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Naro
나로호
나로호(KSLV-I) 발사대 기립 (3).jpg

Naro-1 became the first South Korean launch vehicle to achieve Earth orbit on 30 January 2013, whe

The Government of the Republic of Korea officially approved the launch of the KSLV in June 2009, which was expected to send the STSAT-2A satellite into orbit.[28] The launch was first tentatively scheduled for 11 August, after receiving approval from the National Space Committee.[29] The first actual attempt to launch Naro-1 was conducted on 19 August 2009, but the launch was canceled seven minutes 56 seconds before launch.[citation needed]

The launch of the second Naro-1 took place on 10 June 2010 at 08:01 UTC. The launch ended in failure 137 seconds (2 minutes 17 seconds) later, when contact with the rocket was lost.[2] Ahn Byung-man, Minister of Science and Technology, told reporters that the rocket was believed to have exploded in midair. The launch originally had been scheduled for 9 June 2010,[30] but was postponed due to a malfunction of a fire protection system.[31]

Thirteen engineering experts from Republic of Korea and thirteen from Russian Federation formed a Failure Review Board and met in August 2010 to discuss the launch. They were able to officially conclude that the launch had failed. Further investigation was ongoing as to the cause of the failure.[32] As of 11 November 2010, a definitive cause for the failure h

Thirteen engineering experts from Republic of Korea and thirteen from Russian Federation formed a Failure Review Board and met in August 2010 to discuss the launch. They were able to officially conclude that the launch had failed. Further investigation was ongoing as to the cause of the failure.[32] As of 11 November 2010, a definitive cause for the failure had not been determined.[33] According to the Director-General of GKNPTs Khrunichev, Vladimir Nesterov, the telemetry data received by his company does not point to any off-nominal performance of the Khrunichev-built first stage.[34] A new team consisting of 30 experts was formed to investigate the cause of the failure.[35] According to findings of a Russian independent commission made public in August 2011, an error had occurred in the rocket's second stage produced by KARI.[36]

Naro-1 became the first South Korean launch vehicle to achieve Earth orbit on 30 January 2013, when it was successfully used to launch the Science and Technology Satellite 2C (STSAT-2C). Naro-1 launched from the Naro Space Center, located 480 kilometers south of Seoul,[4]

Previous launch history for the third flight

Launch of the third flight was postponed from its original launch date of late October to sometime in mid to late November due to a damaged rubber ring that caused a fuel leak.[37][38][39][40] A launch countdown on 29 November was halted 17 minutes prior to launch due to an excessive electric current reading, indicating some type of electrical malfunction. Diagnosing and correcting the problem were reported to require delaying the launch for at least four days.[41] The Republic of Korea government announced this would be the final flight attempt. Had the mission failed there would not be another attempt and the project would come to an end.[42]

While the immediate cause of the leak was a damaged rubber seal further investigation into the failure revealed a defective adapter bloc linking the rocket to the port. Korean ministry a

Launch of the third flight was postponed from its original launch date of late October to sometime in mid to late November due to a damaged rubber ring that caused a fuel leak.[37][38][39][40] A launch countdown on 29 November was halted 17 minutes prior to launch due to an excessive electric current reading, indicating some type of electrical malfunction. Diagnosing and correcting the problem were reported to require delaying the launch for at least four days.[41] The Republic of Korea government announced this would be the final flight attempt. Had the mission failed there would not be another attempt and the project would come to an end.[42]

While the immediate cause of the leak was a damaged rubber seal further investigation into the failure revealed a defective adapter bloc linking the rocket to the port. Korean ministry announced that the new adapters will be brought in from Russia in preparation for the launch. A new preliminary launch date no earlier than 24 November 2012 was also announced.<

While the immediate cause of the leak was a damaged rubber seal further investigation into the failure revealed a defective adapter bloc linking the rocket to the port. Korean ministry announced that the new adapters will be brought in from Russia in preparation for the launch. A new preliminary launch date no earlier than 24 November 2012 was also announced.[43][44]

While no cause for the failure of the second launch has officially been declared, changes to the third launch were to include eliminating the flight termination system on the second stage (built by Republic of Korea KARI), and changes to the system on the first stage (supplied by Russia). Changes to the electrical system that operates the payload fairing were also to be made.[45] The first stage of the rocket Naro-1 for the third attempt was delivered from the Russian manufacturer at the end of August 2012.[46][failed verification]

Shortly after the mishap with the second launch attempt, South Korea had announced the third flight would take place in 2011.[47] Specific plans were never announced and no launch attempt was made in 2011.

The third launch of Naro-1 occurred one month after North Korea's successful December 2012 launch of their Unha-3[48] rocket developed with North Korean technology.[citation needed] The launch came in the wake of news that North Korea had plans for a third nuclear test.[49] Chinese Navy official Yin Zhuo said that South Korea has been competing with Japan for favor with the United States, and the launch aims to strengthen relations with the U.S.[50]

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