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The National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
(Italian: Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci). The party ruled Italy
Italy
from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome
Rome
to 1943, when Mussolini
Mussolini
was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism. Preceding the PNF, Mussolini's first established political party was known as the Fascist Revolutionary Party (Partito Fascista Rivoluzionario, PFR), which was founded in 1915 according to Mussolini.[1] After poor November 1919 election results, the PFR was eventually renamed the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
during the Third Fascist Congress in Rome
Rome
on 7–10 November 1921.[2][3] The National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
was rooted in Italian nationalism
Italian nationalism
and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay.[4] Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy
Italy
is the heir to ancient Rome
Rome
and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire
Italian Empire
to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.[5] Fascists promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy.[6] This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.[7] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
opposed liberalism, but did not seek a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, and not in line with a forward-looking direction on policy.[8] It was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism,[9] but was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre.[10] It believed the success of Italian nationalism
Italian nationalism
required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy.[11] The National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
along with its successor, the Republican Fascist Party, are the only parties whose re-formation is banned by the Constitution of Italy: "It shall be forbidden to reorganize, under any form whatsoever, the dissolved fascist party".

Contents

1 History

1.1 Historical background 1.2 March on Rome 1.3 Fascist government 1.4 The Fall of Mussolini

2 Ideology

2.1 Nationalism 2.2 Totalitarianism 2.3 Corporatist economics 2.4 Age and gender roles 2.5 Tradition

3 Influence outside Italy 4 Legacy 5 Secretaries of the PNF 6 Election results

6.1 Italian Parliament

7 Party symbols 8 Slogans 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Historical background[edit]

Mussolini
Mussolini
during the 1920s

After the First World War
First World War
(1914–1918), despite the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) being a full-partner Allied Power against the Central Powers, Italian nationalism
Italian nationalism
claimed Italy
Italy
was cheated in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), thus the Allies had impeded Italy's progress to becoming a "Great Power".[12] Thenceforth, the PNF successfully exploited that perceived slight to Italian nationalism
Italian nationalism
in presenting Fascism
Fascism
as best suited for governing the country by successfully claiming that democracy, socialism and liberalism were failed systems. In 1919 at the Paris Peace Conference, the Allies compelled the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
to yield to Yugoslavia the Croatian seaport of Fiume (Rijeka), a mostly Italian city of little nationalist significance, until early 1919. Moreover, elsewhere Italy
Italy
was then excluded from the wartime secret Treaty of London (1915)
Treaty of London (1915)
it had concorded with the Triple Entente,[13] wherein Italy
Italy
was to leave the Triple Alliance and join the enemy by declaring war against the German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in exchange for territories at war's end, upon which the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
held claims (see Italia irredenta). In September 1919, the nationalist response of outraged war hero Gabriele D'Annunzio
Gabriele D'Annunzio
was declaring the establishment of the Italian Regency of Carnaro.[14] To his independent Italian state, he installed himself as the Regent Duce
Duce
(Leader) and promulgated the Carta del Carnaro (Charter of Carnaro, 8 September 1920), a politically syncretic constitutional amalgamation of right-wing and left-wing anarchist, proto-fascist and democratic republican politics, which much influenced the politico-philosophic development of early Italian Fascism. Consequent to the Treaty of Rapallo (1920), the metropolitan Italian military deposed the Regency of Duce
Duce
D’Annunzio on Christmas 1920. In the development of the fascist model of government, D’Annunzio was a nationalist and not a fascist, whose legacy of political–praxis (“Politics as Theatre”) was stylistic (ceremony, uniform, harangue and chanting) and not substantive, which Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
artfully developed as a government model.[14][15] Founded in Rome
Rome
during the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921,[2] the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
marked the transformation of the paramilitary Fasci Italiani di Combattimento
Fasci Italiani di Combattimento
into a more coherent political group (the Fasci di Combattimento had been founded by Mussolini
Mussolini
in Milan's Piazza San Sepolcro on 23 March 1919). The Fascist Party was instrumental in directing and popularizing support for Mussolini's ideology. In the early years, groups within the PNF called Blackshirts
Blackshirts
(squadristi) built a base of power by violently attacking socialists and their institutions in the rural Po Valley, thereby gaining the support of landowners. Compared to its predecessor, the PNF abandoned republicanism to turn decisively towards the right-wing of the political spectrum. March on Rome[edit] Main article: March on Rome On 22 October 1922, Mussolini
Mussolini
attempted a coup d'état which was titled by the Fascist propaganda, the March on Rome, in which took part almost 30,000 fascists. The quadrumvirs leading the Fascist Party, General Emilio De Bono, Italo Balbo
Italo Balbo
(one of the most famous ras), Michele Bianchi
Michele Bianchi
and Cesare Maria de Vecchi, organized the March while the Duce
Duce
stayed behind for most of the march, though he allowed pictures to be taken of him marching along with the Fascist marchers. Generals Gustavo Fara and Sante Ceccherini assisted to the preparations of the March of 18 October. Other organizers of the march included the Marquis Dino Perrone Compagni and Ulisse Igliori.

Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
with Fascist Blackshirts
Blackshirts
during the March on Rome

On 24 October 1922, Mussolini
Mussolini
declared before 60,000 people at the Fascist Congress in Naples: "Our program is simple: we want to rule Italy".[16] Meanwhile, the Blackshirts, who had occupied the Po plain, took all strategic points of the country. On 26 October, former prime minister Antonio Salandra
Antonio Salandra
warned current Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Luigi Facta that Mussolini
Mussolini
was demanding his resignation and that he was preparing to march on Rome. However, Facta did not believe Salandra and thought that Mussolini
Mussolini
would govern quietly at his side. To meet the threat posed by the bands of fascist troops now gathering outside Rome, Facta (who had resigned but continued to hold power) ordered a state of siege for Rome. Having had previous conversations with the king about the repression of fascist violence, he was sure the king would agree.[17] However, King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign the military order.[18] On 28 October, the King handed power to Mussolini, who was supported by the military, the business class, the right-wing part of population. The march itself was composed of fewer than 30,000 men, but the King in part feared a civil war since the squadristi had already taken control of the Po plain and most of the country, while Fascism
Fascism
was no longer seen as a threat to the establishment. Mussolini
Mussolini
was asked to form his cabinet on 29 October 1922, while some 25,000 Blackshirts were parading in Rome. Mussolini
Mussolini
thus legally reached power in accordance with the Statuto Albertino, the Italian Constitution. The March on Rome
Rome
was not the conquest of power which Fascism
Fascism
later celebrated, but rather the precipitating force behind a transfer of power within the framework of the constitution. This transition was made possible by the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation. Many business and financial leaders believed it would be possible to manipulate Mussolini, whose early speeches and policies emphasized free market and laissez-faire economics.[19] This proved overly optimistic, as Mussolini's corporatist view stressed total state power over businesses as much as over individuals, via governing industry bodies ("corporations") controlled by the Fascist party, a model in which businesses retained the responsibilities of property, but few if any of the freedoms. Even though the coup failed in giving power directly to the Fascist Party, it nonetheless resulted in a parallel agreement between Mussolini
Mussolini
and King Victor Emmanuel III that made Mussolini
Mussolini
the head of the Italian government. On 15 December, the Grand Council of Fascism was founded and it was the supreme organ of the PNF. Fascist government[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Italy
Italy
under Fascism
Fascism
(1922–1943) After a drastic modification of electoral legislation (the Acerbo Law), the Fascist Party clearly won the highly controversial elections of April 1924. In early 1925, Mussolini
Mussolini
dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a total dictatorship. From that point onward, the PNF was effectively the only legally permitted party in the country. This status was formalized by a law passed in 1928 and Italy
Italy
remained a one-party state until the end of the Fascist regime in 1943. The new laws were strongly criticized by the leader of the Socialist Party Giacomo Matteotti
Giacomo Matteotti
during his speech in Parliament and a few days later Matteotti was kidnapped and killed by fascist blackshirts.

Mussolini
Mussolini
in an official portrait

After taking sole power, the Fascist regime began to impose the Fascist ideology and its symbolism throughout the country. Party membership in the PNF became necessary to seek employment or gain government assistance. The fasces adorned public buildings, Fascist mottos and symbols were displayed in art and a personality cult was created around Mussolini
Mussolini
as the nation's saviour called "Il Duce", "The Leader". The Italian parliament was replaced in duties by the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations, solely filled with Fascist Party members. The PNF promoted Italian imperialism in Africa
Africa
and staunchly promoted racial segregation and white supremacy of Italian settlers in the colonies. In 1930 came the Youth Fasces
Fasces
of Combat. The 1930s were characterized by the secretary Achille Starace, "faithful" to Mussolini
Mussolini
and one of the few fascist secretaries from Southern Italy, who launched a campaign of Fascism
Fascism
in the country made up of a wave of ceremonies and rallies and the creation of organizations which aimed to frame the country and the citizen in all its manifestations (both public and private). In order to regiment youth movements, Starace brought the Opera Nazionale Balilla
Opera Nazionale Balilla
(ONB) under the direct control of the PNF and the Youth Fasces
Fasces
that were dissolved and merged into the new Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL). On 27 May 1933, party membership was declared a basic requirement for public office. On 9 March 1937, it became mandatory if one wanted access to any public office and from 3 June 1938 those who did not join the party could not work. In 1939, Ettore Muti
Ettore Muti
replaced Starace at the helm of the party, a fact that testifies to the increasing influence of Galeazzo Ciano, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and son-in-law of Mussolini. On 10 June 1940, from the balcony of Palazzo Venezia
Palazzo Venezia
Mussolini announced the entry of Italy
Italy
into World War II
World War II
on the side of Hitler's Germany. The Fall of Mussolini[edit] Main article: Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy On 25 July 1943, following a request from Dino Grandi
Dino Grandi
due to the failure of the war the Grand Council of Fascism
Fascism
overthrew Mussolini
Mussolini
by asking the King to resume his full authority in officially removing Mussolini
Mussolini
as Prime Minister, which he did. Mussolini
Mussolini
was imprisoned, but the Fascists immediately collapsed and the party was officially banned by Pietro Badoglio's government on 27 July. After the Nazi-engineered Gran Sasso raid
Gran Sasso raid
liberated Mussolini
Mussolini
in September, the PNF was revived as the Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano – PFR; September 13), as the single party of the Northern and Nazi-protected Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
(the Salò
Salò
Republic). Its secretary was Alessandro Pavolini. The PRF did not outlast Mussolini's execution and the disappearance of the Salò state in April 1945. Ideology[edit] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
was rooted in Italian nationalism
Italian nationalism
and Georges Sorel’s revolutionary syndicalism that eventually evolved into national syndicalism in Italy. Most Italian revolutionary syndicalist leaders were not only “founders of the Fascist movement”, but later held key positions in Mussolini’s administration.[20] They sought to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay.[21] Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy
Italy
is the heir to ancient Rome
Rome
and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire
Italian Empire
to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.[5] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy.[6] This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.[7] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
opposed liberalism, but rather than seeking a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed as it had a forward-looking direction.[8] It was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism,[9] but was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre.[10] It believed the success of Italian nationalism
Italian nationalism
required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people, alongside a commitment to a modernized Italy.[11] Nationalism[edit] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
is based upon Italian nationalism
Italian nationalism
and in particular seeks to complete what it considers as the incomplete project of Risorgimento
Risorgimento
by incorporating Italia Irredenta ("unredeemed Italy") into the state of Italy.[22] The National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
founded in 1921 declared that the party was to serve as "a revolutionary militia placed at the service of the nation. It follows a policy based on three principles: order, discipline, hierarchy".[22] It identifies modern Italy
Italy
as the heir to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Italy during the Renaissance
Renaissance
and promotes the cultural identity of Romanitas ("Roman-ness").[22] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
historically sought to forge a strong Italian Empire
Italian Empire
as a "Third Rome", identifying ancient Rome
Rome
as the "First Rome" and Renaissance-era Italy
Italy
as the "Second Rome".[22] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
has emulated ancient Rome
Rome
and Mussolini
Mussolini
in particular emulated ancient Roman leaders, such as Julius Cæsar
Julius Cæsar
as a model for the Fascists' rise to power and Augustus
Augustus
as a model for empire-building.[23] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
has directly promoted imperialism, such as within the Doctrine of Fascism
Fascism
(1932) ghostwritten by Giovanni Gentile
Giovanni Gentile
on behalf of Mussolini, declared:

The Fascist state is a will to power and empire. The Roman tradition is here a powerful force. According to the Doctrine of Fascism, empire is not only territorial or military or mercantile concept, but a spiritual and moral one. One can think of an empire, that is, a nation, which directly or indirectly guides other nations, without the need to conquer a single square kilometre of territory. — Benito Mussolini, Giovanni Gentile, Doctrine of Fascism
Fascism
(1932)

Italian war poster

Fascism
Fascism
emphasized the need for the restoration of the Mazzinian Risorgimento
Risorgimento
tradition that pursued the unification of Italy, that the Fascists claimed had been left incomplete and abandoned in the Giolittian-era Italy.[24] Fascism
Fascism
sought the incorporation of claimed "unredeemed" territories to Italy. To the east of Italy, the Fascists claimed that Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was a land of Italian culture whose Italians, including those of Italianized South Slavic descent, had been driven out of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and into exile in Italy
Italy
and supported the return of Italians of Dalmatian heritage.[25] Mussolini
Mussolini
identified Dalmatia
Dalmatia
as having strong Italian cultural roots for centuries via the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Republic of Venice.[26] The Fascists especially focused their claims based on the Venetian cultural heritage of Dalmatia, claiming that Venetian rule had been beneficial for all Dalmatians and had been accepted by the Dalmatian population.[26] The Fascists were outraged after World War I, when the agreement between Italy
Italy
and the Entente Allies in the Treaty of London of 1915 to have Dalmatia
Dalmatia
join Italy
Italy
was revoked in 1919.[26] The Fascist regime supported annexation of Yugoslavia's region of Slovenia into Italy
Italy
that already held a portion of the Slovene population, whereby Slovenia
Slovenia
would become an Italian province,[27] resulting in a quarter of Slovene ethnic territory and approximately 327,000 out of total population of 1.3[28] million Slovenes
Slovenes
being subjected to forced Italianization.[29][30] The Fascist regime supported annexation of Albania, claimed that Albanians
Albanians
were ethnically linked to Italians through links with the prehistoric Italiotes, Illyrian and Roman populations and that the major influence exerted by the Roman and Venetian empires over Albania
Albania
justified Italy's right to possess it.[31] The Fascist regime also justified the annexation of Albania
Albania
on the basis that—because several hundred thousand people of Albanian descent had been absorbed into society in Southern Italy
Italy
already—the incorporation of Albania
Albania
was a reasonable measure that would unite people of Albanian descent into one state.[32] The Fascist regime endorsed Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo
Kosovo
and Epirus – particularly in Chameria inhabited by a substantial number of Albanians.[33] After Italy annexed Albania
Albania
in 1939, the Fascist regime endorsed assimilating Albanians
Albanians
into Italians and colonizing Albania
Albania
with Italian settlers from the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
to gradually transform it into an Italian land.[34] The Fascist regime claimed the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
as Italian territory on the basis that the islands had belonged to the Venetian Republic from the mid-14th until the 18th century.[35] To the west of Italy, the Fascists claimed that the territories of Corsica, Nice and Savoy
Savoy
held by France were Italian lands.[36][37] During the period of Italian unification in 1860 to 1861, Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, who was leading the unification effort, faced opposition from French Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
who indicated that France would oppose Italian unification unless France was given Nice and Savoy
Savoy
that were held by Piedmont Sardinia, as France did not want a powerful state having control of all the passages of the Alps.[38] As a result, Piedmont-Sardinia was pressured to concede Nice and Savoy
Savoy
to France in exchange for France accepting the unification of Italy.[39] The Fascist regime produced literature on Corsica
Corsica
that presented evidence of the italianità of the island.[40] The Fascist regime produced literature on Nice that justified that Nice was an Italian land based on historic, ethnic and linguistic grounds.[40] The Fascists quoted Medieval Italian scholar Petrarch
Petrarch
who said: "The border of Italy
Italy
is the Var; consequently Nice is a part of Italy".[40] The Fascists quoted Italian national hero Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
who said: " Corsica
Corsica
and Nice must not belong to France; there will come the day when an Italy mindful of its true worth will reclaim its provinces now so shamefully languishing under foreign domination".[40] Mussolini
Mussolini
initially pursued promoting annexation of Corsica
Corsica
through political and diplomatic means, believing that Corsica
Corsica
could be annexed to Italy
Italy
through first encouraging the existing autonomist tendencies in Corsica
Corsica
and then independence of Corsica
Corsica
from France, that would be followed by annexation of Corsica
Corsica
into Italy.[41]

Residents of Fiume cheer the arrival of Gabriele D'Annunzio
Gabriele D'Annunzio
and his blackshirt-wearing nationalist raiders, as D'Annunzio's actions in Fiume inspired the Italian Fascist movement

To the north of Italy, the Fascist regime in the 1930s had designs on the largely Italian-populated region of Ticino
Ticino
and the Romansch-populated region of Graubünden
Graubünden
in Switzerland (the Romansch are a people with a Latin-based language).[42] In November 1938, Mussolini
Mussolini
declared to the Grand Fascist Council: "We shall bring our border to the Gotthard Pass".[43] The Fascist regime accused the Swiss government of oppressing the Romansch people in Graubünden.[42] Mussolini
Mussolini
argued that Romansch was an Italian dialect and thus Graubünden
Graubünden
should be incorporated into Italy.[44] Ticino
Ticino
was also claimed because the region had belonged to the Duchy of Milan
Milan
from the mid-fourteenth century until 1515.[45] Claim was also raised on the basis that areas now part of Graubünden
Graubünden
in the Mesolcina valley
Mesolcina valley
and Hinterrhein were held by the Milanese Trivulzio family, who ruled from the Mesocco Castle
Mesocco Castle
in the late 15th century.[46] Also during the summer of 1940, Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
met with Adolf Hitler
Hitler
and Joachim von Ribbentrop and proposed to them the dissection of Switzerland along the central chain of the Western Alps, which would have left Italy also with the canton of Valais
Valais
in addition to the claims raised earlier.[47] To the south, the regime claimed the archipelago of Malta, which had been held by the British since 1800.[48] Mussolini
Mussolini
claimed that the Maltese language
Maltese language
was a dialect of Italian,and theories about Malta being the cradle of the Latin civilization were promoted.[48][49] Italian had been widely used in Malta
Malta
in the literary, scientific and legal fields and it was one of Malta's official languages until 1937, when its status was abolished by the British as a response to Italy's invasion of Ethiopia.[50] Italian irredentists had claimed that territories on the coast of North Africa
Africa
were Italy's Fourth Shore
Fourth Shore
and used the historical Roman rule in North Africa
Africa
as a precedent to justify the incorporation of such territories to Italian jurisdiction as being a "return" of Italy
Italy
to North Africa.[51] In January 1939, Italy
Italy
annexed territories in Libya
Libya
that it considered within Italy's Fourth Shore, with Libya's four coastal provinces of Tripoli, Misurata, Benghazi and Derna becoming an integral part of metropolitan Italy.[52] At the same time, indigenous Libyans were given the ability to apply for " Special
Special
Italian Citizenship" which required such people to be literate in the Italian language
Italian language
and confined this type of citizenship to be valid in Libya
Libya
only.[52] Tunisia
Tunisia
that had been taken by France as a protectorate in 1881 had the highest concentration of Italians in North Africa
Africa
and its seizure by France had been viewed as an injury to national honour in Italy
Italy
at what they perceived as a "loss" of Tunisia
Tunisia
from Italian plans to incorporate it.[53] Upon entering World War II, Italy
Italy
declared its intention to seize Tunisia as well as the province of Constantine of Algeria
Algeria
from France.[54] To the south, the Fascist regime held interest in expanding Italy's African colonial possessions. In the 1920s, Italy
Italy
regarded Portugal as a weak country that was unbecoming of a colonial power due to its weak hold on its colonies and mismanagement of them and as such Italy desired to annex Portugal's colonies.[55] Italy's relations with Portugal were influenced by the rise to power of the authoritarian conservative nationalist regime of António de Oliveira Salazar, which borrowed fascist methods, though Salazar upheld Portugal's traditional alliance with Britain.[55] Totalitarianism[edit]

From 1925, Mussolini
Mussolini
styled himself Il Duce
Duce
("the leader")

In 1925, the PNF declared that Italy's Fascist state was to be totalitarian.[22] The term "totalitarian" had initially been used as a pejorative accusation by Italy's liberal opposition that denounced the Fascist movement for seeking to create a total dictatorship.[22] However, the Fascists responded by accepting that they were totalitarian, but presented totalitarianism from a positive viewpoint.[22] Mussolini
Mussolini
described totalitarianism as seeking to forge an authoritarian national state that would be capable of completing Risorgimento
Risorgimento
of the Italia Irredenta, forge a powerful modern Italy and create a new kind of citizen – politically active Fascist Italians.[22] The Doctrine of Fascism
Fascism
(1932) described the nature of Italian Fascism's totalitarianism, stating the following:

Fascism
Fascism
is for the only liberty which can be a serious thing, the liberty of the state and of the individual in the state. Therefore for the fascist, everything is in the state, and no human or spiritual thing exists, or has any sort of value, outside the state. In this sense fascism is totalitarian, and the fascist state which is the synthesis and unity of every value, interprets, develops and strengthens the entire life of the people. — Benito Mussolini, Giovanni Gentile, Doctrine of Fascism
Fascism
(1932)

American journalist H. R. Knickerbocker
H. R. Knickerbocker
wrote in 1941: "Mussolini's Fascist state is the least terroristic of the three totalitarian states. The terror is so mild in comparison with the Soviet or Nazi varieties, that it almost fails to qualify as terroristic at all." As example he described an Italian journalist friend who refused to become a Fascist. He was fired from his newspaper and put under 24-hour surveillance, but otherwise not harassed; his employment contract was settled for a lump sum and he was allowed to work for the foreign press. Knickerbocker contrasted his treatment with the inevitable torture and execution under Stalin or Hitler, and stated "you have a fair idea of the comparative mildness of the Italian kind of totalitarianism".[56] However, since World War II
World War II
historians have noted that in Italy's colonies Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
displayed extreme levels of violence, such as the fact the deaths of one-tenth of the population of the Italian colony of Libya
Libya
during the Fascist era, including from the use of gassings, concentration camps, starvation and disease; and in Ethiopia during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
and afterwards by 1938 a quarter of a million Ethiopians had died.[57] Corporatist economics[edit] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
promotes a corporatist economic system. The economy involves employer and employee syndicates being linked together in corporative associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy.[6] Mussolini
Mussolini
declared such economics as a "Third Alternative" to capitalism and Marxism
Marxism
that Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
regarded as "obsolete doctrines".[citation needed] It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts it deems these acts as prejudicial to the national community as a whole.[58] Age and gender roles[edit] The Italian Fascists' political anthem was called Giovinezza
Giovinezza
("The Youth").[59] Fascism
Fascism
identifies the physical age period of youth as a critical time for the moral development of people that will affect society.[60] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
pursued what it called "moral hygiene" of youth, particularly regarding sexuality.[61] Fascist Italy
Italy
promoted what it considered normal sexual behaviour in youth while denouncing what it considered abnormal sexual behaviour.[61] It deemed pornography, homosexuality and prostitution as deviant sexual conduct.[61] The Fascist State also criminalized the dispersion of birth control as well as abortion and created laws that taxed bachelors.[62] Fascist Italy
Italy
regarded the promotion of male sexual excitation before puberty as the cause of criminality amongst male youth.[61] Fascist Italy reflected the belief of most Italians that homosexuality was wrong and even went as far as to create punitive laws against homosexuals.[62] Instead of the traditional Catholic teaching that it was a sin, a new approach was taken based on then-modern psychoanalysis that it was a social disease.[61] Fascist Italy
Italy
pursued an aggressive campaign to reduce prostitution of young women.[61] Mussolini
Mussolini
perceived women's primary role to be childbearers while men were warriors, once saying that "war is to man what maternity is to the woman".[63] In an effort to increase birthrates, the Italian Fascist government gave financial incentives to women who raised large families and initiated policies designed to reduce the number of women employed.[64] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
called for women to be honoured as "reproducers of the nation" and the Italian Fascist government held ritual ceremonies to honour women's role within the Italian nation.[65] In 1934, Mussolini
Mussolini
declared that employment of women was a "major aspect of the thorny problem of unemployment" and that for women working was "incompatible with childbearing". Mussolini
Mussolini
went on to say that the solution to unemployment for men was the "exodus of women from the work force".[66] Tradition[edit] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
believed that the success of Italian nationalism required a clear sense of a shared past amongst the Italian people, along with a commitment to a modernized Italy. In a famous speech in 1926, Mussolini
Mussolini
called for Fascist art that was "traditionalist and at the same time modern, that looks to the past and at the same time to the future".

Fascist rally near the Coliseum
Coliseum
in Rome

Traditional symbols of Roman civilization were utilized by the Fascists, particularly the fasces that symbolized unity, authority and the exercise of power.[67] Other traditional symbols of ancient Rome used by the Fascists included the she-wolf of Rome.[67] The fasces and the she-wolf symbolized the shared Roman heritage of all the regions that constituted the Italian nation.[67] In 1926, the fasces was adopted by the Fascist government of Italy
Italy
as a symbol of the state.[68] In that year, the Fascist government attempted to have the Italian national flag redesigned to incorporate the fasces on it.[68] However, this attempt to incorporate the fasces on the flag was stopped by strong opposition to the proposal by Italian monarchists.[68] Afterwards, the Fascist government in public ceremonies rose the national tricolour flag along with a Fascist black flag.[69] However, years later and after Mussolini
Mussolini
was forced from power by the King in 1943 only to be rescued by German forces, the Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
founded by Mussolini
Mussolini
and the Fascists did incorporate the fasces on the state's war flag, which was a variant of the Italian tricolour national flag. The issue of the rule of monarchy or republic in Italy
Italy
was an issue that changed several times through the development of Italian Fascism. Initially Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
was republican and denounced the Savoy monarchy.[70] However, Mussolini
Mussolini
tactically abandoned republicanism in 1922 and recognized that the acceptance of the monarchy was a necessary compromise to gain the support of the establishment to challenge the liberal constitutional order that also supported the monarchy.[70] King Victor Emmanuel III had become a popular ruler in the aftermath of Italy's gains after World War I and the army held close loyalty to the King, thus any idea of overthrowing the monarchy was discarded as foolhardy by the Fascists at this point.[70] Importantly, Fascism's recognition of monarchy provided Fascism
Fascism
with a sense of historical continuity and legitimacy.[70] The Fascists publicly identified King Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II
– the first King of a reunited Italy
Italy
who had initiated the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
– along with other historic Italian figures, such as Gaius Marius, Julius Cæsar, Giuseppe Mazzini, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Giuseppe Garibaldi and others, for being within a tradition of dictatorship in Italy
Italy
that the Fascists declared that they emulated.[71] However, this compromise with the monarchy did not yield a cordial relationship between the King and Mussolini.[70] Although Mussolini
Mussolini
had formally accepted the monarchy, he pursued and largely achieved reducing the power of the King to that of a figurehead.[72][self-published source] The King initially held complete nominal legal authority over the military through the Statuto Albertino, but this was ended during the Fascist regime when Mussolini
Mussolini
created the position of First Marshal of the Empire in 1938, a two-person position of control over the military held by both the King and the head of government, that had the effect of eliminating the King's previously exclusive legal authority over the military by giving Mussolini
Mussolini
equal legal authority to the King over the military.[73] In the 1930s, Mussolini
Mussolini
became aggravated by the monarchy's continued existence due to envy of the fact that his counterpart in Germany Adolf Hitler
Hitler
was both head of state and head of government of a republic; and Mussolini
Mussolini
in private denounced the monarchy and indicated that he had plans to dismantle the monarchy and create a republic with himself as head of state of Italy
Italy
upon an Italian success in the then-anticipated major war about to erupt in Europe.[70]

Mussolini
Mussolini
with Adolf Hitler

After being removed from office and placed under arrest by the King in 1943 and the Kingdom of Italy's new non-fascist government switching sides from the Axis to the Allies, Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
returned to republicanism and condemnation of the monarchy.[74] On 18 September 1943, Mussolini
Mussolini
made his first public address to the Italian people since his rescue from arrest by allied German forces, in which he commended the loyalty of Hitler
Hitler
as an ally while condemning King Victor Emmanuel III of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
for betraying Italian Fascism.[74] On the topic of the monarchy removing him from power and dismantling the Fascist regime, Mussolini
Mussolini
stated that "[i]t is not the regime that has betrayed the monarchy, it is the monarchy that has betrayed the regime" and that "[w]hen a monarchy fails in its duties, it loses every reason for being...The state we want to establish will be national and social in the highest sense of the word; that is, it will be Fascist, thus returning to our origins".[74] The Fascists at this point did not denounce the House of Savoy
Savoy
in the entirety of its history and credited Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II
for his rejection of "scornfully dishonourable pacts" and denounced Victor Emmanuel III for betraying Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II
by entering a dishonourable pact with the Allies.[75] The relationship between Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
and the Catholic Church was mixed, as originally it was highly anti-clerical and hostile to Catholicism, but from the mid to late 1920s anti-clericalism lost ground in the movement as Mussolini
Mussolini
in power sought to seek accord with the Church as the Church held major influence in Italian society with most Italians being Catholic.[76] In 1929, the Italian government signed the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
with the Holy See, a concordat between Italy and the Catholic Church that allowed for the creation of a small enclave known as Vatican City
Vatican City
as a sovereign state representing the papacy. This ended years of perceived alienation between the Church and the Italian government after Italy
Italy
annexed the Papal States
Papal States
in 1870. Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
justified its adoption of antisemitic laws in 1938 by claiming that Italy
Italy
was fulfilling the Christian religious mandate of the Catholic Church that had been initiated by Pope Innocent III in the Fourth Lateran Council
Fourth Lateran Council
of 1215, whereby the Pope issued strict regulation of the life of Jews in Christian lands which reduced their status to essentially perpetual slaves, Jews were prohibited from holding any public office that would give them power over Christians and Jews were required to wear distinctive clothing to distinguish them from Christians.[77] Influence outside Italy[edit] The National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
model was very influential beyond Italy. In the twenty-one-year interbellum period, many political scientists and philosophers sought ideological inspiration from Italy. Mussolini's establishment of law and order to Italy
Italy
and its society was praised by Winston Churchill,[78] Sigmund Freud,[79] George Bernard Shaw[80] and Thomas Edison,[81] as the Fascist Government combated organised crime and the Mafia with violence and vendetta (honour).[82] Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
was copied by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party, the Russian Fascist Organization and the Romanian National Fascist Movement
National Fascist Movement
(the National Romanian Fascia
National Romanian Fascia
and National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement), whereas the Dutch fascists were based upon the Verbond van Actualisten journal of H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont
H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont
and Alfred Haighton. The Sammarinese Fascist Party
Sammarinese Fascist Party
established an early Fascist government in San Marino, their politico-philosophic basis essentially was Italian Fascism. In Switzerland, pro-Nazi Colonel Arthur Fonjallaz of the National Front became an ardent Mussolini admirer after visiting Italy
Italy
in 1932 and advocated the Italian annexation of Switzerland, whilst receiving Fascist foreign aid.[83] The country was host for two Italian politico-cultural activities: the International Centre for Fascist Studies (CINEF — Centre International d’ Études Fascistes), and the 1934 congress of the Action Committee for the Universality of Rome
Rome
(CAUR — Comitato d’ Azione della Università de Roma).[84] In Spain, the writer Ernesto Giménez Caballero, in Genio de España (The Genius of Spain, 1932) called for the Italian annexation of Spain, led by Mussolini
Mussolini
presiding an international Latin Roman Catholic empire. He then progressed to be closely associated with Falangism, leading to discarding the Spanish annexation to Italy.[85] Legacy[edit] Although the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
was outlawed by the postwar Constitution of Italy, a number of successor neo-fascist parties emerged to carry on its legacy. Historically, the largest neo-fascist party was the Italian Social Movement
Italian Social Movement
(Movimento Sociale Italiano), whose best result was 8.7% of votes gained in the 1972 general election. The MSI was disbanded in 1995 and was replaced by National Alliance, a conservative party that distanced itself from Fascism
Fascism
(its founder, former foreign minister Gianfranco Fini, declared during an official visit to Isræl
Isræl
that Fascism
Fascism
was "an absolute evil").[86] National Alliance and a number of neo-fascist parties were merged in 2009 to create the short-lived People of Freedom party led by then Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Silvio Berlusconi, which eventually disbanded after the defeat in the 2013 general election. By now, many former members of MSI and AN joined Brothers of Italy
Italy
party led by Giorgia Meloni. Secretaries of the PNF[edit] Main article: List of Secretaries of Italian Fascist parties § Secretaries of the National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
(PNF)

Michele Bianchi
Michele Bianchi
(November 1921 – January 1923) multiple presidency (January 1923 – October 1923)

Triumvirate: Michele Bianchi, Nicola Sansanelli, Giuseppe Bastianini

Francesco Giunta
Francesco Giunta
(15 October 1923 – 22 April 1924) multiple presidency (23 April 1924 – 15 February 1925)

Quadrumvirate: Roberto Forges Davanzati, Cesare Rossi, Giovanni Marinelli, Alessandro Melchiorri

Roberto Farinacci
Roberto Farinacci
(15 February 1925 – 30 March 1926) Augusto Turati (30 March 1926 – 7 October 1930) Giovanni Giuriati
Giovanni Giuriati
(October 1930 – December 1931) Achille Starace
Achille Starace
(December 1931 – 31 October 1939) Ettore Muti
Ettore Muti
(31 October 1939 – 30 October 1940) Adelchi Serena (30 October 1940 – 26 December 1941) Aldo Vidussoni (26 December 1941 – 19 April 1943) Carlo Scorza (19 April 1943 – 27 July 1943)

Election results[edit] Italian Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Deputies

Election year No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of overall seats won +/– Leader

1924 4,653,488 (#1) 64.9

375 / 535

Benito Mussolini

1929 8,517,838 (#1) 98.4

400 / 400

25 Benito Mussolini

1934 10,043,875 (#1) 99.8

400 / 400

Benito Mussolini

Party symbols[edit]

Party emblem of the National Fascist Party

Eagle clutching a fasces, a common symbol of Italian Fascism, regularly used on uniforms and caps

Flag of the National Fascist Party

Slogans[edit]

Il Duce! (The Leader!) Viva il Duce! (Long live the Leader!)[87] Eja, eja, alalà! (Equivalent to Hip, hip, hooray! in English) Viva la morte (Long live death [sacrifice]) Credere, obbedire, combattere ("Believe, obey, fight") Vincere
Vincere
e vinceremo! ("Win and we will win!") Libro e moschetto - fascista perfetto (Book and rifle - perfect Fascist) Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato (Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State) Se avanzo, seguitemi. Se indietreggio, uccidetemi. Se muoio, vendicatemi (If I advance, follow me. If I retreat, kill me. If I die, avenge me) Me ne frego (I don't give a damn) La libertà non è diritto è un dovere (Liberty is not a right it is a duty) Noi tireremo diritto (literally We will go straight or We shall go forward) La guerra è per l'uomo, come la maternità è per la donna (War is to man, as motherhood is to woman)[88]

See also[edit]

Glossary of Fascist Italy Fascism Fascist Syndicalism Italian Fascism Squadrismo

References[edit]

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(2006), My Autobiography with The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism, Mineloa: NY: Dover Publication Inc., p. 227. Note that some authors refer to Mussolini's first political party as "The Revolutionary Fascist Party".  ^ a b Charles F. Delzell, edit., Mediterranean Fascism
Fascism
1919-1945, New York, NY, Walker and Company, 1971, p. 26 ^ Joel Krieger, ed. (2012), The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics, Oxford University Press, p. 120  ^ Aristotle A. Kallis, Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy
Italy
and Germany, 1922–1945. London, England, UK; New York City, USA: Routledge, 2000. Pp. 41. ^ a b Aristotle A. Kallis. Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy
Italy
and Germany, 1922–1945. London, England, UK; New York City, USA: Routledge, 2000. Pp. 50. ^ a b c Andrew Vincent. Modern Political Ideologies. Third edition. Malden, Massaschussetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; West Sussex, England, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd., 2010. Pp. 160. ^ a b John Whittam. Fascist Italy. Manchester, England, UK; New York City, USA: Manchester University Press, 1995. Pp. 160. ^ a b Eugen Weber. The Western Tradition: From the Renaissance
Renaissance
to the present. Heath, 1972. Pp. 791. ^ a b Stanislao G. Pugliese. Fascism, anti-fascism, and the resistance in Italy: 1919 to the present. Oxford, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2004. pp. 43–44. ^ a b Stanley G.Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914–45. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. Pp. 214. ^ a b Claudia Lazzaro, Roger J. Crum. "Forging a Visible Fascist Nation: Strategies for Fusing the Past and Present" by Claudia Lazzaro, Donatello Among The Blackshirts: History And Modernity In The Visual Culture Of Fascist Italy. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 2005. Pp. 13. ^ " Mussolini
Mussolini
and Fascism
Fascism
in Italy". FSmitha.com. 8 January 2008.  ^ The Fascist Experience by Edward R. Tannenbaum, p. 22 ^ a b Macdonald, Hamish (1999). Mussolini
Mussolini
and Italian Fascism. Nelson Thornes. ISBN 0-7487-3386-8.  ^ Roger Eatwell, Fascism: A History (1995)p. 49 ^ Carsten (1982), p.62 ^ Chiapello (2012), p.123 ^ Carsten (1982), p.64 ^ Carsten (1982), p.76 ^ Zeev Sternhell, Mario Sznajder, Maia Ashéri, The Birth of Fascist Ideology: From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution, Princeton University Press, 1994, p. 33 ^ Aristotle A. Kallis. Fascist ideology: territory and expansionism in Italy
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and Germany, 1922–1945. London, England, UK; New York City, USA: Routledge, 2000. Pp. 41. ^ a b c d e f g h Terence Ball, Richard Bellamy. The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Political Thought. Pp. 133 ^ Claudia Lazzaro, Roger J. Crum. "Augustus, Mussolini, and the Parallel Imagery of Empire" by Ann Thomas Wilkins, Donatello Among The Blackshirts: History And Modernity In The Visual Culture Of Fascist Italy. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 2005. Pp. 53. ^ Roger Griffin. The Nature of Fascism. St. Martin's Press, 1991. Pp. ^ Jozo Tomasevich. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 2001. P. 131. ^ a b c Larry Wolff. Venice And the Slavs: The Discovery of Dalmatia in the Age of Enlightenment. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, P. 355. ^ Allan R. Millett, Williamson Murray. Military Effectiveness, Volume 2. New edition. New York City, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2010. P. 184. ^ Lipušček, U. (2012) Sacro egoismo: Slovenci v krempljih tajnega londonskega pakta 1915, Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana. ISBN 978-961-231-871-0 ^ Cresciani, Gianfranco (2004) Clash of civilisations, Italian Historical Society Journal, Vol.12, No.2, p.4 ^ Hehn, Paul N. (2005). A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, and the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930–1941. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0-8264-1761-2.  ^ Rodogno., Davide (2006). Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-521-84515-7.  ^ Owen Pearson. Albania
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and Germany 1922–1945. London, England; UK; New York City, USA: Routledge, 2000. P. 118. ^ Mussolini
Mussolini
Unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986, 1999. P. 38. ^ Adda Bruemmer Bozeman. Regional Conflicts Around Geneva: An Inquiry Into the Origin, Nature, and Implications of the Neutralized Zone of Savoy
Savoy
and of the Customs-free Zones of Gex and Upper Savoy. P. 196. ^ Adda Bruemmer Bozeman. Regional Conflicts Around Geneva: An Inquiry Into the Origin, Nature, and Implications of the Neutralized Zone of Savoy
Savoy
and of the Customs-free Zones of Gex and Upper Savoy. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1949. P. 196. ^ a b c d Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. P. 88. ^ John Gooch. Mussolini
Mussolini
and his Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922–1940. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Pp. 452. ^ a b John F. L. Ross. Neutrality and International Sanctions: Sweden, Switzerland, and Collective Security. ABC-CLIO, 1989. P. 91. ^ Aurelio Garobbio. A colloquio con il duce. 1998. Mursia, p. xvi ^ Carl Skutsch. Encyclopedia of the world's minorities, Volume 3. London, England, UK: Routledge, 2005. P. 1027. ^ Ferdinando Crespi. Ticino
Ticino
irredento: la frontiera contesa : dalla battaglia culturale dell'Adula ai piani d'invasione, F. Angeli, 2004, p. 284 ISBN 8846453646 ^ Crespi 2004, p. 250 ^ McGregor Knox, Mussolini
Mussolini
Unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 138. ^ a b Juliet Rix. Malta. Bradt Travel Guides. 2010. p. 16-17 ^ Jeffrey Cole. Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. 2011. p. 254 ^ Norman Berdichevsky. Nations, Language, and Citizenship. McFarland. 2004. pp. 70–71 ^ Tony Pollard, Iain Banks. Scorched Earth: Studies in the Archæology of Conflict. p4. ^ a b Jon Wright. History of Libya. P. 165. ^ Susan Slyomovics. The Walled Arab City in Literature, Architecture and History: The Living Medina in the Maghrib. Routledge, 2003. p124. ^ Robert O. Paxton. Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order 1940-1944. Columbia University Press, 2001. p74. ^ a b Lucas F. Bruyning, Joseph Theodoor Leerssen. Italy
Italy
- Europe. Rodopi, 1990. P. 113. ^ Knickerbocker, H.R. (1941). Is Tomorrow Hitler's? 200 Questions On the Battle of Mankind. Reynal & Hitchcock. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9781417992775.  ^ Ruth Ben-Ghiat. Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922-1945. p126. ^ George Sylvester Counts. Bolshevism, fascism, and capitalism: an account of the three economic systems. 3rd edition. Yale University Press, 1970. Pp. 96. ^ Mark Antliff. Avant-Garde Fascism: The Mobilization of Myth, Art, and Culture in France, 1909–1939. Duke University Press, 2007. Pp. 171. ^ Maria Sop Quine. Population Politics in Twentieth Century Europe: Fascist Dictatorships and Liberal Democracies. Routledge, 1995. Pp. 47. ^ a b c d e f Maria Sop Quine. Population Politics in Twentieth Century Europe: Fascist Dictatorships and Liberal Democracies. Routledge, 1995. Pp. 46–47. ^ a b Maynes, Mary Jo., and Ann Beth. Waltner. "Powers of Life and Death: Families in the Era of State Population Management." The Family: A World History. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. 101. Print. ^ Bollas, Christopher, Being a Character: Psychoanalysis and Self-Experience (Routledge, 1993) ISBN 978-0-415-08815-2, p. 205. ^ McDonald, Harmish, Mussolini
Mussolini
and Italian Fascism
Italian Fascism
(Nelson Thornes, 1999) p. 27. ^ Mann, Michæl. Fascists (Cambridge University Press, 2004) p. 101. ^ Durham, Martin, Women and Fascism
Fascism
(Routledge, 1998) p. 15. ^ a b c Claudia Lazzaro, Roger J. Crum. "Forging a Visible Fascist Nation: Strategies for Fusing the Past and Present" by Claudia Lazzaro, Donatello Among The Blackshirts: History And Modernity In The Visual Culture Of Fascist Italy. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 2005. Pp. 16. ^ a b c Denis Mack Smith. Italy
Italy
and its Monarchy. Yale University Press, 1989. Pp. 265. ^ Emilio Gentile. The sacralization of politics in fascist Italy. Harvard University Press, 1996. Pp. 119. ^ a b c d e f John Francis Pollard. The Fascist Experience in Italy. P. 72. ^ Christopher Duggan. Fascist Voices: An Intimate History of Mussolini's Italy. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, P. 76. ^ Beasley Sr., Jimmy Lee. I Was There When It Happened. Xlibris Corporation, 2010. Pp. 39. ^ Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation during the Second World War. P. 113. ^ a b c Moseley, Ray (2004). Mussolini: The Last 600 Days of Il Duce. Taylor Trade. ISBN 1-58979-095-2.  ^ Luisa Quartermaine. Mussolini's Last Republic: Propaganda
Propaganda
and Politics in the Italian Social Republic
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(R.S.I.) 1943-45. Intellect Books, Jan 1, 2000. P. 102. ^ John F. Pollard. The Vatican and Italian Fascism, 1929-32: A Study in Conflict. Cambridge University Press, 1985, 2005. p10. ^ Wiley Feinstein. The Civilization of the Holocaust in Italy: Poets, Artists, Saints, Anti-Semites. Rosemont Publish & Printing Corp., 2003. Pp. 56. ^ "Top Ten Facts About Mussolini". RonterPening.com. 27 January 2008.  ^ Falasca-Zamponi, Simonetta (2000). Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22677-1.  ^ Matthews Gibbs, Anthony (2001-05-04). A Bernard Shaw Chronology. Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-23163-6.  ^ "Pound in Purgatory". Leon Surette. 27 January 2008.  ^ " Mussolini
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External links[edit]

Italian Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Statuto del Partito Nazionale Fascista

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Partito Nazionale Fascista.

THE DOCTRINE OF FASCISM / BENITO MUSSOLINI (1932) Fascist Italy
Italy
and the Jews: Myth versus Reality an online lecture by Dr. Iæl Nidam-Orvieto of Yad Vashem

v t e

Benito Mussolini

Head of the Government and Duce
Duce
of Fascism
Fascism
(1922–1943) Death

Politics

Duce Fascist Manifesto Italian Fascism Spazio vitale Economic policies Racist policies Fascist Propaganda Model of masculinity Rome-Berlin Axis Pact of Steel

Events

March on Rome Mussolini
Mussolini
Cabinet Second Italo-Abyssinian War Foundation of the Empire Spanish Civil War Invasion of Albania World War II Italian Civil War

Elections

1924 general election 1929 general election 1934 general election

Political parties

Italian Socialist Party
Italian Socialist Party
(1901–1914) Fascist Revolutionary Party (1914-1915) Italian Fasci of Combat (1919–1921) National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
(1921–1943) Republican Fascist Party
Republican Fascist Party
(1943–1945)

Family

Rachele Mussolini
Rachele Mussolini
(wife) Clara Petacci
Clara Petacci
(lover) Ida Dalser
Ida Dalser
(wife) Margherita Sarfatti
Margherita Sarfatti
(lover) Edda Mussolini
Edda Mussolini
(daughter) Vittorio Mussolini
Vittorio Mussolini
(son) Bruno Mussolini
Bruno Mussolini
(son) Romano Mussolini
Romano Mussolini
(son) Alessandra Mussolini
Alessandra Mussolini
(granddaughter)

Popular culture

Books:

Mussolini
Mussolini
diaries Mussolini: His Part in My Downfall

Films:

Benito Mussolini
Mussolini
and I Last Days of Mussolini Mussolini
Mussolini
Speaks Mussolini: The Untold Story Vincere

v t e

Fascism

Theory

Core tenets

Nationalism Imperialism Authoritarianism One-party state Dictatorship Social Darwinism Social interventionism Proletarian nation Propaganda Eugenics Heroism Militarism Economic interventionism Anti-communism

Topics

Definitions Economics Fascism
Fascism
and ideology Fascism
Fascism
worldwide Symbolism

Ideas

Actual Idealism Class collaboration Corporatism Heroic capitalism National Socialism National syndicalism State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position Totalitarianism Social order

Variants

Italian National Socialism Japanese fascism Islamofascism Falangism British Austrian Metaxism National Radicalism Rexism Clerical Legionarism Integralism

Movements

Africa

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Greyshirts Ossewabrandwag

Asia

Brit HaBirionim Ganap Party Sakurakai Tōhōkai Blue Shirts Society

Northern / Northwestern Europe

Ailtirí na hAiséirghe Black
Black
Front (Netherlands) Blueshirts Breton Social-National Workers' Movement British Fascists British People's Party (1939) British Union of Fascists La Cagoule Clerical People's Party Faisceau Flemish National Union French Popular Party General Dutch Fascist League Imperial Fascist League Lapua Movement Nasjonal Samling National Corporate Party
National Corporate Party
(Greenshirts) National Fascisti Nationalist Party (Iceland) National Socialist Bloc National Socialist Dutch Workers Party National Socialist League National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands National Socialist Movement of Norway National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) New Party (UK) Patriotic People's Movement (Finland) Pērkonkrusts Rexism

Central Europe

Arrow Cross Party Austrian National Socialism Fatherland Front (Austria) Hungarian National Socialist Party National Front (Switzerland) Nazism Nazi Party Sudeten German Party

Southern Europe

Albanian Fascist Party Democratic Fascist Party Falange Greek National Socialist Party Italian Fascism Italian Social Republic Metaxism National Fascist Party National Union (Portugal) Republican Fascist Party Sammarinese Fascist Party Ustaše ZBOR

Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party Crusade of Romanianism Iron Guard National Fascist Community National Fascist Movement National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement National Social Movement (Bulgaria) National Radical Camp Falanga National Romanian Fascio National Renaissance
Renaissance
Front Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) Romanian Front Russian Fascist Party Russian Women's Fascist Movement Slovak People's Party Union of Bulgarian National Legions Vlajka

North America

Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

Canadian Union of Fascists Parti national social chrétien

Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

South America

Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America Brazilian Integralism Bolivian Socialist Falange National Socialist Movement of Chile Revolutionary Union

People

Abba Ahimeir Nimio de Anquín Sadao Araki Marc Augier Maurice Bardèche Jacques Benoist-Méchin Henri Béraud Zoltán Böszörmény Giuseppe Bottai Robert Brasillach Alphonse de Châteaubriant Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Gustavs Celmiņš Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Richard Walther Darré Marcel Déat Léon Degrelle Pierre Drieu La Rochelle Gottfried Feder Giovanni Gentile Joseph Goebbels Hans F. K. Günther Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Ikki Kita Fumimaro Konoe Vihtori Kosola Agostino Lanzillo Dimitrije Ljotić Leopoldo Lugones Curzio Malaparte Ioannis Metaxas Robert Michels Oswald Mosley Benito Mussolini Eoin O'Duffy Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Papini Ante Pavelić William Dudley Pelley Alfred Ploetz Robert Poulet Vidkun Quisling José Antonio Primo de Rivera Lucien Rebatet Dionisio Ridruejo Alfredo Rocco Konstantin Rodzaevsky Alfred Rosenberg Plínio Salgado Rafael Sánchez Mazas Margherita Sarfatti Carl Schmitt Ardengo Soffici Othmar Spann Ugo Spirito Ferenc Szálasi Hideki Tojo Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Georges Valois Anastasy Vonsyatsky

Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

Related topics

Art of the Third Reich Fascist architecture Heroic realism Nazi architecture Nazism
Nazism
and cinema Nazi plunder Syndicalism Conservatism

Organizations

Institutional

Ahnenerbe Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Grand Council of Fascism Imperial Way Faction Italian Nationalist Association Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Quadrumvirs

Activist

Fascist Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist Organization Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

Albanian Militia Black
Black
Brigades Blackshirts Blueshirts Einsatzgruppen Gold shirts Greenshirts Greyshirts Hitler
Hitler
Youth Heimwehr Iron Wolf (organization) Lăncieri Makapili Silver Legion of America Schutzstaffel Sturmabteilung Waffen-SS Werwolf

International

Axis powers NSDAP/AO ODESSA

History

1910s

Arditi Fascio

1920s

Aventine Secession Acerbo Law Corfu incident March on Rome Beer Hall Putsch Italian economic battles

1930s

March of the Iron Will German federal election, November 1932 German federal election, March 1933 Enabling Act 6 February 1934 crisis 1934 Montreux Fascist conference Spanish Civil War 4th of August Regime Anti-Comintern Pact

1940s

World War II The Holocaust End in Italy Denazification Nuremberg Trials

Lists

Anti-fascists Books about Hitler British fascist parties Fascist movements by country (A-F G-M N-T U-Z) Nazi ideologues Nazi leaders Speeches by Hitler SS personnel

Related topics

Alt-right Anti-fascism Anti-Nazi League Christofascism Clerical fascism Cryptofascism Esoteric Nazism Fascist (epithet) Fascist mysticism Germanisation Glossary of Nazi Germany Hitler
Hitler
salute Italianization Italianization
Italianization
of South Tyrol Islamofascism Japanization Ku Klux Klan National Bolshevism Neo-fascism Neo-Nazism Roman salute Social fascism Synarchism Unite Against Fascism Völkisch movement Women in Nazi Germany

Category Portal

v t e

Historical political parties in Italy

Communist

Communist Party of Italy Proletarian Unity Party Italian Communist Party Proletarian Democracy Movement of Unitarian Communists Party of Italian Communists

Socialist and post-communist

Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party Italian Labour Party Italian Socialist Party
Italian Socialist Party
of Proletarian Unity Democratic Party of the Left Democratic Left Movement for the Left Left Ecology Freedom

Social-democratic

Italian Reformist Socialist Party Unitary Socialist Party Labour Democratic Party Action Party Unitary Socialist Party Socialist Autonomy Popular Unity Unified Socialist Party Italian Socialist Party Democrats of the Left Labour Federation Social Christians Italian Socialists Italian Democratic Socialist Party Italian Democratic Socialists

Green

Rainbow Greens Green Lists

Radical and social-liberal

Action Party (1848) Dissident Left Historical Far Left Italian Radical Party Constitutional Democratic Party Democratic Liberal Party Italian Social Democratic Party Radical Party Democratic Alliance Republican Left Democratic Union The Network Italy
Italy
Work in Progress

Centrist and centrist-liberal

Historical Left Liberal Union Democratic Union for the Republic Pannella List Union for the Republic Italian Renewal The Democrats Segni Pact Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy Bonino List Bonino-Pannella List Alliance for Italy

Christian-democratic

Conservative Catholics Italian Catholic Electoral Union Italian People's Party (1919) Christian Democracy Italian People's Party (1994) Christian Democrats for the Republic Christian Democratic Centre United Christian Democrats European Democracy Christian Democracy for the Autonomies Liberal Populars Union of Democrats for Europe

Conservative-liberal

Moderate Party Historical Right Italian Liberal Party Union of the Centre Act to Stop the Decline

Liberal-conservative

Economic Party National Democratic Alliance Forza Italia The People of Freedom Future and Freedom New Centre-Right Conservatives and Reformists

National-conservative

Common Man's Front Monarchist National Party People's Monarchist Party Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity National Democracy National Alliance The Right

Nationalist, fascist and post-fascist

Combatants' Party Italian Nationalist Association National Fascist Party Republican Fascist Party Italian Social Movement

Regionalist and federalist

Federalist Italian League Federalists and Liberal Democrats Autonomists for Europe Force of the South

Coalitions of parties

Leftist coalitions

Popular Democratic Front Alliance of Progressives

Centre-left electoral coalitions

The Olive Tree The Union Italy. Common Good

Centrist electoral coalitions

Pact for Italy New Pole for Italy With Monti for Italy

Centre-right electoral coalitions

Pole of Freedoms Pole of Good Government Pole for Freedoms House of Freedoms

Government-only coalitions

Centrist coalition Organic Centre-left Pentapartito Grand coalition

List of political parties in Italy 19th-century Italian political groups Early 20th-century Italian political parties 1950s–1990s Italian political parties Current Italian political parties

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Italian Socialist Party

Secretary

Carlo Dell'Avalle (1892-1894) Filippo Turati
Filippo Turati
(1895-1896) Enrico Ferri (1896) Carlo Dell'Avalle (1896-1898) Alfredo Bertesi (1898-1899) Enrico Bertini (1899-1900) Savino Varazzani (1900-1904) Enrico Ferri (1904-1906) Oddino Morgari (1906-1908) Pompeo Ciotti (1908-1912) Costantino Lazzari
Costantino Lazzari
(1912-1918) Egidio Gennari (1918) Costantino Lazzari
Costantino Lazzari
(1918-1919) Arturo Vella (1919) Nicola Bombacci
Nicola Bombacci
(1919-1920) Egidio Gennari (1920-1921) Giovanni Bacci
Giovanni Bacci
(1921) Domenico Fioritto (1921-1923) Tito Oro Nobili (1923-1925) Olindo Vernocchi (1925-1930) Ugo Coccia (1930-1932) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1933-1939) Giuseppe Saragat, Oddino Morgari and Angelo Tasca (1939-1942) Giuseppe Romita (1942–1943) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1943–1945) Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
(1945) Rodolfo Morandi (1945–1946) Ivan Matteo Lombardo (1946–1947) Lelio Basso
Lelio Basso
(1947–1948) Alberto Jacometti (1948–1949) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1949–1963) Francesco De Martino (1963–1968) Mario Tanassi
Mario Tanassi
(1966–1968) Mauro Ferri (1968–1969) Francesco De Martino (1969–1970) Giacomo Mancini (1970–1972) Francesco De Martino (1972–1976) Bettino Craxi
Bettino Craxi
(1976–1993) Giorgio Benvenuto
Giorgio Benvenuto
(1993) Ottaviano Del Turco (1993–1994) Valdo Spini (1994)

Related articles

Italian Labour Party Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party Fasci Siciliani Avanti! Critica Sociale Marxism Revolutionary socialism Maximalists National syndicalism Reformist socialism Democratic socialism Division over World War I National Liberation Committee Italian resistance movement Craxism Sigonella incident Banco Ambrosiano
Banco Ambrosiano
scandal Mani pulite

Derivatives

Italian Reformist Socialist Party Fasci of Revolutionary Action / National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
/ Republican Fascist Party Communist Party of Italy
Italy
/ Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
/ International Communist Party Unitary Socialist Party Maximalist Italian Socialist Party Socialist Unity Italian Democratic Socialist Party Italian Socialists
Italian Socialists
/ Italian Democratic Socialists
Italian Democratic Socialists
/ Socialist League Labour Federation Reformist Socialist Party Socialist Party / New Italian Socialist Party Forza Italia
Forza Italia
(social-democrats faction) Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
(social-democrats faction)

Alliances

Popular Democratic Front (1947-1948) Organic Centre-left (1962-1976) Unified Socialist Party (1966-1971) Pentapartito
Pentapartito
(1981-1993) Alliance of P

.