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Elections

House of Councillors last election

10 July 2016 (24th)

House of Representatives last election

22 October 2017 (48th)

Meeting place

National Diet
National Diet
Building, Nagatachō, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo

Website

House of Councillors – official website House of Representatives – official website

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v t e

The National Diet
National Diet
(国会, Kokkai)[1][2] is Japan's bicameral legislature. It is composed of a lower house called the House of Representatives, and an upper house, called the House of Councillors. Both houses of the Diet are directly elected under parallel voting systems. In addition to passing laws, the Diet is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister. The Diet was first convened as the Imperial Diet in 1889 as a result of adopting the Meiji Constitution. The Diet took its current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the post-war constitution and is considered by the Constitution to be the highest organ of state power. The National Diet Building
National Diet Building
is in Nagatachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Contents

1 Composition 2 Powers 3 Activities 4 History 5 List of sessions 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Composition[edit] See also: Elections in Japan
Japan
and List of members of the Diet of Japan The houses of the Diet are both elected under parallel voting systems. This means that the seats to be filled in any given election are divided into two groups, each elected by a different method; the main difference between the houses is in the sizes of the two groups and how they are elected. Voters are also asked to cast two votes: one for an individual candidate in a constituency, and one for a party list. Any national of Japan
Japan
at least 18 years of age may vote in these elections.[3] The age of 18 replaced 20 in 2016.[4] Japan's parallel voting system is not to be confused with the Additional Member System used in many other nations. The Constitution of Japan
Japan
does not specify the number of members of each house of the Diet, the voting system, or the necessary qualifications of those who may vote or be returned in parliamentary elections, thus allowing all of these things to be determined by law. However it does guarantee universal adult suffrage and a secret ballot. It also insists that the electoral law must not discriminate in terms of "race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income".[5] Generally, the election of Diet members is controlled by statutes passed by the Diet. This is a source of contention concerning re-apportionment of prefectures' seats in response to changes of population distribution. For example, the Liberal Democratic Party had controlled Japan
Japan
for most of its post-war history, and it gained much of its support from rural areas. During the post-war era, large numbers of people were relocating to the urban centers in the seeking of wealth; though some re-apportionments have been made to the number of each prefecture's assigned seats in the Diet, rural areas generally have more representation than do urban areas.[6] The Supreme Court of Japan
Japan
began exercising judicial review of apportionment laws following the Kurokawa decision of 1976, invalidating an election in which one district in Hyōgo Prefecture
Hyōgo Prefecture
received five times the representation of another district in Osaka Prefecture. The Supreme Court has since indicated that the highest electoral imbalance permissible under Japanese law is 3:1, and that any greater imbalance between any two districts is a violation of Article 14 of the Constitution.[7] In recent elections the malapportionment ratio amounted to 4.8 in the House of Councillors (census 2005: Ōsaka/Tottori;[8] election 2007: Kanagawa/Tottori[9]) and 2.3 in the House of Representatives (election 2009: Chiba 4/Kōchi 3).[10] Candidates for the lower house must be 25 years old or older and 30 years or older for the upper house. All candidates must be Japanese nationals. Under Article 49 of Japan's Constitution, Diet members are paid about ¥1.3 million a month in salary. Each lawmaker is entitled to employ three secretaries with taxpayer funds, free Shinkansen
Shinkansen
tickets, and four round-trip airplane tickets a month to enable them to travel back and forth to their home districts.[11] Powers[edit] Article 41 of the Constitution describes the National Diet
National Diet
as "the highest organ of State power" and "the sole law-making organ of the State". This statement is in forceful contrast to the Meiji Constitution, which described the Emperor as the one who exercised legislative power with the consent of the Diet. The Diet's responsibilities include not only the making of laws but also the approval of the annual national budget that the government submits and the ratification of treaties. It can also initiate draft constitutional amendments, which, if approved, must be presented to the people in a referendum. The Diet may conduct "investigations in relation to government" (Article 62). The Prime Minister must be designated by Diet resolution, establishing the principle of legislative supremacy over executive government agencies (Article 67). The government can also be dissolved by the Diet if it passes a motion of no confidence introduced by fifty members of the House of Representatives. Government officials, including the Prime Minister and Cabinet members, are required to appear before Diet investigative committees and answer inquiries. The Diet also has the power to impeach judges convicted of criminal or irregular conduct.[5] In most circumstances, in order to become law a bill must be first passed by both houses of the Diet and then promulgated by the Emperor. This role of the Emperor is similar to the Royal Assent
Royal Assent
in some other nations; however, the Emperor cannot refuse to promulgate a law and therefore his legislative role is merely a formality.[12] The House of Representatives is the more powerful chamber of the Diet.[13] While the House of Representatives cannot usually overrule the House of Councillors on a bill, the House of Councillors can only delay the adoption of a budget or a treaty that has been approved by the House of Representatives, and the House of Councillors has almost no power at all to prevent the lower house from selecting any Prime Minister it wishes. Furthermore, once appointed it is the confidence of the House of Representatives alone that the Prime Minister must enjoy in order to continue in office. The House of Representatives can overrule the upper house in the following circumstances:[14]

If a bill is adopted by the House of Representatives and then either rejected, amended or not approved within 60 days by the House of Councillors, then the bill will become law if again adopted by the House of Representatives by a majority of at least two-thirds of members present.[15] If both houses cannot agree on a budget or a treaty, even through the appointment of a joint committee of the Diet, or if the House of Councillors fails to take final action on a proposed budget or treaty within 30 days of its approval by the House of Representatives, then the decision of the lower house is deemed to be that of the Diet.[15] If both houses cannot agree on a candidate for Prime Minister, even through a joint committee, or if the House of Councillors fails to designate a candidate within 10 days of House of Representatives' decision, then the nominee of the lower house is deemed to be that of the Diet.

Activities[edit] Under the Constitution, at least one session of the Diet must be convened each year. Technically, only the House of Representatives is dissolved before an election but while the lower house is in dissolution the House of Councillors is usually "closed". The Emperor both convokes the Diet and dissolves the House of Representatives but in doing so must act on the advice of the Cabinet. In an emergency the Cabinet can convoke the Diet for an extraordinary session, and an extraordinary session may be requested by one-quarter of the members of either house.[16] At the beginning of each parliamentary session the Emperor reads a special speech from his throne in the chamber of the House of Councillors.[17] The presence of one-third of the membership of either house constitutes a quorum[16] and deliberations are in public unless at least two-thirds of those present agree otherwise. Each house elects its own presiding officer who casts the deciding vote in the event of a tie. Members of each house have certain protections against arrest while the Diet is in session and words spoken and votes cast in the Diet enjoy parliamentary privilege. Each house of the Diet determines its own standing orders and has responsibility for disciplining its own members. A member may be expelled, but only by a two-thirds majority vote. Every member of the Cabinet has the right to appear in either house of the Diet for the purpose of speaking on bills, and each house has the right to compel the appearance of Cabinet members. History[edit] Further information: Political funding in Japan Japan's first modern legislature was the Imperial Diet (帝国議会, Teikoku-gikai) established by the Meiji Constitution
Meiji Constitution
in force from 1889 to 1947. The Meiji Constitution
Meiji Constitution
was adopted on February 11, 1889 and the Imperial Diet first met on November 29, 1890 when the document entered into operation. The Diet consisted of a House of Representatives and a House of Peers (貴族院, Kizoku-in). The House of Representatives was directly elected, if on a limited franchise; universal adult male suffrage was introduced in 1925. The House of Peers, much like the British House of Lords, consisted of high-ranking nobles.[18] The word diet derives from Latin
Latin
and was a common name for an assembly in medieval Germany. The Meiji constitution was largely based on the form of constitutional monarchy found in nineteenth century Prussia and the new Diet was modeled partly on the German Reichstag and partly on the British Westminster system. Unlike the post-war constitution, the Meiji constitution granted a real political role to the Emperor, although in practice the Emperor's powers were largely directed by a group of oligarchs called the genrō or elder statesmen.[19] To become law or bill, a constitutional amendment had to have the assent of both the Diet and the Emperor. This meant that while the Emperor could no longer legislate by decree he still had a veto over the Diet. The Emperor also had complete freedom in choosing the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, and so, under the Meiji constitution, Prime Ministers often were not chosen from and did not enjoy the confidence of the Diet.[18] The Imperial Diet was also limited in its control over the budget. While the Diet could veto the annual budget, if no budget was approved the budget of the previous year continued in force. This all changed with the new constitution after World War II. The proportional representation system for the House of Councillors, introduced in 1982, was the first major electoral reform under the post-war constitution. Instead of choosing national constituency candidates as individuals, as had previously been the case, voters cast ballots for parties. Individual councillors, listed officially by the parties before the election, are selected on the basis of the parties' proportions of the total national constituency vote.[20] The system was introduced to reduce the excessive money spent by candidates for the national constituencies. Critics charged, however, that this new system benefited the two largest parties, the LDP and the Japan
Japan
Socialist Party (now Social Democratic Party), which in fact had sponsored the reform.[21]

National Diet
National Diet
Building, 1930.

The Second Japanese Diet Hall 1891–1925.

National Diet
National Diet
Hiroshima Temporary Building 1894.

The First Japanese Diet Hall 1890–91.

List of sessions[edit] There are three types of sessions of the National Diet:[22]

R – jōkai (常会), regular, annual sessions of the National Diet, often shortened to "regular National Diet" (tsūjō Kokkai). These are nowadays usually called in January, they last for 150 days and can be extended once. E – rinjikai (臨時会), extraordinary sessions of the National Diet, often shortened to "extraordinary National Diet" (rinji Kokkai). These are often called in autumn, or in Summer after a regular election of the House of Councillors or after a full-term general election of the House of Representatives. Its length is negotiated between the two houses, it can be extended twice. S – tokubetsukai (特別会), special sessions of the National Diet, often shortened to "special National Diet" (tokubetsu Kokkai). They are called only after a dissolution and early general election of the House of Representatives. Because the cabinet must resign after a House of Representatives election, the Diet always chooses a prime minister-designate in a special session (but inversely, not all PM elections take place in a special Diet). A special session can be extended twice.

HCES – There is a fourth type of legislative session: If the House of Representatives is dissolved, a National Diet
National Diet
cannot be convened. In urgent cases, the cabinet may invoke an emergency session (緊急集会, kinkyū shūkai) of the House of Councillors to take provisional decisions for the whole Diet. As soon as the whole National Diet
National Diet
convenes again, these decisions must be confirmed by the House of Representatives or become ineffective. Such emergency sessions have been called twice in history, in 1952 and 1953.[23] Any session of the Diet may be cut short by a dissolution of the House of Representatives. In the table, this is listed simply as "(dissolution)"; the House of Councillors or the National Diet
National Diet
as such cannot be dissolved.

List of Diet sessions[24]

Diet Type Opened Closed Length in days (originally scheduled+extension[s])

1st S 000000001947-05-20-0000May 20, 1947 000000001947-12-09-0000December 9, 1947 204 (50+154)

2nd R 000000001947-12-10-0000December 10, 1947 000000001948-07-05-0000July 5, 1948 209 (150+59)

3rd E 000000001948-10-11-0000October 11, 1948 000000001948-11-30-0000November 30, 1948 51 (30+21)

4th R 000000001948-12-01-0000December 1, 1948 000000001948-12-23-0000December 23, 1948 (dissolution) 23 (150)

5th S 000000001949-02-11-0000February 11, 1949 000000001949-05-31-0000May 31, 1949 110 (70+40)

6th E 000000001949-10-25-0000October 25, 1949 000000001949-12-03-0000December 3, 1949 40 (30+10)

7th R 000000001949-12-04-0000December 4, 1949 000000001950-05-02-0000May 2, 1950 150

8th E 000000001950-07-21-0000July 21, 1950 000000001950-07-31-0000July 31, 1950 20

9th E 000000001950-11-21-0000November 21, 1950 000000001950-12-09-0000December 9, 1950 19 (18+1)

10th R 000000001950-12-10-0000December 10, 1950 000000001951-06-05-0000June 5, 1951 178 (150+28)

11th E 000000001951-08-16-0000August 16, 1951 000000001951-08-18-0000August 18, 1951 3

12th E 000000001951-10-10-0000October 10, 1951 000000001951-11-30-0000November 30, 1951 52 (40+12)

13th R 000000001951-12-10-0000December 10, 1951 000000001952-07-31-0000July 31, 1952 225 (150+85)

14th (ja) R 000000001952-08-26-0000August 26, 1952 000000001952-08-28-0000August 28, 1952 (dissolution) 3 (150)

– [HCES] 000000001952-08-31-0000August 31, 1952 000000001952-08-31-0000August 31, 1952 [1]

15th (ja) S 000000001952-10-24-0000October 24, 1952 000000001953-03-14-0000March 14, 1953 (dissolution) 142 (60+99)

– [HCES] 000000001953-03-18-0000March 18, 1953 000000001953-03-20-0000March 20, 1953 [3]

16th S 000000001953-05-18-0000May 18, 1953 000000001953-08-10-0000August 10, 1953 85 (75+10)

17th E 000000001953-10-29-0000October 29, 1953 000000001953-11-07-0000November 7, 1953 10 (7+3)

18th E 000000001953-11-30-0000November 30, 1953 000000001953-12-08-0000December 8, 1953 9

19th R 000000001953-12-10-0000December 10, 1953 000000001957-06-15-0000June 15, 1957 188 (150+38)

20th E 000000001954-11-30-0000November 30, 1954 000000001954-12-09-0000December 9, 1954 10 (9+1)

21st R 000000001954-12-10-0000December 10, 1954 000000001955-01-24-0000January 24, 1955 (dissolution) 46 (150)

22nd S 000000001955-03-18-0000March 18, 1955 000000001955-07-30-0000July 30, 1955 135 (105+30)

23rd E 000000001955-11-22-0000November 22, 1955 000000001955-12-16-0000December 16, 1955 25

24th R 000000001955-12-20-0000December 20, 1955 000000001956-06-03-0000June 3, 1956 167 (150+17)

25th E 000000001956-11-12-0000November 12, 1956 000000001956-12-13-0000December 13, 1956 32 (25+7)

26th R 000000001956-12-20-0000December 20, 1956 000000001957-05-19-0000May 19, 1957 151 (150+1)

27th E 000000001957-11-01-0000November 1, 1957 000000001957-11-14-0000November 14, 1957 14 (12+2)

28th R 000000001957-12-20-0000December 20, 1957 000000001958-04-25-0000April 25, 1958 (dissolution) 127 (150)

29th S 000000001958-06-10-0000June 10, 1958 000000001958-07-08-0000July 8, 1958 29 (25+4)

30th E 000000001958-09-29-0000September 29, 1958 000000001958-12-07-0000December 7, 1958 70 (40+30)

31st R 000000001958-12-10-0000December 10, 1958 000000001959-05-02-0000May 2, 1959 144

32nd E 000000001959-06-22-0000June 22, 1959 000000001959-07-03-0000July 3, 1959 12

33rd E 000000001959-10-26-0000October 26, 1959 000000001959-12-27-0000December 27, 1959 63 (60+13)

34th R 000000001959-12-29-0000December 29, 1959 000000001960-07-15-0000July 15, 1960 200 (150+50)

35th E 000000001960-07-18-0000July 18, 1960 000000001960-07-22-0000July 22, 1960 5

36th E 000000001960-10-17-0000October 17, 1960 000000001960-10-24-0000October 24, 1960 (dissolution) 8 (10)

37th S 000000001960-12-05-0000December 5, 1960 000000001960-12-22-0000December 22, 1960 18

38th R 000000001960-12-26-0000December 26, 1960 000000001961-06-08-0000June 8, 1961 165 (150+15)

39th E 000000001961-09-25-0000September 25, 1961 000000001961-10-31-0000October 31, 1961 37

40th R 000000001961-12-09-0000December 9, 1961 000000001962-05-07-0000May 7, 1962 150

41st E 000000001962-08-04-0000August 4, 1962 000000001962-09-02-0000September 2, 1962 30

42nd E 000000001962-12-08-0000December 8, 1962 000000001962-12-23-0000December 23, 1962 16 (12+4)

43rd R 000000001962-12-24-0000December 24, 1962 000000001963-07-06-0000July 6, 1963 195 (150+45)

44th E 000000001963-10-15-0000October 15, 1963 000000001963-10-23-0000October 23, 1963 (dissolution) 9 (30)

45th S 000000001963-12-04-0000December 4, 1963 000000001963-12-18-0000December 18, 1963 15

46th R 000000001963-12-20-0000December 20, 1963 000000001964-06-26-0000June 26, 1964 190 (150+40)

47th E 000000001964-11-09-0000November 9, 1964 000000001964-12-18-0000December 18, 1964 40

48th R 000000001964-12-21-0000December 21, 1964 000000001965-06-01-0000June 1, 1965 163 (150+13)

49th E 000000001965-07-22-0000July 22, 1965 000000001965-08-11-0000August 11, 1965 21

50th E 000000001965-10-05-0000October 5, 1965 000000001965-12-13-0000December 13, 1965 70

51st R 000000001965-12-20-0000December 20, 1965 000000001966-06-27-0000June 27, 1966 190 (150+40)

52nd E 000000001966-07-11-0000July 11, 1966 000000001966-07-30-0000July 30, 1966 20

53rd E 000000001966-11-30-0000November 30, 1966 000000001966-12-20-0000December 20, 1966 21

54th (ja) R 000000001966-12-27-0000December 27, 1966 000000001966-12-27-0000December 27, 1966 (dissolution) 1 (150)

55th S 000000001967-02-15-0000February 15, 1967 000000001967-07-21-0000July 21, 1967 157 (136+21)

56th E 000000001967-07-27-0000July 27, 1967 000000001967-08-18-0000August 18, 1967 23 (15+8)

57th E 000000001967-12-04-0000December 4, 1967 000000001967-12-23-0000December 23, 1967 20

58th R 000000001967-12-27-0000December 27, 1967 000000001968-06-03-0000June 3, 1968 160 (150+10)

59th E 000000001968-08-01-0000August 1, 1968 000000001968-08-10-0000August 10, 1968 10

60th E 000000001968-12-10-0000December 10, 1968 000000001968-12-21-0000December 21, 1968 12

61st R 000000001968-12-27-0000December 27, 1968 000000001969-08-05-0000August 5, 1969 222 (150+72)

62nd E 000000001969-11-29-0000November 29, 1969 000000001969-12-02-0000December 2, 1969 (dissolution) 4 (14)

63rd S 000000001970-01-14-0000January 14, 1970 000000001970-05-13-0000May 13, 1970 120

64th (ja) E 000000001970-11-24-0000November 24, 1970 000000001970-12-18-0000December 18, 1970 25

65th R 000000001970-12-26-0000December 26, 1970 000000001971-05-24-0000May 24, 1971 150

66th E 000000001971-07-14-0000July 14, 1971 000000001971-07-24-0000July 24, 1971 11

67th E 000000001971-10-16-0000October 16, 1971 000000001971-12-27-0000December 27, 1971 73 (70+3)

68th R 000000001971-12-29-0000December 29, 1971 000000001972-06-16-0000June 16, 1972 171 (150+21)

69th E 000000001972-07-06-0000July 6, 1972 000000001972-07-12-0000July 12, 1972 7

70th E 000000001972-10-27-0000October 27, 1972 000000001972-11-13-0000November 13, 1972 (dissolution) 18 (21)

71st (ja) S 000000001972-12-22-0000December 22, 1972 000000001973-09-27-0000September 27, 1973 280 (150+130)

72nd R 000000001973-12-01-0000December 1, 1973 000000001974-06-03-0000June 3, 1974 185 (150+35)

73rd E 000000001974-07-24-0000July 24, 1974 000000001974-07-31-0000July 31, 1974 8

74th E 000000001974-12-09-0000December 9, 1974 000000001974-12-25-0000December 25, 1974 17

75th R 000000001974-12-27-0000December 27, 1974 000000001975-07-04-0000July 4, 1975 190 (150+40)

76th E 000000001975-09-11-0000September 11, 1975 000000001975-12-25-0000December 25, 1975 106 (75+31)

77th R 000000001975-12-27-0000December 27, 1975 000000001976-05-24-0000May 24, 1976 150

78th E 000000001976-09-16-0000September 16, 1976 000000001976-11-04-0000November 4, 1976 50

79th E 000000001976-12-24-0000December 24, 1976 000000001976-12-28-0000December 28, 1976 5

80th R 000000001976-12-30-0000December 30, 1976 000000001977-06-09-0000June 9, 1977 162 (150+12)

81st E 000000001977-07-27-0000July 27, 1977 000000001977-08-03-0000August 3, 1977 8

82nd E 000000001977-09-29-0000September 29, 1977 000000001977-11-25-0000November 25, 1977 58 (40+18)

83rd E 000000001977-12-07-0000December 7, 1977 000000001977-12-10-0000December 10, 1977 4

84th R 000000001977-12-19-0000December 19, 1977 000000001978-06-16-0000June 16, 1978 180 (150+30)

85th E 000000001978-09-18-0000September 18, 1978 000000001978-10-21-0000October 21, 1978 34

86th E 000000001978-12-06-0000December 6, 1978 000000001978-12-12-0000December 12, 1978 7

87th R 000000001978-12-22-0000December 22, 1978 000000001979-06-14-0000June 14, 1979 175 (150+25)

88th E 000000001979-08-30-0000August 30, 1979 000000001979-09-07-0000September 7, 1979 (dissolution) 9 (30)

89th S 000000001979-10-30-0000October 30, 1979 000000001979-11-16-0000November 16, 1979 18

90th E 000000001979-11-26-0000November 26, 1979 000000001979-12-11-0000December 11, 1979 16

91st R 000000001979-12-21-0000December 21, 1979 000000001980-05-19-0000May 19, 1980 (dissolution) 151 (150+9)

92nd S 000000001980-07-17-0000July 17, 1980 000000001980-07-26-0000July 26, 1980 10

93rd E 000000001980-09-29-0000September 29, 1980 000000001980-11-29-0000November 29, 1980 62 (50+12)

94th R 000000001980-12-22-0000December 22, 1980 000000001981-06-06-0000June 6, 1981 167 (150+17)

95th E 000000001981-09-27-0000September 27, 1981 000000001981-11-28-0000November 28, 1981 66 (55+11)

96th (ja) R 000000001981-12-21-0000December 21, 1981 000000001982-08-21-0000August 21, 1982 244 (150+94)

97th E 000000001982-11-26-0000November 26, 1982 000000001982-12-25-0000December 25, 1982 30 (25+5)

98th R 000000001982-12-28-0000December 28, 1982 000000001983-05-26-0000May 26, 1983 150

99th E 000000001983-07-18-0000July 18, 1983 000000001983-07-23-0000July 23, 1983 6

100th E 000000001983-09-08-0000September 8, 1983 000000001983-11-28-0000November 28, 1983 (dissolution) 82 (70+12)

101st S 000000001983-12-26-0000December 26, 1983 000000001984-08-08-0000August 8, 1984 227 (150+77)

102nd R 000000001984-12-01-0000December 1, 1984 000000001985-06-25-0000June 25, 1985 207 (150+57)

103rd E 000000001985-10-14-0000October 14, 1985 000000001985-12-21-0000December 21, 1985 69 (62+7)

104th R 000000001985-12-24-0000December 24, 1985 000000001986-05-22-0000May 22, 1986 150

105th (ja) E 000000001986-06-02-0000June 2, 1986 000000001986-06-02-0000June 2, 1986 (dissolution) 1

106th S 000000001986-07-22-0000July 22, 1986 000000001986-07-25-0000July 25, 1986 4

107th E 000000001986-09-11-0000September 11, 1986 000000001986-07-25-0000July 25, 1986 4

108th R 000000001986-12-29-0000December 29, 1986 000000001987-05-27-0000May 27, 1987 150

109th E 000000001987-07-06-0000July 6, 1987 000000001987-09-19-0000September 19, 1987 76 (65+11)

110th E 000000001987-11-06-0000November 6, 1987 000000001987-11-11-0000November 11, 1987 6

111th E 000000001987-11-27-0000November 27, 1987 000000001987-12-12-0000December 12, 1987 16

112th R 000000001987-12-28-0000December 28, 1987 000000001988-05-25-0000May 25, 1988 150

113th E 000000001988-07-19-0000July 19, 1988 000000001988-12-28-0000December 28, 1988 163 (70+93)

114th R 000000001988-12-30-0000December 30, 1988 000000001989-06-22-0000June 22, 1989 175 (150+25)

115th E 000000001989-08-07-0000August 7, 1989 000000001989-08-12-0000August 12, 1989 6

116th E 000000001989-09-28-0000September 28, 1989 000000001989-12-16-0000December 16, 1989 80

117th R 000000001989-12-25-0000December 25, 1989 000000001990-01-24-0000January 24, 1990 (dissolution) 31 (150)

118th S 000000001990-02-27-0000February 27, 1990 000000001990-06-26-0000June 26, 1990 120

119th E 000000001990-10-12-0000October 12, 1990 000000001990-11-10-0000November 10, 1990 30

120th R 000000001990-12-10-0000December 10, 1990 000000001991-05-08-0000May 8, 1991 150

121st E 000000001991-08-05-0000August 5, 1991 000000001991-10-04-0000October 4, 1991 61

122nd E 000000001991-11-05-0000November 5, 1991 000000001991-12-21-0000December 21, 1991 47 (36+11)

123rd R 000000001992-01-24-0000January 24, 1992 000000001992-06-21-0000June 21, 1992 150

124th E 000000001992-08-07-0000August 7, 1992 000000001992-08-11-0000August 11, 1992 5

125th E 000000001992-10-30-0000October 30, 1992 000000001992-12-10-0000December 10, 1992 42 (40+2)

126th R 000000001993-01-22-0000January 22, 1993 000000001993-06-18-0000June 18, 1993 (dissolution) 148 (150)

127th S 000000001993-08-05-0000August 5, 1993 000000001993-08-28-0000August 28, 1993 24 (10+14)

128th E 000000001993-09-17-0000September 17, 1993 000000001994-01-29-0000January 29, 1994 135 (90+45)

129th R 000000001994-01-31-0000January 31, 1994 000000001994-06-29-0000June 29, 1994 150

130th E 000000001994-07-18-0000July 18, 1994 000000001994-07-22-0000July 22, 1994 5

131st E 000000001994-09-30-0000September 30, 1994 000000001994-12-09-0000December 9, 1994 71 (65+6)

132nd R 000000001995-01-20-0000January 20, 1995 000000001995-06-18-0000June 18, 1995 150

133rd E 000000001995-08-04-0000August 4, 1995 000000001995-08-08-0000August 8, 1995 5

134th E 000000001995-09-29-0000September 29, 1995 000000001995-12-15-0000December 15, 1995 78 (46+32)

135th E 000000001996-01-11-0000January 11, 1996 000000001996-01-13-0000January 13, 1996 3

136th (ja) R 000000001996-01-22-0000January 22, 1996 000000001996-06-19-0000June 19, 1996 150

137th E 000000001996-09-27-0000September 27, 1996 000000001996-09-27-0000September 27, 1996 (dissolution) 1

138th S 000000001996-11-07-0000November 7, 1996 000000001996-11-12-0000November 12, 1996 6

139th E 000000001996-11-29-0000November 29, 1996 000000001996-12-18-0000December 18, 1996 20

140th R 000000001997-01-20-0000January 20, 1997 000000001997-06-18-0000June 18, 1997 150

141st E 000000001997-09-29-0000September 29, 1997 000000001997-12-12-0000December 12, 1997 75

142nd R 000000001998-01-12-0000January 12, 1998 000000001998-06-18-0000June 18, 1998 158 (150+8)

143rd (ja) E 000000001998-07-30-0000July 30, 1998 000000001998-10-16-0000October 16, 1998 79 (70+9)

144th E 000000001998-11-27-0000November 27, 1998 000000001998-12-14-0000December 14, 1998 18

145th R 000000001999-01-19-0000January 19, 1999 000000001999-08-13-0000August 13, 1999 207 (150+57)

146th E 000000001999-10-29-0000October 29, 1999 000000001999-12-15-0000December 15, 1999 48

147th R 000000002000-01-20-0000January 20, 2000 000000002000-06-02-0000June 2, 2000 (dissolution) 135 (150)

148th (ja) S 000000002000-07-04-0000July 4, 2000 000000002000-07-06-0000July 6, 2000 3

149th E 000000002000-07-28-0000July 28, 2000 000000002000-08-09-0000August 9, 2000 13

150th E 000000002000-09-21-0000September 21, 2000 000000002000-12-01-0000December 1, 2000 72

151st R 000000002001-01-31-0000January 31, 2001 000000002001-06-29-0000June 29, 2001 150

152nd E 000000002001-08-07-0000August 7, 2001 000000002001-08-10-0000August 10, 2001 4

153rd E 000000002001-09-27-0000September 27, 2001 000000002001-12-07-0000December 7, 2001 72

154th R 000000002002-01-21-0000January 21, 2002 000000002002-07-31-0000July 31, 2002 192 (150+42)

155th E 000000002002-10-18-0000October 18, 2002 000000002002-12-13-0000December 13, 2002 57

156th R 000000002003-01-20-0000January 20, 2003 000000002003-07-28-0000July 28, 2003 190 (150+40)

157th E 000000002003-09-29-0000September 29, 2003 000000002003-10-10-0000October 10, 2003 (dissolution) 15 (36)

158th S 000000002003-11-19-0000November 19, 2003 000000002003-11-27-0000November 27, 2003 9

159th R 000000002004-01-19-0000January 19, 2004 000000002004-06-16-0000June 16, 2004 150

160th E 000000002004-07-30-0000July 30, 2004 000000002004-08-06-0000August 6, 2004 8

161st E 000000002004-10-12-0000October 12, 2004 000000002004-12-03-0000December 3, 2004 53

162nd R 000000002005-01-21-0000January 21, 2005 000000002005-08-08-0000August 8, 2005 (dissolution) 200 (150+55)

163rd (ja) S 000000002005-09-21-0000September 21, 2005 000000002005-11-01-0000November 1, 2005 42

164th (ja) R 000000002006-01-20-0000January 20, 2006 000000002006-06-18-0000June 18, 2006 150

165th (ja) S 000000002006-09-26-0000September 26, 2006 000000002006-12-19-0000December 19, 2006 85 (81+4)

166th (ja) R 000000002007-01-25-0000January 25, 2007 000000002007-07-05-0000July 5, 2007 162 (150+12)

167th (ja) E 000000002007-08-07-0000August 7, 2007 000000002007-08-10-0000August 10, 2007 4

168th (ja) E 000000002007-09-10-0000September 10, 2007 000000002008-01-15-0000January 15, 2008 128 (62+66)

169th (ja) R 000000002008-01-18-0000January 18, 2008 000000002008-06-21-0000June 21, 2008 156 (150+6)

170th (ja) E 000000002008-09-24-0000September 24, 2008 000000002008-12-25-0000December 25, 2008 93 (68+25)

171st (ja) R 000000002009-01-05-0000January 5, 2009 000000002009-07-21-0000July 21, 2009 (dissolution) 198 (150+55)

172nd (ja) S 000000002009-09-16-0000September 16, 2009 000000002009-09-19-0000September 19, 2009 4

173rd (ja) E 000000002009-10-26-0000October 26, 2009 000000002009-12-04-0000December 4, 2009 40 (36+4)

174th (ja) R 000000002010-01-18-0000January 18, 2010 000000002010-06-16-0000June 16, 2010 150

175th (ja) E 000000002010-07-30-0000July 30, 2010 000000002010-08-06-0000August 6, 2010 8

176th (ja) E 000000002010-10-01-0000October 1, 2010 000000002010-12-03-0000December 3, 2010 64

177th (ja) R 000000002011-01-24-0000January 24, 2011 000000002011-08-31-0000August 31, 2011 220 (150+70)

178th (ja) E 000000002011-09-13-0000September 13, 2011 000000002011-09-30-0000September 30, 2011 18 (4+14)

179th (ja) E 000000002011-10-20-0000October 20, 2011 000000002011-12-09-0000December 9, 2011 51

180th (ja) R 000000002012-01-24-0000January 24, 2012 000000002012-09-08-0000September 8, 2012 229 (150+79)

181st (ja) E 000000002012-10-29-0000October 29, 2012 000000002012-11-16-0000November 16, 2012 (dissolution) 19 (33)

182nd (ja) S 000000002012-12-26-0000December 26, 2012 000000002012-12-28-0000December 28, 2012 3

183rd (ja) R 000000002013-01-28-0000January 28, 2013 000000002013-06-26-0000June 26, 2013 150

184th (ja) E 000000002013-08-02-0000August 2, 2013 000000002013-08-07-0000August 7, 2013 6

185th (ja) E 000000002013-10-15-0000October 15, 2013 000000002013-12-08-0000December 8, 2013 55 (53+2)

186th (ja) R 000000002014-01-24-0000January 24, 2014 000000002014-06-22-0000June 22, 2014 150

187th (ja) E 000000002014-09-29-0000September 29, 2014 000000002014-11-21-0000November 21, 2014 (dissolution) 54 (63)

188th (ja) S 000000002014-12-24-0000December 24, 2014 000000002014-12-26-0000December 26, 2014 3

189th (ja) R 000000002015-01-26-0000January 26, 2015 000000002015-09-27-0000September 27, 2015 245 (150+95)

190th (ja) R 000000002016-01-04-0000January 4, 2016 000000002016-06-01-0000June 1, 2016 150

191st (ja) E 000000002016-08-01-0000August 1, 2016 000000002016-08-03-0000August 3, 2016 3

192nd (ja) E 000000002016-09-26-0000September 26, 2016 000000002016-12-17-0000December 17, 2016 83 (66+17)

193rd (ja) R 000000002017-01-20-0000January 20, 2017 000000002017-06-18-0000June 18, 2017 150

194th (ja) E 000000002017-09-28-0000September 28, 2017 000000002017-09-28-0000September 28, 2017 (dissolution) 1

195th (ja) S 000000002017-11-01-0000November 1, 2017 000000002017-12-09-0000December 9, 2017 39

196th R 000000002018-01-22-0000January 22, 2018 [000000002018-06-20-0000June 20, 2018] running (150)

See also[edit]

Japan
Japan
portal Politics portal

Bicameralism Government of Japan History of Japan National Diet
National Diet
Library Parliamentary system Politics of Japan List of legislatures by country ja:国会開会式 - Opening ceremony of National Diet.

References[edit]

^ "House of Councillors The National Diet
National Diet
of Japan". www.sangiin.go.jp. Retrieved September 9, 2017.  ^ "Diet functions". www.shugiin.go.jp. Retrieved September 9, 2017.  ^ Japan
Japan
Guide Coming of Age (seijin no hi) Retrieved June 8, 2007. ^ "Diet enacts law lowering voting age to 18 from 20". The Japan Times.  ^ a b National Diet
National Diet
Library. Constitution of Japan. Published 1947. Retrieved July 15, 2007. ^ U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies Japan
Japan
– Electoral System. Retrieved June 8, 2007. ^ Goodman, Carl. Japan's changing view toward civil litigation[dead link]. Published Summer of 2001. Retrieved June 8, 2007. ^ National Diet Library
National Diet Library
Issue Brief, March 11, 2008: 参議院の一票の格差・定数是正問題 Retrieved December 17, 2009. ^ nikkei.net, September 29, 2009: 1票の格差、大法廷30日判決 07年参院選4.86倍 Retrieved December 17, 2009. ^ Asahi Shimbun, August 18, 2009: 有権者98万人増 「一票の格差」2.3倍に拡大 Retrieved December 17, 2002. ^ Fukue, Natsuko, "The basics of being a lawmaker at the Diet", The Japan
Japan
Times, January 4, 2011, p. 3. ^ House of Councillors. Legislative Procedure. Published 2001. Retrieved July 15, 2007. ^ Asia Times Online Japan: A political tsunami approaches. By Hisane Masaki. Published July 6, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007. ^ "Diet Japanese government". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 22, 2017.  ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan
Japan
Disagreement between the Two Houses. Retrieved July 14, 2007. ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan
Japan
Sessions of the Diet. Retrieved July 14, 2007. ^ House of Representatives of Japan
Japan
Opening Ceremony and Speeches on Government Policy. Retrieved July 14, 2007. ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan
Japan
From Imperial Diet to National Diet. Retrieved July 15, 2007. ^ Henkin, Louis and Albert J. Rosenthal Constitutionalism and Rights: : the Influence of the United States Constitution Abroad. Page 424. Published 1990. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-06570-1 ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication. Chapter 27 – Government Employees and Elections. Published 2003. Retrieved June 8, 2007. ^ Library of Congress County Data. Japan
Japan
– The Legislature. Retrieved June 8, 2007. ^ House of Councillors: 国会の召集と会期 ^ House of Councillors: 参議院の緊急集会 ^ House of Representatives: 国会会期一覧

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