jews, Romani, Slavs, and the physically and mentally
disabled . Other groups deemed "degenerate " and "asocial " who were
not targeted for extermination, but were subjected to exclusionary
treatment by the Nazi state, included homosexuals , blacks ,
Jehovah\'s Witnesses , and political opponents. One of Hitler's
ambitions at the start of the war was to exterminate, expel, or
enslave most or all
Slavs from Central and
Eastern Europe in order to
acquire living space for German settlers. A "poster information"
from the exhibition miracle of life in Berlin in 1935.
A Nazi era school textbook for German students entitled Heredity and
Racial Biology for Students written by Jakob Graf described to
students the Nazi conception of the
Aryan race in a section titled
"The Aryan: The Creative Force in Human History". Graf claimed that
the original Aryans developed from Nordic peoples who invaded ancient
India and launched the initial development of
Aryan culture there that
later spread to ancient Persia and he claimed that the
in Persia was what was responsible for its development into an empire.
He claimed that ancient Greek culture was developed by Nordic peoples
due to paintings of the time which showed Greeks who were tall,
light-skinned, light-eyed, blond-haired people. He said that the
Roman Empire was developed by the Italics who were related to the
Celts who were also a Nordic people. He believed that the vanishing
of the Nordic component of the populations in Greece and Rome led to
their downfall. The
Renaissance was claimed to have developed in the
Roman Empire because of the Germanic invasions that brought
new Nordic blood to the Empire's lands, such as the presence of Nordic
blood in the
Lombards (referred to as Longobards in the book); that
remnants of the western
Goths were responsible for the creation of the
Spanish Empire ; and that the heritage of the
Goths , and
Germanic peoples in
France was what was responsible for its rise as a
major power. He claimed that the rise of the
Russian Empire was due
to its leadership by people of Norman descent. He described the rise
of Anglo-Saxon societies in
North America ,
South Africa , and
Australia , as being the result of the Nordic heritage of
Anglo-Saxons. He concluded these points by saying that "Everywhere
Nordic creative power has built mighty empires with high-minded ideas,
and to this very day
Aryan languages and cultural values are spread
over a large part of the world, though the creative Nordic blood has
long since vanished in many places." A wagon piled high with
corpses outside the crematorium in
Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
In Nazi Germany, the idea of creating a master race resulted in
efforts to "purify" the Deutsche
Volk through eugenics ; its
culmination was the compulsory sterilization or the involuntary
euthanasia of physically or mentally disabled people. After World War
II, the euthanasia programme was named
Action T4 . The ideological
justification for euthanasia was
Adolf Hitler 's view of
century – 195 BC) as the original Völkisch state; he praised
Sparta's dispassionate destruction of congenitally deformed infants in
order to maintain racial purity. Some non-Aryans enlisted in Nazi
organisations like the
Hitler Youth and the
Wehrmacht , including
Germans of African descent and Jewish descent. The Nazis began to
implement "racial hygiene" policies as soon as they came to power. The
July 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring"
prescribed compulsory sterilization for people with a range of
conditions which were thought to be hereditary, such as schizophrenia
, epilepsy , Huntington\'s chorea , and "imbecility ". Sterilization
was also mandated for chronic alcoholism and other forms of social
deviance . An estimated 360,000 people were sterilised under this law
between 1933 and 1939. Although some Nazis suggested that the
programme should be extended to people with physical disabilities,
such ideas had to be expressed carefully, given the fact that some
Nazis had physical disabilities, one example being one of the most
powerful figures of the regime, Joseph Goebbels, who had a deformed
Nazi racial theorist
Hans F. K. Günther
Hans F. K. Günther argued that European peoples
were divided into five races: Nordic , Mediterranean , Dinaric ,
Alpine , and East Baltic . Günther applied a Nordicist conception in
order to justify his belief that Nordics were the highest in the
racial hierarchy. In his book
Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes (1922)
("Racial Science of the German People"), Günther recognised Germans
as being composed of all five races, but emphasized the strong Nordic
heritage among them.
Hitler read Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes,
which influenced his racial policy. Gunther believed that Slavs
belonged to an "Eastern race" and he warned against Germans mixing
The Nazis described
Jews as being a racially mixed group of primarily
Near Eastern and Oriental racial types. Because such racial groups
were concentrated outside Europe, the Nazis claimed that
"racially alien" to all European peoples and that they did not have
deep racial roots in Europe.
Günther emphasized Jews' Near Eastern racial heritage. Günther
identified the mass conversion of the
Judaism in the 8th
century as creating the two major branches of the Jewish people, those
of primarily Near Eastern racial heritage became the Ashkenazi Jews
(that he called Eastern Jews) while those of primarily Oriental racial
heritage became the Sephardi
Jews (that he called Southern Jews).
Günther claimed that the Near Eastern type was composed of
commercially spirited and artful traders, that the type held strong
psychological manipulation skills which aided them in trade. He
claimed that the Near Eastern race had been "bred not so much for the
conquest and exploitation of nature as it had been for the conquest
and exploitation of people". Günther believed that European peoples
had a racially motivated aversion to peoples of Near Eastern racial
origin and their traits, and as evidence of this he showed multiple
examples of depictions of satanic figures with Near Eastern
physiognomies in European art.
Hitler's conception of the
Aryan master race")
excluded the vast majority of
Slavs from central and eastern Europe
Ukrainians , etc.). They were regarded as a
race of men not inclined to a higher form of civilization, which was
under an instinctive force that reverted them back to nature. The
Nazis also regarded the
Slavs as having dangerous Jewish and Asiatic,
meaning Mongol , influences. Because of this The Nazis declared Slavs
Untermenschen (subhumans). Nazi anthropologists attempted to
scientifically prove the historical admixture of the
Slavs who lived
further East. Leading Nazi racial theorist Hans Günther regarded the
Slavs as being primarily Nordic centuries ago but he believed that
they had mixed with non-Nordic types over time. Exceptions were made
for a small percentage of
Slavs who the Nazis saw as descended from
German settlers and therefore fit to be Germanised and considered part
Aryan master race.
Slavs as "a mass of born
slaves who feel the need for a master". The Nazi notion of
inferior served as a legitimization of their desire to create
Lebensraum for Germans and other Germanic people in eastern Europe,
where millions of Germans and other Germanic settlers would be moved
into once those territories were conquered, while the original Slavic
inhabitants were to be annihilated, removed, or enslaved . Nazi
Germany's policy changed towards
Slavs in response to military
manpower shortages, forced it to allow
Slavs to serve in its armed
forces within the occupied territories, in spite of the fact that they
were considered subhuman.
Hitler declared that racial conflict against
Jews was necessary in
order to save Germany from suffering under them and he dismissed
concerns that the conflict with them was inhumane and unjust:
We may be inhumane, but if we rescue Germany we have achieved the
greatest deed in the world. We may work injustice, but if we rescue
Germany then we have removed the greatest injustice in the world. We
may be immoral, but if our people is rescued we have opened the way
Joseph Goebbels frequently employed antisemitic
rhetoric to underline this view: "The Jew is the enemy and the
destroyer of the purity of blood, the conscious destroyer of our race
... As socialists, we are opponents of the Jews, because we see, in
the Hebrews, the incarnation of capitalism , the misuse of the
Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of internationalist class
struggle, but supported the "class struggle between nations", and
sought to resolve internal class struggle in the nation while it
identified Germany as a proletarian nation fighting against
Adolf Hitler discredited other nationalist and racialist
political parties as disconnected from the mass populace, especially
lower and working-class young people:
The racialists were not capable of drawing the practical conclusions
from correct theoretical judgements, especially in the Jewish
Question. In this way, the German racialist movement developed a
similar pattern to that of the 1880s and 1890s. As in those days, its
leadership gradually fell into the hands of highly honourable, but
fantastically naïve men of learning, professors, district
counsellors, schoolmasters, and lawyers—in short a bourgeois,
idealistic, and refined class. It lacked the warm breath of the
nation's youthful vigour.
Nazi Party had many working-class supporters and members, and a
strong appeal to the middle class . The financial collapse of the
white collar middle-class of the 1920s figures much in their strong
support of Nazism. In the poor country that was the Weimar Republic
of the early 1930s, the
Nazi Party realised their socialist policies
with food and shelter for the unemployed and the homeless—were later
recruited into the Brownshirt
Sturmabteilung (SA – Storm
SEX AND GENDER
Further information: Women in
Nazi Germany Obligations of
Polish workers in Germany, warning them of the death penalty for any
sexual relations between Germans and Poles.
Nazi ideology advocated excluding women from political involvement
and confining them to the spheres of "
Kinder, Küche, Kirche "
(Children, Kitchen, Church). Many women enthusiastically supported
the regime but formed their own internal hierarchies.
Hitler's own opinion on the matter of women in
Nazi Germany was that
while other eras of German history had experienced the development and
liberation of the female mind, the National Socialist goal was
essentially singular in that it wished for them to produce a child.
Based on this theme,
Hitler once remarked about women, "with every
child that she brings into the world, she fights her battle for the
nation. The man stands up for the Volk, exactly as the woman stands up
for the family." Proto-natalist programs in
Nazi Germany offered
favourable loans and grants to newlyweds and encourage them to give
birth to offspring by providing them with additional incentives.
Contraception was discouraged for racially valuable women in Nazi
Germany and abortion was forbidden by strict legal mandates, including
prison sentences for women who sought them as well as prison sentences
for doctors who performed them, whereas abortion for racially
"undesirable" persons was encouraged.
While unmarried until the very end of the regime,
Hitler often made
excuses about his busy life hindering any chance for marriage. Among
National Socialist ideologues, marriage was valued not for moral
considerations but because it provided an optimal breeding
Heinrich Himmler reportedly told a
confidant that when he established the
Lebensborn program, an
organisation that would dramatically increase the birth rate of
"Aryan" children through extramarital relations between women
classified as racially pure and their male equals, he had only the
purest male "conception assistants" in mind.
Since the Nazis extended the
Rassenschande (race defilement) law to
all foreigners at the beginning of the war, pamphlets were issued to
German women which ordered them to avoid sexual relations with foreign
workers who were brought to Germany and the pamphlets also ordered
German women to view these same foreign workers as a danger to their
blood. Although the law was applicable to both genders, German women
were punished more severely for having sexual relations with foreign
forced labourers in Germany. The Nazis issued the
Polish decrees on 8
March 1940 which contained regulations concerning the Polish forced
Zivilarbeiter ) who were brought to Germany during World
War II. One of the regulations stated that any Pole "who has sexual
relations with a German man or woman, or approaches them in any other
improper manner, will be punished by death".
After the decrees were enacted,
Fellow Germans who engage in sexual relations with male or female
civil workers of the Polish nationality, commit other immoral acts or
engage in love affairs shall be arrested immediately.
The Nazis later issued similar regulations against the Eastern
Workers (Ost-Arbeiters ), including the imposition of the death
penalty if they engaged in sexual relations with German persons.
Heydrich issued a decree on 20 February 1942 which declared that
sexual intercourse between a German woman and a Russian worker or
prisoner of war would result in the Russian man being punished with
the death penalty. Another decree issued by
Himmler on 7 December
1942 stated that any "unauthorised sexual intercourse" would result in
the death penalty. Because the Law for the Protection of German Blood
and German Honour did not permit capital punishment for race
defilement, special courts were convened in order to allow the death
penalty to be imposed in some cases. German women accused of race
defilement were marched through the streets with their head shaven and
placards detailing their crimes were placed around their necks, and
those convicted of race defilement were sent to concentration camps.
Himmler reportedly asked
Hitler what the punishment should be for
German girls and German women who were found guilty of race defilement
with prisoners of war (POWs) he ordered, "every POW who has relations
with a German girl or a German would be shot" and the German woman
should be publicly humiliated by "having her hair shorn and being sent
to a concentration camp".
League of German Girls was particularly regarded as instructing
girls to avoid race defilement, which was treated with particular
importance for young females.
Opposition To Homosexuality
Further information: Persecution of homosexuals in
Nazi Germany and
Holocaust Homophobia: Berlin memorial to homosexual victims
of the Holocaust: Totgeschlagen—Totgeschwiegen (Struck Dead—Hushed
After the Night of the Long Knives,
Himmler and the
SS , who then zealously suppressed homosexuality , saying: "We must
exterminate these people root and branch ... the homosexual must be
eliminated." In 1936,
Himmler established the "Reichszentrale zur
Bekämpfung der Homosexualität und Abtreibung " ("Reich Central
Office for the Combating of
Homosexuality and Abortion"). The Nazi
regime incarcerated some 100,000 homosexuals during the 1930s. As
concentration camp prisoners, homosexual men were forced to wear pink
triangle badges. Nazi ideology still viewed German men who were gay
as a part of the
Aryan master race but the
Nazi regime attempted to
force them into sexual and social conformity. Homosexuals were viewed
as failing in their duty to procreate and reproduce for the Aryan
nation. Gay men who would not change or feign a change in their sexual
orientation were sent to concentration camps under the "Extermination
Through Work" campaign.
Religious aspects of Nazism , Religion in Nazi
Germany , Positive
German Christians , German Faith
Catholic Church and
Nazi Germany ,
Kreuz und Adler , and
Religious views of
Adolf Hitler Members of the German Christians
Luther Day in Berlin in 1933, speech by
Cesare Orsenigo , the Catholic
Church 's nuncio to Germany , in 1935
Nazi Party Programme of 1920 guaranteed freedom for all religious
denominations which were not hostile to the State and it also endorsed
Christianity in order to combat "the Jewish-materialist
Christianity was a modified version of Christianity
which emphasized racial purity and nationalism . The Nazis were aided
by theologians such as Ernst Bergmann . Bergmann, in his work Die 25
Thesen der Deutschreligion (Twenty-five Points of the German
Religion), held the view that the
Old Testament of the
inaccurate along with portions of the
New Testament . He claimed that
Jesus was not a Jew but was instead of
Aryan origin, and he also
Adolf Hitler was the new messiah .
Hitler denounced the
Old Testament as "
Satan 's Bible", and utilising
components of the New Testament, he attempted to prove that
Aryan and an antisemite, by citing passages such as John 8:44
Hitler noted that
Jesus is yelling at "the Jews", as well as
saying to them "your father is the devil", and the Cleansing of the
Temple , which describes Jesus' whipping of the "Children of the
Hitler claimed that the
New Testament included distortions by
Paul the Apostle , whom
Hitler described as a "mass-murderer turned
In their propaganda, the Nazis utilised the writings of Martin Luther
, the founder of
Protestantism . They publicly displayed an original
edition of Luther's On the
Jews and their Lies during the annual
Nuremberg rallies. The Nazis endorsed the pro-Nazi Protestant German
The Nazis were initially very hostile to Catholics because most
Catholics supported the
German Centre Party . Catholics opposed the
Nazis' promotion of sterilization of those whom they deemed inferior,
Catholic Church forbade its members to vote for the Nazis. In
1933, extensive Nazi violence occurred against Catholics due to their
association with the Centre Party and their opposition to the Nazi
regime's sterilization laws. The Nazis demanded that Catholics
declare their loyalty to the German state. In their propaganda, the
Nazis used elements of Germany's Catholic history, in particular the
Teutonic Knights and their campaigns in Eastern Europe
. The Nazis identified them as "sentinels" in the East against "Slavic
chaos", though beyond that symbolism, the influence of the Teutonic
Nazism was limited.
Hitler also admitted that the Nazis'
night rallies were inspired by the Catholic rituals which he had
witnessed during his Catholic upbringing. The Nazis did seek official
reconciliation with the
Catholic Church and they endorsed the creation
of the pro-Nazi Catholic
Kreuz und Adler , an organization which
advocated a form of national Catholicism that would reconcile the
Catholic Church's beliefs with Nazism. On 20 July 1933, a concordat
Reichskonkordat ) was signed between
Nazi Germany and the Catholic
Church; in exchange for acceptance of the
Catholic Church in Germany,
it required German Catholics to be loyal to the German state. The
Catholic Church then ended its ban on members supporting the Nazi
Michael Burleigh claims that
political purposes, but such use required that "fundamental tenets
were stripped out, but the remaining diffuse religious emotionality
had its uses". Burleigh claims that Nazism's conception of
spirituality was "self-consciously pagan and primitive". However,
Roger Griffin rejects the claim that
Nazism was primarily
pagan, noting that although there were some influential neo-paganists
in the Nazi Party, such as
Heinrich Himmler and
Alfred Rosenberg ,
they represented a minority and their views did not influence Nazi
ideology beyond its use for symbolism; it is noted that Hitler
denounced Germanic paganism in
Mein Kampf and condemned Rosenberg's
and Himmler's paganism as "nonsense".
Further information: Economy of
Nazi Germany and Economics of fascism
Deutsches Volk–Deutsche Arbeit: German People, German Work,
the alliance of worker and work (1934)
Generally speaking, Nazi theorists and politicians blamed Germany’s
previous economic failures on political causes like the influence of
Marxism on the workforce, the sinister and exploitative machinations
of what they called international Jewry, and the vindictiveness of the
western political leaders' war reparation demands. Instead of
traditional economic incentives, the Nazis offered solutions of a
political nature, such as the elimination of organised labour groups,
rearmament (in contravention of the Versailles Treaty), and biological
politics. Various work programs designed to establish full-employment
for the German population were instituted once the Nazis seized full
Hitler encouraged nationally supported projects like
the construction of the Autobahn, the introduction of an affordable
people’s car (Volkswagen ) and later, the Nazis bolstered the
economy through the business and employment generated by military
rearmament. Not only did the Nazis benefit early in the regime's
existence from the first post-Depression economic upswing, their
public works projects, job-procurement program, and subsidised home
repair program reduced unemployment by as much as 40 percent in one
year, a development which tempered the unfavourable psychological
climate caused by the earlier economic crisis and encouraged Germans
to march in step with the regime.
To protect the German people and currency from volatile market
forces, the Nazis also promised social policies like a national labour
service, state-provided health care, guaranteed pensions, and an
agrarian settlement program. Agrarian policies were particularly
important to the Nazis since they corresponded not just to the economy
but to their geopolitical conception of
Lebensraum as well. For
Hitler, the acquisition of land and soil was requisite in moulding the
German economy. To tie farmers to their land, selling agricultural
land was prohibited. Farm ownership was nominally private, but
business monopoly rights were granted to marketing boards to control
production and prices with a quota system.
The Nazis sought to gain support of workers by declaring
May Day , a
day celebrated by organised labour , to be a paid holiday and held
celebrations on 1 May 1933 to honour German workers. The Nazis
stressed that Germany must honour its workers. The regime believed
that the only way to avoid a repeat of the disaster of 1918 was to
secure workers' support for the German government. The Nazis wanted
all Germans take part in the
May Day celebrations in the hope that
this would help break down class hostility between workers and
burghers . Songs in praise of labour and workers were played by state
May Day as well as fireworks and an air show in
Hitler spoke of workers as patriots who had built Germany's
industrial strength, had honourably served in the war and claimed that
they had been oppressed under economic liberalism . The Berliner
Morgenpost, which had been strongly associated with the political left
in the past, praised the regime's
May Day celebrations.
The Nazis continued social welfare policies initiated by the
governments of the
Weimar Republic and mobilised volunteers to assist
those impoverished, "racially-worthy" Germans through the National
Socialist People\'s Welfare (NSV) chairman Erich Hilgenfeldt
organisation. This organisation oversaw charitable activities, and
became the largest civic organisation in Nazi Germany. Successful
efforts were made to get middle-class women involved in social work
assisting large families. The
Winter Relief campaigns acted as a
ritual to generate public sympathy. Bonfires were made of school
children's differently coloured caps as symbolic of the abolition of
class differences. Large celebrations and symbolism were used
extensively to encourage those engaged in physical labour on behalf of
Germany, with leading National Socialists often praising the "honour
of labour", which fostered a sense of community (Gemeinschaft) for the
German people and promoted solidarity towards the Nazi cause.
Hitler believed that private ownership was useful in that it
encouraged creative competition and technical innovation, but insisted
that it had to conform to national interests and be "productive"
rather than "parasitical".
Private property rights were conditional
upon the economic mode of use; if it did not advance Nazi economic
goals then the state could nationalise it. Although the Nazis
privatised public properties and public services, they also increased
economic state control. Under Nazi economics, free competition and
self-regulating markets diminished; nevertheless, Hitler's social
Darwinist beliefs made him reluctant to entirely disregard business
competition and private property as economic engines.
Hitler primarily viewed the German economy as an instrument of power.
Hitler believed the economy was not just about creating wealth and
technical progress so as to improve the quality of life for a nation's
citizenry; economic success was paramount in that, it provided the
means and material foundations necessary for military conquest. While
economic progress generated by National Socialist programs had its
role in appeasing the German people, the Nazis and
particular, did not believe that economic solutions alone were
sufficient to thrust Germany onto the stage as a world power.
Therefore, the Nazis sought first to secure a command economy through
general economic revival accompanied by massive military spending for
rearmament, especially later through the implementation of the Four
Year Plan , which consolidated their rule and firmly secured a command
relationship between the German arms industry and the National
Socialist government. Between 1933 and 1939, military expenditures
were upwards of 82 billion Reichsmarks and represented 23 percent of
Germany's gross national product as the Nazis mobilised their people
and economy for war.
Ian Kershaw and
Joachim Fest argue that in post-World War
I Germany, the Nazis were one of many nationalist and fascist
political parties contending for the leadership of Germany's
anti-communist movement. The Nazis claimed that communism was
dangerous to the well-being of nations because of its intention to
dissolve private property , its support of class conflict , its
aggression against the middle class , its hostility towards small
business, and its atheism .
Nazism rejected class conflict-based
socialism and economic egalitarianism , favouring instead a stratified
economy with social classes based on merit and talent, retaining
private property , and the creation of national solidarity that
transcends class distinction.
During the 1920s,
Hitler urged disparate Nazi factions to unite in
Jewish Bolshevism .
Hitler asserted that the "three
vices" of "Jewish Marxism" were democracy, pacifism , and
Hitler said: "Our adopted term 'Socialist' has nothing to do
with Marxist Socialism.
Marxism is anti-property; true
not." In 1942,
Hitler privately said: "I absolutely insist on
protecting private property ... we must encourage private initiative".
During the late 1930s and the 1940s, anti-communist regimes and
groups that supported
Nazism included the
Spain ; the Vichy
regime and the 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne
(1st French) in France; the
British Union of Fascists under Sir Oswald
The Nazis argued that capitalism damages nations due to international
finance , the economic dominance of big business , and Jewish
influences. Nazi propaganda posters in working class districts
emphasised anti-capitalism, such as one that said: "The maintenance of
a rotten industrial system has nothing to do with nationalism. I can
love Germany and hate capitalism."
Adolf Hitler , both in public and in private, expressed disdain for
capitalism, arguing that it holds nations ransom in the interests of a
parasitic cosmopolitan rentier class. He opposed free market
capitalism's profit-seeking impulses and desired an economy in which
community interests would be upheld.
Hitler distrusted capitalism for being unreliable due to its egotism
, and he preferred a state-directed economy that is subordinated to
the interests of the
Hitler told a party leader in 1934, "The economic system of our day
is the creation of the Jews."
Hitler said to
Benito Mussolini that
capitalism had "run its course".
Hitler also said that the business
bourgeoisie "know nothing except their profit. 'Fatherland' is only a
word for them."
Hitler was personally disgusted with the ruling
bourgeois elites of Germany during the period of the Weimar Republic,
who he referred to as "cowardly shits".
Mein Kampf ,
Hitler effectively supported mercantilism , in the
belief that economic resources from their respective territories
should be seized by force; he believed that the policy of Lebensraum
would provide Germany with such economically valuable territories. He
argued that the only means to maintain economic security was to have
direct control over resources rather than being forced to rely on
world trade. He claimed that war to gain such resources was the only
means to surpass the failing capitalist economic system.
A number of other Nazis held strong revolutionary socialist and
anti-capitalist beliefs, most prominently
Ernst Röhm , the leader of
Sturmabteilung (SA). Röhm claimed that the Nazis' rise to power
constituted a national revolution, but insisted that a socialist
"second revolution" was required for Nazi ideology to be fulfilled.
Röhm's SA began attacks against individuals deemed to be associated
with conservative reaction.
Hitler saw Röhm's independent actions as
violating and possibly threatening his leadership, as well as
jeopardising the regime by alienating the conservative President Paul
von Hindenburg and the conservative-oriented German Army. This
Hitler purging Röhm and other radical members of the SA.
Another radical Nazi,
Joseph Goebbels , had
stressed the socialist character of Nazism, and claimed in his diary
in the 1920s that if he were to pick between
capitalism, he said "in final analysis", "it would be better for us to
go down with
Bolshevism than live in eternal slavery under
Under Nazism, with its emphasis on the nation, individual needs were
subordinated to those of the wider community.
Hitler declared that
"every activity and every need of every individual will be regulated
by the collectivity represented by the party" and that "there are no
longer any free realms in which the individual belongs to himself".
Himmler justified the establishment of a repressive police state, in
which the security forces could exercise power arbitrarily, by
claiming that national security and order should take precedence over
the needs of the individual.
According to the famous philosopher and political theorist, Hannah
Arendt, the allure of
Nazism as a totalitarian ideology (with its
attendant mobilisation of the German population) resided within the
construct of helping that society deal with the cognitive dissonance
resultant from the tragic interruption of the First World War and the
economic and material suffering consequent to the Depression, and
brought to order the revolutionary unrest occurring all around them.
Instead of the plurality that existed in democratic or parliamentary
Nazism as a totalitarian system promulgated "clear" solutions
to the historical problems faced by Germany, levied support by
de-legitimizing the former government of Weimar, and provided a
politico-biological pathway to a better future, one free from the
uncertainty of the past. It was the atomised and disaffected masses
Hitler and the party elite pointed in a particular direction, and
using clever propaganda to make them into ideological adherents,
exploited in bringing
Nazism to life.
While the ideologues of Nazism, much like those of
abhorred democratic or parliamentary governance as practiced in the
U.S. or Britain, their differences are substantial. An epistemic
crisis occurs when one tries to synthesize and contrast
Stalinism as two-sides of the same coin with their similarly
tyrannical leaders, state-controlled economies, and repressive police
structures; namely, while they share a common thematic political
construction, they are entirely inimical to one another in their
worldviews and when more carefully analysed against one another on a
one-to-one level, an "irreconcilable asymmetry" results.
Following Nazi Germany\'s defeat in
World War II
World War II and the end of the
Holocaust , overt expressions of support for Nazi ideas were
prohibited in Germany and other European countries. Nonetheless,
movements which self-identify as National Socialist or which are
described as adhering to National
Socialism continue to exist on the
fringes of politics in many western societies. Usually espousing a
white supremacist ideology , many deliberately adopt the symbols of
Consequences of Nazism
Functionalism versus intentionalism
* List of books about
Political views of Adolf Hitler
* ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) . Roach, Peter; Hartmann, James; Setter,
Jane, eds. English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 3-12-539683-2 .
* ^ A B C Baum, Bruce David (2006). The Rise and Fall of the
Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. New York City
/ London: New York University Press. p. 156.
* ^ Kobrak, Christopher; Hansen, Per H.; Kopper, Christopher
(2004). "Business, Political Risk, and Historians in the Twentieth
Century". In Kobrak, Christopher; Hansen, Per H. European Business,
Dictatorship, and Political Risk, 1920-1945. New York City / Oxford:
Berghahn Books. pp. 16–7. ISBN 1-57181-629-1 .
* ^ Lepage, Jean-Denis (2009).
Hitler Youth, 1922-1945: An
Illustrated History. McFarland. p. 9. ISBN 978-0786439355 .
* ^ Gottlieb, Henrik; Morgensen, Jens Erik, eds. (2007). Dictionary
Visions, Research and Practice: Selected Papers from the 12th
International Symposium on Lexicography, Copenhagen 2004 (illustrated
ed.). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 247. ISBN 978-9027223340 .
Retrieved 22 October 2014.
* ^ A B Harper, Douglas. "Nazi". etymonline.com. Online Etymology
Dictionary. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
* ^ A B C Rabinbach, Anson; Gilman, Sander, eds. (2013). The Third
Reich Sourcebook. Berkeley, Calif.: California University Press. p. 4.
ISBN 9780520955141 .
* ^ A B Copping, Jasper (23 October 2011). "Why
Hitler hated being
called a Nazi and what\'s really in humble pie – origins of words
and phrases revealed". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
* ^ Seebold, Elmar, ed. (2002). Kluge Etymologisches Wörterbuch
der deutschen Sprache (in German) (24th ed.). Berlin: Walter de
Gruyter . ISBN 3-11-017473-1 .
* ^ "Naziism". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 1 May 2016.
* ^ Fritzsche, Peter (1998). Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674350922 .
Eatwell, Roger (1997). Fascism, A History. Viking-Penguin. pp.
xvii–xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–40, 352. ISBN 978-0140257007 .
Griffin, Roger (2000). "Revolution from the Right: Fascism". In
Parker, David. Revolutions and the Revolutionary
Tradition in the West
1560-1991. London: Routledge. pp. 185–201. ISBN 978-0415172950 . *
^ Oliver H. Woshinsky. Explaining Politics: Culture, Institutions,
and Political Behavior. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA:
Routledge, 2008. p. 156.
* ^ Hitler, Adolf in Domarus, Max and Patrick Romane, eds. The
Essential Hitler: Speeches and Commentary, Waulconda, Illinois:
Bolchazi-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2007, p. 170.
* ^ Koshar, Rudy. Social Life, Local Politics, and Nazism: Marburg,
1880-1935, University of North Carolina Press, 1986. p. 190.
* ^ Hitler, Adolf, Mein Kampf, Bottom of the Hill Publishing, 2010.
* ^ Adolf Hitler, Max Domarus. The Essential Hitler: Speeches and
Commentary. pp. 171, 172–173.
* ^ A B Peukert, Detlev, The Weimar Republic. 1st paperback ed.
Macmillan, 1993. ISBN 9780809015566 , pp. 73–74.
* ^ A B Peukert, Detlev, The Weimar Republic. 1st paperback ed.
Macmillan, 1993. ISBN 9780809015566 , p. 74.
* ^ A B Beck, Hermann The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives
and Nazis in 1933: The
Machtergreifung in a New Light, Berghahn Books,
2008. ISBN 9781845456801 , p. 72.
* ^ Beck, Hermann The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives and
Nazis in 1933: The
Machtergreifung in a New Light, 2008. pp. 72–75.
* ^ Beck, Hermann The Fateful Alliance: German Conservatives and
Nazis in 1933: The
Machtergreifung in a New Light, 2008. p. 84.
* ^ Miranda Carter. George, Nicholas and Wilhelm: Three Royal
Cousins and the Road to World War I. Borzoi Book, 2009. Pp. 420.
* ^ A B C D Mann, Michael, Fascists, New York City: Cambridge
University Press, 2004. p. 183.
* ^ Browder, George C., Foundations of the Nazi Police State: The
Formation of Sipo and SD, paperback, Lexington, Kentucky, USA:
Kentucky University Press, 2004. p. 202.
* ^ A B C Bendersky, Joseph W. (2007). A Concise History of Nazi
Germany. Plymouth, England: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. p.
96. ISBN 9780742553637 .
* ^ Glenn D. Walters. Lifestyle Theory: Past, Present, and Future.
Nova Publishers, 2006. p. 40.
* ^ A B Weber, Thomas, Hitler's First War: Adolf Hitler, the Men of
the List Regiment, and the First World War, Oxford, England, UK:
Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 251.
* ^ A B Gaab, Jeffrey S., Munich: Hofbräuhaus & History: Beer,
Culture, & Politics, 2nd ed. New York City: Peter Lang Publishing,
Inc, 2008. p. 61.
* ^ Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's
Russia, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004. pp. 399–403.
* ^ A B C Nyomarkay, Joseph (1967). Charisma and Factionalism in
the Nazi Party. Univ Of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0816604296 . P.
* ^ A B C D Nyomarkay 1967, p. 133.
* ^ A B Furet, François, Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of
Communism in the Twentieth Century, Chicago, Illinois' London,
England: University of Chicago Press, 1999. ISBN 0-226-27340-7 , pp.
* ^ Furet, François, Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism
in the Twentieth Century, 1999. p. 191.
* ^ Ryback, Timothy W. (2010). Hitler's Private Library: The Books
That Shaped His Life. New York City; Toronto: Vintage Books. ISBN
978-0307455260 . Pp. 129–130.
* ^ A B C D Ryback 2010, p. 129.
* ^ George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual
Origins of the Third Reich (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964), pp.
* ^ Thomas Lekan and Thomas Zeller, "Introduction: The Landscape of
German Environmental History," in Germany's Nature: Cultural
Landscapes and Environmental History, edited by Thomas Lekan and
Thomas Zeller (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005), p.
* ^ The Nazi concept of
Lebensraum has connections with this idea,
with German farmers being rooted to their soil, needing more of it for
the expansion of the German
Volk - whereas the Jew is precisely the
opposite, nomadic and urban by nature. See: Roderick Stackelberg, The
Routledge Companion to
Nazi Germany (New York: Routledge, 2007), p.
* ^ Additional evidence of Riehl’s legacy can be seen in the
Riehl Prize, Die Volkskunde als Wissenschaft (Folklore as Science)
which was awarded in 1935 by the Nazis. See: George L. Mosse, The
Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich
(New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964), p. 23. Applicants for the Riehl
prize had stipulations that included only being of
Aryan blood, and no
evidence of membership in any Marxist parties or any organisation that
stood against National Socialism. See: Hermann Stroback, "Folklore and
Fascism before and around 1933," in The Nazification of an Academic
Discipline: Folklore in the Third Reich, edited by James R Dow and
Hannjost Lixfeld (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994), pp.
* ^ Cyprian Blamires. World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia,
Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2006. p.
* ^ Keith H. Pickus. Constructing Modern Identities: Jewish
University Students in Germany, 1815–1914. Detroit, Michigan, USA:
Wayne State University Press, 1999. p. 86.
* ^ A B Jonathan Olsen. Nature and Nationalism: Right-wing Ecology
and the Politics of Identity in Contemporary Germany. New York, New
York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. p. 62.
* ^ A B Nina Witoszek, Lars Trägårdh. Culture and Crisis: The
Case of Germany and Sweden. Berghahn Books, 2002. pp. 89–90.
* ^ Witoszek, Nina and Lars Trägårdh, Culture and Crisis: The
Case of Germany and Sweden, Berghahn Books, 2002, p. 90.
* ^ A B Gerwarth, Robert (2007). The Bismarck Myth: Weimar Germany
and the Legacy of the Iron Chancellor. Oxford University Press. ISBN
978-0199236893 . P. 150.
* ^ Gerwarth 2007, p. 149.
* ^ Gerwarth 2007 , p. 54.
* ^ A B Gerwarth 2007, p. 131.
* ^ A B David Nicholls. Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Press,
2000. pp. 236–237.
* ^ A B David Nicholls. Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Press,
2000. pp. 159–160.
* ^ Brigitte Hamann (2010). Hitler's Vienna: A Portrait of the
Tyrant as a Young Man. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 302. ISBN
* ^ A B C D E F G Blamires, Cyprian; Jackson, Paul. World Fascism:
A Historical Encyclopedia: Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA:
ABC-CLIO, Inc, 2006. p. 62.
* ^ A B C D E F G Stackelberg, Roderick; Winkle, Sally Anne. The
Nazi Germany Sourcebook: An Anthology of Texts, London: Routledge,
2002. p. 11.
* ^ The Cambridge Companion to Tacitus, p. 294. A. J. Woodman -
2009 "The white race was defined as beautiful, honourable and destined
to rule; within it the Aryans are 'cette illustre famille humaine, la
plus noble'." Originally a linguistic term synonymous with
Aryan ' became, not least because of the Essai, the
designation of a race, which Gobineau specified was 'la race
* ^ Blamires, Cyprian and Paul Jackson, World Fascism: A Historical
Encyclopedia: Volume 1, 2006. p. 126.
* ^ Stefan Kühl (2002). Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American
Racism, and German National Socialism. Oxford University Press. ISBN
* ^ A B William Brustein. Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe
Before the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press, 2003. P. 207.
* ^ A B C Brustein, 2003, p. 210.
* ^ William Brustein. Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe Before
the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press, 2003. P. 207, 209.
* ^ Nina Witoszek, Lars Trägårdh. Culture and Crisis: The Case of
Germany and Sweden. Berghahn Books, 2002. p. 89.
* ^ A B Jack Fischel. The Holocaust. Westport, Connecticut, USA:
Greenwood Press, 1998. p. 5.
Philip Rees , Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right
Since 1890 , Simon & Schuster, 1990, p. 220
* ^ A B Ryback 2010 , p. 130.
* ^ Roderick Stackelberg, Sally Anne Winkle. The Nazi Germany
Sourcebook: An Anthology of Texts, 2002. p. 45.
* ^ Ian Kershaw. Hitler, 1936-45: Nemesis. New York, New York: USA:
W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 2001. p. 588.
* ^ David Welch. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator. 2nd edition. New
York, New York, USA: UCL Press, 2001. pp. 13–14.
* ^ David Welch. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator, 2001. p. 16.
* ^ A B Claudia Koonz (1 November 2005). The Nazi Conscience.
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01842-6 .
* ^ Richard Weikart (21 July 2009). Hitler's Ethic. Palgrave
Macmillan. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-230-62398-9 .
* ^ Sarah Ann Gordon (1984). Hitler, Germans, and the "Jewish
Question". Princeton University Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-691-10162-0 .
* ^ "Florida
Holocaust Museum -
Antisemitism - Post World War 1"
(history), www.flholocaustmuseum.org, 2003, webpage: Post-WWI
Antisemitism Archived 2008-10-03 at the
Wayback Machine ..
* ^ "THHP Short Essay: What Was the Final Solution?".
Holocaust-History.org, July 2004, webpage: HoloHist-Final: notes that
Hermann Göring used the term in his order of July 31, 1941 to
Reinhard Heydrich , chief of the
Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office (RSHA).
* ^ A B C Peter J. Bowler. Evolution: The History of an Idea. 2nd
edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of
California Press, 1989. pp. 304–305.
* ^ Robert J. Richards. Myth 19 That Darwin and Haeckel were
Complicit in Nazi Biology. The University of Chicago, Illinois, USA.
* ^ Peter J. Bowler. Evolution: The History of an Idea, 1989. p.
* ^ Denis R. Alexander, Ronald L. Numbers. Biology and Ideology
from Descartes to Dawkins. Chicago, Illinois, USA; London, England,
UK: University of Chicago Press, 2010. p. 209.
* ^ Henry Friedlander. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From
Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA:
University of North Carolina Press, 1995. p. 5.
* ^ A B C D Kitchen, Martin, A History of Modern Germany,
1800-2000, Malden, Massaschussetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton,
Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, Inc., 2006. p. 205.
* ^ A B C Hüppauf, Bernd-Rüdiger War, Violence, and the Modern
Walter de Gruyter Jackson, Paul. World Fascism: A
Historical Encyclopedia: Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA:
ABC-CLIO, Inc, 2006. p. 628.
* ^ A B C D Winkler, Heinrich August and Alexander Sager, Germany:
The Long Road West, English ed. 2006, p. 414.
* ^ Blamires, Cyprian; Jackson, Paul. World Fascism: A Historical
Encyclopedia: Volume 1, 2006. p. 629.
* ^ Weitz, Eric D., Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy, Princeton,
New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2007. pp. 336–337.
* ^ Weitz, Eric D., Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy, Princeton,
New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2007. p. 336.
* ^ German Federal Archive image description
* ^ A B Hughes, H. Stuart, Oswald Spengler, New Brunswick, New
Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 1992. p. 108.
* ^ Hughes, H. Stuart, Oswald Spengler, New Brunswick, New Jersey:
Transaction Publishers, 1992. p. 109.
* ^ A B C Kaplan, Mordecai M.
Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a
Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life. p. 73.
* ^ Stern, Fritz Richard The politics of cultural despair: a study
in the rise of the Germanic ideology University of California Press
reprint edition (1974) p. 296
* ^ Burleigh, Michael The Third Reich: a new history Pan MacMillan
(2001) p. 75
* ^ Redles, David Nazi End Times; The Third Reich as a Millennial
Reich in Kinane, Karolyn Totowa, New Jersey, USA: Frank Cass and
Company Ltd., 1989. pp. 20–26, 30
* ^ A B C Hugh R. Trevor-Roper (ed.), Gerhard L. Weinberg (ed.).
Hitler's Table Talk 1941-1944: Secret Conversations. Enigma Books,
* ^ Stanley G. Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. Madison,
Wisconsin, USA: Wisconsin University Press, 1995. pp. 463–464.
* ^ Stanley G. Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945, 1995. p.
* ^ A B Stanley G. Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945, 1995.
* ^ Steve Thorne. The Language of War. London, England, UK:
Routledge, 2006. p. 38.
* ^ Stephen J. Lee. Europe, 1890-1945. p. 237.
* ^ A B C D E Peter D. Stachura. The Shaping of the Nazi State. p.
* ^ Joseph W. Bendersk, A History of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945, p.
* ^ A B André Mineau. Operation Barbarossa:
Ideology and Ethics
Against Human Dignity. Rodopi, 2004. P. 36
* ^ Rolf Dieter Müller,
Gerd R. Ueberschär . Hitler\'s War in the
East, 1941–1945: A Critical Assessment . Berghahn Books, 2009. P.
* ^ Bradl Lightbody. The Second World War: Ambitions to Nemesis.
London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2004. P. 97.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J George Lachmann Mosse. Nazi Culture:
Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich. p79.
* ^ A B S. H. Milton (2001). ""Gypsies" as social outsiders in Nazi
Germany". In Robert Gellately; Nathan Stoltzfus. Social Outsiders in
Nazi Germany. Princeton University Press. pp. 216, 231. ISBN
Michael Burleigh (7 November 1991). The Racial State: Germany
1933-1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-521-39802-2 .
* ^ A B Majer 2003 , p. 180.
* ^ A B Mineau, André (2004). Operation Barbarossa:
Ethics Against Human Dignity. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi. p. 180.
ISBN 90-420-1633-7 .
* ^ Simone Gigliotti, Berel Lang. The Holocaust: a reader. Malden,
Massachusetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia:
Blackwell Publishing, 2005. p. 14.
* ^ A B Simone Gigliotti, Berel Lang. The Holocaust: A Reader.
Malden, Massachusetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria,
Australia: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. p. 14.
William W. Hagen (2012). "German History in Modern Times: Four
Lives of the Nation". Cambridge University Press. p. 313. ISBN
* ^ Sandner (1999): 385 (66 in PDF) Note 2. The author claims that
Aktion T4 was not used by the Nazis and that it was first
used in the trials of the doctors and later included in the
* ^ Hitler, Adolf (1961). Hitler\'s Secret Book . New York: Grove
Press. pp. 8–9, 17–18. ISBN 0-394-62003-8 .
OCLC 9830111 . Sparta
must be regarded as the first Völkisch State. The exposure of the
sick, weak, deformed children, in short, their destruction, was more
decent and in truth a thousand times more humane than the wretched
insanity of our day which preserves the most pathological subject.
* ^ Mike Hawkins (1997).
Social Darwinism in European and American
Thought, 1860–1945: nature as model and nature as threat. Cambridge
University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0-521-57434-X .
OCLC 34705047 .
Clarence Lusane . Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical
Experiences of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans, and African
Americans in the Nazi Era. Routledge, 2002. pp. 112, 113, 189.
* ^ Bryan Mark Rigg (1 September 2004). Hitler's Jewish Soldiers:
The Untold Story Of Nazi Racial Laws And Men Of Jewish Descent In The
German Military. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1358-8 .
* ^ Evans, p.507
* ^ This was the result of either a club foot or osteomyelitis .
Goebbels is commonly said to have had club foot (talipes equinovarus),
a congenital condition.
William L. Shirer , who worked in Berlin as a
journalist in the 1930s and was acquainted with Goebbels, wrote in The
Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1960) that the deformity was caused
by a childhood attack of osteomyelitis and a failed operation to
* ^ Anne Maxwell. Picture Imperfect: Photography and Eugenics,
1870-1940. Eastbourne, England: UK; Portland, Oregon, USA: SUSSEX
ACADEMIC PRESS, 2008, 2010. P. 150.
* ^ John Cornwell. Hitler's Scientists: Science, War, and the
Devil's Pact. Penguin, Sep 28, 2004.
* ^ Racisms Made in. Germany (
Racism Analysis Yearbook 2 - 2011)
Ed. by Wulf D. Hund, Christian Koller, Moshe Zimmermann page 19
* ^ A B Max Weinreich. Hitler's Professors: The Part of Scholarship
in Germany's Crimes Against the Jewish People. Yale University Press,
1999. P. 111.
* ^ A B C Steinweis, p. 28.
* ^ Steinweis, pp. 31–32
* ^ Steinweis, p. 29
* ^ André Mineau. Operation Barbarossa:
Ideology and Ethics
Against Human Dignity. Rodopi, 2004. pp. 34–36.
* ^ Steve Thorne. The Language of War. London, England, UK:
Routledge, 2006. p. 38.
* ^ Anton Weiss Wendt (11 August 2010). Eradicating Differences:
The Treatment of Minorities in Nazi-Dominated Europe. Cambridge
Scholars Publishing. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-4438-2449-1 .
Wendy Lower . Nazi Empire-building and the
Ukraine. The University of North Carolina Press, 2005. p. 27.
* ^ Marvin Perry. Western Civilization: A Brief History. Cengage
Learning, 2012. P. 468.
* ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. (2007). A Concise History of Nazi Germany.
Plymouth, England: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. pp. 161–162.
ISBN 9780742553637 .
* ^ Norman Davies. Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory .
Pan Macmillan, 2008. pp. 167, 209.
* ^ Richard A. Koenigsberg. Nations have the Right to Kill: Hitler,
the Holocaust, and War. New York, New York, USA: Library of Social
Science, 2009. p. 2.
* ^ Goebbels, Joseph; Mjölnir (1932). Die verfluchten
Hakenkreuzler. Etwas zum Nachdenken. Munich: Franz Eher Nachfolger.
English translation: Those Damned Nazis.
* ^ David Nicholls. Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion. Santa
Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, 2000. p. 245.
* ^ Burleigh, Michael. The Third Reich: A New History, New York,
USA: Hill and Wang, 2000. pp. 76–77.
* ^ A B Burleigh, Michael. The Third Reich: A New History, New
York, USA: Hill and Wang, 2000. p. 77.
* ^ For more elucidation about this conception and its
oversimplification, see: Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz, "Beyond
Kinder, Küche, Kirche: Weimar Women in Politics and Work" in Renate
Bridenthal, et al. (eds), When Biology Became Destiny in Weimar and
Nazi Germany (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984), pp. 33-65.
* ^ Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family and
Nazi Politics (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988), pp. 53-59.
Hitler on 23 November 1937. In Max Domarus ed., Hitler: Reden
und Proklamationen, 1932-1945, (vol I). Triumph. (Würzburg:
Verlagsdruckerei Schmidt, 1962), p. 452.
Adolf Hitler in a speech to the National Socialist Women's
Congress, published in the Völkischer Beobachter, 15 September 1935
(Wiener Library Clipping Collection). Cited from: George Mosse, Nazi
Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich
(Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003), p. 40.
* ^ Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, the Family and
Nazi Politics (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988), p. 149, pp.
* ^ Jill Stephenson, Women in
Nazi Germany (London and New York:
Longman, 2001), pp. 37-40.
* ^ Gerda Bormann was concerned by the ratio of racially valuable
women that outnumbered men and she thought that the war would make the
situation worse in terms of childbirths, so much so that she advocated
a law (never realised however) which allowed healthy
Aryan men to have
two wives. See: Anna Maria Sigmund, Women of the Third Reich (Ontario:
NDE, 2000), pp. 17-19.
* ^ Anna Maria Sigmund, Women of the Third Reich (Ontario: NDE,
2000), p. 17.
Himmler was thinking about members of the SS fulfilling this
task. See: Felix Kersten, Totenkopf und Treue. Aus den
Tagebuchblättern des finnischen Medizinalrats Felix Kersten (Hamburg:
Mölich Verlag, 1952), pp. 228-229.
* ^ A B Leila J. Rupp (1 January 1978). Mobilizing Women for War:
German and American Propaganda, 1939-1945. Princeton University Press.
ISBN 978-0-691-04649-5 .
* ^ Helen Boak. "Nazi policies on German women during the Second
World War - Lessons learned from the First World War?". pp. 4–5.
* ^ Robert Gellately (8 March 2001). Backing Hitler: Consent and
Coercion in Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press. p. 155. ISBN
* ^ Friedmann, Jan. "The \'Dishonorable\' German Girls: The
Forgotten Persecution of Women in World War II". Der Spiegel.
Retrieved January 21, 2010.
* ^ Robert Gellately (1990). The
Gestapo and German Society:
Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933-1945. Clarendon Press. p. 224. ISBN
* ^ Richard J. Evans (26 July 2012). The Third Reich at War: How
the Nazis Led Germany from Conquest to Disaster. Penguin Books
Limited. p. 355. ISBN 978-0-14-191755-9 .
* ^ Majer 2003 , p. 369.
* ^ Majer 2003 , p. 331–332.
* ^ Jill Stephenson (2001). Women in Nazi Germany. Longman. p. 156.
ISBN 978-0-582-41836-3 .
* ^ Peter Longerich (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford
University Press. p. 475. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6 .
* ^ "The Jewish Question in Education"
* ^ Plant, 1986. p. 99.
* ^ Pretzel, Andreas (2005). "Vom Staatsfeind zum Volksfeind. Zur
Radikalisierung der Homosexuellenverfolgung im Zusammenwirken von
Polizei und Justiz". In Zur Nieden, Susanne. Homosexualität und
Staatsräson. Männlichkeit, Homophobie und Politik in Deutschland
1900–1945. Frankfurt/M.: Campus Verlag. p. 236. ISBN
* ^ Bennetto, Jason (1997-11-01). "Holocaust: Gay activists press
for German apology".
The Independent . Retrieved 2008-12-26.
The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International Ltd. p.
* ^ Plant, Richard, The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against
Homosexuals, Owl Books, 1988. ISBN 0-8050-0600-1 .
* ^ Neander, Biedron. "Homosexuals. A Separate
Prisoners". Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. Retrieved August
* ^ J Noakes and G Pridham, Documents on Nazism, 1919-1945, London
* ^ A B McNab 2009 , p. 182.
* ^ A B David Redles. Hitler's Millennial Reich: Apocalyptic Belief
and the Search for Salvation. New York, New York, USA; London,
England, UK: New York University Press, 2005. p. 60.
* ^ Scholarship for Martin Luther\'s 1543 treatise, On the
their Lies , exercising influence on Germany's attitude: * Wallmann,
Johannes. "The Reception of Luther's Writings on the
Jews from the
Reformation to the End of the 19th Century", Lutheran Quarterly, n.s.
1 (Spring 1987) 1:72–97. Wallmann writes: "The assertion that
Luther's expressions of anti-Jewish sentiment have been of major and
persistent influence in the centuries after the Reformation, and that
there exists a continuity between Protestant anti-
Judaism and modern
racially oriented anti-Semitism, is at present wide-spread in the
literature; since the Second World War it has understandably become
the prevailing opinion." * Michael, Robert. Holy Hatred: Christianity,
Antisemitism, and the Holocaust. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006;
see chapter 4 "The Germanies from Luther to Hitler", pp. 105–151. *
Hillerbrand, Hans J. "Martin Luther," Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
Hillerbrand writes: "is strident pronouncements against the Jews,
especially toward the end of his life, have raised the question of
whether Luther significantly encouraged the development of German
anti-Semitism. Although many scholars have taken this view, this
perspective puts far too much emphasis on Luther and not enough on the
larger peculiarities of German history."
* ^ Ellis, Marc H . "
Hitler and the Holocaust, Christian
Anti-Semitism" Archived 2007-07-10 at the
Wayback Machine ., Baylor
University Center for American and Jewish Studies, Spring 2004, slide
14. Also see Nuremberg Trial Proceedings, Vol. 12, p. 318, Avalon
Project, Yale Law School, April 19, 1946.
* ^ Robert Anthony Krieg. Catholic Theologians in Nazi Germany.
London, England, UK: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
* ^ A B C Robert Anthony Krieg. Catholic Theologians in Nazi
Germany, 2004. p. 4.
* ^ Ausma Cimdiņa, Jonathan Osmond. Power and Culture: Hegemony,
Interaction and Dissent. PLUS-Pisa University Press, 2006.
* ^ A B C Roger Griffin. Fascism,
Totalitarianism and Political
Religion. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2005.
* ^ Roger Griffin. Fascism,
Totalitarianism and Political Religion,
2005. p. 93.
* ^ R. J. Overy, War and Economy in the Third Reich (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 1-5.
* ^ R. J. Overy, War and Economy in the Third Reich (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 7-11.
* ^ Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich: A Social History of Nazi
Germany, 1933-1945 (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1971), p. 19.
Adam Tooze , The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking
of the Nazi Economy (New York: Penguin, 2006), p. 37.
* ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler, the Germans, and the
Final Solution (New
Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 52-53.
* ^ Rafael Scheck, Germany, 1871-1945: A Concise History, p. 167.
* ^ Berman, Sheri. The Primacy of Politics: Social
the Making of Europe\'s Twentieth Century. p. 146. ISBN 978-0521521109
* ^ A B Fritzsche 1998 , p. 45.
* ^ A B C Fritzsche 1998, p. 46.
* ^ A B Fritzsche 1998, p. 47.
* ^ A B Fritzsche 1998, p. 51.
* ^ A B
Richard Grunberger , The 12-Year Reich, p. 46, ISBN
* ^ Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p. 79, ISBN 003-076435-1
* ^ Alf Lüdtke, "The 'Honor of Labor': Industrial Workers and the
Power of Symbols under National Socialism", in
Nazism and German
Society, 1933-1945, edited by David F. Crew (New York: Routledge,
1994), pp. 67-109.
* ^ A B Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's
Russia, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004. p. 403.
* ^ Temin, Peter (November 1991). "Soviet and Nazi economic
planning in the 1930s". The Economic History Review, New Series. 44
(4): 573–93. Abstract in Wiley Online Library.
* ^ Guillebaud, Claude W. 1939. The Economic Recovery of Germany
1933-1938. London: MacMillan and Co. Limited.
* ^ Barkai, Avaraham 1990. Nazi Economics: Ideology, Theory and
Policy. Oxford Berg Publisher.
* ^ Hayes, Peter. 1987 Industry and
Ideology IG Farben in the Nazi
Era. Cambridge University Press.
* ^ R. J. Overy, War and Economy in the Third Reich (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 1-30.
* ^ Klaus Hildebrand, The Third Reich (London & New York:
Routledge, 1986), pp. 39-48.
* ^ Jost Dülffer,
Nazi Germany 1933-1945: Faith and Annihilation
(London: Bloomsbury, 2009), pp. 72-73.
* ^ A B Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany:
1919–1945. 2nd ed. Burnham Publishers, 2000. p. 72.
* ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany: 1919–1945.
2nd ed. Burnham Publishers, 2000. p. 40.
* ^ "They must unite, said, to defeat the common enemy, Jewish
Marxism." A New Beginning, Adolf Hitler, Völkischer Beobachter.
February 1925. Cited in: Toland, John (1992). Adolf Hitler. Anchor
Books. p. 207. ISBN 0-385-03724-4 .
* ^ Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler, the Germans, and the Final
Solution. Yale University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-300-12427-9 .
* ^ Carsten, Francis Ludwig The Rise of Fascism, 2nd ed. University
of California Press, 1982. p. 137. Quoting: Hitler, A., Sunday
Express, September 28, 1930.
* ^ "24 March 1942". Hitler's Table Talk, 1941–1944: His Private
Conversations. translation by Norman Cameron and R. H. Stevens;
introduction by H. R. Trevor-Roper. Enigma Books. 2000. pp. 162–163.
ISBN 1-929631-05-7 . access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope, 1966. p. 619.
* ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945. 2nd
ed. Burnham Publishers, 2000. pp. 58–59.
* ^ A B C D Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and
Stalin's Russia, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004. p. 399
* ^ Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's
Russia, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004. p. 230.
* ^ Kritika: explorations in Russian and Eurasian history, Volume
7, Issue 4. Slavica Publishers, 2006. Pp. 922.
* ^ A B C Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's
Russia, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004. p. 402.
* ^ Nyomarkay 1967 , p. 132.
* ^ Read, Anthony, The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle,
1st American ed. New York, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2004. p.
* ^ Carolyn Birdsall. Nazi Soundscapes: Sound, Technology and Urban
Space in Germany, 1933-1945. Amsterdam University Press. p. 31.
* ^ Fest, Joachim. Hitler. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 418.
* ^ Browder, George C. Foundations of the Nazi Police State: The
Formation of Sipo and SD. University Press of Kentucky. p. 240.
* ^ See: Hannah Arendt, The Origins of
FL: Harcourt Inc., 1973), pp. 305–459.
* ^ Michael Geyer and Sheila Fitzpatrick, eds., "Introduction –
Nazism Compared", in Beyond
Nazism Compared (Cambridge Jackson,
Paul, eds. World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 1: A-K.
ABC-CLIO. pp. 459–461. ISBN 978-1576079409 .
* Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York:
Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3 .
* Fritzsche, Peter (1990). Rehearsals for Fascism:
Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-505780-5 .
* Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2004) .
The Occult Roots of Nazism :
Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology: The
Austria and Germany, 1890–1935. Wellingborough,
England: The Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-402-4 and ISBN 1-86064-973-4
* Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2003) . Black Sun:
Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity . New York University
Press. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4 .
* Klemperer, Victor (1947).
LTI - Lingua Tertii Imperii .
* Majer, Diemut (2003). "Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich: The
Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied
Eastern Europe with
Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939-1945. JHU
Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6493-3 .
* McNab, Chris (2009). The Third Reich. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN
* Paxton, Robert (2005). The Anatomy of Fascism. London: Penguin
Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-101432-6 .
* Peukert, Detlev (1989). Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity,
Racism in Everyday Life. New Haven: Yale University
Press. ISBN 978-0-300-04480-5 .
* Redles, David (2005). Hitler's Millennial Reich: Apocalyptic
Belief and the Search for Salvation. New York: University Press. ISBN
* Miller, Barbara (2014). Nazi
Ideology Before 1933: A
Documentation. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-4773-0445-7 .
* Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions
of Christianity, 1919–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* Steinweis, Alan. Studying the Jew: Scholarly