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1 The festival has occasionally been held in England
England
in the past.

Pronunciation of ' Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
Genedlaethol Cymru'

The National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
of Wales
Wales
(Welsh: Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
Genedlaethol Cymru) is the most important of several eisteddfodau that are held annually, mostly in Wales. Its eight days of competitions and performances are considered the largest music and poetry festival in Europe.[1] Competitors typically number 6,000 or more, and overall attendance generally exceeds 150,000 visitors.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Attendance

2 Overview 3 Poetry awards

3.1 Chairing of the Bard 3.2 Crowning of the Bard

4 Welsh-language album of the year 5 National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
venues 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

An advertisement for the Grand National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
at Caernarvon, 1877

The National Museum of Wales
Wales
says that "the history of the Eisteddfod may [be] traced back to a bardic competition held by the Lord Rhys
Lord Rhys
in Cardigan Castle in 1176",[3] and Local Eisteddfodau have certainly been held for many years prior to the first national Eisteddfod. There have been multiple Eisteddfodau held on a national scale in Wales, such as the Gwyneddigion Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
of 1789; 229 years ago (1789), the Provincial Eisteddfodau from 1819-1834,[4] and the Abergavenny
Abergavenny
Eisteddfodau of 1835-1851,[5][6][7] and The Great Llangollen
Llangollen
Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
of 1858,[8] but the National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
of Wales as an organisation traces its history back to the first event held in 1861, in Aberdare.[9][10] One of the most dramatic events in Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
history was the award of the 1917 chair to the poet Ellis Humphrey Evans, bardic name Hedd Wyn, for the poem Yr Arwr (The Hero). The winner was announced, and the crowd waited for the winner to stand up to accept the traditional congratulations before the chairing ceremony, but no winner appeared. It was then announced that Hedd Wyn
Hedd Wyn
had been killed the previous month on the battlefield at Passchendaele in Belgium. These events were portrayed in the Academy Award nominated film Hedd Wyn. In 1940, during the Second World War, the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
was not held, for fear that it would be a bombing target. Instead, the BBC broadcast an Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
radio programme, and the Chair, Crown and a Literature Medal (as opposed to the usual Prose Medal) were awarded.[11] In 1950 a new rule was created that required all competitions to be held in Welsh. However, settings of the mass in Latin are allowed and this has been controversially used to allow concerts featuring international soloists.[12] In recent years efforts have been made to attract more non-Welsh speakers to the event, with the officlal website stating "everyone is welcome at the Eisteddfod, whatever language they speak". The Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
offers bilingual signage and simultaneous-translation of many events though wireless headphones. There is also a Welsh-learners area called Maes D. These efforts has helped increase takings, and the 2006 Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
reported a profit of over £100,000, despite costing £2.8m to stage. The Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
attracts some 160,000 people annually. The National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
in Cardiff
Cardiff
(2008) drew record crowds, with over 160,000 visitors attending. It is proposed that the 2018 National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
in Cardiff
Cardiff
will use permanent buildings to host events rather than in the traditional Maes and tents. This is due partially to a lack of suitable land that can be repaired affordably after the festival. It has been billed as an " Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
with no fence" in the media and is planned to take place at Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay.[13][14][15] The Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
of 2019 is planned to return to the traditional Maes. Attendance[edit] (incomplete)

year total attendance profit/loss

2002 144,220 -

2003 176,402

2004 147,785 -

2005 157,820 -

2006 155,437 +£100,000

2007 154,944[16] +£4,324[17]

2008 156,697 +£38,000[18]

2009 164,689 -

2010 136,933[19] -£47,000

2011 148,892[20] -£90,000

2012 138,767[21] +£50,000

2013 153,704[20] +£76,000

2014 143,502 +£90,000

2015 150,776

2016 140,229 +£6,000[22]

2017 147,498 +£93,200[23]

Overview[edit]

The chairing ceremony of the 1958 National Eisteddfod; the victorious poet was T. Llew Jones

The solar-powered car Gwawr ("Dawn"), the Welsh entry in the October 2007 Darwin-Adelaide Trans-Australia competition, is an example of what can be exhibited on the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
Maes (Arena). (Mold, 2007)

'Y Lle Celf' (Blaenau Gwent, 2010)

The National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
is traditionally held in the first week of August, and the competitions are all held in the Welsh language. However, settings of the mass in Latin are allowed and this has been controversially used to allow concerts featuring international soloists.[24] The venue is officially proclaimed a year in advance, at which time the themes and texts for the competitions are published. The organisation for the location will have begun a year or more earlier, and locations are generally known two or three years ahead. The Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
Act of 1959 allowed local authorities to give financial support to the event. Traditionally the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
venue alternates between north and south Wales; the decision to hold both the 2014 and 2015 Eisteddfodau in South Wales
Wales
was thus seen as controversial,[25] but the decision was later reversed and Montgomeryshire named as host county for 2015.[26] Occasionally the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
has been held in England, although the last occasion was in 1929.[9] Hundreds of tents, pavilions and booths are erected in an open space to create the maes (field). The space required for this means that it is rare for the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
to be in a city or town: instead it is held somewhere with more space. Car parking for day visitors alone requires several large fields, and many people camp on the site for the whole week. The festival has a quasi-druidic flavour, with the main literary prizes for poetry and prose being awarded in colourful and dramatic ceremonies under the auspices of the Gorsedd
Gorsedd
of Bards of the Island of Britain, complete with prominent figures in Welsh cultural life dressed in flowing druidic costumes, flower dances, trumpet fanfares and a symbolic Horn of Plenty. However, the Gorsedd
Gorsedd
is not an ancient institution or a pagan ceremony but rather a romantic creation by Iolo Morganwg in the 1790s, which first became a formal part of the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
ceremonial in 1819.[3] Nevertheless, it is taken very seriously, and an award of a crown or a chair for poetry is a great honour. The Chairing and Crowning ceremonies are the highlights of the week, and are presided over by the Archdruid. Other important awards include the Prose Medal (cy) (first introduced in 1937). If no stone circle is there already, one is created out of Gorsedd stones, usually taken from the local area. These stone circles are icons all across Wales
Wales
and signify the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
having visited a community. As a cost-saving measure, the 2005 Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
was the first to use a temporary "fibre-glass stone" circle for the druidic ceremonies instead of a permanent stone circle. This also has the benefit of bringing the Gorsedd
Gorsedd
ceremonies onto the maes: previously they were often held many miles away, hidden from most of the public. As well as the main pavilion with the main stage, there are other venues through the week. Some are fixtures every year, hosting gigs (Maes B/Llwyfan y Maes/Caffi Maes B). Other fixtures of the maes are the Pabell Lên (literature pavilion), the Neuadd Ddawns (dance hall), the Pabell Wyddoniaeth a Thechnoleg (science and technology pavilion), Maes D (learners' pavilion), at least one theatre, Y Cwt Drama (the drama hut), Tŷ Gwerin (folk house), Y Lle Celf ("the art place") and hundreds of stondinau (stands and booths) where groups, societies, councils, charities and shops exhibit and sell. Since 2004, alcohol has been sold on the maes; previously there was a no-alcohol policy. Poetry awards[edit] The Eisteddfod's most well-known awards are those for poetry. Chairing of the Bard[edit] Main article: Chairing of the Bard Crowning of the Bard[edit] Main article: Crowning of the Bard Welsh-language album of the year[edit] Not to be confused with Welsh Music Prize. In 2014 the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
began to award a Welsh-language Album of the Year during its Maes B event.[27]

Year Winner

2014 The Gentle Good – Y Bardd Anfarwol[27]

2015 Gwenno
Gwenno
– Y Dydd Olaf[28]

2016 Sŵnami
Sŵnami
– Sŵnami[29]

2017 Bendith – Bendith[30]

National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
venues[edit] (Venues in England
England
are in italics)

1861 – Aberdare 1862 – Caernarfon 1863 – Swansea 1864 – Llandudno 1865 – Aberystwyth 1866 – Chester 1867 – Carmarthen 1868 – Ruthin 1869 – Holywell 1872 – Tremadog 1873 – Mold 1874 – Bangor 1875 – Pwllheli 1876 – Wrexham 1877 – Caernarfon 1878 – Birkenhead 1879 – Birkenhead 1880 – Caernarfon 1881 – Merthyr Tydfil 1882 – Denbigh 1883 – Cardiff 1884 – Liverpool 1885 – Aberdare 1886 – Caernarfon 1887 – London
London
Royal Albert Hall 1888 – Wrexham 1889 – Brecon 1890 – Bangor 1891 – Swansea 1892 – Rhyl 1893 – Pontypridd 1894 – Caernarfon 1895 – Llanelli 1896 – Llandudno 1897 – Newport 1898 – Blaenau Ffestiniog 1899 – Cardiff 1900 – Liverpool 1901 – Merthyr Tydfil 1902 – Bangor 1903 – Llanelli 1904 – Rhyl 1905 – Mountain Ash 1906 – Caernarfon 1907 – Swansea 1908 – Llangollen 1909 – London
London
Royal Albert Hall 1910 – Colwyn Bay 1911 – Carmarthen 1912 – Wrexham 1913 – Abergavenny 1914 – Not held 1915 – Bangor 1916 – Aberystwyth 1917 – Birkenhead 1918 – Neath 1919 – Corwen 1920 – Barry 1921 – Caernarfon 1922 – Ammanford 1923 – Mold 1924 – Pontypool 1925 – Pwllheli 1926 – Swansea 1927 – Holyhead 1928 – Treorchy 1929 – Liverpool 1930 – Llanelli 1931 – Bangor 1932 – Aberavon 1933 – Wrexham 1934 – Neath 1935 – Caernarfon 1936 – Fishguard 1937 – Machynlleth 1938 – Cardiff 1939 – Denbigh 1940 – Mountain Ash, Radio Eisteddfod 1941 – Old Colwyn 1942 – Cardigan 1943 – Bangor 1944 – Llandybie 1945 – Rhosllannerchrugog 1946 – Mountain Ash 1947 – Colwyn Bay 1948 – Bridgend 1949 – Dolgellau 1950 – Caerphilly 1951 – Llanrwst 1952 – Aberystwyth 1953 – Rhyl 1954 – Ystradgynlais 1955 – Pwllheli 1956 – Aberdare 1957 – Llangefni 1958 – Ebbw Vale 1959 – Caernarfon 1960 – Cardiff 1961 – Rhosllannerchrugog 1962 – Llanelli 1963 – Llandudno 1964 – Swansea 1965 – Newtown 1966 – Aberavon 1967 – Bala 1968 – Barry 1969 – Flint 1970 – Ammanford 1971 – Bangor 1972 – Haverfordwest 1973 – Ruthin 1974 – Carmarthen 1975 – Criccieth 1976 – Cardigan 1977 – Wrexham 1978 – Cardiff 1979 – Caernarfon 1980 – Gowerton
Gowerton
– Lliw Valley 1981 – Machynlleth 1982 – Swansea 1983 – Llangefni 1984 – Lampeter 1985 – Rhyl 1986 – Fishguard 1987 – Porthmadog 1988 – Newport 1989 – Llanrwst 1990 – Rhymney Valley 1991 – Mold 1992 – Aberystwyth 1993 – Llanelwedd 1994 – Neath 1995 – Abergele 1996 – Llandeilo 1997 – Bala 1998 – Pencoed, near Bridgend 1999 – Llanbedrgoch, Anglesey 2000 – Llanelli 2001 – Denbigh 2002 – St David's 2003 – Meifod, near Welshpool 2004 – Newport 2005 – Faenol Estate, near Bangor 2006 – Felindre, Swansea 2007 – Mold 2008 – Cardiff 2009 – Bala 2010 – Ebbw Vale[25][31][32] 2011 – Wrexham[25] 2012 – Llandow, Vale of Glamorgan[25] 2013 – Denbigh[25] 2014 – Llanelli 2015 – Meifod, near Welshpool 2016 – Abergavenny 2017 – Bodedern, Anglesey 2018 – Cardiff 2019 – Llanrwst

[33] The Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
has visited all the traditional counties of Wales. It has visited five of the six cities in Wales: Bangor, Cardiff, Newport, St David's
St David's
and Swansea; but has never visited St Asaph.

County 19th century 20th century 21st century Total (1861–2017)

Anglesey 0 4 1 4

Brecknockshire 1 2 0 3

Caernarfonshire 11 15 1 27

Cardiganshire 1 6 0 7

Carmarthenshire 2 9 2 13

Cheshire 3 1 0 4

Denbighshire 4 14 3 21

Flintshire 3 6 1 10

Glamorgan 8 24 3 35

Lancashire 2 1 0 3

Merioneth 1 4 1 6

Middlesex 1 1 0 2

Monmouthshire 1 5 3 9

Montgomeryshire 0 3 2 5

Pembrokeshire 0 3 1 4

Radnorshire 0 1 0 1

See also[edit]

Wales
Wales
portal

Gold Medal (National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
of Wales) Royal National Mòd

References[edit]

^ Williams, Sian. "Druids, bards and rituals: What is an Eisteddfod?". BBC. Retrieved 2 March 2016.  ^ Berry, Oliver; Else, David; Atkinson, David (2010). Discover Great Britain. Lonely Planet. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-74179-993-4.  ^ a b "History of the Welsh Eisteddfodau". National Museum Wales. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "The Provincial Eisteddfodau 1819-1834". National Museum Wales. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "The Abergavenny
Abergavenny
Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
National Museum Wales". Museum.wales. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "Welsh National Eisteddfodau". Genuki. 23 February 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ "History of the Welsh Eisteddfodau". National Museum Wales. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ "The Great Llangollen
Llangollen
Eisteddfod, 1858 National Museum Wales". Museum.wales. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ a b "Past locations". National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
of Wales. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "The Eisteddfod: 1861–1885". National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
of Wales. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Lleoliad yr Eisteddfod: Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
Radio" (in Welsh). BBC. Retrieved 16 August 2012.  ^ Rhodri Clark. " Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
Latin in language loophole". Wales
Wales
Online. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-08-01. Retrieved 2017-07-27.  ^ Eryl Crump (2017-06-25). "Hundreds parade for 2018 National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
proclamation". Daily Post. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ Thomas, Huw (2015-08-07). "National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
considers ditching the Maes in 2018". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "Traders count cost of Eisteddfod". 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2017-11-25.  ^ Post, North Wales
Wales
Daily (2008-07-01). " Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
work pays off with £4,000 profit". northwales. Retrieved 2017-11-23.  ^ Post, North Wales
Wales
Daily (2009-04-20). " Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
needs more cash ahead of Bala event". northwales. Retrieved 2017-11-23.  ^ "EISTEDDFOD: Festival 'raised valleys' profile'". South Wales
Wales
Argus. 2010-08-09. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ a b "National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
2015: The results from Friday". Wales Online. 2015-08-07. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "National Eisteddfod". Valeofglamorgan.gov.uk. 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ Crump, Eryl (2016-11-26). "National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
2016 was a 'cultural and financial success'". northwales. Retrieved 2017-11-23.  ^ "National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
2019 in Llanrwst". BBC News. 2017-11-25. Retrieved 2017-11-25.  ^ Rhodri Clark (2008-02-26). " Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
Latin in language loophole". Wales
Wales
Online. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ a b c d e "Prifwyl: Torri'r traddodiad symud?". BBC (in Welsh). 1 July 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2017.  ^ Site for the Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
until 2016 at BBC Wales, 8 July 2010 ^ a b " The Gentle Good wins the Welsh Language Album of the Year prize". National Eisteddfod. 2014-08-07. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "Albwm Cymraeg y Flwyddyn". National Eisteddfod. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "Swnami win this year's Welsh Language Album of the Year". National Eisteddfod. 2016-08-05. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "Bendith win the Welsh Language Album of the Year Award". National Eisteddfod. 2017-08-11. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ Delight over Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
2010 plans at WalesOnline News, 14 August 2008 ^ Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
2010 at the National Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
website ^ "Past locations". National Eisteddfod. Retrieved 2017-10-15. 

External links[edit]

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Eisteddfod
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