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National Protection Army victory

Abdication of Yuan Shikai Fall of the Empire of China Start of the Warlord Era

Belligerents

Empire of China Republic of China

Commanders and leaders

Yuan Shikai Zhang Jingyao Ma Jiceng Cao Kun Feng Yuxiang Lu Jianzhang Cai E Tang Jiyao Liang Qichao Li Liejun Lu Rongting

Strength

700,000+ 200,000+

The National Protection War
National Protection War
(simplified Chinese: 护国战争; traditional Chinese: 護國戰爭; pinyin: Hù guó zhànzhēng), also known as the anti-Monarchy War, was a civil war that took place in China
China
between 1915-16. Only three years earlier the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, had been overthrown and the Republic of China
China
established in its place. The cause of the war was the proclamation by Yuan Shikai, the Republic's President, of himself as a new Emperor of the Empire of China. In Yunnan
Yunnan
province military leaders including Tang Jiyao, Cai E
Cai E
and Li Liejun
Li Liejun
declared their independence and launched expeditions against Yuan. Yuan's army experienced several defeats which led other provinces in the south to declare independence as well. Eventually, under immense pressure from the entire nation, Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
was forced to abdicate. He died a few months later.

Contents

1 Origin 2 Process 3 Northwest China 4 Influence 5 References

Origin[edit] After Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
plotted the assassination in 1913 of Song Jiaoren, a prominent leader of the Kuomintang, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
launched the Second Revolution (Chinese: 二次革命) against him. It was unsuccessful, and Sun was forced to flee to Japan
Japan
while the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
was dissolved. Between August and December 1915 supporters of Yuan began to clamor for the restoration of a Chinese monarchy. On December 12 Yuan declared himself emperor of the Chinese Empire under the name Hongxian. The new empire was due to formally launch on January 1, when he intended to conduct the accession rites. Process[edit]

General Cai E.

Shortly after Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor, military leaders Cai E and Tang Jiyao
Tang Jiyao
of Yunnan
Yunnan
province declared independence in the provincial capital, Kunming. The date was December 25. They organized the National Protection Army and began an expedition against Yuan's forces. Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
sent 80,000 men in an attempt to attack Yunnan, but his troops suffered a major defeat in Sichuan
Sichuan
province. Before this defeat, Guizhou
Guizhou
and Guangxi
Guangxi
provinces declared their independence between February and March 1916. Guangdong, Shandong, Hunan, Shanxi, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
and Jiangsu
Jiangsu
followed suit and declared their independence shortly thereafter. Discord began to surface even inside Yuan's government in the national capital of Beijing. Faced with mounting pressure, he was forced to abandon the empire on March 22. He died soon after, on June 6. The National Protection War
National Protection War
was proclaimed a success, with the provinces rescinding their declarations of independence. Northwest China[edit] The Governor of Xinjiang, Yang Zengxin, was a former Qing dynasty official who approved of Yuan Shikai's monarchism and was against republicanism. Yang commanded thousands of Chinese Muslim troops. He ruled Xinjiang
Xinjiang
with a clique of Yunnanese, being from Yunnan
Yunnan
himself. His subordinate Muslim Generals Ma Fuxing
Ma Fuxing
and Ma Shaowu
Ma Shaowu
were also Yunnanese. When some of the Yunnanese revolutionaries wanted to join Cai E
Cai E
in rebelling against Yang, he beheaded them at a New Year's banquet in 1916. Yang was made a Count
Count
by Yuan Shikai. Influence[edit]

The reopening of the National Assembly of the Republic of China
China
in Beijing
Beijing
on August 1, 1916, following the National Protection War.

The National Protection War
National Protection War
symbolized the beginning of the separation between the North and the South after the establishment of the Republic of China. Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
was a legitimate president of the Republic, but his attempt to become Emperor was thwarted by the military opposition of the southern provinces. Even after the end of Yuan's short-lived monarchy, the Beiyang government
Beiyang government
in Beijing
Beijing
was no longer able to maintain control over the military leaders of the southern provinces. After the death of Yuan, the Beiyang government lost its leadership over warlords in the provinces and infighting among cliques within the government began in earnest; meanwhile, Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
created a military government in Guangzhou in the far south, leading to the protection of the Constitution. China's Warlord Era
Warlord Era
would last for years until Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
unified the country through the Northern Expedition, the Central Plains War and many other civil wars before the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War. References[edit]

Fairbank, John King; Twitchett, Denis (1983). The Cambridge History of China: Republican China
China
1912-1949, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521235419. Putnam Weale, Bertram Lenox (1917). The fight for the Republic in China. Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 490. OCLC 1541271.

v t e

Warlord Era

1915–1922 1923–1932 Northern factions Southern factions

1915 Twenty-One Demands

1915–1916 Empire of China
China
(Yuan Shikai) National Protection War

1916 Death of Yuan Shikai

1917 Manchu Restoration

1917–1922 Constitutional Protection Movement

1918–1920 Siberian Intervention

1919 Paris Peace Conference May Fourth Movement

1919–1921 Occupation of Outer Mongolia

1920 Zhili–Anhui War

1920–1921 Guangdong– Guangxi
Guangxi
War

1921 1st National CPC Congress

1922 First Zhili–Fengtian War

1923–1927 First United Front

1924 Second Zhili–Fengtian War Beijing
Beijing
Coup

1925 Yunnan– Guangxi
Guangxi
War May Thirtieth Movement

1925–1926 Anti-Fengtian War

1926 Zhongshan Warship Incident

1926–1928 Northern Expedition

1928 Jinan Incident Huánggūtun Incident Looting of the Eastern Mausoleum Flag Replacement of the Northeast

1929 Warlord Rebellion in northeastern Shandong Sino-Soviet conflict

1930 Central Plains War

1932 Han–Liu War

Beiyang Army

Yuan Shikai Anhui Zhili Communications Research

Regional

Fengtian (Zhili) Shanxi Guominjun Ma Xinjiang

Yunnan Old Guangxi New Guangxi Guangdong
Guangdong
(Chen Jitang) Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) Communist Party (CPC) Sichuan

Republic of C

.