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Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nāsir Khusraw Qubādiyānī Balkhi [also spelled as Nasir Khusrow and Naser Khosrow] (1004 – 1088 CE) (Persian: ناصر خسرو قبادیانی‎) was a Persian poet,[2] philosopher, Isma'ili scholar,[3][4] traveler and one of the greatest writers in Persian literature. He was born in Qabodiyon, (Qabādiyān), a village in Bactria
Bactria
in the ancient Greater Iranian province of Khorasan,[5][6] now in modern Tajikistan[7] and died in Yamagan, now Afghanistan. He is considered one of the great poets and writers in Persian literature. The Safarnama, an account of his travels, is his most famous work and remains required reading in Iran
Iran
even today.[8]

Contents

1 Life 2 Works 3 Poetry 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Life[edit] Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
was born in 1004 AD, in Qabodiyon.[8] He was well versed in the branches of the natural sciences, medicine, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, Greek philosophy, and the writings of al-Kindi, al-Farabi and Ibn Sina; and in the interpretation of the Qur'an. He also studied Arabic, Turkish, Greek, the vernacular languages of India
India
and Sindh, and perhaps even Hebrew; and had visited Multan
Multan
and Lahore, and the splendid Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
court under Sultan Mahmud, Firdousi's patron. He later chose Merv
Merv
for his residence, and was the owner of a house and garden there.[9] Until A.H. 437 (1046 AD), he worked as a financial secretary and revenue collector for the Seljuk sultan Toghrul Beg, or rather for his brother Jaghir Beg, the emir of Khorasan, who had conquered Merv
Merv
in 1037. At around this time, inspired by a heavenly voice in a dream, he abjured all the luxuries of his life, and resolved upon a pilgrimage to the holy shrines of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, hoping to find there the solution to his spiritual crisis.[9] The graphic description of this journey is contained in the Safarnama, which still possesses special value among books of travel, as it contains the most authentic account of the state of the Muslim world in the middle of the 11th century. The minute sketches of Jerusalem and its environs are even today of practical value.[9] During the seven years of his 19,000-kilometre journey (1046–1052), Nasir visited Mecca
Mecca
four times, and performed all the rites and observances of a zealous pilgrim; but he was far more attracted by Cairo, the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Fatimid caliph-imam Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah, the Imam of the Ismaili
Ismaili
Shi'a Muslims, which was just then waging a deadly war against the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad, and Toghrul Beg
Toghrul Beg
the Seljuk, the great defender of the Sunni creed. At the very time of Nasir's visit to Cairo, the power of the Egyptian Fatimids
Fatimids
was in its zenith; Syria, the Hejaz, Africa, and Sicily
Sicily
obeyed al-Mustanir's sway, and the utmost order, security and prosperity reigned in Egypt.[9] At Cairo, he learned mainly under the Fatimid
Fatimid
dā‘ī ("missionary") Mu'ayyad fid-Din al-Shirazi, and became thoroughly imbued with the Shi'a
Shi'a
Isma'ili
Isma'ili
doctrines of the Fatimids, and their introduction into his native country was henceforth the sole object of his life. He was raised to the position of dā‘ī "missionary" and appointed as the Hujjat-i Khorasan, though the hostility he encountered in the propagation of these new religious ideas after his return to Greater Khorasan in 1052 A.D. and Sunnite fanaticism compelled him at last to flee. After wandering from place to place, he found refuge in Yamgan (about 1060 A.D.) in the mountains of Badakhshan, where he spent as a hermit the last decades of his life, gathering a considerable number of devoted adherents, who have handed down his doctrines to succeeding generations.[9] He died in Yamagan in present-day northern Afghanistan.[8] Works[edit]

Safar Nāma-i Nāsir Khusraw.

Safarnama
Safarnama
(Persian: سفرنامه‎)

Safarnama
Safarnama
(The Book of Travels) is his most famous work. He visited dozens of cities in about seven years (1046, March 6 – 1052, October 23) and wrote comprehensively about them, including details about colleges, caravanserais, mosques, scientists, kings, the public, the population, the area of the cities, and, of course, his interesting memories. After 1000 years, his Safarnama
Safarnama
is still readable for Persian-speaking people.

Diwan (Persian: دیوان‎)

Among his other works, most of the lyrical poems in his Diwan were composed in his retirement, and their chief topics are an enthusiastic praise of Ali, his descendants, and al-Mustansir in particular, along with passionate outcries against Khorasan and its rulers, who had driven him from his home. It also explores his immense satisfaction with the quiet solitude of Yumgan, and his utter despondency again in seeing himself despised by his former associates and excluded from participation in the glorious contest of life. Scattered through all these alternating outbursts of hope and despair, there are lessons of morality, and solemn warnings against the tricks and perfidy of the world, the vanity of all earthly splendour and greatness, the folly and injustice of men, and the hypocrisy, frivolity and viciousness of fashionable society and princely courts in particular.[9]

Gushayish va Rahayish (Persian: گشایش و رهایش‎)

Another work of Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
is the Persian philosophical work "Gushayis va Rahayish" which has been translated into English by F.M. Hunzai under the title: "Knowledge and Liberation". The work discusses creation, questions related to the soul, epistemology, creation, and Ismaili
Ismaili
Islamic doctorines. From a linguistic point of view, the work is an example of early philosophical writing in new Persian. It is the same strain which runs, although in a somewhat lower key, through his two larger mathnavis, the Rawshana-i-nama (Persian: روشنایی نامه‎) (or Book of Enlightenment, also known as Shish Fasl), and the Sa'datnama (Book of Felicity). The former is divided into two sections: the first, of a metaphysical character, contains a sort of practical cosmography, chiefly based on Avicenna's theories, but frequently intermixed both with the freer speculations of the well-known philosophical brotherhood of Basra, the Ikhwan al-Safa, and purely Shi'ite or Isma'ili
Isma'ili
ideas; the second, or ethical section of the poem, abounds in moral maxims and ingenious thoughts on man's good and bad qualities, on the necessity of shunning the company of fools and double-faced friends, on the deceptive allurements of the world and the secret snares of ambitious men craving for rank and wealth. It concludes with an imaginary vision of a beautiful work of spirits who have stripped off the fetters of earthly cares and sorrows and revel in the pure light of divine wisdom and love.[9] If we compare this with a similar allegory in Nasir's Diwan, which culminates in the praise of Mustansir, we are fairly entitled to look upon it as a covert allusion to the eminent men who revealed to the poet in Cairo
Cairo
the secrets of the Isma'ili
Isma'ili
faith, and showed him what he considered the heavenly ladder to superior knowledge and spiritual bliss.[9] A similar series of excellent teachings on practical wisdom and the blessings of a virtuous life, only of a more severe and uncompromising character, is contained in the Sa'datnama; and, judging from the extreme bitterness of tone manifested in the reproaches of kings and emirs, we should be inclined to consider it a protest against the vile aspersions poured out upon Nasir's moral and religious attitude during those persecutions which drove him at last to Yumgan.[9] Of all other works of the author, the Zaad al-Musafirin (or Travelling Provisions of Pilgrims) and the Wajh-i-Din (or The Face of Religion) are theoretical descriptions of his religious and philosophical principles; the rest of them can be dismissed as being probably just as apocryphal as Nasir's famous autobiography (found in several Persian tadhkiras or biographies of poets), a mere forgery of the most extravagant description, which is mainly responsible for the confusion in names and dates in older accounts of our author.[9]

Book on Mathematics
Mathematics
(Arabic: عجایب الحساب و عرایب الحساب‎)

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
wrote a book on mathematics which has now been lost. He states in his other work that he could: not find one single scholar throughout all of Khorasan and eastern lands like myself [who] could grapple with the solutions to these problems. But he felt it his responsibility to take the task for readers he would never see, 'those yet to come, in a time yet to come' Poetry[edit] Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
loved the Persian language
Persian language
and hated poets like 'Unsuri who, rather than give a realistic portrayal of Mahmud of Ghazna, found ways to extol his deeds. The following poem speaks to this aspect of Khusraw's poetry.

Reproach Not the Firmament! By Nasir-i Khusrau Translated by Iraj Bashiri Copyright, Iraj Bashiri, 2004

Reproach not the Firmament deep and blue, Forget thy stubborn nature to reveal a clue.

Neither expect from the Firmament any joy, When your own star you knowingly destroy.

Fruitless trees are, at best, fuel for fire, Fruitless men, alike, to oblivion retire.

Forget about fragrant tresses and lips sweet, About hedges, and tulip cheeks to greet.

Lavish not praise on a filthy creature, With dastardly deeds as its only feature.

Adore not with verse the Lie or the Greed, Smite down the infidels’ most cherished creed.

Be not Unsuri, who groveling worshiped Mahmud, Lavished on him all flattery and paean he could.

I pledge never to sprinkle before the swine, These precious, peerless Dari pearls of mine.[10]

The poetry of Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
is replete with advice and wisdom. Being the representative of the Fatimid
Fatimid
Imams in Khorasan, Nasir guided his followers through his poetry. His Persian poetry is enjoyed by the average Persian speaker of today and is taught in grade school. Some of the fables mentioned in his poems were eventually to find their way to the West. Among them is the story of The Gourd and the Palm-tree:

Have you heard? A squash vine grew beneath a towering tree. In only twenty days it grew and spread and put forth fruit. Of the tree it asked: "How old are you? How many years?" Replied the tree: "Two hundred it would be, and surely more." The squash laughed and said: "Look, in twenty days, I've done More than you; tell me, why are you so slow?" The tree responded: "O little Squash, today is not the day of reckoning between the two of us. "Tomorrow, when winds of autumn howl down on you and me, then shall it be known for sure which one of us is the most resilient!" نشنیده‌ای که زیر چناری کدو بنی بر رست و بردوید برو بر به روز بیست؟ پرسید از آن چنار که تو چند ساله‌ای؟ --- گفتا دویست باشد و اکنون زیادتی است خندید ازو کدو که من از تو به بیست روز --- بر تر شدم بگو تو که این کاهلی ز چیست او را چنار گفت که امروز ای کدو --- با تو مرا هنوز نه هنگام داوری است فردا که بر من و تو وزد باد مهرگان --- آنگه شود پدید که از ما دو مرد کیست

Nasir and Shiat-ul-Ali

See also[edit]

Poetry
Poetry
portal

List of Persian poets and authors Persian literature

Notes[edit]

^ Balcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî (1940). Hilmi Ziya Ülken, ed. Türk tarihinde mezhep cereyanları (in Turkish). İstanbul: Kanaat Yayınları, Ahmed Sait tab'ı. p. 136.  Chapter on Mısır Fâtımîleri ve Aleviler'in Pamir Teşkilâtı. ^ Nasir-i Khusraw, Azim Nanji, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and CH. PELLAT, (Brill, 1991), 1006. ^ G.E. Tetley (27 October 2008). The Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid
and Seljuk Turks: Poetry
Poetry
as a Source for Iranian History. Routledge. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-1-134-08439-5.  ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/badaksan ^ "Nasir Khusraw". Internet Encyclopædia of Philosophy. 2005.  ^ "Nāṣir-i Khusraw - born 1004, Qubādiyān, Merv, Khorāsān [Iran]—died c. 1072, /77, Yumgān, Badakshān, Central Asia [now in Afghanistan]), poet, theologian, and religious propagandist, one of the greatest writers in Persian literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2011.  ^ "Balkh, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
- Geographical Names, map, geographic coordinates". geographic.org.  ^ a b c Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.237. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615. ^ a b c d e f g h i j  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ethé, Karl Hermann (1911). "Nāsir Khosrau". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 248.  ^ "A Brief Note on the Life of Nasir Khusrau". angelfire.com. 

References[edit]

E. G. Browne
E. G. Browne
(1998). Literary History of Persia. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X.  Jan Rypka (1899). History of Iranian Literature. Springer. ISBN 90-277-0143-1. 

Further reading[edit]

Alice C. Hunsberger (2003). Nasir Khusraw, the Ruby of Badakhshan: A Portrait of the Persian Poet, Traveller and Philosopher. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-926-5.  Annemarie Schimmel
Annemarie Schimmel
(2001). Make A Shield From Wisdom: Selected Verses from Nasir-i Khusraw's Divan. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-725-1. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nasir Khusraw.

Nasir-I-Khusrau (1881). Charles Schefer, ed. Sefer nameh; relation du voyage de Nassiri Khosrau en Syrie, en Palestine, en Égypte, en Arabie et en Perse, pendant les années de l'Hégire 437-444 (1035-1042) (in French). Paris: E. Leroux.  Nasir-I-Khusrau; et al. (1897). Vol IV. A journey through Syria
Syria
and Palestine (1047 CE.). The pilgrimage of Saewolf to Jerusalem. The pilgrimage of the Russian abbot Daniel. London: Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society.  Nasir Khusraw's works in original Persian at Ganjoor Persian Library Naser Khosrow in jazirehdanesh(persian) Millenary Celebrations of Nasir Khusraw Sayyidna Nasir Khusraw Nasir Khusraw: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow Nasir Khusraw: The Ruby of Badakhshan Nasir Khusraw: Fatimid
Fatimid
Intellectual Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
(Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Travelogue of Nasir Khusraw [1]

v t e

Persian literature

Old

Behistun Inscription Old Persian inscriptions Ganjnameh Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island

Middle

Ayadgar-i Zariran Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan Dēnkard Book of Jamasp Book of Arda Viraf Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan Cube of Zoroaster Dana-i Menog Khrat Shabuhragan
Shabuhragan
of Mani Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr Bundahishn Menog-i Khrad Jamasp Namag Dadestan-i Denig Anthology of Zadspram Warshtmansr Zand-i Wahman yasn Drakht-i Asurig Shikand-gumanig Vizar

Classical

900s

Rudaki Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(Shahnameh) Abu Shakur Balkhi Abu Tahir Khosrovani Shahid Balkhi Bal'ami Rabia Balkhi Abusaeid Abolkheir
Abusaeid Abolkheir
(967–1049) Avicenna
Avicenna
(980–1037) Unsuri Asjadi Kisai Marvazi Ayyuqi

1000s

Bābā Tāher Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
(1004–1088) Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
(1006–1088) Asadi Tusi Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
(1018–1092) Masud Sa'd Salman (1046–1121) Moezi Neyshapuri Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani Ahmad Ghazali Hujwiri Manuchehri Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) Uthman Mukhtari Abu-al-Faraj Runi Sanai Banu Goshasp Borzu-Nama Afdal al-Din Kashani Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami Mu'izzi Mahsati
Mahsati
Ganjavi

1100s

Hakim Iranshah Suzani Samarqandi Hassan Ghaznavi Faramarz Nama Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
(1155–1191) Adib Sabir Falaki Shirvani Am'aq Najm al-Din Razi Attār (1142–c.1220) Khaghani
Khaghani
(1120–1190) Anvari (1126–1189) Faramarz-e Khodadad Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Kamal al-din Esfahani Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
(d.1248)

1200s

Abu Tahir Tarsusi Awhadi Maraghai Shams al-Din Qays Razi Sultan Walad Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī Afdal al-Din Kashani Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi Mahmud Shabistari
Mahmud Shabistari
(1288–1320s) Abu'l Majd Tabrizi Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325) Saadi (Bustan / Golestān) Bahram-e-Pazhdo Pur-Baha Jami Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo Rumi Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) Nozhat al-Majales Khwaju Kermani Sultan Walad

1300s

Ibn Yamin Shah Ni'matullah Wali Hafez Abu Ali
Ali
Qalandar Fazlallah Astarabadi Nasimi Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400s

Ubayd Zakani Salman Sawaji Hatefi Jami Kamal Khujandi Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) Fuzûlî
Fuzûlî
(1483–1556) Ismail I
Ismail I
(1487–1524) Baba Faghani Shirzani

1500s

Faizi (1547–1595) Abu'l-Fazl (1551–1602) Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583) 'Orfi Shirazi

1600s

Taleb Amoli Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670) Kalim Kashani Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766) Saba Kashani Bēdil Dehlavi (1642–1720) Naw'i Khabushani

1700s

Neshat Esfahani Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800s

Ghalib
Ghalib
(1797–1869) Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

Contemporary

Poetry

Iran

Ahmadreza Ahmadi Mehdi Akhavan-Sales Hormoz Alipour Qeysar Aminpour Aref Qazvini Manouchehr Atashi Mahmoud Mosharraf Azad Tehrani Mohammad-Taqi Bahar Reza Baraheni Simin Behbahani Dehkhoda Hushang Ebtehaj Bijan Elahi Parviz Eslampour Parvin E'tesami Forough Farrokhzad Hossein Monzavi Hushang Irani Iraj Mirza Bijan Jalali Siavash Kasraie Esmail Khoi Shams Langeroodi Mohammad Mokhtari Nosrat Rahmani Yadollah Royaee Tahereh Saffarzadeh Sohrab Sepehri Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar Ahmad Shamlou Manouchehr Sheybani Nima Yooshij Fereydoon Moshiri Rasoul Yunan

Armenia

Edward Haghverdian

Afghanistan

Nadia Anjuman Wasef Bakhtari Raziq Faani Khalilullah Khalili Youssof Kohzad Massoud Nawabi Abdul Ali
Ali
Mustaghni

Tajikistan

Sadriddin Ayni Farzona Iskandar Khatloni Abolqasem Lahouti Gulrukhsor Safieva Loiq Sher-Ali Payrav Sulaymoni Mirzo Tursunzoda

Uzbekistan

Asad Gulzoda

Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal

Novels

Ali
Ali
Mohammad Afghani Ghazaleh Alizadeh Bozorg Alavi Reza Amirkhani Mahshid Amirshahi Reza Baraheni Simin Daneshvar Mahmoud Dowlatabadi Reza Ghassemi Houshang Golshiri Aboutorab Khosravi Ahmad Mahmoud Shahriyar Mandanipour Abbas Maroufi Iraj Pezeshkzad

Short stories

Jalal Al-e-Ahmad Shamim Bahar Sadeq Chubak Simin Daneshvar Nader Ebrahimi Ebrahim Golestan Houshang Golshiri Sadegh Hedayat Mohammad- Ali
Ali
Jamalzadeh Aboutorab Khosravi Mostafa Mastoor Jaafar Modarres-Sadeghi Houshang Moradi Kermani Bijan Najdi Shahrnush Parsipur Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Bahram Sadeghi Goli Taraqqi

Plays

Reza Abdoh Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh Hamid Amjad Bahram Beyzai Mohammad Charmshir Alireza Koushk Jalali Hadi Marzban Bijan Mofid Hengameh Mofid Abbas Nalbandian Akbar Radi Pari Saberi Mohammad Yaghoubi

Screenplays

Saeed Aghighi Rakhshan Bani-E'temad Bahram Beyzai Hajir Darioush Pouran Derakhshandeh Asghar Farhadi Bahman Farmanara Farrokh Ghaffari Behrouz Gharibpour Bahman Ghobadi Fereydun Gole Ebrahim Golestan Ali
Ali
Hatami Abolfazl Jalili Ebrahim Hatamikia Abdolreza Kahani Varuzh Karim-Masihi Samuel Khachikian Abbas Kiarostami David Mahmoudieh Majid Majidi Mohsen Makhmalbaf Dariush Mehrjui Reza Mirkarimi Rasoul Mollagholipour Amir Naderi Jafar Panahi Kambuzia Partovi Rasul Sadr Ameli Mohammad Sadri Parviz Shahbazi Sohrab Shahid-Saless

Translators

Amrollah Abjadian Jaleh Amouzgar Najaf Daryabandari Behzad Ghaderi Sohi Mohammad Ghazi Lili Golestan Sadegh Hedayat Saleh Hosseini Ahmad Kamyabi Mask Mohammad Moin Ebrahim Pourdavoud Hamid Samandarian Jalal Sattari Jafar Shahidi Ahmad Shamlou Ahmad Tafazzoli Abbas Zaryab

Essayists

Aydin Aghdashloo Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

v t e

Islamic philosophy

Fields

Alchemy Aqidah
Aqidah
(theology) 'Aql (intellect) Cosmology

astrology medieval astronomy

Eschatology Ethics Kalam
Kalam
(dialectic) Fiqh
Fiqh
(jurisprudence) Logic Metaphysics Natural philosophy (physics) Peace Madrasah (education) Medieval science Medieval psychology Sufism
Sufism
(mysticism)

Schools

Early Farabism Avicennism Averroism Illuminationism Sufi

cosmology metaphysics

Transcendent theosophy Traditionalist Contemporary

Concepts

ʻAṣabīya Ḥāl Iʻjaz ʼIjtihād ʻlm ʻIrfān Ijmāʿ Maslaha Nafs Qadar Qalb Qiyās Shūrā Tawḥīd Ummah

Philosophers by century (CE)

9th–10th

Al-Kindi Ali
Ali
ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri Zakariya Razi Apharabius Abu Hatim al-Razi Al Amiri Ikhwan al-Safa Abu Sulayman Sijistani Ibn Masarrah Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani

11th

Al-Ghazali Ibn Miskawayh Avicenna Ibn Hazm Bahmanyār Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi Nasir Khusraw

12th

Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Afdal al-Din Kashani Ahi Evren Ahmad Yasavi Ayn-al-Quzat Averroes Ibn Tufail Omar Khayyám Suhrawardi Shams Tabrizi

13th

Hajji Bektash Wali Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi Ibn Sab’in Ibn Arabi al-Abharī Nasir al-Din Tusi Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi

14th–16th

Ibn Khaldun Yunus Emre Hajji Bayram Jalaladdin Davani Sadr ad-Din Dashtaki Aziz Mahmud Hudayi Qadi Mir Husayn al-Maybudi Mahmud Shabistari Sayyid Haydar Amuli Dawūd al-Qayṣarī Jami

17th–19th

Mir Damad Mir Fendereski Mulla Sadra Mohsen Fayz Kashani Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani Rajab Ali
Ali
Tabrizi Qazi Sa’id Qumi Shah Waliullah Dehlawi Hādī Sabzavārī

20th–present

Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei Muhammad Iqbal Gohar Shahi Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr René Guénon Frithjof Schuon Martin Lings Hossein Nasr Naquib al-Attas Abdolkarim Soroush Gholamhossein Ebrahimi Dinani Taha Abdurrahman Mohammed Abed al-Jabri Mohammed Arkoun Fouad Zakariyya Reza Davari Ardakani Ahmad Fardid Mostafa Malekian Hasanzadeh Amoli Javadi Amoli Partawi Shah

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad al-Baqir Muhammad al- Nafs
Nafs
al-Zakiyya Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad Hamidullah Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi
Fazlallah Astarabadi
(Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Theology: Outline

Conceptions of God

Theism

Forms

Deism Dystheism Henotheism Hermeticism Kathenotheism Nontheism Monolatry Monotheism Mysticism Panentheism Pandeism Pantheism Polydeism Polytheism Spiritualism Theopanism

Concepts

Deity Divinity Gender of God
Gender of God
and gods

Male deity Goddess

Numen

Singular god theologies

By faith

Abrahamic religions

Judaism Christianity Islam

the Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Zoroastrianism

Concepts

Absolute Brahman Emanationism Logos Supreme Being

God
God
as

the Devil Sustainer Time

Trinitarianism

Athanasian Creed Comma Johanneum Consubstantiality Homoousian Homoiousian Hypostasis Perichoresis Shield of the Trinity Trinitarian formula Trinity Trinity
Trinity
of the Church Fathers Trinitarian Universalism

Eschatology

Afterlife Apocalypticism Buddhist Christian Heaven Hindu Islamic Jewish Taoist Zoroastrian

Feminist

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Mormonism Goddesses

Other concepts

The All Aristotelian view Attributes of God
God
in Christianity / in Islam Binitarianism Demiurge Divine simplicity Divine presence Egotheism Exotheology Holocaust Godhead in Christianity

Latter Day Saints

Great Architect of the Universe Great Spirit Apophatic theology Olelbis Open theism Personal god Phenomenological definition Philo's view Process Tian Unmoved mover

Names of God
God
in

Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism

By Faith

Christian

History Outline Biblical canon Glossary Christology Cosmology Ecclesiology Ethics Hamartiology Messianism Nestorianism Philosophy Practical Sophiology Soteriology

Hindu

Ayyavazhi theology Krishnology

Islamic

Oneness of God Prophets Holy Scriptures Angels Predestination Last Judgment

Jewish

Abrahamic prophecy Aggadah Denominations Kabbalah Philosophy

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 65282887 LCCN: n79074512 GND: 118866206 SELIBR: 81099 SUDOC: 030830761 BNF: cb122167816 (data) BIBSYS: 9700

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