The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures is an organization in the United States
dedicated to discussing and selecting what its members regard as the best film works of each year.
The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures was founded in 1909 in New York City
, 14 years after the birth of cinema, to protest New York City Mayor George B. McClellan Jr.
's revocation of moving-picture exhibition licenses on Christmas Eve
1908. The mayor (son of Civil War general George B. McClellan
) believed that the new medium degraded the morals of the community. To assert their freedom of expression, theatre owners led by Marcus Loew
and film distributors (Edison
, and Gaumont
) joined John Collier
of the People's Institute
at Cooper Union
and established the New York Board of Motion Picture Censorship. Following general criticism after the United States Supreme Court
decision in ''Mutual Film Corp. v. Industrial Commission of Ohio
'' (1915), which held that the free speech
protections of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution
did not extend to films, the Board on 10 March 1916 changed its name to the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures to avoid the controversial word "censorship
The Board's stated purpose was to endorse films of merit and champion the new "art of the people", which was transforming America's cultural life. In an effort to avoid government censorship of films, the National Board became the unofficial clearinghouse for new movies.
From 1916 into the 1950s, thousands of motion pictures carried the legend "Passed by the National Board of Review" in their main titles. The board was a de facto
censorship organization. Producers submitted their films to the board before making release prints; they agreed to cut any footage that the board found objectionable, up to and including destroying the entire film.
In 1930, the NBR was the first group to choose the 10 best English-language movies of the year and the best foreign films, and is still the first critical body to announce its annual awards. The NBR has also gained international acclaim for its publications: ''Film Program'' (1917–1926); ''Exceptional Photoplays'' (1920–1925); ''Photoplay Guide to Better Movies'' (1924–1926); ''National Board of Review Magazine'' (1926–1942); ''New Movies'' (1942–1949); and ''Films in Review'', which published its first issue in 1950. Influencing generations of filmmakers and film lovers, these journals have fostered commentary on all aspects of cinema production and history, and contributors have included James Agee
, Pearl S. Buck
, Alistair Cooke
, William K. Everson
, Manny Farber
, Alfred Hitchcock
, Fritz Lang
, Harold Robbins
, William Saroyan
, Dore Schary
, and Tennessee Williams
To determine the NBR's annual awards, ballots are sent in by over 100 members – a select group of knowledgeable film enthusiasts, academics, and filmmakers in the New York metropolitan area
– and subsequently tabulated by a certified public accountancy firm in order to decide the winners. In addition, the Awards Committee determines the special achievement awards presented at the annual gala in January.
The organization also works to foster commentary on all aspects of film production by underwriting educational film programs and seminars for film students. In 2017, the NBR provided grants to Reel Works Teen Filmmaking, Ghetto Film School, and Educational Video Center
. The organization also awarded grants to 13 student filmmakers as part of its annual student grant program.
''Films in Review''
The board's official magazine had existed in several forms and different names since its inception. In 1950, the magazine changed its name from ''Screen Magazine'' and launched the first issue as ''Films in Review'' on February 1, 1950.
* Best Film
+ Top 10 Films
* Best Director
* Best Actor
* Best Actress
* Best Supporting Actor
* Best Supporting Actress
* Best Acting by an Ensemble
* Breakthrough Performance
* Best Adapted Screenplay
* Best Original Screenplay
* Best Animated Film
* Best Documentary Film
* Best Foreign Language Film
* Spotlight Award
* Best Family Film
* Top 5 Documentaries
* Best Directorial Debut
* Best Animated Feature
* Top 10 Independent Films
* Best Juvenile Performance
* NBR Freedom of Expression
* Special Filmmaking Achievement
* Top Five Foreign Language Films
* Special Achievement in Producing
* William K. Everson Film History Award
* Career Achievements in Production: Cinematography, Music, FX
Note: Until 1945, there were only awards for Best Picture and intermittent awards for Best Documentary and Best Foreign Film.
* Motion Picture Production Code
Category:American film critics associations
Category:Organizations established in 1909
Category:1909 establishments in New York (state)