The NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) is both a combat
support agency , under the
United States Department of Defense
NGA headquarters is located at
Fort Belvoir in Springfield, Virginia
, and operates major facilities in the
St. Louis, Missouri
In addition to using GEOINT for U.S. military and intelligence efforts, the NGA provides assistance during natural and man-made disasters, and security planning for major events such as the Olympic Games .
* 1 History
* 1.3 Aeronautical Chart Plant (ACP)
* 1.4 National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC)
* 1.5 Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) * 1.6 National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) * 1.7 NGA
* 2 Organization
* 2.1 Employees * 2.2 NIMA / NGA Directors
* 3 Civilian activities * 4 Controversies * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
U.S. mapping and charting efforts remained relatively unchanged until
World War I
ENGINEER REPRODUCTION PLANT (ERP)
The Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineers 's first attempt to centralize mapping production, printing, and distribution. It was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D.C. Previously, topographic mapping had largely been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products. In addition, ERP assumed the "supervision and maintenance" of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1, 1939.
ARMY MAP SERVICE (AMS) / U.S. ARMY TOPOGRAPHIC COMMAND (USATC)
With the advent of the
Second World War
The agency's credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was
chartered during the
Army Map Service
AERONAUTICAL CHART PLANT (ACP)
After the war, as airplane capacity and range improved, the need for
charts grew. The Army Air Corps established its map unit, which was
renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in
St. Louis, Missouri
A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union. It was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis site's Civil War-era use as an arsenal.
NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (NPIC)
Seal of the NPIC
Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D.
Eisenhower authorized the creation of the NATIONAL PHOTOGRAPHIC
INTERPRETATION CENTER, headed by
Arthur C. Lundahl , combining Central
Intelligence Agency (CIA), Army, Navy, and Air Force assets to solve
national intelligence problems. NPIC was a component of the CIA's
Directorate of Science and Technology (DDS"> NPIC analysts developed
the information necessary to inform U.S. policymakers and influence
operations during the
Cuban Missile Crisis
DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY (DMA)
The DEFENSE MAPPING AGENCY was created on January 1, 1972, to consolidate all U.S. military mapping activities. DMA's "birth certificate", DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a formerly classified Presidential directive, "Organization and Management of the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Community" (November 5, 1971), which directed the consolidation of mapping functions previously dispersed among the military services. DMA became operational on July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA (June 16, 1972). On Oct. 1, 1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency – which later became NGA.
DMA was first headquartered at the
United States Naval Observatory
* DMA HYDROGRAPHIC CENTER (DMAHC)
DMAHC was formed in 1972 when the Navy's Hydrographic Office split
its two components: The charting component was attached to DMAHC, and
the survey component moved to the Naval Oceanographic Office, Bay St.
Louis, Mississippi , on the grounds of what is now the
* DMA TOPOGRAPHIC CENTER (DMATC)
DMATC was located in Brookmont (Bethesda), Maryland. It was
responsible for creating topographic maps worldwide for DoD. DMATC's
* DMA HYDROGRAPHIC/TOPOGRAPHIC CENTER (DMAHTC)
DMAHC and DMATC eventually merged to form DMAHTC, with offices in Brookmont (Bethesda), Maryland.
* DMA AEROSPACE CENTER (DMAAC)
DMAAC originated with the U.S. Air Force's Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC) and was located in St. Louis, Missouri.
NATIONAL IMAGERY AND MAPPING AGENCY (NIMA)
NIMA's logo, seal, and flag.
NIMA was established on October 1, 1996, by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997. The creation of NIMA followed more than a year of study, debate, and planning by the defense, intelligence, and policy-making communities (as well as the Congress) and continuing consultations with customer organizations. The creation of NIMA centralized responsibility for imagery and mapping.
NIMA combined the DMA, the CENTRAL IMAGERY OFFICE (CIO), and the
DEFENSE DISSEMINATION PROGRAM OFFICE (DDPO) in their entirety, and the
mission and functions of the NPIC. Also merged into NIMA were the
imagery exploitation, dissemination, and processing elements of the
Defense Intelligence Agency
NIMA's creation was clouded by the natural reluctance of cultures to merge and the fear that their respective missions—mapping in support of defense activities versus intelligence production, principally in support of national policymakers—would be subordinated, each to the other.
With the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for
Fiscal Year 2004 on November 24, 2003, NIMA was renamed NGA to better
reflect its primary mission in the area of
GEOINT . As a part of the
2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process, all major
Washington, D.C.-area NGA facilities, including those in Bethesda,
The cost of the new center, as of March 2009, was expected to be $2.4 billion. The center's campus is approximately 2,400,000 square feet (220,000 m2) and was completed in September 2011.
NGA employs professionals in aeronautical analysis, cartography , geospatial analysis , imagery analysis , marine analysis , the physical sciences, geodesy, computer and telecommunication engineering, and photogrammetry , as well as those in the national security and law enforcement fields.
NIMA / NGA DIRECTORS
The current director of NGA is Robert Cardillo. NGA Director Robert Cardillo
This table lists all Directors of the NIMA and NGA and their term of office.
TERM OF OFFICE DIRECTOR
1996–1998 Rear Admiral (RADM) Joseph J. (Jack) Dantone, Jr., USN , Acting Director
1998–2001 Lieutenant General (LTG) James C. King, US Army
2006–2010 Vice Admiral (VADM) Robert B. Murrett , USN
2010–2014 Letitia Long
2014–present Robert Cardillo
* ^ Although General Clapper preferred the use of his military rank, he was in fact a member of the Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service (DISES) during his term as Director of NIMA / NGA, as he had retired from active duty as the director of DIA in 1995. Clapper was the first civilian to head NIMA / NGA.
Wikinews has related news: LETITIA LONG BECOMES FIRST FEMALE DIRECTOR OF A MAJOR US INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
On February 22, 2010, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced that Letitia Long would become director later that year, becoming the first woman to head one of the 16 Intelligence Community component agencies. Long was at the time deputy director of the DIA. Long was sworn in on August 9, 2010, as head of the NGA.
* 9/11 AFTERMATH: After the
September 11, 2001 attacks , NIMA
partnered with the
U.S. Geological Survey to survey the World Trade
Center site and determine the extent of the destruction.
* OLYMPIC SUPPORT: In 2002, NIMA partnered with Federal
organizations to provide geospatial assistance to the 2002 Winter
NIMA / NGA has been involved in several controversies.
* India tested a nuclear weapon in 1998 that reportedly took the
United States by surprise. Due to budget cuts in defense spending
after the end of the Cold War (see
Peace dividend ), the Intelligence
Community was forced to reevaluate the allocation of its limited
* In 1999, NIMA supposedly provided NATO war-planners with incorrect
maps which did not reflect that the Chinese Embassy in
This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive GALLERY OF IMAGES. Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the article subject are discouraged ; please improve or remove the section accordingly. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
New Headquarters of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency *
New NGA headquarters' atrium *
Letitia Long , director of the NGA, 2010–2014
* Military of the United States portal
* ^ BRAC side effect: Greener buildings
* ^ A B "NGA Campus East Fact Sheet" (PDF).
* ^ Top Secret America: An alternative geography
* ^ Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). .nga.mil. Retrieved on July
* ^ Gellman, Barton; Greg Miller (August 29, 2013). "U.S. spy
network\'s successes, failures and objectives detailed in \'black
budget\' summary". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
* ^ ESA: Different Approaches taken with respect to Geo Information
Sector in Europe and the United States, esa.int
* ^ U.S.C. Title 10, § 441
* ^ Serbu, Jared (2011-09-27). "
Geospatial intelligence HQ is now
DC\'s 3rd largest federal office building". Federal News Radio.
* ^ About NGA
* ^ "Constellation Federal Credit Union - Miscellaneous - CFCU to
NCE". constellationfcu.org. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
* ^ "
Arsenal Credit Union -
Arsenal Credit Union - Our Roots and
Structure". Arsenalcu.org. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
* ^ ""Solving the Mystery of the Arsenal Guns" by Randy R.
McGuire". civilwarstlouis.com. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
* ^ "Thirty ... and thriving". Central Intelligence Agency.
December 1, 1991. p. 1ff. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
* ^ A B C NGA History, nga.mil
* ^ Nixon, Richard (November 5, 1971). "Memorandum, Subject:
Organization and Management of the U.S. Foreign Intelligence
Community" (PDF). gwu.edu. Retrieved August 12, 2007.
* ^ "Defense Mapping Agency". NGA.mil.
* ^ U.S. National Archives. "Guide to Federal Records: Records of
the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA)". National Archives and Records
Administration (NARA). Retrieved August 12, 2007.
* ^ "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997"
(PDF). September 23, 1996. Retrieved February 10, 2008.
* ^ Report of the Independent Commission on NIMA - December 2000,
* ^ "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004"
(PDF). November 24, 2003. Retrieved February 10, 2008. , gpo.gov
* ^ NGA: September-October 2003 State of the Agency
* ^ New Campus East, nga.mil
* ^ Davenport, Christian, "Projects' Costs Are Rising", Washington
Post, March 31, 2009, p. B4
* ^ "Gates names first woman to head major intel agency".
FederalTimes.com. February 23, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
Letitia Long, currently the Defense Intelligence Agency's deputy
director, will take over NGA this summer, Gates said.
* ^ "Woman takes charge of major intelligence agency for the first
time". CNN. August 9, 2010. Retrieved August 11, 2010.
* ^ A B "Oakland emails give another glimpse into the
Geospatial Intelligence Aids Hurricane Recovery Efforts,
* Ambinder, Marc (May 5, 2011). "The Little-Known Agency That Helped
Kill Bin Laden".