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The term narcotic (/nɑːrˈkɒtɪk/, from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties. In the United States, it has since become associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex. The primary three are morphine, codeine, and thebaine (while thebaine itself is only very mildly psychoactive, it is a crucial precursor in the vast majority of semi-synthetic opioids, such as oxycodone). Legally speaking, the term "narcotic" is imprecisely defined and typically has negative connotations.[1][2] When used in a legal context in the U.S., a narcotic drug is one that is totally prohibited, such as heroin, or one that is used in violation of governmental regulation. In the medical community, the term is more precisely defined and generally does not carry the same negative connotations.[3][4][5] Statutory classification of a drug as a narcotic often increases the penalties for violation of drug control statutes. For example, although federal law classifies both cocaine and amphetamines as "Schedule II" drugs, the penalty for possession of cocaine is greater than the penalty for possession of amphetamines because cocaine, unlike amphetamines, is classified as a narcotic.[6]

Contents

1 United Nations

1.1 Single Convention on Narcotic
Narcotic
Drugs, 1961 1.2 INCB Yellow List

2 World Health Organization

2.1 Studies on the definition of counterfeit medicines in WHO member states 2.2 Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization

3 United States

3.1 US v. Stieren

4 History 5 Analgesics 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

United Nations[edit] Single Convention on Narcotic
Narcotic
Drugs, 1961[edit] The adoption of this Convention is regarded as a milestone in the history of international drug law. The Single Convention codified all existing multilateral treaties on drug control and extended the existing control systems to include the cultivation of plants that were grown as the raw material of narcotic drugs. The principal objectives of the Convention are to limit the possession, use, trade, distribution, import, export, manufacture and production of drugs exclusively to medical and scientific purposes, and to address drug trafficking through international cooperation to deter and discourage drug traffickers. The Convention also established the International Narcotics Control Board, merging the Permanent Central Board and the Drug Supervisory Board.[7] The 1961 Convention seeks to control more than 116 drugs that it classifies as narcotic. These include:

plant-based products such as opium and its derivatives morphine, codeine and heroin (the primary category of drug listed in the Convention); synthetic narcotics such as methadone and pethidine; and cannabis, coca and cocaine.

The Convention divides drugs into four groups, or schedules, in order to enforce a greater or lesser degree of control for the various substances and compounds. Opium
Opium
smoking and eating, coca leaf chewing, cannabis resin smoking and the non-medical use of cannabis are prohibited. The 1972 Protocol to this Convention calls for increased efforts to prevent illicit production of, traffic in and use of narcotics as defined by the Convention, while highlighting the need to provide treatment and rehabilitation services to drug abusers.[8] INCB Yellow List[edit] This document contains the current list of narcotic drugs under international control and additional information to assist governments in filling in the International Narcotics Control Board questionnaires related to narcotic drugs, namely, form A, form B and form C.[9] In medicine, a chemical agent that induces stupor, coma, or insensibility to pain (also called narcotic analgesic). In the context of international drug control, “narcotic drug” means any drug defined as such under the 1961 Convention.[10] World Health Organization[edit] Studies on the definition of counterfeit medicines in WHO member states[edit] 4. Assessment of the definitions of counterfeit medicines (or equivalent) in Member States 4.2 The nature of legal definitions: the unambiguity requirement In order to avoid room for difference in interpretation, lawmakers (codificators) sometimes deviate from etymological (definiendum plus definientia) definitions. In doing so, they approach the term from the law enforcement point of view. The best example is the definition of narcotics in the United Nations Conventions. Narcotics are substances and preparations that induce drowsiness, sleep, stupor, insensibility, etc., and that these effects (and their rate) are complicated to prove, e.g. during litigation. Thus, the legal definition of a narcotic is whether or not it is listed on the Schedules of the Convention. If it is on some of the Schedules, it is narcotic.[11] Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization[edit] The term usually refers to opiates or opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics. In common parlance and legal usage, it is often used imprecisely to mean illicit drugs, irrespective of their pharmacology. For example, narcotics control legislation in Canada, USA, and certain other countries includes cocaine and cannabis as well as opioids (see also conventions, international drug). Because of this variation in usage, the term is best replaced by one with a more specific meaning (e.g. opioid).[12] United States[edit] Section 1300.01 Definitions relating to controlled substances:

(b) As used in parts 1301 through 1308 and part 1312 of this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings specified:

(30) The term narcotic drug means any of the following whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin or independently by means of chemical synthesis or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(i) Opium, opiates, derivatives of opium and opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation. Such term does not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium. (ii) Poppy straw and concentrate of poppy straw. (iii) Coca
Coca
leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed. (iv) Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers. (v) Ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts, isomers and salts of isomers. (vi) Any compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in paragraphs (b)(31)(i) through (v) of this section.[13]

A 1984 amendment to 21 USC (Controlled Substances Act), Section 802 expanded and revised definition of "narcotic drug", including within term poppy straw, cocaine, and ecgonine.[14] US v. Stieren[edit] 608 F.2d 1135

United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit. Decided Oct. 31, 1979. LAY, Circuit Judge. John Arthur Stieren appeals from the judgment of conviction for possession of cocaine with intent to distribute and dispense under 21 U.S.C. § 841(a)(1). Stieren contends that the statute is unconstitutional because "cocaine is classified as a narcotic under Schedule II of 21 U.S.C. § 812(c), when as a matter of scientific and medical fact cocaine is not a narcotic but is a non-narcotic stimulant." The sufficiency of the evidence is not disputed. Stieren was convicted after special agents testified that he was in possession of and attempted to sell them a large quantity of cocaine. Defendant urges that the testimony and reports by physicians and scientists demonstrate that cocaine is not a narcotic. He also cites cases which hold that cocaine is not a narcotic under the pharmacological definition of the term. State v. Erickson, 574 P.2d 1 (Alaska 1978). It is within the legislative prerogative to classify cocaine, which is a non-narcotic central nervous system stimulant, as a narcotic for penalty and regulatory purposes. 21 U.S.C. § 802(16)(A). The use of cocaine poses serious problems for the community and has a high potential for abuse. Congress' choice of penalty reflects a societal policy which must be adhered to by the courts.2 Congress has the power to reclassify cocaine. This power has been delegated to the Attorney General. 21 U.S.C. § 811(a)(1). If cocaine is to be reclassified, defendant's arguments should be made to the legislative branch, not the courts. We hold that Congress had a rational legislative purpose when it classified cocaine as a Schedule II narcotic drug for the purpose of imposing penalties. JUDGMENT AFFIRMED.[15]

History[edit] The term "narcotic" is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen
Galen
to refer to agents that numb or deaden, causing loss of feeling or paralysis. It is based on the Greek word ναρκωσις (narcosis), the term used by Hippocrates
Hippocrates
for the process of numbing or the numbed state. Galen
Galen
listed mandrake root, altercus (eclata),[16][not in citation given] seeds, and poppy juice (opium) as the chief examples.[17][18] It originally referred to any substance that relieved pain, dulled the senses, or induced sleep.[19] Now, the term is used in a number of ways. Some people define narcotics as substances that bind at opioid receptors (cellular membrane proteins activated by substances like heroin or morphine) while others refer to any illicit substance as a narcotic. From a U.S. legal perspective, narcotics refer to opium, opium derivatives, and their semi-synthetic substitutes,[20] though in U.S. law, due to its numbing properties, cocaine is also considered a narcotic. Sense of "any illegal drug" first recorded 1926, Amer.Eng. The adj. is first attested c.1600.[21] There are many different types of narcotics. The two most common forms of narcotic drugs are morphine and codeine. Both are synthesized from opium for medicinal use. The most commonly used drug for recreational purposes created from opium is heroin. Synthesized drugs created with an opium base for use in pain management are fentanyl, oxycodone, tramadol, demarol, hydrocodone, methadone, and hydromorphone. New forms of pain medication are being created regularly. The newest drug to come out in 2014 is zohydro, an intense dosage of hydrocodone medication, the strongest yet created for pain management.[22] Analgesics[edit] Analgesics
Analgesics
are drugs that relieve pain. There are two main types: non-narcotic analgesics for mild pain, and narcotic analgesics for severe pain.[23] See also[edit]

Chemistry portal

Commission on Narcotic
Narcotic
Drugs Equianalgesic Narcoterrorism Narcotics Anonymous Opioid Prohibition of drugs

References[edit]

^ Julien, Robert M. A Primer of Drug Action. 11th edition. Claire D. Advokat, Joseph E. Comaty, eds. New York: Worth Publishers: 2008. page 537. ^ Mangione MP, Matoka M: Improving Pain
Pain
Management Communication. How Patients Understand the terms "Opioid" and "Narcotic." Journal of General Internal Medicine 2008; vol 23:9 1336–1338. ^ NIH.gov Retrieved November 10, 2015 ^ Oxford Dictionaries (note definition 1.1 (medicine))  Retrieved November 10, 2015 ^ Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Retrieved November 10, 2015 ^ Carl B. Schultz (1983). "NOTE AND COMMENT: Statutory Classification of Cocaine
Cocaine
as a Narcotic: An Illogical Anachronism". 9 Am. J. L. and Med. 225.  ^ Convention 1961 Archived 2009-05-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Incb.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-24. ^ Illicit Drugs – Drug Definitions. UNODC. Retrieved on 2011-09-24. ^ LIST OF NARCOTIC DRUGS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CONTROL. Yellow List. International Narcotics Control Board. 49th edition, December 2010 ^ TERMINOLOGY AND INFORMATION ON DRUGS. (PDF) . Second edition. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2003. Retrieved on 2011-09-24. ^ PRELIMINARY DRAFT SURVEY ON NATIONAL LEGISLATION ON "COUNTERFEIT MEDICINES". (PDF) . World Health Organization. 4 May 2010. Retrieved on 2011-09-24. ^ WHO Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization. Who.int (2010-12-09). Retrieved on 2011-09-24. ^ Title 21 CFR, Part 1300-1399. US Department of Justice. Drug Enforcement Administration. April 1, 2010 ^ Title 21 United States Code (USC) Controlled Substances Act. Section 802. Definitions. US Department of Justice. Drug Enforcement Administration ^ 608 F.2d 1135. Bulk.resource.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-24. ^ J. Richard Stracke (1974). The Laud Herbal Glossary. Rodopi.  ^ Francis Edmund Anstie (1865). Stimulants and Narcotics: their mutual relations.  ^ "De Furore, cap VI" (in Latin).  ^ Julien, Robert M. See A Primer of Drug Action full citation above. ^ Narcotics Drug Addiction
Addiction
Help Rehabilitation Recovery Resource. Drug-rehab-referral.org. Retrieved on 2011-09-24. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. Etymonline.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-24. ^ "List of Narcotic
Narcotic
Drugs – Illegal and Prescription Narcotics Drugs Effects". Retrieved 18 March 2017.  ^ General Drug Categories. Fda.gov (2009-08-11). Retrieved on 2011-09-24.

External links[edit]

Look up narcotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Pharmer.org A non-profit site providing detailed descriptions of most narcotic analgesics List of controlled substances, some of which are classified as "narcotics," in the U.S. Controlled Substances Act
Controlled Substances Act
(CSA). Not all of the classified ones are chemically narcotic, as described on the top of this page

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v t e

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modulators

MOR

Agonists (abridged; see here for a full list): 3-HO-PCP 7-Acetoxymitragynine 7-Hydroxymitragynine ψ-Akuammigine α-Chlornaltrexamine α-Narcotine Acetyldihydrocodeine Acetylfentanyl Acrylfentanyl Adrenorphin
Adrenorphin
(metorphamide) AH-7921 Akuammicine Akuammidine Alfentanil Anileridine Apparicine β-Endorphin BAM-12P BAM-18P BAM-22P Benzhydrocodone Benzylmorphine Bezitramide Biphalin BU08070 Buprenorphine Butorphan Butorphanol Butyrfentanyl BW-373U86 Carfentanil Casokefamide Cebranopadol Chloroxymorphamine Codeine DADLE DAMGO
DAMGO
(DAGO) Dermorphin Desmetramadol
Desmetramadol
(desmethyltramadol) Desomorphine Dextromoramide Dextropropoxyphene
Dextropropoxyphene
(propoxyphene) Dezocine Dimenoxadol Dimethylaminopivalophenone Eluxadoline Diamorphine (heroin) Dihydrocodeine Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine Diphenoxylate Dipipanone Dynorphin A Embutramide Endomorphin-1 Endomorphin-2 Eseroline Ethylmorphine Etorphine Fentanyl Fluorophen Frakefamide Furanylfentanyl Hemorphin-4 Herkinorin Hodgkinsine Hydrocodone Hydromorphinol Hydromorphone IBNtxA Ketamine Ketobemidone Kratom Laudanosine Lefetamine Leu-enkephalin Levacetylmethadol Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Loperamide Loxicodegol Matrine Meptazinol Met-enkephalin
Met-enkephalin
(metenkefalin) Methadone Metkefamide Metopon Mitragynine Mitragynine
Mitragynine
pseudoindoxyl Morphiceptin Morphine Nalbuphine Nalbuphine
Nalbuphine
sebacate NalBzOH Nalmexone Naltalimide Neopine NFEPP Nicocodeine Nicodicodeine Nicomorphine NKTR-181 Norketamine Octreotide Oliceridine OM-3-MNZ Oripavine Oxycodone Oxymorphazone Oxymorphonazine Oxymorphone Oxymorphone
Oxymorphone
phenylhydrazone OxyPNPH Papaver somniferum
Papaver somniferum
(opium) Pentazocine Pericine Pethidine
Pethidine
(meperidine) Phenazocine Phencyclidine Piminodine Piritramide PL-017 Prodine Propiram PZM21 Racemethorphan Racemorphan Remifentanil Salsolinol SC-17599 Sinomenine Sufentanil Tapentadol Tetrahydropapaveroline TH-030418 Thebaine Thienorphine Tianeptine Tilidine Tramadol Trimebutine TRIMU 5 TRV734 Tubotaiwine U-47700 Valorphin Viminol Xorphanol

PAMs: BMS-986121 BMS-986122

Antagonists: (3S,4S)-Picenadol 2-(S)-N,N-(R)-Viminol 3CS-nalmefene 4-Caffeoyl-1,5-quinide 4′-Hydroxyflavanone 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 18-MC α-Gliadin β-Chlornaltrexamine β-Funaltrexamine Akuammine Alvimopan AM-251 Apigenin AT-076 Axelopran Bevenopran Catechin Catechin
Catechin
gallate Clocinnamox CTAP CTOP Cyclofoxy Cyprodime Diacetylnalorphine Diprenorphine ECG EGC Epicatechin Eptazocine Gemazocine Ginsenoside R Hyperoside Ibogaine Levallorphan Lobeline LY-255582 LY-2196044 Methocinnamox Methylnaltrexone Methylsamidorphan chloride Naldemedine Nalmefene Nalodeine
Nalodeine
(N-allylnorcodeine) Nalorphine Nalorphine
Nalorphine
dinicotinate Naloxazone Naloxegol Naloxol Naloxonazine Naloxone Naltrexazone Naltrexonazine Naltrexone Naltrindole Naringenin Noribogaine Oxilorphan Pawhuskin A Rimonabant Quadazocine Samidorphan Taxifolin

Unknown/unsorted: Cannabidiol Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Dihydroakuuamine Tabernanthine Tetrahydrocannabinol

DOR

Agonists: 3CS-nalmefene 6'-GNTI 7-SIOM ADL-5747 (PF-04856881) ADL-5859 Alazocine
Alazocine
(SKF-10047) Amoxapine AR-M100390 (ARM390) AZD2327 β-Endorphin BAM-18P Biphalin BU-48 Butorphan Butorphanol BW-373U86 Casokefamide Cebranopadol Codeine Cyclazocine DADLE Deltorphin
Deltorphin
A Deltorphin
Deltorphin
I Deltorphin
Deltorphin
II Desmethylclozapine Desmetramadol
Desmetramadol
(desmethyltramadol) Dezocine Diamorphine (heroin) Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine DPDPE DPI-221 DPI-3290 DSLET Ethylketazocine Etorphine Fentanyl FIT Fluorophen Hemorphin-4 Hydrocodone Hydromorphone Ibogaine Isomethadone JNJ-20788560 KNT-127 Kratom Laudanosine Leu-enkephalin Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Lofentanil Met-enkephalin
Met-enkephalin
(metenkefalin) Metazocine Metkefamide Mitragynine Mitragynine
Mitragynine
pseudoindoxyl Morphine N-Phenethyl-14-ethoxymetopon Norbuprenorphine NalBzOH Oripavine Oxycodone Oxymorphone Pethidine
Pethidine
(meperidine) Proglumide Racemethorphan Racemorphan RWJ-394674 Samidorphan SB-235863 SNC-80 SNC-162 TAN-67
TAN-67
(SB-205,607) TH-030418 Thebaine Thiobromadol
Thiobromadol
(C-8813) Tonazocine Tramadol TRV250 Xorphanol Zenazocine

Antagonists: 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 5'-NTII 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 α-Santolol β-Chlornaltrexamine Apigenin AT-076 Axelopran Bevenopran BNTX Catechin Catechin
Catechin
gallate Clocinnamox Diacetylnalorphine Diprenorphine ECG EGC Eluxadoline Epicatechin ICI-154129 ICI-174864 LY-255582 LY-2196044 Methylnaltrexone Methylnaltrindole N-Benzylnaltrindole Nalmefene Nalorphine Naltrexone Naltriben Naltrindole Naloxone Naringenin Noribogaine Pawhuskin A Quadazocine SDM25N SoRI-9409 Taxifolin Thienorphine

Unknown/unsorted: 18-MC Cannabidiol Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Tabernanthine Tetrahydrocannabinol

KOR

Agonists: 3CS-nalmefene 6'-GNTI 8-CAC 18-MC 14-Methoxymetopon β-Chlornaltrexamine β-Funaltrexamine Adrenorphin
Adrenorphin
(metorphamide) Akuuamicine Alazocine
Alazocine
(SKF-10047) Allomatrine Apadoline Asimadoline BAM-12P BAM-18P BAM-22P Big dynorphin Bremazocine BRL-52537 Butorphan Butorphanol BW-373U86 Cebranopadol Ciprefadol CR665 Cyclazocine Cyclorphan Cyprenorphine Desmetramadol
Desmetramadol
(desmethyltramadol) Diamorphine (heroin) Diacetylnalorphine Difelikefalin Dihydroetorphine Dihydromorphine Diprenorphine Dynorphin A Dynorphin B
Dynorphin B
(rimorphin) Eluxadoline Enadoline Eptazocine Erinacine E Ethylketazocine Etorphine Fedotozine Fentanyl Gemazocine GR-89696 GR-103545 Hemorphin-4 Herkinorin HS665 Hydromorphone HZ-2 Ibogaine ICI-199,441 ICI-204,448 Ketamine Ketazocine Laudanosine Leumorphin (dynorphin B-29) Levallorphan Levomethorphan Levorphanol Lexanopadol Lofentanil LPK-26 Lufuradom Matrine MB-1C-OH Menthol Metazocine Metkefamide Mianserin Mirtazapine Morphine Moxazocine MR-2034 N-MPPP Nalbuphine Nalbuphine
Nalbuphine
sebacate NalBzOH Nalfurafine Nalmefene Nalodeine
Nalodeine
(N-allylnorcodeine) Nalorphine Naltriben Niravoline Norbuprenorphine Norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide Noribogaine Norketamine Oripavine Oxilorphan Oxycodone Pentazocine Pethidine
Pethidine
(meperidine) Phenazocine Proxorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan RB-64 Salvinorin A
Salvinorin A
(salvia) Salvinorin B ethoxymethyl ether Salvinorin B methoxymethyl ether Samidorphan Spiradoline
Spiradoline
(U-62,066) TH-030418 Thienorphine Tifluadom Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline) U-50,488 U-54,494A U-69,593 Xorphanol

Antagonists: 4′-Hydroxyflavanone 4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 5'-GNTI 6'-GNTI 6β-Naltrexol 6β-Naltrexol-d4 β-Chlornaltrexamine Buprenorphine/samidorphan Amentoflavone ANTI Apigenin Arodyne AT-076 Axelopran AZ-MTAB Binaltorphimine BU09059 Buprenorphine Catechin Catechin
Catechin
gallate CERC-501
CERC-501
(LY-2456302) Clocinnamox Cyclofoxy Dezocine DIPPA EGC ECG Epicatechin Hyperoside JDTic LY-255582 LY-2196044 LY-2444296 LY-2459989 LY-2795050 MeJDTic Methylnaltrexone ML190 ML350 MR-2266 N-Fluoropropyl-JDTic Naloxone Naltrexone Naltrindole Naringenin Norbinaltorphimine Noribogaine Pawhuskin A PF-4455242 RB-64 Quadazocine Taxifolin UPHIT Zyklophin

Unknown/unsorted: Akuammicine Akuammine Coronaridine Cyproterone acetate Dihydroakuuamine Ibogamine Tabernanthine

NOP

Agonists: (Arg14,Lys15)Nociceptin ((pF)Phe4)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 (Phe1Ψ(CH2-NH)Gly2)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 Ac-RYYRWK-NH2 Ac-RYYRIK-NH2 BU08070 Buprenorphine Cebranopadol Dihydroetorphine Etorphine JNJ-19385899 Levomethorphan Levorphanol Levorphanol Lexanopadol MCOPPB MT-7716 NNC 63-0532 Nociceptin
Nociceptin
(orphanin FQ) Nociceptin
Nociceptin
(1-11) Nociceptin
Nociceptin
(1-13)NH2 Norbuprenorphine Racemethorphan Racemorphan Ro64-6198 Ro65-6570 SCH-221510 SCH-486757 SR-8993 SR-16435 TH-030418

Antagonists: (Nphe1)Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 AT-076 BAN-ORL-24 BTRX-246040
BTRX-246040
(LY-2940094) J-113397 JTC-801 NalBzOH Nociceptin
Nociceptin
(1-7) Nocistatin SB-612111 SR-16430 Thienorphine Trap-101 UFP-101

Unsorted

β-Casomorphins Amidorphin BAM-20P Cytochrophin-4 Deprolorphin Gliadorphin
Gliadorphin
(gluteomorphin) Gluten exorphins Hemorphins Kava
Kava
constituents MEAGL MEAP NEM Neoendorphins Nepetalactone
Nepetalactone
(catnip) Peptide B Peptide E Peptide F Peptide I Rubiscolins Soymorphins

Others

Enkephalinase inhibitors: Amastatin BL-2401 Candoxatril D -Phenylalanine Dexecadotril (retorphan) Ecadotril
Ecadotril
(sinorphan) Kelatorphan Racecadotril
Racecadotril
(acetorphan) RB-101 RB-120 RB-3007 Opiorphan Selank Semax Spinorphin Thiorphan Tynorphin Ubenimex
Ubenimex
(bestatin)

Propeptides: β-Lipotropin (proendorphin) Prodynorphin Proenkephalin Pronociceptin Proopiomelanocortin
Proopiomelanocortin
(POMC)

Others: Kyotorphin
Kyotorphin
(met-enkephalin releaser/degradation stabilizer)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators

Authority control

LCCN: sh85089815 N

.