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321 NOAA Commissioned Corps
NOAA Commissioned Corps
(2018) 11,000+ civilian employees (2015)[3]

Annual budget US$5.6 billion (est. 2011)

Agency executive

Timothy Gallaudet, PhD, NOAA Administrator & Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans
Oceans
and Atmosphere (acting)

Parent agency US Department of Commerce

Website NOAA.gov

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA; pronounced /ˈnoʊ.ə/, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States
United States
Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources and conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment. NOAA was officially formed in 1970[4] and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees,[3] its research and operations further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps.[5] Since October 2017, NOAA has been headed by Timothy Gallaudet
Timothy Gallaudet
as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere
Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere
and NOAA interim administrator.

Contents

1 Purpose and function 2 History 3 Organizational structure

3.1 NOAA Administrator 3.2 NOAA Services

3.2.1 National Weather
Weather
Service 3.2.2 National Ocean Service 3.2.3 National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service 3.2.4 National Marine Fisheries
Fisheries
Service 3.2.5 Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research 3.2.6 Office of Marine and Aviation Operations 3.2.7 National Geodetic Survey 3.2.8 National Integrated Drought Information System 3.2.9 NOAA Commissioned Corps

4 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5 Flag 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Purpose and function[edit]

Two NOAA WP-3D Orions

NOAA plays several specific roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the US economy and into the larger global community:

A Supplier of Environmental Information Products. NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere. This is clear through the production of weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather
Weather
Service, but NOAA's information products extend to climate, ecosystems and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is a steward of U.S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, state, local, tribal and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate, weather and water, and commerce and transportation.[6]

The five "fundamental activities" are:

Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data. Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time. Engaging, advising, and informing the public and partner organizations with important information. Managing resources for the betterment of society, economy and environment.[7]

History[edit] NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies,[8] some of which were among the oldest in the federal government:[9]

United States
United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807 Weather
Weather
Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 (research fleet only) Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917

Another direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA), into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States
United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather
Weather
Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965.[10] NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4[11] and formed on October 3, 1970 after U.S. President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment…[and] for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources." In 2007, NOAA celebrated 200 years of service in its role as successor to the United States
United States
Survey of the Coast.[12] Organizational structure[edit]

NOAA Headquarters in Silver Spring, Maryland

NOAA Administrator[edit] Since October 25, 2017 Timothy Gallaudet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans
Oceans
and Atmosphere, has served as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans
Oceans
and Atmosphere at the US Department of Commerce and NOAA's interim administrator. Gallaudet succeeded Benjamin Friedman, who served as NOAA's interim administrator since the end of the Obama Administration
Obama Administration
on January 20, 2017.[13] In October 2017, Barry Lee Myers, CEO of AccuWeather, was proposed to be the agency's administrator by the Trump Administration.[14] NOAA Services[edit] NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices, the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS), the National Marine Fisheries Service
National Marine Fisheries Service
(NMFS), the National Ocean Service (NOS), the National Weather
Weather
Service (NWS), the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) and the Office of Marine & Aviation Operations (OMAO).[15] and in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library, the Office of Program Planning and Integration (PPI).[15] National Weather
Weather
Service[edit]

Seal of the National Weather
Weather
Service

The National Weather
Weather
Service (NWS) is tasked with providing "weather, hydrologic and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, 13 river forecast centers (RFCs), and more than 120 local weather forecast offices (WFOs). They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories, watches, and warnings on a daily basis. They issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, and more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is also relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion.[citation needed] The NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather
Weather
Radio, a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements, watches and warnings 24 hours a day.[16] National Ocean Service[edit] The National Ocean Service (NOS) focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe, healthy, and productive. NOS scientists, natural resource managers, and specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation, promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, and conserving marine and coastal places.[citation needed] The National Ocean Service is composed of eight program offices: the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services,[17] the Coastal Services Center,[18] the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science,[19] the Office of Coast Survey,[20] the Office of National Geodetic Survey,[21] the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries[22] the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management[23] and the Office of Response and Restoration.[24] There are two NOS programs, namely the Mussel Watch Contaminant Monitoring Program and the NOAA Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and two staff offices, the International Program Office and the Management and Budget Office. National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service[edit]

NOAA engineer at work

The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) was created by NOAA to operate and manage the US environmental satellite programs, and manage NWS data and those of other government agencies and departments.[citation needed] NESDIS's National Centers for Environmental Information
National Centers for Environmental Information
(NCEI) archives data collected by the NOAA, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, the Federal Aviation Administration, and meteorological services around the world and comprises the Center for Weather
Weather
and Climate (previously NOAA's National Climatic Data Center) and the Center for Coasts, Oceans, and Geophysics (created by a merger of NOAA's National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), National Oceanographic Data Center
National Oceanographic Data Center
(NODC) and the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)). In 1960 TIROS-1, NOAA's first owned and operated geostationary satellite was launched. Since 1966 NESDIS has managed polar orbiting satellites (POES) and since 1974 it has operated geosynchronous satellites (GOES) . In 1979 NOAA's first polar-orbiting environmental satellite was launched. Current operational satellites include NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, GOES 13, GOES 14, GOES 15, Jason-2
Jason-2
and DSCOVR. In 1983, NOAA assumed operational responsibility for Landsat satellite system.[25][citation needed] Since May 1998, NESIDS has operated the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
(DMSP) satellites on behalf of the Air Force Weather
Weather
Agency.[26][citation needed] New generations of satellites are developed to succeed the current polar orbiting and geosynchronous satellites, the Joint Polar Satellite System) and GOES-R, which is scheduled for launch in March 2017.[27][citation needed] NESDIS runs the Office of Projects, Planning, and Analysis (OPPA)] formerly the Office of Systems Development,[28] the Office of Satellite Ground Systems (formerly the Office of Satellite Operations)[29] the Office of Satellite and Project Operations,[30] the Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR)],[31] the Joint Polar Satellite System
Joint Polar Satellite System
Program Office[32] the GOES-R
GOES-R
Program Office, the International & Interagency Affairs Office, the Office of Space Commercialization[33] and the Office of System Architecture and Advanced Planning. National Marine Fisheries
Fisheries
Service[edit] The National Marine Fisheries Service
National Marine Fisheries Service
(NMFS), also known as NOAA Fisheries, was initiated in 1871 with a primary goal of the research, protection, management, and restoration of commercial fisheries and protected species. NMFS operates six fisheries science centers and five regional offices throughout the United States, which are the sites of research and management on marine resources. NMFS also operates the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Fisheries Office of Law Enforcement in Silver Spring, Maryland, which is the primary site of marine resource law enforcement. Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research[edit] Main article: Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research NOAA's research, conducted through the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), is the driving force behind NOAA environmental products and services that protect life and property and promote economic growth. Research, conducted in OAR laboratories and by extramural programs, focuses on enhancing our understanding of environmental phenomena such as tornadoes, hurricanes, climate variability, solar flares, changes in the ozone, air pollution transport and dispersion,[34][35] El Niño/La Niña events, fisheries productivity, ocean currents, deep sea thermal vents, and coastal ecosystem health. NOAA research also develops innovative technologies and observing systems. The NOAA Research network consists of seven internal research laboratories, extramural research at 30 Sea Grant university and research programs, six undersea research centers, a research grants program through the Climate Program Office, and 13 cooperative institutes with academia. Through NOAA and its academic partners, thousands of scientists, engineers, technicians, and graduate students participate in furthering our knowledge of natural phenomena that affect the lives of us all.[36][citation needed] The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) is one of the laboratories in the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. It studies processes and develops models relating to climate and air quality, including the transport, dispersion, transformation and removal of pollutants from the ambient atmosphere. The emphasis of the ARL's work is on data interpretation, technology development and transfer. The specific goal of ARL research is to improve and eventually to institutionalize prediction of trends, dispersion of air pollutant plumes, air quality, atmospheric deposition, and related variables.[37][self-published source][citation needed] The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
(AOML), is part of NOAA's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, located in Miami, Florida. AOML's research spans hurricanes, coastal ecosystems, oceans and human health, climate studies, global carbon systems, and ocean observations. AOML's organizational structure consists of an Office of the Director and three scientific research divisions (Physical Oceanography, Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems, and Hurricane Research). The Office of the Director oversees the Laboratory's scientific programs, as well as its financial, administrative, computer, outreach/education, and facility management services. Research programs are augmented by the Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies (CIMAS), a joint enterprise with the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. CIMAS enables AOML and university scientists to collaborate on research areas of mutual interest and facilitates the participation of students and visiting scientists. AOML is a member of a unique community of marine research and educational institutions located on Virginia Key in Miami, Florida.[citation needed] In 1977 the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) deployed the first successful moored equatorial current meter – the beginning of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean, TAO, array. In 1984 the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere program (TOGA) program began. Office of Marine and Aviation Operations[edit] The Office of Marine and Aviation Operations is responsible for the fleet of NOAA ships, aircraft, and diving operations. It has the largest research fleet of the Federal government. Its personnel is made up of civilians and the NOAA Commissioned Corps.[38] The office is headed by a NOAA Corps two-star rear admiral, who also commands the Corps.[39] National Geodetic Survey[edit] The National Geodetic Survey
National Geodetic Survey
(NGS) is the primary surveying organization in the United States.[citation needed] National Integrated Drought Information System[edit] The National Integrated Drought Information System
National Integrated Drought Information System
is a program within NOAA with an interagency mandate to coordinate and integrate drought research, building upon existing federal, tribal, state, and local partnerships in support of creating a national drought early warning information system.[40][citation needed] NOAA Commissioned Corps[edit]

Seal of the NOAA Commissioned Corps

The NOAA Commissioned Corps
NOAA Commissioned Corps
is a uniformed service of men and women who operate NOAA ships and aircraft, and serve in scientific and administrative posts. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change[edit] Since 2001, the organization has hosted the senior staff and recent chair, Susan Solomon, of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's working group on climate science.[41] Flag[edit]

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
flag, flown as a distinguishing mark by all commissioned NOAA ships.

The NOAA flag is a modification of the flag of one of its predecessor organizations, the United States
United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey. The Coast and Geodetic Survey's flag, authorized in 1899 and in use until 1970, was blue, with a white circle centered in it and a red triangle centered within the circle. It symbolized the use of triangulation in surveying, and was flown by ships of the Survey.[citation needed] When NOAA was established in 1970 and the Coast and Geodetic Survey's assets became a part of NOAA, NOAA based its own flag on that of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. The NOAA flag is in essence the Coast and Geodetic Survey flag, with the NOAA logo—a circle divided by the silhouette of a seabird into an upper dark blue and a lower light blue section, but with the "NOAA" legend omitted—centered within the red triangle. NOAA ships in commission display the NOAA flag; those with only one mast fly it immediately beneath the ship's commissioning pennant or the personal flag of a civilian official or flag officer if one is aboard the ship, while multimasted vessels fly it at the masthead of the forwardmost mast.[42] NOAA ships fly the same ensign as United States
United States
Navy ships but fly the NOAA flag as a distinguishing mark to differentiate themselves from Navy ships. See also[edit]

Underwater diving portal

Center for Environmental Technology (CET) Climate Mirror Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation) List of auxiliaries of the United States
United States
Navy Marine Mammal Protection Act Minerals Management Service NOAA's Environmental Real-time Observation Network NOAA's Virtual World Program Office of Naval Research Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations United States
United States
Naval Research Laboratory University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Weather
Weather
Modification Operations and Research Board

References[edit]

^ Celebrating 200 Years NOAA website, 2007. ^ "About Our Agency National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". Noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ a b "BestPlacesToWork.org Agency Report". Best Places to Work. Retrieved 1 Jul 2014.  ^ "Our history National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". Noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-06-13.  ^ "About Office of Marine and Aviation Operations". NOAA. Retrieved 19 February 2018.  ^ "About the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA)". Retrieved 2016-05-18.  ^ "New Priorities for the 21st Century NOAA STRATEGIC PLAN FY 2005 – FY 2010" (PDF). oceanservice.noaa.gov. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Program Planning and Integration, NOAA Strategic Planning. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2013.  ^ "Our history National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". Noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-06-13.  ^ "Reorganization Plan 4 - 197 - NOAA Central Library". Lib.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "Reorganization Plan 4 - 197 - NOAA Central Library". Lib.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "Reorganization Plan 4 - 197 - NOAA Central Library". Lib.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ Shea, Eileen. "A History of NOAA". Department of Commerce Historical Council. Retrieved 30 May 2013.  ^ "Benjamin Friedman National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". Noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-06-13.  ^ "Trump administration nominates Accu Weather
Weather
CEO Barry Myers to head NOAA - Geospatial World". Geospatial World. 2017-10-25. Retrieved 2017-10-25.  ^ a b "Organization National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". Noaa.gov. 2016-03-30. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather. "NOAA Weather
Weather
Radio". Weather.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-30.  ^ "NOAA Tides & Currents". tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov. Retrieved 19 August 2017.  ^ NOAA Office for Coastal Management ADS Group. "NOAA Office for Coastal Management". Csc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "Home - NOAA Tides & Currents". Tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov. 2013-10-15. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "Nautical Charts & Pubs". Nauticalcharts.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ " National Geodetic Survey
National Geodetic Survey
- Home". Geodesy.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries". Sanctuaries.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 27, 2006. Retrieved October 25, 2006.  ^ "Our role is stewardship; our product is science". Response.restoration.noaa.gov. 1989-03-24. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "Landsat Data Data Sheet". usgs.gov. 1997.  ^ "Department of Commerce". history.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-28.  ^ " NASA
NASA
Successfully Launches NOAA Advanced Geostationary Weather Satellite". nasa.gov. November 19, 2016.  ^ "NOAA/NESDIS Office of Systems Development Homepage". Osd.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 28, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "NOAA Star : Center for Satellite Applications and Research". Star.nesdis.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ Office of Space Commerce. "Office of Space Commerce Helping U.S. businesses use the unique medium of space to benefit our economy". Space.commerce.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X.  CRCpress.com Archived 2007-11-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion
Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion
(4th ed.). author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.  www.air-dispersion.com ^ "NOAA News Online (Story 235)". Noaanews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-28.  ^ Pan, Jock (2010). The United States
United States
Outer Executive Departments and Independent Establishments & Government Corporations. Xlibris. ISBN 1450086748.  ^ "About OMAO - Office of Marine and Aviation Operations". Omao.noaa.gov. Retrieved 19 August 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-04-20. Retrieved 2017-04-19.  ^ "What is NIDIS? U.S Drought Portal". Drought.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-28.  ^ Pearce, Fred, The Climate Files: The Battle for the Truth about Global Warming, (2010) Guardian Books, ISBN 978-0-85265-229-9, p. XVIII. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 

External links[edit]

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
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(IARPA) Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
research centers and programs

Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service
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(ARS) National Institute of Food and Agriculture
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Forest Service Research and Development (R&D)

Commerce

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Defense

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(AFIT)

Army

Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command
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Engineer Research and Development Center
(ERDC) Army Research Lab (ARL)

Navy

Office of Naval Research
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(NMRC) Naval Warfare Centers

Air (NAWC) Surface (NSWC) Undersea (NUWC) Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance (NCCOSC)

Naval Postgraduate School
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(NPS) Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory (MCWL)

Other

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
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(USU)

Education

Institute of Education Sciences
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(IES) National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)

Energy

Office of Science
Office of Science
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Health and Human Services

National Institutes of Health
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(NIOSH) Food and Drug Administration science and research programs Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)

Homeland Security

Directorate for Science and Technology (S&T) Coast Guard Research & Development Center (CG RDC)

Interior

United States
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Geological Survey (USGS)

Justice

National Institute of Justice
National Institute of Justice
(NIJ)

Transportation

Research and Innovative Technology Administration Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
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Federal Highway Administration
Research and Technology

Veterans Affairs

Veterans Health Administration Office of Research and Development (ORD)

Multi-agency initiatives

U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program (NITRD) National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)

Judicial branch

Federal Judicial Center

Policy-making bodies

Office of Science
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and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Technology Assessment
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(OTA) (defunct) House Committee on Science, Space and Technology Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

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United States
United States
government agencies involved in environmental science

Environmental Protection Agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Change Research Program Smithsonian Institution National Science Foundation

Department of the Interior

National Park Service United States
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Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Bureau of Reclamation Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation, and Enforcement United States
United States
Geological Survey Office of Insular Affairs

Department of Commerce

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather
Weather
Service National Ocean Service National Geodetic Survey National Marine Fisheries
Fisheries
Service Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research

Department of Energy

Office of Science Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy National Laboratories Office of Environmental Management

Department of Agriculture

Farm Service Agency Foreign Agricultural Service United States
United States
Forest Service Natural Resources Conservation Service National Water and Climate Center Rural Utilities Service Food and Nutrition Service Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Agricultural Research Service Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service

Department of Homeland Security

United States
United States
Coast Guard Directorate for Science and Technology

Department of Health and Human Services

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Department of Defense

Office of Naval Research Air Force Research Laboratory United States
United States
Army Research, Development and Engineering Command

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Diver training, certification and accreditation organisations

Commercial certification authorities

Australian Diver Accreditation Scheme
Australian Diver Accreditation Scheme
(ADAS) Divers Institute of Technology Health and Safety Executive (HSE) South African Department of Labour

Free-diving certification agencies

AIDA International
AIDA International
(AIDA) Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques
Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques
(CMAS) Performance Freediving International
Performance Freediving International
(PI) Scuba Schools International
Scuba Schools International
(SSI)

Recreational certification agencies

American Canadian Underwater Certifications
American Canadian Underwater Certifications
(ACUC) American Nitrox Divers International
American Nitrox Divers International
(ANDI) Association nationale des moniteurs de plongée
Association nationale des moniteurs de plongée
(ANMP) British Sub-Aqua Club
British Sub-Aqua Club
(BSAC) Comhairle Fo-Thuinn
Comhairle Fo-Thuinn
(CFT) Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques
Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques
(CMAS) Fédération Française d'Études et de Sports Sous-Marins
Fédération Française d'Études et de Sports Sous-Marins
(FFESSM) Federazione Italiana Attività Subacquee
Federazione Italiana Attività Subacquee
(FIAS) Federación Española de Actividades Subacuáticas
Federación Española de Actividades Subacuáticas
(FEDAS) Global Underwater Explorers
Global Underwater Explorers
(GUE) International Association for Handicapped Divers
International Association for Handicapped Divers
(IAHD) International Association of Nitrox and Technical Divers
International Association of Nitrox and Technical Divers
(IANTD) International Diving Educators Association
International Diving Educators Association
(IDEA) Israeli Diving Federation
Israeli Diving Federation
(TIDF) National Association for Cave Diving
National Association for Cave Diving
(NACD) National Academy of Scuba Educators
National Academy of Scuba Educators
(NASE) National Association of Underwater Instructors
National Association of Underwater Instructors
(NAUI) Nederlandse Onderwatersport Bond
Nederlandse Onderwatersport Bond
(NOB) Professional Association of Diving Instructors
Professional Association of Diving Instructors
(PADI) Professional Diving Instructors Corporation
Professional Diving Instructors Corporation
International (PDIC) The Sub-Aqua Association
Sub-Aqua Association
(SAA) Scuba Diving International
Scuba Diving International
(SDI) Scuba Educators International
Scuba Educators International
(SEI) Scottish Sub Aqua Club
Scottish Sub Aqua Club
(ScotSAC) Scuba Schools International
Scuba Schools International
(SSI) Türkiye Sualtı Sporları Federasyonu (TSSF) United Diving Instructors
United Diving Instructors
(UDI) Unified Team Diving
Unified Team Diving
(UTD) YMCA SCUBA Program

Recreational certification levels

Advanced Open Water Diver Autonomous diver CMAS* SCUBA Diver Divemaster Diving instructor Open Water Diver Master Instructor Master Scuba Diver Rescue Diver Supervised diver Introductory diving

Scientific diver certification authorities

American Academy of Underwater Sciences
American Academy of Underwater Sciences
(AAUS) CMAS Scientific Committee

Technical certification agencies

Cave diving

Cave Divers Association of Australia
Cave Divers Association of Australia
(CDAA) Cave Diving Group
Cave Diving Group
(CDG) Global Underwater Explorers
Global Underwater Explorers
(GUE) National Association for Cave Diving
National Association for Cave Diving
(NACD) National Association of Underwater Instructors
National Association of Underwater Instructors
(NAUI) Unified Team Diving
Unified Team Diving
(UTD) Technical Diving International
Technical Diving International
(TDI)

American Nitrox Divers International
American Nitrox Divers International
(ANDI) British Sub-Aqua Club
British Sub-Aqua Club
(BSAC) Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques
Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques
(CMAS) Diving Science and Technology
Diving Science and Technology
(DSAT) Federazione Italiana Attività Subacquee
Federazione Italiana Attività Subacquee
(FIAS) Global Underwater Explorers
Global Underwater Explorers
(GUE) International Association of Nitrox and Technical Divers
International Association of Nitrox and Technical Divers
(IANTD) National Association of Underwater Instructors
National Association of Underwater Instructors
(NAUI) Professional Association of Diving Instructors
Professional Association of Diving Instructors
(PADI) Professional Diving Instructors Corporation
Professional Diving Instructors Corporation
(PDIC) Technical Diving International
Technical Diving International
(TDI) Trimix Scuba Association
Trimix Scuba Association
(TSA) Technical Extended Range (TXR) Unified Team Diving
Unified Team Diving
(UTD)

Related

Divers Alert Network Diver certification European Underwater Federation
European Underwater Federation
(EUF) International Diving Regulators and Certifiers Forum
International Diving Regulators and Certifiers Forum
(IDRCF) International Diving Schools Association
International Diving Schools Association
(IDSA) International Marine Contractors Association
International Marine Contractors Association
(IMCA) List of diver certification organizations National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) Nautical Archaeology Society Recreational diver training World Recreational Scuba Training Council
World Recreational Scuba Training Council
(WRSTC)

Category Glossary Portal

v t e

Richard Nixon

37th President of the United States
United States
(1969–1974) 36th Vice President of the United States
United States
(1953–1961) U.S. Senator from California (1950–1953) U.S. Representative for CA-12 (1947–1950)

Presidency

First inauguration Second inauguration Nixon Doctrine "Bring Us Together" Economic policies

Nixon shock

Tar Baby Option Environmental Protection Agency

creation

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space exploration 1971 National Cancer Act Vietnam War

Cambodian bombing Paris Peace Accords "Peace with Honor"

Silent majority Cold War period

Linkage policy

1972 Visit to China

Shanghai Communiqué

Détente

1972 Moscow Summit Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty SALT I Treaty Prevention of Nuclear War Agreement Threshold Test Ban Treaty

Endangered Species Act Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse War on Drugs

Drug Enforcement Administration

Enemies List

list of opponents

Operation CHAOS Watergate

timeline White House tapes United States
United States
v. Nixon Senate Watergate Committee impeachment process

Resignation

speech

Pardon State of the Union Address (1970 1973 1974) Wilson desk Judicial appointments

Supreme Court controversies

Life and politics

Presidential Library and Museum

Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
Foundation

Birthplace and boyhood home Checkers speech Kitchen Debate Operation 40 "Last press conference" Florida
Florida
White House "La Casa Pacifica" Nixon Center Nixon v. General Services Administration Death and funeral

Books

Six Crises
Six Crises
(1962) Bibliography

Elections

United States
United States
House of Representatives elections, 1946 1948 U.S. Senate election, 1950 California gubernatorial election, 1962 Republican Party presidential primaries, 1960 1964 1968 1972 Republican National Conventions, 1952 1956 1960 1968 1972 Nixon Presidential campaign, 1968 United States
United States
presidential elections, 1952 1956 1960

debates

1968 1972

Popular culture

Nixon goes to China (phrase) Millhouse (1971 film) Four More Years (1972 film) All the President's Men (1976 film) White House Madness (1975 film) Nixon in China
Nixon in China
(1987 opera) Nixon (1995 film) Elvis Meets Nixon
Elvis Meets Nixon
(1997 film) Dick (1999 film) The Frost-Nixon Interviews (2006 play, 2008 film) Our Nixon
Our Nixon
(2013 film) U.S. Postage stamp

Related

Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act Presidential Townhouse

Staff

Colonel Jack Brennan
Jack Brennan
(aide de camp) Manolo Sanchez (valet) Rose Mary Woods
Rose Mary Woods
(secretary)

Family

Thelma "Pat" Ryan Nixon (wife) Tricia Nixon Cox
Tricia Nixon Cox
(daughter) Julie Nixon Eisenhower
Julie Nixon Eisenhower
(daughter) Frank Nixon (father) Hannah Nixon (mother) Donald Nixon
Donald Nixon
(brother) Edward Nixon (brother) Donald A. Nixon (nephew) Christopher Nixon Cox (grandson) Jennie Eisenhower (granddaughter)

← Lyndon B. Johnson Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138297002 LCCN: n79004184 ISNI: 0000 0001 1940 3043 GND: 16282942-5 SUDOC: 026613670 BNF: cb11882745q (data) NLA: 35569

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