Nathanael Greene
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Nathanael Greene (June 19, 1786, sometimes misspelled Nathaniel) was a
major general Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of ...
of the
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the United Colonies (the Thirteen Colonies) in the American Revolution, Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary Wa ...
in the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, was a major war of the American Revolution. Widely considered as the war that secured the independence of t ...
. He emerged from the war with a reputation as General
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American military officer, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the ...
's most talented and dependable officer, and is known for his successful command in the southern theater of the war. Born into a prosperous
Quaker Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian set of Christian denomination, denominations known formally as the Religious Society of Friends. Members of these movements ("theFriends") are generally united by a belie ...
family in
Warwick, Rhode Island Warwick ( or ) is a city in Kent County, Rhode Island, the third largest city in the state with a population of 82,823 at the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census. It is located approximately south of downtown Providence, Rhode Island, sout ...
, Greene became active in the colonial opposition to British revenue policies in the early 1770s and helped establish the Kentish Guards, a state militia. After the April 1775
Battles of Lexington and Concord The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The battles were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within ...
, the legislature of Rhode Island established an army and appointed Greene to command it. Later in the year, Greene became a general in the newly established
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the United Colonies (the Thirteen Colonies) in the American Revolution, Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary Wa ...
. Greene served under Washington in the
Boston campaign The Boston campaign was the opening military campaign, campaign of the American Revolutionary War, taking place primarily in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The campaign began with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, in whi ...
, the
New York and New Jersey campaign The New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the winter months of 1777 was a series of American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of ...
, and the
Philadelphia campaign The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a Kingdom of Great Britain, British effort in the American Revolutionary War to gain control of Philadelphia, which was then the seat of the Second Continental Congress. British General William How ...
before being appointed quartermaster general of the Continental Army in 1778. In October 1780, General Washington appointed Greene as the commander of the Continental Army in the southern theater, involving engagements primarily in Virginia, Georgia and South Carolina. After taking command, Greene engaged in a successful campaign of
guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which small groups of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or Irregular military, irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, Raid (military), raids ...
against the numerically superior force of General
Charles Cornwallis Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as the Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army The British Army is the princ ...
. He inflicted major losses on British forces at
Battle of Guilford Court House The Battle of Guilford Court House was on March 15, 1781, during the American Revolutionary War, at a site that is now in Greensboro, North Carolina, Greensboro, the seat of Guilford County, North Carolina. A 2,100-man British force under the co ...
, the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, and the
Battle of Eutaw Springs The Battle of Eutaw Springs was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, and was the last major engagement of the war in the Carolinas. Both sides claimed victory. Background In early 1781, Major General Nathanael Greene, commander of the ...
, eroding British control of the
American South The Southern United States (sometimes Dixie, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, the Southland, or simply the South) is a geographic and cultural List of regions of the United States#Official regions of the United Stat ...
. Major fighting on land came to an end following the surrender of Cornwallis at the
Siege of Yorktown The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the surrender at Yorktown, or the German battle (from the presence of Germans in all three armies), beginning on September 28, 1781, and ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virgi ...
in October 1781, but Greene continued to serve in the Continental Army until late 1783. After the war, he became a planter in the South, but his rice crops mainly failed. He died in 1786 at his
Mulberry Grove Plantation Mulberry Grove Plantation, located north of Port Wentworth, Chatham County, Georgia, Chatham County, Savannah, GA, Savannah, was a rice Plantations in the American South, plantation, notable as the location where Eli Whitney invented the cotton ...
in Chatham County, Georgia. Many places in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
are named after Greene.


Early life and education

Greene was born on August 7, 1742 O.S..html" ;"title="Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ;"title="/nowiki> O.S.">Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html"_;"title="/nowiki>Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S./nowiki>,_on_ O.S.">Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html"_;"title="/nowiki>Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S./nowiki>,_on_Forge_Farm">Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S.">Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html"_;"title="/nowiki>Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S./nowiki>,_on_Forge_Farm_at_Potowomut,_Rhode_Island.html" ;"title="Forge_Farm.html" ;"title="Old Style and New Style dates">O.S.">Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ;"title="/nowiki>Old Style and New Style dates">O.S./nowiki>, on Forge Farm">Old Style and New Style dates">O.S.">Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ;"title="/nowiki>Old Style and New Style dates">O.S./nowiki>, on Forge Farm at Potowomut, Rhode Island">Potowomut in the township of
Warwick, Rhode Island Warwick ( or ) is a city in Kent County, Rhode Island, the third largest city in the state with a population of 82,823 at the 2020 United States Census, 2020 census. It is located approximately south of downtown Providence, Rhode Island, sout ...
, which was then part of British America. He was the second son of Mary Mott and Nathanael Greene Sr., a prosperous Quaker merchant and farmer. Greene was descended from John Greene (settler), John Greene and Samuel Gorton, both of whom were founding settlers of Warwick. Greene had two older half-brothers from his father's first marriage, and was one of six children born to Nathanael and Mary. Due to religious beliefs, Greene's father discouraged book learning, as well as dancing and other activities. Nonetheless, Greene convinced his father to hire a tutor, and he studied mathematics, the
classics Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. In the Western world, classics traditionally refers to the study of Classical Greek and Roman literature and their related original languages, Ancient Greek Ancient ...
, law, and various works of the
Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment or the Enlightenment; german: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie, "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, La Ilustración, "Enlightenment" was an intel ...
. At some point during his childhood, Greene gained a slight limp that would remain with him for the rest of his life. In 1770, Greene moved to
Coventry, Rhode Island Coventry is a town A town is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a minuscule numbe ...
, to take charge of the family-owned foundry, and he built a house in Coventry called Spell Hall. Later in the year, Greene and his brothers inherited the family business after their father's death. Greene began to assemble a large library that included military histories by authors like
Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
,
Frederick the Great Frederick II (german: Friedrich II.; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King in Prussia from 1740 until 1772, and King of Prussia from 1772 until his death in 1786. His most significant accomplishments include his military successes in the S ...
, and
Maurice de Saxe Maurice, Count of Saxony (german: Hermann Moritz von Sachsen, french: Maurice de Saxe; 28 October 1696 – 20 November 1750) was a notable soldier, officer and a famed military commander of the 18th century. The illegitimate son of Augustus I ...
.


Family

In July 1774, Greene married the nineteen-year-old Catharine Littlefield, a niece-by-marriage of his distant cousin, William Greene, an influential political leader in Rhode Island. That same year, one of Greene's younger brothers married a daughter of Samuel Ward, a prominent Rhode Island politician who became an important political ally until his death in 1776. Greene and Catherine's first child was born in 1776, and they had six more children between 1777 and 1786.


American Revolutionary War


Prelude to war

After the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War, which pitted the North American colonies of the British Empire against those of the French colonial Empire, French, each side being supported by various Native Ame ...
(1754–1763), the
British parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It meets at the Palace of We ...
began imposing new policies designed to raise revenue from British America for a war that colonists had played a pivotal role in instigating. After British official William Dudington seized a vessel owned by Greene and his brothers, Greene filed an ultimately successful lawsuit against Dudington for damages. While the lawsuit was pending, Dudington's vessel was torched by a Rhode Island mob in what became known as the
Gaspee Affair The ''Gaspee'' Affair was a significant event in the lead-up to the American Revolution. HMS ''Gaspee'' was a British customs schooner that enforced the Navigation Acts in and around Newport, Rhode Island, Newport, Colony of Rhode Island and ...
. In the aftermath of the Gaspee Affair, Greene became increasingly alienated from the British. At the same time, Greene drifted away from his father's Quaker faith, and he was suspended from Quaker meetings in July 1773. In 1774, after the passage of revenue-raising measures that colonials derided as the "
Intolerable Acts The Intolerable Acts were a series of punitive laws passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party. The laws aimed to punish Province of Massachusetts Bay, Massachusetts colonists for their defi ...
," Greene helped organize a local militia known as the Kentish Guards. Because of his limp, Greene was not selected as an officer in the militia.


Commander under Washington


Boston campaign

The
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, was a major war of the American Revolution. Widely considered as the war that secured the independence of t ...
broke out with the April 1775
Battles of Lexington and Concord The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The battles were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within ...
. In early May, the legislature of Rhode Island established the Rhode Island Army of Observation and appointed Greene to command it. Greene's army marched to
Boston Boston (), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, state capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financ ...
, where other colonial forces were laying siege to a British garrison. He missed the June 1775
Battle of Bunker Hill The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the first stage of the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary ...
because he was visiting Rhode Island at the time, but he returned almost immediately after the battle and was impressed by the performance of colonial forces. That same month, the
Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a late-18th-century meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that united in support of the American Revolutionary War. The Congress was creating a new country it first named "United Colonies" and in 1 ...
established the
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the United Colonies (the Thirteen Colonies) in the American Revolution, Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary Wa ...
and appointed
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American military officer, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the ...
to command all colonial forces. In addition to Washington, Congress appointed sixteen generals, and Greene was appointed as a
brigadier general Brigadier general or Brigade general is a military rank used in many countries. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries. The rank is usually above a colonel, and below a major general or divisional general. When appointed to ...
in the Continental Army. Washington took command of the Siege of Boston in July 1775, bringing with him generals such as Charles Lee,
Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (July 26, 1727April 10, 1806) was a British-born American army officer who served as a general in the Continental Army during the early years of the Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battl ...
, and
Thomas Mifflin Thomas Mifflin (January 10, 1744January 20, 1800) was an American merchant, soldier, and politician from Pennsylvania, who is regarded as a Founding Father of the United States for his roles during and after the American Revolution. Mifflin was ...
. Washington organized the Continental Army into three divisions, each consisting of
regiment A regiment is a military unit. Its role and size varies markedly, depending on the country, military service, service and/or a administrative corps, specialisation. In Middle Ages, Medieval Europe, the term "regiment" denoted any large bod ...
s from different colonies, and Greene was given command of a
brigade A brigade is a major tactical military unit, military formation that typically comprises three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Two or more brigades may constitute ...
consisting of seven regiments. The Siege of Boston continued until March 1776, when British forces evacuated from the city. After the end of the siege, Greene briefly served as the commander of military forces in Boston, but he rejoined Washington's army in April 1776.


New York and New Jersey Campaign

Washington established his headquarters in
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City, is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five Boroughs of New York City, boroughs of New York City. The borough is also coextensive with New York County, one of the List of co ...
, and Greene was tasked with preparing for the invasion of nearby
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, part of the New York metropolitan area. With over 8 million people, Long Island is the most populous island in the United Sta ...
. While he focused on building up fortifications in
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Kings County is the most populous Administrative divisions of New York (state)#County, county i ...
, Greene befriended General
Henry Knox Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806), a Founding Father of the United States, was a senior general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War, serving as chief of artillery in most of Washington' ...
and struck up a correspondence with
John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Befor ...
. He was also, along with several other individuals, promoted to
major general Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of ...
by an act of Congress. Because of a severe
fever Fever, also referred to as pyrexia, is defined as having a temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses quantitatively the perceptions of hotness and coldness. Temperature is measurement, measured with a thermometer. Th ...
, he did not take part in the
Battle of Long Island The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, was an action of the American Revolutionary War fought on August 27, 1776, at the western edge of Long Island in present-day Brooklyn, New Yor ...
, which ended with an American retreat from Long Island. After the battle, Greene urged Washington to raze Manhattan so that it would not fall into the hands of the British, but Congress forbade Washington from doing so. Unable to raze Manhattan, Washington initially wanted to fortify the city, but Greene joined with several officers in convincing Washington that the city was indefensible. During the withdrawal from Manhattan, Greene saw combat for the first time in the
Battle of Harlem Heights The Battle of Harlem Heights was fought during the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War. The action took place on September 16, 1776, in what is now the Morningside Heights, Manhattan, Morningside Heights area and e ...
, a minor British defeat that nonetheless represented one of the first American victories in the war. After the Battle of Harlem Heights, Washington placed Greene in command of both
Fort Constitution Fort William and Mary was a colonial fortification in Kingdom of Great Britain, Britain's worldwide system of defenses, defended by soldiers of the Province of New Hampshire who reported directly to the List of colonial governors of New Hampshire, ...
(later known as Fort Lee), which was on
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
side of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the New York Harb ...
, and Fort Washington, which was across the river from Fort Constitution. While in command of Fort Lee, Greene established supply depots in New Jersey along a potential line of retreat; these would later prove to be valuable resources for the Continental Army. Washington suggested to Greene that he remove the garrison from Fort Washington due to its vulnerability to a British attack, but he ultimately deferred to Greene's decision to continue to station soldiers there. In the subsequent
Battle of Fort Washington The Battle of Fort Washington was fought in New York on November 16, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War between the United States and Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain. It was a British victory that gained the surrender of the re ...
, fought in November 1776, the British captured the Fort Washington and its 3,000-man garrison. Greene was subjected to heavy criticism in the aftermath of the battle, but Washington declined to relieve Greene from command. Shortly after the Battle of Fort Washington, a British force under General Cornwallis captured Fort Lee, and the Continental Army began a retreat across New Jersey and into
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania (; (Pennsylvania Dutch language, Pennsylvania Dutch: )), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state, state spanning the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern United States, Northeastern, Appa ...
. Greene commanded part of Washington's army in the December 1776
Battle of Trenton The Battle of Trenton was a small but pivotal American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, was a major war of the Americ ...
and the January 1777
Battle of Princeton The Battle of Princeton was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought near Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777, and ending in a small victory for the Colonials. General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Lord Cornwallis h ...
, both of which were victories for the Continental Army.


Philadelphia campaign

Along with the rest of Washington's army, Greene was stationed in New Jersey throughout the first half of 1777. In July 1777, he publicly threatened to resign over the appointment of a French officer to the Continental Army, but he ultimately retained his commission. Meanwhile, the British began a campaign to capture
Philadelphia Philadelphia, often called Philly, is the List of municipalities in Pennsylvania#Municipalities, largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the List of United States cities by population, sixth-largest city i ...
, the seat of Congress. At the Battle of the Brandywine, Greene commanded a division at the center of the American line, but the British launched a flanking maneuver. Greene's division helped prevent the envelopment of American forces and allowed for a safe retreat. The British captured Philadelphia shortly after the Battle of the Brandywine, but Washington launched a surprise attack on a British force at the October 1777
Battle of Germantown The Battle of Germantown was a major engagement in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It was fought on October 4, 1777, at Germantown, Philadelphia, Germantown, Pennsylvania, between the British Army during the American ...
. Greene's detachment arrived late to the battle, which ended in another American defeat. In December, Greene joined with the rest of Washington's army in establishing a camp at
Valley Forge Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight winter encampments for the Continental Army's main body, commanded by General officer, General George Washington, during the American Revolutionary War. In September 1777, Congress fled Philadelphi ...
, located twenty-five miles northwest of Philadelphia. Over the winter of 1777–1778, he clashed with Thomas Mifflin and other members of the Conway Cabal, a group that frequently criticized Washington and sought to install Horatio Gates as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. In March 1778, Greene reluctantly accepted the position of quartermaster general, making him responsible for procuring supplies for the Continental Army. Along with his top two assistants, Charles Pettit and John Cox, Greene reorganized his 3,000-person department, establishing supply depots in strategic places across the United States. As quartermaster general, Greene continued to attend Washington's councils-of-war, an unusual arrangement for a
staff officer A military staff or general staff (also referred to as army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, Enlisted rank, enlisted and civilian staff who serve the commanding officer, commander of a D ...
.Golway (2005), pp. 173–174 After
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
joined the war in early 1778, the British army in Philadelphia was ordered to New York. Along with
Anthony Wayne Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 – December 15, 1796) was an American soldier, officer, statesman, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his mil ...
and the
Marquis de Lafayette Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), known in the United States as Lafayette (, ), was a French aristocrat, freemasonry, freemason and military officer who fought in the Ameri ...
, Greene recommended an attack on the British force while it retreated across New Jersey to New York. Greene commanded a division in the subsequent
Battle of Monmouth The Battle of Monmouth, also known as the Battle of Monmouth Court House, was fought near Monmouth Court House in modern-day Freehold Borough, New Jersey on June 28, 1778, during the American Revolutionary War. It pitted the Continental Army, com ...
, which, after hours of fighting, ended indecisively.


Stalemate in the Northern theater, 1778–1780

In July 1778, Washington granted Greene temporary leave as quartermaster general so that he could take part in an attack on British forces stationed in his home state of Rhode Island. The offensive was designed as a combined Franco-American operation under the command of General John Sullivan and French admiral d'Estaing, but the French fleet withdrew due to bad weather conditions. Greene fought in the subsequent
Battle of Rhode Island The Battle of Rhode Island (also known as the Battle of Quaker Hill) took place on August 29, 1778. Continental Army and Militia (United States), Militia forces under the command of Major General John Sullivan (general), John Sullivan had been b ...
, an inconclusive battle that ended with a British retreat from the American position. After the battle, the American force under Sullivan left Rhode Island, while Greene returned to his duties as quartermaster general. After mid-1778, the Northern theater of the war became a stalemate, as the main British force remained in New York City and Washington's force was stationed nearby on the Hudson River. The British turned their attention to the Southern theater of the war, launching an ultimately successful expedition to capture
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland-grassland (i.e. grassy woodland) ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the Canopy (forest), canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to rea ...
. Though he desired a battlefield command, Greene continued to serve as the Continental Army's quartermaster general. As Congress was increasingly powerless to furnish funds for supplies, Greene became an advocate of a stronger national government. In June 1780, while Washington's main force continued to guard the Hudson River, Greene led a detachment to block the advance of a British contingent through New Jersey. Despite being vastly outnumbered in the Battle of Springfield, Greene forced the withdrawal of the British force on the field. Shortly after the battle, Greene resigned as quartermaster general in a letter that strongly criticized Congress; although some members of Congress were so outraged by the letter that they sought to relieve Greene of his officer's commission, Washington's intervention ensured that Greene retained a position in the Continental Army. After
Benedict Arnold Benedict Arnold (#Brandt, Brandt (1994), p. 4June 14, 1801) was an American military officer who served during the American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War. He fought with distinction for the American Continental Army and rose to the r ...
defected to the British, Greene briefly served as the commandant of
West Point The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known Metonymy, metonymically as West Point or simply as Army, is a United States service academies, United States service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a f ...
and presided over the execution of John André, Arnold's contact in the British army.


Command in the South


Appointment

By October 1780, the Continental Army had suffered several devastating defeats in the
South South is one of the cardinal directions or Points of the compass, compass points. The direction is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to both east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Pro ...
under the command of
Benjamin Lincoln Benjamin Lincoln (January 24, 1733 (Old Style and New Style dates, O.S. January 13, 1733) – May 9, 1810) was an American army officer. He served as a Major general (United States), major general in the Continental Army during the American Revo ...
and
Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (July 26, 1727April 10, 1806) was a British-born American army officer who served as a general in the Continental Army during the early years of the Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battl ...
, leaving the United States at a major disadvantage in the Southern theater of the war. On October 14, 1780, Washington, acting on the authorization of Congress, appointed Greene as the commander of the Southern Department of the Continental Army. By the time he took command, the British were in control of key portions of Georgia and
South Carolina )''Animis opibusque parati'' ( for, , Latin, Prepared in mind and resources, links=no) , anthem = "Carolina (state song), Carolina";"South Carolina On My Mind" , Former = Province of South Carolina , seat = Columbia, South Carolina, Columbia , ...
, and the governments of the Southern states were unable to provide much support to the Continental Army. Greene would face a 6,000-man British army led by General Cornwallis and cavalry commander
Banastre Tarleton Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, GCB (21 August 175415 January 1833) was a Kingdom of Great Britain, British general officer, general and politician. He is best known as the lieutenant colonel lead ...
, as well as numerous
Loyalist Loyalism, in the United Kingdom, its British Overseas Territories, overseas territories and its British Empire, former colonies, refers to the allegiance to the British crown or the United Kingdom. In North America, the most common usage of ...
militias that worked with the British. Outnumbered and under-supplied, Greene settled on a strategy of
guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which small groups of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or Irregular military, irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, Raid (military), raids ...
rather than
pitched battle A pitched battle or set-piece battle is a battle in which opposing forces each anticipate the setting of the battle, and each chooses to commit to it. Either side may have the option to disengage before the battle starts or shortly thereafter. A ...
s in order to prevent the advance of the British into
North Carolina North Carolina () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. The state is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 28th largest and List of states and territories of the United ...
and
Virginia Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States, between the East Coast of the United Stat ...
. His strategy would heavily depend on riverboats and cavalry to outmaneuver and harass British forces. Among Greene's key subordinates in the Southern campaign were his second-in-command,
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von Steuben (born Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin Louis von Steuben; September 17, 1730 – November 28, 1794), also referred to as Baron von Steuben (), was a Kingdom of Prussia, Prussian mi ...
, cavalry commander Henry Lee, the Marquis de Lafayette,
Daniel Morgan Daniel Morgan (1735–1736July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and politician from Virginia. One of the most respected battlefield tacticians of the American Revolutionary War of 1775–1783, he later commanded troops during the sup ...
, and
Francis Marion Brigadier-General Francis Marion ( 1732 – February 27, 1795), also known as the Swamp Fox, was an American military officer, planter and politician who served during the French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–17 ...
.


Strategic retreat

While en route to the Southern theater, Greene learned of the American victory at October 1780
Battle of Kings Mountain The Battle of Kings Mountain was a military engagement between Patriot (American Revolution), Patriot and Loyalist (American Revolution), Loyalist militias in South Carolina during the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War, Southern ...
, which postponed Cornwallis's planned advance into North Carolina. Upon arriving in
Charlotte, North Carolina Charlotte ( ) is the List of municipalities in North Carolina, most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont (United States), Piedmont region, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, Meckl ...
, in December 1780, Greene went against conventional military strategy by dividing his forces; he would lead the main American force southeast, while Morgan would lead a smaller detachment to the southwest. Cornwallis responded by dividing his own forces, marching the main detachment against Greene while Tarleton led a force against Morgan. In the January 1781
Battle of Cowpens The Battle of Cowpens was an engagement during the American Revolutionary War fought on January 17, 1781 near the town of Cowpens, South Carolina, between U.S. forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan and Kingdom of Great Britain, British for ...
, Morgan led Continental troops to a major victory that resulted in the near-total destruction of Tarleton's force. After the battle, Cornwallis set off in pursuit of Morgan, burning some of his own supplies in order to speed up his army's movement. Greene linked up with Morgan and retreated into North Carolina, purposely forcing Cornwallis away from British supply lines. On February 9, in consultation with Morgan and other top officers, Greene decided to continue the retreat north, heading toward the Dan River at the North Carolina-Virginia border. With the British in close pursuit, Greene divided his forces, leading the main contingent north while sending a smaller group under Colonel Otho Williams to harass British forces. Greene's force outpaced the British and crossed the Dan River on February 14. Greene's contemporaries were impressed by the speed and efficiency of the retreat through difficult territory;
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American military officer, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first United States secretary of the treasury from 1789 to ...
wrote that it was a "masterpiece of military skill and exertion." Unwilling to travel even farther from his supply lines, General Cornwallis led his army south to
Hillsborough, North Carolina The town of Hillsborough is the county seat of Orange County, North Carolina, United States and is located along the Eno River. The population was 6,087 in 2010, but it grew rapidly to 9,660 by 2020. Its name was unofficially shortened to "Hillsb ...
. On February 22, Greene's force crossed back over the Dan River to challenge Cornwallis in North Carolina.


Battle of Guilford Court House

After crossing back into North Carolina, Greene harassed Cornwallis's army. In early March, he received reinforcements from North Carolina and Virginia, doubling the size of his force to approximately 4,000 men. On March 14, he led his army to Guilford Courthouse and began preparing for an attack by Cornwallis, using a strategy based on Morgan's plan at the Battle of Cowpens. Greene established three defensive lines, with the North Carolina militia making up the first line, the Virginia militia making up the second line, and the Continental Army regulars, positioned on a hill behind a small stream, making up the third line. After skirmishes on the morning of the March 15, the main British force launched a full attack in the afternoon, beginning the
Battle of Guilford Court House The Battle of Guilford Court House was on March 15, 1781, during the American Revolutionary War, at a site that is now in Greensboro, North Carolina, Greensboro, the seat of Guilford County, North Carolina. A 2,100-man British force under the co ...
. The first American line fired volleys and then fled, either to the next line or away from the battlefield. The second line held up for longer, and continued to resist the British advance while Cornwallis ordered an unsuccessful assault against the third line. The British re-formed and launched an assault on the left flank of the third line, but were overwhelmed by Henry Lee's cavalry. In response, Cornwallis ordered his artillery to fire
grapeshot Grapeshot is a type of artillery round invented by a British Officer during the Napoleonic Wars. It was used mainly as an anti infantry round, but had other uses in naval combat. In artillery, a grapeshot is a type of ammunition that consists of ...
into the fray, hitting British and American soldiers alike. With his army's left flank collapsing, Greene ordered a retreat, bringing the battle to an end. Although the Battle of Guilford Court House ended with an American defeat, the British suffered substantially greater losses.


Campaign in South Carolina and Georgia

After the Battle of Guilford Court House, Cornwallis's force headed south to
Wilmington, North Carolina Wilmington is a port city in and the county seat of New Hanover County, North Carolina, New Hanover County in coastal southeastern North Carolina, United States. With a population of 115,451 at the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, it is t ...
. Greene initially gave chase, but declined to press to launch an attack after much of the militia returned home. To Greene's surprise, in late April Cornwallis's force began a march north to
Yorktown, Virginia Yorktown is a census-designated place (CDP) in York County, Virginia, York County, Virginia. It is the county seat of York County, one of the eight original shires formed in Colony of Virginia, colonial Virginia in 1682. Yorktown's population was ...
. Rather than follow Cornwallis, Greene headed South, where he challenged British commander
Francis Rawdon Francis Edward Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, (9 December 175428 November 1826), styled The Honourable Francis Rawdon from birth until 1762, Lord Rawdon between 1762 and 1783, The Lord Rawdon from 1783 to 1793 and The Earl of Moira b ...
for control of South Carolina and Georgia. On April 20, he began a siege of
Camden, South Carolina Camden is the largest city and county seat of Kershaw County, South Carolina, Kershaw County, South Carolina. The population was 7,764 in the 2020 United States census, 2020 census. It is part of the Columbia, South Carolina, Columbia, South Caro ...
, and established a camp at a nearby ridge known as Hobkirk's Hill. On the 25th, Rawdon launched a surprise attack on Greene's position, beginning the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill. Despite having been taken by surprise, Greene's force nearly achieved victory, but the left flank collapsed and the cavalry failed to arrive. Facing total defeat, Greene ordered a retreat, bringing an end to the battle. Although the American and British forces suffered a similar number of losses in the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, Greene was deeply disappointed by the result of the battle. On May 10, Rawdon's force left Camden for
Charleston, South Carolina Charleston is the largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, South Carolina, Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston metropolitan area, South Carolina, Charleston–North Charle ...
, effectively conceding control of much of interior South Carolina to the Continental Army. In a series of small actions known as the "war of the posts," Greene and his subordinates further eroded British control of interior South Carolina by capturing several British forts. On June 18, after undertaking the month-long Siege of Ninety-Six, Greene launched an unsuccessful attack on the British fort at Ninety Six, South Carolina. Although the assault failed, Rawdon ordered the fort abandoned shortly thereafter. Meanwhile, Greene's subordinates further expanded Continental control, capturing
Augusta, Georgia Augusta ( ), officially Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. The city lies across the Savannah River from South Carolina at the head of its navig ...
, on June 5. By the end of June, the British controlled little more than a thin strip of coastal land from Charleston to Savannah. After resting through much of July and August, the Continental Army resumed operations and engaged a British force on September 8 at the
Battle of Eutaw Springs The Battle of Eutaw Springs was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, and was the last major engagement of the war in the Carolinas. Both sides claimed victory. Background In early 1781, Major General Nathanael Greene, commander of the ...
. The battle ended with a Continental retreat, but the British suffered more substantial losses. After the battle, the British force returned to Charleston, leaving interior South Carolina in full control of Continental forces. Congress issued Greene a gold medal and passed a resolution congratulating him for his victory at Eutaw Springs. While Greene campaigned in South Carolina and Georgia, Lafayette led Continental resistance to Cornwallis's army in Virginia. Although Greene's command gave him leadership of Continental operations in Virginia, he was unable to closely control events in Virginia from South Carolina. Lafayette heeded Greene's advice to avoid combat, but his force only narrowly escaped destruction at the July 1781
Battle of Green Spring The Battle of Green Spring took place near Green Spring Plantation in James City County, Virginia during the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary ...
. In August, Washington and French general Rochambeau left New York for Yorktown, intent on inflicting a decisive defeat against Cornwallis. Washington laid siege to Cornwallis at Yorktown, and Cornwallis surrendered on October 19.


After Yorktown

Yorktown was widely regarded as a disastrous defeat for the British, and many considered the war to have effectively ended in late 1781. The governments of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia each voted Greene liberal grants of lands and money, including an estate called "Boone's Barony" in
Bamberg County, South Carolina Bamberg County is a county A county is a geographic region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is ...
, and
Mulberry Grove Plantation Mulberry Grove Plantation, located north of Port Wentworth, Chatham County, Georgia, Chatham County, Savannah, GA, Savannah, was a rice Plantations in the American South, plantation, notable as the location where Eli Whitney invented the cotton ...
near Savannah. Nonetheless, the British still controlled New York, Savannah, and Charleston, and Greene still contended with Loyalist militias who sought to destabilize Continental control. With American finances in a disastrous state, Greene also struggled to clothe and feed his troops. In late 1781, he declined appointment to the newly created position of
secretary of war The secretary of war was a member of the President of the United States, U.S. president's United States Cabinet, Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's Presidency of George Washington, administration. A similar position, called either "Se ...
, which was charged with overseeing the Continental Army. He also corresponded with Robert Morris, the
superintendent of finance of the United States Superintendent of Finance of the United States was the head of Department of Finance, which is an executive office during the Confederation period with power similar to a finance ministry. The only person to hold the office was Robert Morris (finan ...
, who shared Greene's view on the need for a stronger national government than the one that had been established in the
Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 Colonies of the United States, United States of America that served as its first Constitution, frame of government. It was approved after much debate (between July ...
. No major military action occurred in 1782, and the British evacuated Savannah and Charleston before the end of that year. Congress officially declared the end of the war in April 1783, and Greene resigned his commission in late 1783.


Later life and death

After resigning his commission, Greene returned to Newport. Facing a large amount of debt, he relocated to the South to focus on the
slave plantation A slave plantation was an agricultural farm that used enslaved people for labour. The practice was abolished in most places during the 19th century. Slavery Planter class, Planters embraced the use of Slavery, slaves mainly because Indentured ...
s he had been awarded during the war, and he made his home at the Mulberry Grove Plantation outside of Savannah. In 1784, Greene declined appointment to a commission tasked with negotiating treaties with Native Americans, but he agreed to attend the first meeting of the
Society of the Cincinnati The Society of the Cincinnati is a lineage society, fraternal, hereditary society founded in 1783 to commemorate the American Revolutionary War that saw the creation of the United States. Membership is largely restricted to descendants of mili ...
. He then became an original member with the Rhode Island
Society of the Cincinnati The Society of the Cincinnati is a lineage society, fraternal, hereditary society founded in 1783 to commemorate the American Revolutionary War that saw the creation of the United States. Membership is largely restricted to descendants of mili ...
. Greene fell ill on June 12, 1786, and he died at Mulberry Grove on June 19, 1786, at the age of 43. The official cause of death was sunstroke. For over a century, his remains were interred at the Graham Vault in Colonial Park Cemetery in Savannah, alongside John Maitland, his arch-rival in the conflict. On November 14, 1902, through the efforts of Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati President Asa Bird Gardiner, his remains were moved to a monument in Johnson Square in Savannah. Greene Square, about a third of a mile southeast of Johnson Square, was named for him upon its
plat In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, s ...
ting in 1799.SavannahBest.com's ‘’Squares of Savannah’‘
accessed June 16, 2007
As noted above, Greene was in debt. In 1782 and 1783, Greene had difficulty supplying his troops in Charleston with clothing and provisions. He contracted with Banks & Co to furnish supplies, but was compelled to put his name to the bond for the supplies. An order was given by Greene to Robert Morris for payment of the amount; this was paid by the Government of the United States to the contractor, who did not use it to pay the debt and left the bond unpaid. Greene paid the debt himself, and in 1791 his executrix petitioned Congress for relief. Greene had obtained some security from a partner of Banks & Co named Ferrie on a mortgage or lien on a tract of land, but the land was liable to a prior mortgage of £1,000 sterling to an Englishman named Murray. In 1788, the mortgagor in England filed a bill to foreclose on the mortgage, while Greene's family instituted proceedings against Ferrie, who was entitled to a reversionary interest in the land. The court ordered the land be sold and the sale proceeds to be first used to extinguish the mortgage, with the balance to go to representatives of General Greene. The land was sold, and after the £1,000 mortgage had been paid off, the residue of £2,400 was to go Greene's representatives. However, the purchaser never took title and never paid the money, on the grounds that the title was in dispute. In 1792 a Relief Act was passed by Congress for General Greene which was based upon the decree of the land sale; the sum of which he was entitled to (£2,400) was exempted out of the indemnity allowed him at that time, not one cent of which his heirs received except $2,000. In 1830, the administrators of Murray filed a bill of Chancery against the land; however, his agent who had bought the land had not taken title to it, on the grounds that there was a dispute about the land. The claim to the title was not resolved and the money never paid. Meanwhile, from 1789 to 1840, the plantation had gone to ruin; under the original decree, the land, instead of bringing the sum it had first bought, was sold for only $13,000. This left Greene's representatives only about $2,000 instead of £2,400. In 1840, they applied to Congress for the difference between the two sums. In 1854, the case was put to Congress for the relief of Phineas Nightingale, who was the administrator of the deceased General Greene.


Legacy


Historical reputation

Defense analyst Robert Killebrew writes that Greene was "regarded by peers and historians as the second-best American general" in the Revolutionary War, after Washington. The historian
Russell Weigley Russell Frank Weigley ''(WY-glee)'' (July 2, 1930 – March 3, 2004) was the Distinguished University Professor of History at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and a noted military historian. His research and teaching interests c ...
believed that "Greene's outstanding characteristic as a strategist was his ability to weave the maraudings of partisan raiders into a coherent pattern, coordinating them with the maneuvers of a field army otherwise too weak to accomplish much, and making the combination a deadly one.... eremains alone as an American master developing a strategy of unconventional war." Historian Curtis F. Morgan Jr. describes Greene as Washington's "most trusted military subordinate." According to Golway, "on at least two occasions, fellow officers and politicians described Greene... as the man Washington had designated to succeed him if he were killed or captured." He was also respected by his opponents; Cornwallis wrote that Greene was "as dangerous as Washington. He is vigilant, enterprising, and full of resources–there is but little hope of gaining an advantage over him." Alexander Hamilton wrote that Greene's death deprived the country of a "universal and pervading genius which qualified him not less for the
Senate A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house An upper house is one of two Debate chamber, chambers of a bicameralism, bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house.''Bicameralism'' (1997) by George Tseb ...
than for the field." Killebrew argues that Greene was the "most underrated general" in American history.


Memorials

His statue, along with that of
Roger Williams Roger Williams (21 September 1603between 27 January and 15 March 1683) was an English-born New England Puritan minister, theologian, and author who founded Providence Plantations, which became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation ...
, represents the state of Rhode Island in the
National Statuary Hall Collection The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is composed of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. Limited to two statues per state, the collection was originally set up in the old ...
in the
United States Capitol The United States Capitol, often called The Capitol or the Capitol Building, is the Seat of government, seat of the Legislature, legislative branch of the Federal government of the United States, United States federal government, which is form ...
.
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk shaped building within the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate Geor ...
, also hosts a bronze equestrian statue of Greene in Stanton Park. A large oil portrait of Nathanael Greene hangs in the State Room in the Rhode Island State House, and a statue stands outside the building's south facade. A
cenotaph A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenot ...
to him stands in the Old Forge Burial Ground in Warwick. Greene is also memorialized by statues in or near Philadelphia,
Valley Forge National Historical Park Valley Forge National Historical Park is the site of the third winter encampment of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, taking place from December 19, 1777, to June 19, 1778. The National Park Service preserves the site a ...
, Greensboro, North Carolina,
Greensburg, Pennsylvania Greensburg is a city in and the county seat of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States, and a part of the Pittsburgh Metro Area. The city lies within the Laurel Highlands and the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau (ecoregion), W ...
, and Greenville, South Carolina. The Nathanael Greene Monument in Savannah, Georgia, serves as his burial place. Numerous places and things have been named after Greene across in the United States. Fourteen counties are named for Greene, the most populous of which is Greene County, Missouri. Municipalities named for Greene include
Greensboro, North Carolina Greensboro (; formerly Greensborough) is a city in and the county seat of Guilford County, North Carolina, United States. It is the List of municipalities in North Carolina, third-most populous city in North Carolina after Charlotte, North Car ...
; Greensboro, Georgia;
Greensburg, Pennsylvania Greensburg is a city in and the county seat of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States, and a part of the Pittsburgh Metro Area. The city lies within the Laurel Highlands and the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau (ecoregion), W ...
;
Greenville, North Carolina Greenville is the county seat of and the most populous city in Pitt County, North Carolina, Pitt County, North Carolina, United States; the principal city of the Greenville, North Carolina metropolitan area, Greenville metropolitan area; and th ...
;
Greenville, South Carolina Greenville (; locally ) is a city in and the county seat, seat of Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. With a population of 70,720 at the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, it is the sixth-largest city in the state. Greenvil ...
, and
Greeneville, Tennessee Greeneville is a town in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or parish (administrative division), civil parish. The term is in use in Canada, China, Hungary, Romania, ...
. Other things named for Greene include the Green River in Kentucky, Fort Greene Park in
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Kings County is the most populous Administrative divisions of New York (state)#County, county i ...
, and several schools. Several ships have been named for Greene, including the , the , the USS ''Nathanael Greene'', and the USAV ''MGen Nathanael Greene''. The Nathanael Greene Homestead in
Coventry, Rhode Island Coventry is a town A town is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a minuscule numbe ...
, features Spell Hall, which was General Greene's home, built in 1774. Greene commissioned cabinetmaker Thomas Spencer to build a desk and bookcase, likely to be put in this new home. The desk and bookcase is now at the
High Museum of Art The High Museum of Art (colloquially the High) is the largest museum for visual art in the Southeastern United States. Located in Atlanta, Georgia (on Peachtree Street in Midtown, the city's arts district), the High is 312,000 square feet (28 ...
in
Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta ( ) is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. It is the county seat, seat of Fulton County, Georgia, Fulton County, the mos ...
. It was built in
East Greenwich, Rhode Island East Greenwich is a New England town, town and the county seat of Kent County, Rhode Island, Kent County, Rhode Island. The population was 14,312 at the 2020 United States census, 2020 census. East Greenwich is the wealthiest municipality within t ...
, in the Chippendale Style. An inscription is written in graphite on an interior drawer that says that the desk originally belonged to Nathanael Greene.


See also

* Quakers in the American Revolution * List of places named for Nathanael Greene


Notes


References


Bibliography


Secondary sources

* * * * * * Greene, Francis Vinton, "Life of Nathanael Greene, Major-General in the Army of the Revolution". (New York, 1893), in the ''Great Commanders Series'' * Greene, George W. ''The Life of Nathanael Greene, Major-General in the Army of the Revolution''. 3 vols. New York: Putnam, 1867–1871. Reprinted Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1972. . * * * Johnson, William, "Sketches of the Life and Correspondence of Nathanael Greene", (1822) * * * * * * * * * Ward, Christopher. ''War of the Revolution'' 2 Volumes. New York 1952


Primary sources

* ''The Papers of General Nathanael Greene''.
University of North Carolina Press The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina. It was the first university press founded in the Southern United States. It is a member of the Asso ...
: ** Vol. I: December 1766 to December 1776. . ** Vol. II: January 1777 to October 16, 1778. ** Vol. III: October 18, 1778, to May 10, 1779. . ** Vol. IV: May 11 to October 31, 1779. . ** Vol. V: November 1, 1779, to May 31, 1780. . ** Vol. VI: June 1 to December 25, 1780. . ** Vol. VII: December 26, 1780, to March 29, 1781. . ** Vol. VIII: March 30 to July 10, 1781. . ** Vol. IX: July 11 to December 2, 1781. . ** Vol. X: December 3, 1781, to April 6, 1782. . ** Vol. XI: April 7 to September 30, 1782. . ** Vol. XII: 1 October 1782 to May 21, 1783. . ** Vol. XIII: May 22, 1783, to June 13, 1786. .


External links


American Revolution Institute



A letter from Nathanael Greene
with his acceptance of command over the Southern Army from the Journals of the Continental Congress
Historic Valley Forge biography

American Revolution homepage



“Eulogium on Major-General Greene” (1789) by Alexander Hamilton

Gen Nathl Greene descendants, as listed in a family tree on RootsWeb''Sketches of the Life and Correspondence of Nathanael Greene''
1822, by William Johnson
Nathanael Greene Monument
historical marker
Nathanael Greene, Maj. Gen. Continental Army
historical marker
Society of the Cincinnati
{{DEFAULTSORT:Greene, Nathanael 1742 births 1786 deaths American Quakers American people of English descent Burials in Georgia (U.S. state) Continental Army generals Continental Army officers from Rhode Island People from Kent County, Rhode Island Foundrymen Greene County, Georgia Members of the Rhode Island General Assembly People from Savannah, Georgia Congressional Gold Medal recipients Greene County, Ohio Accidental deaths in Georgia (U.S. state) People from Coventry, Rhode Island Quartermasters General of the United States Army Militia generals in the American Revolution People of colonial Rhode Island 18th-century American politicians Greene family of Rhode Island American slave owners Quaker slave owners