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The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. In 1805, Austria and Russia
Russia
waged war against France. In response, Napoleon
Napoleon
defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, which is considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British inflicted a severe defeat in the Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
in October 1805 upon the joint Franco-Spanish navy, securing British control of the seas and preventing the invasion of Britain itself. Prussian concerns about increasing French power led to a resumption of war in October 1806. Napoleon
Napoleon
quickly defeated the Prussians, and defeated Russia
Russia
in June 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, and a new coalition was soon defeated. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon
Napoleon
invaded Iberia, declaring his brother Joseph king of Spain
Spain
in 1808. The Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, and, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia
Iberia
in 1814. Concurrently, Russia, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade, routinely violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon
Napoleon
to launch a massive invasion of Russia
Russia
in 1812. The resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and withdrawal of the French Grande Armée. Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia, Austria, and Russia
Russia
began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon
Napoleon
at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies then invaded France, capturing Paris at the end of March 1814 and forcing Napoleon
Napoleon
to abdicate in early April. He was exiled to the island of Elba, and the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, and reassumed control of France. The Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon
Napoleon
permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena. The Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
redrew the borders of Europe, and brought a lasting peace to the continent. The wars had profound consequences on global history; it fostered the spread of nationalism and liberalism, saw the rise of the British Empire
British Empire
as the world's foremost power, independence movements in Latin America
Latin America
and the subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, and the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Background

2.1 Start date and nomenclature 2.2 Napoleon's tactics

3 Prelude 4 War between Britain and France, 1803–1814

4.1 British motivations 4.2 Economic warfare 4.3 Financing the war

5 War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
1805 6 War of the Fourth Coalition
War of the Fourth Coalition
1806–1807

6.1 Scandinavia and Finland 6.2 Poland

7 War of the Fifth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
1809 8 Subsidiary wars

8.1 War of 1812 8.2 The Latin American Revolutions

9 The Invasion of Russia
Russia
1812 10 War of the Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition
1812–1814 11 War of the Seventh Coalition
War of the Seventh Coalition
1815 12 Political effects 13 Military legacy

13.1 Enlarged scope 13.2 Innovations 13.3 Total war

14 In fiction 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Sources 19 Further reading

19.1 General and reference books 19.2 Napoleon
Napoleon
and French 19.3 British, Austrian, Prussian & Russian roles 19.4 Historiography and memory 19.5 Primary sources

20 External links

Overview[edit] Napoleon
Napoleon
seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship.[30] There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; 18 May 1803 is often used, when Britain and France
France
ended the only short period of peace between 1792 and 1814.[31] The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
began with the War of the Third Coalition, which was the first of the Coalition Wars
Coalition Wars
against the First French Republic
First French Republic
after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
and declared war on France
France
in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe, especially in Switzerland, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon
Napoleon
stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, even though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland
Switzerland
indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers.[31] The British quickly enforced a naval blockade of France
France
to starve it of resources. Napoleon
Napoleon
responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France. The British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, and later secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to freely continue its strategy. Napoleon
Napoleon
won the War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war, triggering a War of the Fourth Coalition. This war ended disastrously for Prussia, defeated and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe
Europe
and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Continental System, and Spain's failure to maintain it, led to the Peninsular War and the outbreak of the War of the Fifth Coalition. The French occupied Spain
Spain
and formed a Spanish client kingdom, ending the alliance between the two. Heavy British involvement in the Iberian Peninsula soon followed, while a British effort to capture Antwerp failed. Napoleon
Napoleon
oversaw the situation in Iberia, defeating the Spanish, and expelling the British from the Peninsula. Austria, keen to recover territory lost during the War of the Third Coalition, invaded France's client states in Eastern Europe. Napoleon
Napoleon
defeated the fifth coalition at Wagram. Attempts to disrupt the British blockade led to the United States declaring war on Britain, while grievances over control of Poland, and Russia's withdrawal from the Continental System, led to Napoleon invading Russia
Russia
in June 1812. The invasion was an unmitigated disaster for Napoleon; scorched earth tactics, desertion, French strategic failures and the onset of the Russian winter compelled Napoleon
Napoleon
to retreat with massive losses. Napoleon
Napoleon
suffered further setbacks; French power in the Iberian Peninsula was broken at Battle of Vitoria the following summer, and a new coalition began the War of the Sixth Coalition. The coalition defeated Napoleon
Napoleon
at Leipzig, precipitating his fall from power and eventual abdication on 6 April 1814. The victors exiled Napoleon
Napoleon
to Elba
Elba
and restored the Bourbon monarchy. Napoleon
Napoleon
escaped from Elba
Elba
in 1815, gathering enough support to overthrow the monarchy of Louis XVIII, triggering a seventh, and final, coalition against him. Napoleon
Napoleon
was decisively defeated at Waterloo, and he abdicated again on 22 June. On 15 July, he surrendered to the British at Rochefort, and was exiled to Saint Helena, where he died in 1821. The Treaty of Paris, signed on 20 November 1815, formally ended the war. The Bourbon monarchy was restored once more, and the victors began the Congress of Vienna, to restore peace to the continent. As a direct result of the war, the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
rose to become a great power on the continent,[32] while Great Britain, with its unequalled Royal Navy and growing Empire became the world's dominant superpower, beginning the Pax Britannica.[33] The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was dissolved, and the philosophy of nationalism, that emerged early in the war, greatly contributed to the later unification of the German states, and those of the Italian peninsula. The war in Iberia
Iberia
greatly weakened Spanish power, and the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
began to unravel; Spain
Spain
would lose nearly all of its American possessions by 1833. The Portuguese Empire began a rapid decline, with Brazil
Brazil
declaring independence in 1822.[8] The wars revolutionised European warfare; the application of mass conscription and total war led to campaigns of unprecedented scale, as whole nations committed all their economic and industrial resources to a collective war effort.[34] Tactically, the French Army redefined the role of artillery, while Napoleon
Napoleon
emphasised mobility to offset numerical disadvantages,[35] and aerial surveillance was used for the first time in warfare.[36] While not a new tactic, the highly successful Spanish guerrillas demonstrated the capability of a people driven by fervent nationalism, liberalism and religious fundamentalism against an occupying force.[37] Due to the longevity of the wars, and the extent of Napoleon's conquests, the ideals of the French Revolution had a massive impact on European social culture; many subsequent revolutions, such as that of Russia, looked to the French as their source of inspiration,[38][39] while its core founding tenets greatly expanded the arena of Human rights
Human rights
and shaped modern political philosophies in use today.[40] Background[edit] The outbreak of the French Revolution
French Revolution
had been received with great alarm by the rulers of Europe's continental powers, which had been further exacerbated by the execution of Louis XVI of France, and the overthrow of the French monarchy. In 1793, the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of Naples, Prussia, the Spanish Empire, and the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
formed the First Coalition
First Coalition
to curtail the growing unrest in France. Measures such as mass conscription, military reforms, and total war allowed France
France
to defeat the coalition, despite the concurrent civil war in France. Napoleon, then a general in the French army, forced the Austrians to sign the Treaty of Campo Formio, leaving only Great Britain opposed to the fledgling French Republic. A Second Coalition formed in 1798 by Great Britain, Austria, Naples, the Ottoman Empire, the Papal States, Portugal, Russia, and Sweden. The French Republic, under the Directory, suffered from heavy levels of corruption and internal strife. The new republic also lacked funds, and no longer enjoyed the services of Lazare Carnot, the minister of war who had guided France
France
to its victories during the early stages of the Revolution. Bonaparte, commander of the Armée d'Italie
Armée d'Italie
in the latter stages of the First Coalition, had launched a campaign in Egypt, intending to disrupt the British economic powerhouse of India. Pressed from all sides, the Republic suffered a string of successive defeats against revitalised enemies, supported by Britain's financial help. Bonaparte returned to France
France
from Egypt on 23 August 1799, his campaign there having failed. He seized control of the French government on 9 November, in a bloodless coup d'état, replacing the Directory with the Consulate and transforming the republic into a de facto dictatorship.[30] He further reorganised the French military forces, establishing a large reserve army positioned to support campaigns on the Rhine
Rhine
or in Italy. Russia
Russia
had already been knocked out of the war, and, under Napoleon's leadership, the French decisively defeated the Austrians in June 1800, crippling Austrian capabilities in Italy. Austria was definitively defeated that December, by Moreau's forces in Bavaria. The Austrian defeat was sealed by the Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
early the following year, further compelling the British to sign the Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
with France, establishing a tenuous peace. Start date and nomenclature[edit] No consensus exists as to when the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
ended and the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
began. Possible dates include 9 November 1799, when Bonaparte seized power on 18 Brumaire in France;[41] 18 May 1803, when Britain and France
France
ended the one short period of peace between 1792 and 1814; or 2 December 1804, when Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor.[42] British historians occasionally refer to the nearly continuous period of warfare from 1792 to 1815 as the Great French War, or as the final phase of the Anglo-French Second Hundred Years' War, spanning the period 1689 to 1815.[43] Historian Mike Rapport (2013) suggested to use the term "French Wars" to unambiguously describe the entire period from 1792 to 1815.[44] In France, the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
are generally integrated with the French Revolutionary Wars: Les guerres de la Révolution et de l'Empire.[45] German historiography may count the War of the Second Coalition (1798/9–1801/2), during which Napoleon
Napoleon
seized power, as the Erster Napoleonischer Krieg ("First Napoleonic War").[46] In Dutch historiography, it is common to refer to the seven major wars between 1792 and 1815 as the Coalition Wars
Coalition Wars
(coalitieoorlogen), referring to the first two as the French Revolution
French Revolution
Wars (Franse Revolutieoorlogen).[47] Napoleon's tactics[edit] Napoleon
Napoleon
was, and remains, famous for his battlefield victories, and historians have spent enormous attention in analysing them.[48] In 2008, Donald Sutherland wrote:

The ideal Napoleonic battle was to manipulate the enemy into an unfavourable position through manoeuvre and deception, force him to commit his main forces and reserve to the main battle and then undertake an enveloping attack with uncommitted or reserve troops on the flank or rear. Such a surprise attack would either produce a devastating effect on morale, or force him to weaken his main battle line. Either way, the enemy's own impulsiveness began the process by which even a smaller French army could defeat the enemy's forces one by one.[49]

After 1807, Napoleon's creation of a highly mobile, well-armed artillery force gave artillery usage increased tactical importance. Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's defences, could now use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy's line. Once that was achieved he sent in infantry and cavalry.[50] Prelude[edit] Britain was irritated by several French actions following the Treaty of Amiens. Bonaparte had annexed Piedmont
Piedmont
and Elba, made himself President of the Italian Republic, a state in northern Italy
Italy
that France
France
had set up, and failed to evacuate Holland. France
France
continued to interfere with British trade despite peace having been made and complained about Britain harbouring certain individuals and not cracking down on the anti-French press.[51]:220–239 In fighting, Napoleon
Napoleon
focused on penetration, gaining a central position, and surrounding small groups of enemy forces.[52] To Napoleon, penetration meant "You engage, and then you wait and see." Central Positioning aimed to divide enemy forces into weaker smaller groups. Malta
Malta
had been captured by Britain during the war and was subject to a complex arrangement in the 10th article of the Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
where it was to be restored to the Knights of St. John
Knights of St. John
with a Neapolitan garrison and placed under the guarantee of third powers. The weakening of the Knights of St. John
Knights of St. John
by the confiscation of their assets in France
France
and Spain
Spain
along with delays in obtaining guarantees prevented the British from evacuating it after three months as stipulated in the treaty.[51]:239–247 The Helvetic Republic
Helvetic Republic
had been set up by France
France
when it invaded Switzerland
Switzerland
in 1798. France
France
had withdrawn its troops, but violent strife broke out against the government, which many Swiss saw as overly centralised. Bonaparte reoccupied the country in October 1802 and imposed a compromise settlement. This caused widespread outrage in Britain, which protested that this was a violation of the Treaty of Lunéville. Although continental powers were unprepared to act, the British decided to send an agent to help the Swiss obtain supplies, and also ordered their military not to return Cape Colony
Cape Colony
to Holland as they had committed to do in the Treaty of Amiens.[51]:248–252 Swiss resistance collapsed before anything could be accomplished, and after a month Britain countermanded the orders not to restore Cape Colony. At the same time Russia
Russia
finally joined the guarantee with regards to Malta. Concerned that there would be hostilities when Bonaparte found out that Cape Colony
Cape Colony
had been retained, the British began to procrastinate on the evacuation of Malta.[51]:252–258 In January 1803 a government paper in France
France
published a report from a commercial agent which noted the ease with which Egypt could be conquered. The British seized on this to demand satisfaction and security before evacuating Malta, which was a convenient stepping stone to Egypt. France
France
disclaimed any desire to seize Egypt and asked what sort of satisfaction was required but the British were unable to give a response.[51]:258–264 There was still no thought of going to war; Prime Minister Addington publicly affirmed that Britain was in a state of peace.[51]:265 In early March 1803 the Addington ministry received word that Cape Colony had been re-occupied by the British army in accordance with the orders which had subsequently been countermanded. On 8 March they ordered military preparations to guard against possible French retaliation, and justified them by falsely claiming that it was only in response to French preparations and that they were conducting serious negotiations with France. In a few days it was known that Cape Colony had been surrendered in accordance with the counter-orders, but it was too late. Bonaparte berated the British ambassador in front of 200 spectators over the military preparations.[51]:264–268 The Addington ministry realised they would face an inquiry over their false reasons for the military preparations, and during April unsuccessfully attempted to secure the support of William Pitt the Younger to shield them from damage.[51]:277 In the same month the ministry issued an ultimatum to France
France
demanding the retention of Malta
Malta
for at least ten years, the permanent acquisition of the island of Lampedusa
Lampedusa
from the Kingdom of Sicily, and the evacuation of Holland. They also offered to recognise French gains in Italy
Italy
if they evacuated Switzerland
Switzerland
and compensated the King of Sardinia for his territorial losses. France
France
offered to place Malta
Malta
in the hands of Russia
Russia
to satisfy British concerns, pull out of Holland when Malta
Malta
was evacuated, and form a convention to give satisfaction to Britain on other issues. The British falsely denied that Russia
Russia
had made an offer and their ambassador left Paris.[51]:268–278 Desperate to avoid war, Bonaparte sent a secret offer where he agreed to let Britain retain Malta
Malta
if France
France
could occupy the Otranto peninsula in Naples.[53] All efforts were futile and Britain declared war on 18 May 1803. War between Britain and France, 1803–1814[edit] Main article: The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the Napoleonic Wars British motivations[edit] Britain ended the uneasy truce created by the Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
when it declared war on France
France
in May 1803. The British were increasingly angered by Napoleon's reordering of the international system in Western Europe, especially in Switzerland, Germany, Italy
Italy
and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was especially alarmed by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Britons felt insulted when Napoleon
Napoleon
said it deserved no voice in European affairs (even though King George was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire), and sought to restrict the London newspapers that were vilifying him.[31]

"Maniac-raving's-or-Little Boney in a strong fit" by James Gillray. His caricatures ridiculing Napoleon
Napoleon
greatly annoyed the Frenchman, who wanted them suppressed by the British government.[54]

Britain had a sense of loss of control, as well as loss of markets, and was worried by Napoleon's possible threat to its overseas colonies. McLynn argues that Britain went to war in 1803 out of a "mixture of economic motives and national neuroses – an irrational anxiety about Napoleon's motives and intentions." McLynn concludes that it proved to be the right choice for Britain, because in the long run Napoleon's intentions were hostile to the British national interest. Napoleon
Napoleon
was not ready for war and so this was the best time for Britain to stop them. Britain seized upon the Malta
Malta
issue, refusing to follow the terms of the Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
and evacuate the island.[55] The deeper British grievance was their perception that Napoleon
Napoleon
was taking personal control of Europe, making the international system unstable, and forcing Britain to the sidelines.[56][57][58][59] Numerous scholars have argued that Napoleon's aggressive posture made him enemies and cost him potential allies.[60] As late as 1808, the continental powers affirmed most of his gains and titles, but the continuing conflict with Britain led him to start the Peninsular War and the invasion of Russia, which many scholars see as a dramatic miscalculation.[61][62][63][64][65]

Battle of San Domingo, 6 February 1806

Battle of the Pyrenees, July 1813

There was one serious attempt to negotiate peace with France
France
during the war, made by Charles James Fox
Charles James Fox
in 1806. The British wanted to retain their overseas conquests and have Hanover restored to George III in exchange for accepting French conquests on the continent. The French were willing to cede Malta, Cape Colony, Tobago, and French Indian posts to Britain but wanted to obtain Sicily in exchange for the restoration of Hanover, a condition the British refused.[66] Unlike its many coalition partners, Britain remained at war throughout the period of the Napoleonic Wars. Protected by naval supremacy (in the words of Admiral Jervis to the House of Lords "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come. I say only they will not come by sea"), Britain maintained low-intensity land warfare on a global scale for over a decade. The British government paid out large sums of money to other European states, so that they could pay armies in the field against France. These payments are colloquially known as the Golden Cavalry of St George. The British Army provided long-term support to the Spanish rebellion in the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
of 1808–1814, assisted by Spanish guerrilla ('little war') tactics. Anglo-Portuguese forces under Arthur Wellesley supported the Spanish, which campaigned successfully against the French armies, eventually driving them from Spain
Spain
and allowing Britain to invade southern France. By 1815, the British Army played the central role in the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. Beyond minor naval actions against British imperial interests, the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
were much less global in scope than preceding conflicts such as the Seven Years' War, which historians term a "world war". Economic warfare[edit] In response to the naval blockade of the French coasts enacted by the British government on 16 May 1806, Napoleon
Napoleon
issued the Berlin Decree on 21 November 1806, which brought into effect the Continental System.[67] This policy aimed to eliminate the threat from Britain by closing French-controlled territory to its trade. Britain maintained a standing army of 220,000 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars, of whom less than half were available for campaigning. The rest were necessary for garrisoning Ireland
Ireland
and the colonies, and providing security for Britain. France's strength peaked at around 2,500,000 full-time and part-time soldiers including several hundred thousand National Guardsmen who Napoleon
Napoleon
could draft into the military if necessary. Both nations enlisted large numbers of sedentary militia who were unsuited for campaigning, and were mostly employed to release regular forces for active duty.[68] The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
disrupted France's extra-continental trade by seizing and threatening French shipping and colonial possessions, but could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of Britain. Britain had the greatest industrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade. This ensured that France could never consolidate its control over Europe
Europe
in peace. Many in the French government believed that cutting Britain off from the Continent would end its economic influence over Europe
Europe
and isolate it. Financing the war[edit] A key element in British success was its ability to mobilise the nation's industrial and financial resources and apply them to defeating France. With a population of 16 million against France's 30 million, the French numerical advantage was offset by British subsidies that paid for many of the Austrian and Russian soldiers, peaking at about 450,000 men in 1813.[68][69] Under the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1803, Britain paid a subsidy of £1.5 million for every 100,000 Russian soldiers in the field.[70] British national output remained strong, and the well-organised business sector channeled products into what the military needed. Britain used its economic power to expand the Royal Navy, doubling the number of frigates, adding 50% more large ships of the line, and increasing the number of sailors from 15,000 to 133,000 in eight years after the war began in 1793. France
France
saw its navy shrink by more than half.[71] The smuggling of finished products into the continent undermined French efforts to ruin the British economy by cutting off markets. Subsidies to Russia
Russia
and Austria kept them in the war. The British budget in 1814 reached £66 million, including £10 million for the Royal Navy, £40 million for the army, £10 million for the allies, and £38 million as interest on the national debt, which soared to £679 million, more than double the GDP. It was supported by hundreds of thousands of investors and taxpayers, despite the higher taxes on land and a new income tax. The cost of the war came to £831 million.[r] In contrast, the French financial system was inadequate and Napoleon's forces had to rely in part on requisitions from conquered lands.[73][74][75] War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
1805[edit] Main article: Third Coalition

The British HMS Sandwich fires to the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) in the battle of Trafalgar. Bucentaure also fights HMS Victory
HMS Victory
(behind her) and HMS Temeraire (left side of the picture). HMS Sandwich never fought at Trafalgar and her depiction is a mistake by the painter.[76]

Britain gathered together allies to form the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
against France.[77][78] In response, Napoleon
Napoleon
seriously considered an invasion of Great Britain,[79][80] and massed 180,000 troops at Boulogne. Before he could invade, he needed to achieve naval superiority—or at least to pull the British fleet away from the English Channel. A complex plan to distract the British by threatening their possessions in the West Indies
West Indies
failed when a Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve turned back after an indecisive action off Cape Finisterre on 22 July 1805. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
blockaded Villeneuve in Cádiz
Cádiz
until he left for Naples on 19 October; the British squadron caught and overwhelmingly defeated the combined enemy fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October (the British commander, Lord Nelson, died in the battle). Napoleon
Napoleon
never again had the opportunity to challenge the British at sea, nor to threaten an invasion. He again turned his attention to enemies on the Continent.

European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition

In April 1805, Britain and Russia
Russia
signed a treaty with the aim of removing the French from the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
(roughly present-day Netherlands) and the Swiss Confederation. Austria joined the alliance after the annexation of Genoa
Genoa
and the proclamation of Napoleon
Napoleon
as King of Italy
Italy
on 17 March 1805. Sweden, which had already agreed to lease Swedish Pomerania
Swedish Pomerania
as a military base for British troops against France, entered the coalition on 9 August. The Austrians began the war by invading Bavaria with an army of about 70,000 under Karl Mack von Leiberich, and the French army marched out from Boulogne
Boulogne
in late July 1805 to confront them. At Ulm (25 September – 20 October) Napoleon
Napoleon
surrounded Mack's army, forcing its surrender without significant losses. With the main Austrian army north of the Alps
Alps
defeated (another army under Archduke Charles manoeuvred inconclusively against André Masséna's French army in Italy), Napoleon
Napoleon
occupied Vienna. Far from his supply lines, he faced a larger Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov, with the Emperor Alexander I of Russia
Russia
personally present. On 2 December, Napoleon
Napoleon
crushed the Austro-Russian force in Moravia
Moravia
at Austerlitz (usually considered his greatest victory). He inflicted 25,000 casualties on a numerically superior enemy army while sustaining fewer than 7,000 in his own force.

Surrender of the town of Ulm, 20 October 1805

Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805) and left the coalition. The treaty required the Austrians to give up Venetia to the French-dominated Kingdom of Italy
Italy
and the Tyrol to Bavaria. With the withdrawal of Austria from the war, stalemate ensued. Napoleon's army had a record of continuous unbroken victories on land, but the full force of the Russian army had not yet come into play. Napoleon
Napoleon
had now consolidated his hold on France, had taken control of Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and most of Western Germany
Germany
and northern Italy. His admirers say that Napoleon
Napoleon
wanted to stop now, but was forced to continue in order to gain greater security from the countries that refused to accept his conquests. Esdaille rejects that explanation and instead says that it was a good time to stop expansion, for the major powers were ready to accept Napoleon
Napoleon
as he was:

in 1806 both Russia
Russia
and Britain had been positively eager to make peace, and they might well have agreed to terms that would have left the Napoleonic imperium almost completely intact. As for Austria and Prussia, they simply wanted to be left alone. To have secured a compromise peace, then, would have been comparatively easy. But... Napoleon
Napoleon
was prepared to make no concessions.[81]

War of the Fourth Coalition
War of the Fourth Coalition
1806–1807[edit] Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition

Napoleon
Napoleon
in Berlin (Meynier). After defeating Prussian forces at Jena, the French Army entered Berlin on 27 October 1806.

Within months of the collapse of the Third Coalition, the Fourth Coalition (1806–07) against France
France
was formed by Britain, Prussia, Russia, Saxony, and Sweden. In July 1806, Napoleon
Napoleon
formed the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
out of the many tiny German states which constituted the Rhineland
Rhineland
and most other western parts of Germany. He amalgamated many of the smaller states into larger electorates, duchies, and kingdoms to make the governance of non-Prussian Germany smoother. Napoleon
Napoleon
elevated the rulers of the two largest Confederation states, Saxony and Bavaria, to the status of kings. In August 1806, the Prussian king, Frederick William III, decided to go to war independently of any other great power. The army of Russia, a Prussian ally, in particular was too far away to assist. On 8 October 1806, Napoleon
Napoleon
unleashed all the French forces east of the Rhine
Rhine
into Prussia. Napoleon
Napoleon
defeated a Prussian army at Jena (14 October 1806), and Davout defeated another at Auerstädt on the same day. 160,000 French soldiers (increasing in number as the campaign went on) attacked Prussia, moving with such speed that they destroyed the entire Prussian army as an effective military force. Out of 250,000 troops the Prussians sustained 25,000 casualties, lost a further 150,000 as prisoners, 4,000 artillery pieces, and over 100,000 muskets. At Jena, Napoleon
Napoleon
had fought only a detachment of the Prussian force. The battle at Auerstädt involved a single French corps defeating the bulk of the Prussian army. Napoleon
Napoleon
entered Berlin on 27 October 1806. He visited the tomb of Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
and instructed his marshals to remove their hats there, saying, "If he were alive we wouldn't be here today". Napoleon
Napoleon
had taken only 19 days from beginning his attack on Prussia to knock it out of the war with the capture of Berlin and the destruction of its principal armies at Jena and Auerstädt. Saxony left Prussia, and together with small states from north Germany, allied with France.

Charge of the Russian Imperial Guard cavalry against French cuirassiers at the Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807

In the next stage of the war, the French drove Russian forces out of Poland
Poland
and employed many Polish and German soldiers in several sieges in Silesia
Silesia
and Pomerania, with the assistance of Dutch and Italian soldiers in the latter case. Napoleon
Napoleon
then turned north to confront the remainder of the Russian army and to try to capture the temporary Prussian capital at Königsberg. A tactical draw at Eylau (7–8 February 1807), followed by capitulation at Danzig (24 May 1807) and the Battle of Heilsberg
Battle of Heilsberg
(10 June 1807), forced the Russians to withdraw further north. Napoleon
Napoleon
decisively beat the Russian army at Friedland (14 June 1807), following which Alexander had to make peace with Napoleon
Napoleon
at Tilsit (7 July 1807). In Germany
Germany
and Poland, new Napoleonic client states, such as the Kingdom of Westphalia, Duchy of Warsaw, and Republic of Danzig, were established. By September, Marshal Guillaume Brune
Guillaume Brune
completed the occupation of Swedish Pomerania, allowing the Swedish army to withdraw with all its munitions of war. Scandinavia and Finland[edit] Main articles: Gunboat War, Finnish War, and Dano-Swedish War of 1808-09 Britain's first response to Napoleon's Continental System
Continental System
was to launch a major naval attack against Denmark. Although ostensibly neutral, Denmark
Denmark
was under heavy French and Russian pressure to pledge its fleet to Napoleon. London could not take the chance of ignoring the Danish threat. In August 1807, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
besieged and bombarded Copenhagen, leading to the capture of the Dano-Norwegian fleet, and assuring use of the sea lanes in the North and Baltic seas for the British merchant fleet. Denmark
Denmark
joined the war on the side of France, but without a fleet it had little to offer,[82][83] beginning an engagement in a naval guerrilla war in which small gunboats attacking larger British ships in Danish and Norwegian waters. Denmark also committed themselves to participate in a war against Sweden together with France
France
and Russia. At Tilsit, Napoleon
Napoleon
and Alexander had agreed that Russia
Russia
should force Sweden
Sweden
to join the Continental System, which led to a Russian invasion of Finland in February 1808, followed by a Danish declaration of war in March. Napoleon
Napoleon
also sent an auxiliary corps, consisting of troops from France, Spain
Spain
and the Netherlands, led by Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, to Denmark
Denmark
to participate in the invasion of Sweden. But British naval superiority prevented the armies from crossing the Øresund
Øresund
strait, and the war came mainly to be fought along the Swedish-Norwegian border. At the Congress of Erfurt (September–October 1808), France
France
and Russia
Russia
further agreed on the division of Sweden
Sweden
into two parts separated by the Gulf of Bothnia, where the eastern part became the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland. The war between Denmark
Denmark
and Britain effectively ended with a British victory at the battle of Lyngør in 1812, involving the destruction of the last large Dano-Norwegian ship—the frigate Najaden. Poland[edit] Main article: Duchy of Warsaw

Polish cavalry
Polish cavalry
at the Battle of Somosierra
Battle of Somosierra
in Spain, 1808

In 1807 Napoleon
Napoleon
created a powerful outpost of his empire in Central Europe. Poland
Poland
had recently been partitioned by its three large neighbours, but Napoleon
Napoleon
created the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, which depended on France
France
from the very beginning. The duchy consisted of lands seized by Austria and Prussia; its Grand Duke was Napoleon's ally the king of Saxony, but Napoleon
Napoleon
appointed the intendants who ran the country. The population of 4.3 million was released from occupation and by 1814 sent about 200,000 men to Napoleon's armies. That included about 90,000 who marched with him to Moscow; few marched back.[84] The Russians strongly opposed any move towards an independent Poland
Poland
and one reason Napoleon
Napoleon
invaded Russia
Russia
in 1812 was to punish them. The Grand Duchy was dissolved in 1815 and Poland
Poland
did not become a state until 1918. Napoleon's impact on Poland
Poland
was huge, including the Napoleonic legal code, the abolition of serfdom, and the introduction of modern middle class bureaucracies.[85][86] War of the Fifth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
1809[edit] Main articles: War of the Fifth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
and Peninsular War

Surrender of Madrid
Madrid
(Gros), 1808. Napoleon
Napoleon
enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War.

The Fifth Coalition (1809) of Britain and Austria against France formed as Britain engaged in the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
in Spain
Spain
and Portugal. The sea became a major theatre of war against Napoleon's allies. During the time of the Fifth Coalition, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
won a succession of victories in the French colonies. On land the major battles included Battle of Raszyn, Battle of Aspern-Essling, and Battle of Wagram. On land, the Fifth Coalition attempted few extensive military endeavours. One, the Walcheren Expedition
Walcheren Expedition
of 1809, involved a dual effort by the British Army and the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
to relieve Austrian forces under intense French pressure. It ended in disaster after the Army commander, John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham, failed to capture the objective, the naval base of French-controlled Antwerp. For the most part of the years of the Fifth Coalition, British military operations on land (apart from the Iberian Peninsula) remained restricted to hit-and-run operations executed by the Royal Navy, which dominated the sea after having beaten down almost all substantial naval opposition from France
France
and its allies and blockading what remained of France's naval forces in heavily fortified French-controlled ports. These rapid-attack operations were aimed mostly at destroying blockaded French naval and mercantile shipping and the disruption of French supplies, communications, and military units stationed near the coasts. Often, when British allies attempted military actions within several dozen miles or so of the sea, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
would arrive, land troops and supplies, and aid the coalition's land forces in a concerted operation. Royal Navy
Royal Navy
ships even provided artillery support against French units when fighting strayed near enough to the coastline. The ability and quality of the land forces governed these operations. For example, when operating with inexperienced guerrilla forces in Spain, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
sometimes failed to achieve its objectives because of the lack of manpower that the Navy's guerrilla allies had promised to supply.

The European strategic situation in February 1809

Economic warfare continued: the French Continental System
Continental System
against the British naval blockade of French-controlled territory. Due to military shortages and lack of organisation in French territory, many breaches of the Continental System
Continental System
occurred as French-dominated states tolerated or even encouraged trade with British smugglers. In terms of economic damage to Great Britain, the blockade was largely ineffective. As Napoleon
Napoleon
realised that extensive trade was going through Spain
Spain
and Russia, he invaded those two countries. He tied down his forces in Spain, and lost very badly in Russia
Russia
in 1812.[87] Both sides entered further conflicts in attempts to enforce their blockade; the British fought the United States in the War of 1812 (1812–15), and the French engaged in the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
(1808–14) to prevent smuggling into Spain. The Iberian conflict began when Portugal continued trade with Britain despite French restrictions. When Spain
Spain
failed to maintain the Continental System, the uneasy Spanish alliance with France
France
ended in all but name. French troops gradually encroached on Spanish territory until they occupied Madrid, and installed a client monarchy. This provoked an explosion of popular rebellions across Spain. Heavy British involvement soon followed. Austria, previously an ally of France, took the opportunity to attempt to restore its imperial territories in Germany
Germany
as held prior to Austerlitz. Austria achieved some initial victories against the thinly spread army of Marshal Berthier. Napoleon
Napoleon
had left Berthier with only 170,000 men to defend France's entire eastern frontier (in the 1790s, 800,000 men had carried out the same task, but holding a much shorter front). After defeats in Spain
Spain
suffered by France, Napoleon
Napoleon
took charge and enjoyed success, retaking Madrid, defeating the Spanish and forcing a withdrawal of the heavily out-numbered British army from the Iberian Peninsula (Battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809). But when he left, the guerrilla war against his forces in the countryside continued to tie down great numbers of troops. Austria's attack prevented Napoleon
Napoleon
from successfully wrapping up operations against British forces by necessitating his departure for Austria, and he never returned to the Peninsular theatre. The British then sent in a fresh army under Sir Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) whom the French could not stop.[88] The Peninsular war proved a major disaster for France. Napoleon
Napoleon
did well when he was in direct charge, but severe losses followed his departure, as he severely underestimated how much manpower would be needed. The effort in Spain
Spain
was a drain on money, manpower and prestige. Historian David Gates called it the "Spanish ulcer."[89] France
France
lost the Peninsular War, and Napoleon
Napoleon
realised it had been a disaster for his cause, writing later, "That unfortunate war destroyed me ... All the circumstances of my disasters are bound up in that fatal knot."[90] The Peninsular campaigns witnessed 60 major battles and 30 major sieges, more than any other of the Napoleonic conflicts, and lasted over six years, far longer than any of the others. France
France
and her allies lost at least 91,000 killed in action and 237,000 wounded in the peninsula.[91]

The French Empire in Europe
Europe
in 1812, near its peak extent

In the east, the Austrians drove into the Duchy of Warsaw
Duchy of Warsaw
but suffered defeat at the Battle of Raszyn
Battle of Raszyn
on 19 April 1809. The Polish army captured West Galicia
West Galicia
following its earlier success. Napoleon
Napoleon
assumed personal command and bolstered the army for a counter-attack on Austria. After a few small battles, the well-run campaign forced the Austrians to withdraw from Bavaria, and Napoleon
Napoleon
advanced into Austria. His hurried attempt to cross the Danube
Danube
resulted in the major Battle of Aspern-Essling
Battle of Aspern-Essling
(22 May 1809) — Napoleon's first significant tactical defeat. But the Austrian commander, Archduke Charles, failed to follow up on his indecisive victory, allowing Napoleon
Napoleon
to prepare and seize Vienna
Vienna
in early July. He defeated the Austrians at Wagram, on 5–6 July. (It was during the middle of that battle that Marshal Bernadotte was stripped of his command after retreating contrary to Napoleon's orders. Shortly thereafter, Bernadotte took up the offer from Sweden
Sweden
to fill the vacant position of Crown Prince there. Later he actively participated in wars against his former Emperor.) The War of the Fifth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
ended with the Treaty of Schönbrunn (14 October 1809). In the east, only the Tyrolese rebels led by Andreas Hofer
Andreas Hofer
continued to fight the French-Bavarian army until finally defeated in November 1809. In the west the Peninsular War continued. The British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon (behind their impregnable lines of Torres Vedras) but besieged Cadiz. In 1810, the French Empire reached its greatest extent. Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, with the aim of ensuring a more stable alliance with Austria and of providing the Emperor with an heir (something his first wife, Josephine, had failed to do). As well as the French Empire, Napoleon
Napoleon
controlled the Swiss Confederation, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Duchy of Warsaw
Duchy of Warsaw
and the Kingdom of Italy. Territories allied with the French included:

the Kingdom of Denmark the Kingdom of Spain
Spain
(under Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's elder brother) the Kingdom of Westphalia
Kingdom of Westphalia
(Jérôme Bonaparte, Napoleon's younger brother) the Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
(under Joachim Murat, husband of Napoleon's sister Caroline) the Principality of Lucca and Piombino
Principality of Lucca and Piombino
(under Elisa Bonaparte (Napoleon's sister) and her husband Felice Baciocchi);

and Napoleon's former enemies, Sweden, Prussia and Austria. Subsidiary wars[edit] The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
were the direct cause of wars in the Americas and elsewhere. War of 1812[edit] Main article: War of 1812 The War of 1812
War of 1812
coincided with the War of the Sixth Coalition. Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, while Europeans often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. The United States declared war on Britain because of British interference with American merchant ships and forced enlistment into the British Royal Navy. France
France
had interfered as well, and the US considered declaring war on France. The war ended in a military stalemate, and there were no boundary changes at the Treaty of Ghent, which took effect in early 1815 when Napoleon
Napoleon
was on Elba.[92] The Latin American Revolutions[edit] Main article: Spanish American wars of independence The abdication of kings Carlos IV and Fernando VII of Spain
Spain
and the installation of Napoleon's brother as King José provoked civil wars and revolutions leading to the independence of most of Spain's mainland American colonies. In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII, whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch. The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence
Spanish American wars of independence
in most of the empire was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in Spain
Spain
and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars.[93] In contrast, the Portuguese royal family escaped to Brazil
Brazil
and established the court there, resulting in political stability for Portuguese America. With the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
and the return of the Braganza monarchy to Portugal, the heir remained in Brazil
Brazil
and declared Brazilian independence, achieving it peacefully with the territory intact. The Invasion of Russia
Russia
1812[edit] Main article: Napoleon's invasion of Russia

The Battle of Borodino
Battle of Borodino
as depicted by Louis Lejeune. The battle was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars.

The Treaty of Tilsit
Treaty of Tilsit
in 1807 resulted in the Anglo-Russian War (1807–12). Emperor Alexander I declared war on Britain after the British attack on Denmark
Denmark
in September 1807. British men-of-war supported the Swedish fleet during the Finnish War
Finnish War
and won victories over the Russians in the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
in July 1808 and August 1809. The success of the Russian army on land, however, forced Sweden
Sweden
to sign peace treaties with Russia
Russia
in 1809 and with France
France
in 1810, and to join the blockade against Britain. But Franco-Russian relations became progressively worse after 1810, and the Russian war with Britain effectively ended. In April 1812, Britain, Russia
Russia
and Sweden signed secret agreements directed against Napoleon.[94] The central issue for both Napoleon
Napoleon
and Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I was control over Poland. Each wanted a semi-independent Poland
Poland
he could control. As Esdaile notes, "Implicit in the idea of a Russian Poland
Poland
was, of course, a war against Napoleon."[95] Schroeder says Poland
Poland
was "the root cause" of Napoleon's war with Russia
Russia
but Russia's refusal to support the Continental System
Continental System
was also a factor.[96] In 1812, at the height of his power, Napoleon
Napoleon
invaded Russia
Russia
with a pan-European Grande Armée, consisting of 650,000 men (270,000 Frenchmen and many soldiers of allies or subject areas). The French forces crossed the Niemen River
Niemen River
on 24 June 1812. Russia
Russia
proclaimed a Patriotic War, and Napoleon
Napoleon
proclaimed a Second Polish war. The Poles supplied almost 100,000 men for the invasion force, but against their expectations, Napoleon
Napoleon
avoided any concessions to Poland, having in mind further negotiations with Russia.[97] The Grande Armée
Grande Armée
marched through Russia, winning some relatively minor engagements and the major Battle of Smolensk
Smolensk
on 16–18 August. In the same days, part of the French Army led by Marshal Nicolas Oudinot was stopped in the Battle of Polotsk by the right wing of the Russian Army, under command of General Peter Wittgenstein. This prevented the French march on the Russian capital, Saint Petersburg; the fate of the invasion was decided in Moscow, where Napoleon
Napoleon
led his forces in person.

Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, a painting by Adolph Northen

Russia
Russia
used scorched-earth tactics, and harried the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
with light Cossack
Cossack
cavalry. The Grande Armée
Grande Armée
did not adjust its operational methods in response.[98] This led to most of the losses of the main column of the Grande Armée, which in one case amounted to 95,000 men, including deserters, in a week.[99] The main Russian army retreated for almost three months. This constant retreat led to the unpopularity of Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly and a veteran, Prince Mikhail Kutuzov, was made the new Commander-in-Chief by Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I. Finally, the two armies engaged in the Battle of Borodino
Battle of Borodino
on 7 September,[100] in the vicinity of Moscow. The battle was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 men and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties. It was indecisive; the French captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army. Logistical difficulties meant that French casualties could not be replaced, unlike Russian ones. Napoleon
Napoleon
entered Moscow on 14 September, after the Russian Army had retreated yet again.[101] By then, the Russians had largely evacuated the city and released criminals from the prisons to inconvenience the French; the governor, Count Fyodor Rostopchin, ordered the city to be burnt.[102] Alexander I refused to capitulate, and the peace talks attempted by Napoleon
Napoleon
failed. In October, with no sign of clear victory in sight, Napoleon
Napoleon
began the disastrous Great Retreat from Moscow.

Charles Joseph Minard's graph of the decreasing size of the Grande Armée represented by the width of the line as it marches to Moscow (tan) and back (black)

At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets
Battle of Maloyaroslavets
the French tried to reach Kaluga, where they could find food and forage supplies. The replenished Russian Army blocked the road, and Napoleon
Napoleon
was forced to retreat the same way he had come to Moscow, through the heavily ravaged areas along the Smolensk
Smolensk
road. In the following weeks, the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
was dealt a catastrophic blow by the onset of the Russian Winter, the lack of supplies and constant guerrilla warfare by Russian peasants and irregular troops. When the remnants of the Napoleon's army crossed the Berezina River in November, only 27,000 fit soldiers survived, with 380,000 men dead or missing and 100,000 captured.[103] Napoleon
Napoleon
then left his men and returned to Paris to prepare the defence against the advancing Russians. The campaign effectively ended on 14 December 1812, when the last enemy troops left Russia. The Russians had lost around 210,000 men, but with their shorter supply lines, they soon replenished their armies. War of the Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition
1812–1814[edit] Main article: Sixth Coalition Seeing an opportunity in Napoleon's historic defeat, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, and several German states re-entered the war.[104] Napoleon vowed that he would create a new army as large as the one he had sent into Russia, and quickly built up his forces in the east from 30,000 to 130,000 and eventually to 400,000. Napoleon
Napoleon
inflicted 40,000 casualties on the Allies at Lützen (2 May 1813) and Bautzen (20–21 May 1813). Both battles involved forces of over 250,000, making them some of the largest conflicts of the wars so far. Metternich in November 1813 offered Napoleon
Napoleon
the Frankfurt proposals. They would allow Napoleon
Napoleon
to remain Emperor but France
France
would be reduced to its "natural frontiers" and lose control of most of Italy
Italy
and Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands. Napoleon
Napoleon
still expected to win the wars, and rejected the terms. By 1814, as the Allies were closing in on Paris, Napoleon did agree to the Frankfurt proposals, but it was too late and he rejected the new harsher terms proposed by the Allies.[105]

The Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
involved over 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe
Europe
prior to World War I.

In the Peninsular War, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, renewed the Anglo-Portuguese advance into Spain
Spain
just after New Year in 1812, besieging and capturing the fortified towns of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, and in the Battle of Salamanca
Battle of Salamanca
(which was a damaging defeat of the French). As the French regrouped, the Anglo–Portuguese entered Madrid
Madrid
and advanced towards Burgos, before retreating all the way to Portugal when renewed French concentrations threatened to trap them. As a consequence of the Salamanca campaign, the French were forced to end their long siege of Cadiz and to permanently evacuate the provinces of Andalusia
Andalusia
and Asturias.[106] In a strategic move, Wellesley planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander. The Anglo–Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos. On 21 June, at Vitoria, the combined Anglo-Portuguese and Spanish armies won against Joseph Bonaparte, finally breaking French power in Spain. The French had to retreat out of the Iberian peninsula, over the Pyrenees.[107] The belligerents declared an armistice from 4 June 1813 (continuing until 13 August) during which time both sides attempted to recover from the loss of approximately a quarter of a million men in the preceding two months. During this time coalition negotiations finally brought Austria out in open opposition to France. Two principal Austrian armies took the field, adding 300,000 men to the coalition armies in Germany. The Allies now had around 800,000 front-line soldiers in the German theatre, with a strategic reserve of 350,000 formed to support the front-line operations.[citation needed]

The Battle of Hanau
Battle of Hanau
(30–31 October 1813), took part between Austro-Bavarian and French forces.

Napoleon
Napoleon
succeeded in bringing the imperial forces in the region to around 650,000—although only 250,000 came under his direct command, with another 120,000 under Nicolas Charles Oudinot
Nicolas Charles Oudinot
and 30,000 under Davout. The remainder of imperial forces came mostly from the Confederation of the Rhine, especially Saxony and Bavaria. In addition, to the south, Murat's Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
and Eugène de Beauharnais's Kingdom of Italy
Italy
had 100,000 armed men. In Spain, another 150,000 to 200,000 French troops steadily retreated before Anglo–Portuguese forces numbering around 100,000. Thus around 900,000 Frenchmen in all theatres faced around 1,800,000 coalition soldiers (including the strategic reserve under formation in Germany). The gross figures may mislead slightly, as most of the German troops fighting on the side of the French fought at best unreliably and stood on the verge of defecting to the Allies. One can reasonably say that Napoleon
Napoleon
could count on no more than 450,000 men in Germany—which left him outnumbered about four to one.[citation needed] Following the end of the armistice, Napoleon
Napoleon
seemed to have regained the initiative at Dresden (August 1813), where he once again defeated a numerically superior coalition army and inflicted enormous casualties, while sustaining relatively few. The failures of his marshals and a slow resumption of the offensive on his part cost him any advantage that this victory might have secured. At the Battle of Leipzig in Saxony (16–19 October 1813), also called the "Battle of the Nations", 191,000 French fought more than 300,000 Allies, and the defeated French had to retreat into France. After the French withdrawal from Germany, Napoleon's remaining ally, Denmark-Norway, became isolated and fell to the coalition.[108]

The Russian army enters Paris in 1814

Napoleon
Napoleon
then fought a series of battles in France, including the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube, but the overwhelming numbers of the Allies steadily forced him back. The Allies entered Paris on 30 March 1814. During this time Napoleon
Napoleon
fought his Six Days' Campaign, in which he won multiple battles against the enemy forces advancing towards Paris. During this entire campaign he never managed to field more than 70,000 men against more than half a million coalition soldiers. At the Treaty of Chaumont (9 March 1814), the Allies agreed to preserve the coalition until Napoleon's total defeat.[citation needed] Napoleon
Napoleon
determined to fight on, even now, incapable of fathoming his fall from power. During the campaign he had issued a decree for 900,000 fresh conscripts, but only a fraction of these materialised, and Napoleon's schemes for victory eventually gave way to the reality of his hopeless situation. Napoleon
Napoleon
abdicated on 6 April. Occasional military actions continued in Italy, Spain, and Holland in early 1814.[109] The victors exiled Napoleon
Napoleon
to the island of Elba, and restored the French Bourbon monarchy in the person of Louis XVIII. They signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau (11 April 1814) and initiated the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
to redraw the map of Europe.[citation needed] War of the Seventh Coalition
War of the Seventh Coalition
1815[edit]

See also: Hundred Days
Hundred Days
and the Neapolitan War
Neapolitan War
between the Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire

Wellington at Waterloo by Robert Alexander Hillingford

The Seventh Coalition
Seventh Coalition
(1815) pitted Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and several German states against France. The period known as the Hundred Days
Hundred Days
began after Napoleon
Napoleon
escaped from Elba
Elba
and landed at Cannes
Cannes
(1 March 1815). Travelling to Paris, picking up support as he went, he eventually overthrew the restored Louis XVIII. The Allies rapidly gathered their armies to meet him again. Napoleon
Napoleon
raised 280,000 men, whom he distributed among several armies. To add to the 90,000-strong standing army, he recalled well over a quarter of a million veterans from past campaigns and issued a decree for the eventual draft of around 2.5 million new men into the French army, which was never achieved. This faced an initial coalition force of about 700,000—although coalition campaign plans provided for one million front-line soldiers, supported by around 200,000 garrison, logistics and other auxiliary personnel. Napoleon
Napoleon
took about 124,000 men of the Army of the North on a pre-emptive strike against the Allies in Belgium.[110] He intended to attack the coalition armies before they combined, in hope of driving the British into the sea and the Prussians out of the war. His march to the frontier achieved the surprise he had planned, catching the Anglo-Dutch Army in a dispersed arrangement. The Prussians had been more wary, concentrating ​3⁄4 of their army in and around Ligny. The Prussians forced the Armée du Nord
Armée du Nord
to fight all the day of the 15th to reach Ligny in a delaying action by the Prussian 1st Corps. He forced Prussia to fight at Ligny on 16 June 1815, and the defeated Prussians retreated in disorder. On the same day, the left wing of the Armée du Nord, under the command of Marshal Michel Ney, succeeded in stopping any of Wellington's forces going to aid Blücher's Prussians by fighting a blocking action at Quatre Bras. Ney failed to clear the cross-roads and Wellington reinforced the position. But with the Prussian retreat, Wellington too had to retreat. He fell back to a previously reconnoitred position on an escarpment at Mont St Jean, a few miles south of the village of Waterloo.

Map of the Waterloo campaign

Napoleon
Napoleon
took the reserve of the Army of the North, and reunited his forces with those of Ney to pursue Wellington's army, after he ordered Marshal Grouchy to take the right wing of the Army of the North and stop the Prussians re-grouping. In the first of a series of miscalculations, both Grouchy and Napoleon
Napoleon
failed to realise that the Prussian forces were already reorganised and were assembling at the village of Wavre. The French army did nothing to stop a rather leisurely retreat that took place throughout the night and into the early morning by the Prussians. As the 4th, 1st, and 2nd Prussian Corps marched through the town towards Waterloo the 3rd Prussian Corps took up blocking positions across the river, and although Grouchy engaged and defeated the Prussian rearguard under the command of Lt-Gen von Thielmann in the Battle of Wavre
Battle of Wavre
(18–19 June) it was 12 hours too late. In the end, 17,000 Prussians had kept 33,000 badly needed French reinforcements off the field. Napoleon
Napoleon
delayed the start of fighting at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
on the morning of 18 June for several hours while he waited for the ground to dry after the previous night's rain. By late afternoon, the French army had not succeeded in driving Wellington's forces from the escarpment on which they stood. When the Prussians arrived and attacked the French right flank in ever-increasing numbers, Napoleon's strategy of keeping the coalition armies divided had failed and a combined coalition general advance drove his army from the field in confusion. Grouchy organised a successful and well-ordered retreat towards Paris, where Marshal Davout had 117,000 men ready to turn back the 116,000 men of Blücher and Wellington. Davout was defeated at the Battle of Issy and negotiations for surrender had begun.

The charge of the French Cuirassiers at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
against a square of Scottish Highlanders

On arriving at Paris three days after Waterloo, Napoleon
Napoleon
still clung to the hope of a concerted national resistance; but the temper of the legislative chambers, and of the public generally, did not favour his view. Lacking support Napoleon
Napoleon
abdicated again on 22 June 1815, and on 15 July he surrendered to the British squadron at Rochefort. The Allies exiled him to the remote South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, where he died on 5 May 1821. In Italy, Joachim Murat, whom the Allies had allowed to remain King of Naples after Napoleon's initial defeat, once again allied with his brother-in-law, triggering the Neapolitan War
Neapolitan War
(March to May 1815). Hoping to find support among Italian nationalists fearing the increasing influence of the Habsburgs in Italy, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation
Rimini Proclamation
inciting them to war. The proclamation failed and the Austrians soon crushed Murat at the Battle of Tolentino
Battle of Tolentino
(2 May to 3 May 1815), forcing him to flee. The Bourbons returned to the throne of Naples on 20 May 1815. Murat tried to regain his throne, but after that failed, he was executed by firing squad on 13 October 1815. Political effects[edit] The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
brought radical changes to Europe, but the reactionary forces returned to power and tried to reverse some of them[111] by restoring the Bourbon house on the French throne. Napoleon
Napoleon
had succeeded in bringing most of Western Europe
Europe
under one rule. In most European countries, subjugation in the French Empire brought with it many liberal features of the French Revolution including democracy, due process in courts, abolition of serfdom, reduction of the power of the Catholic Church, and a demand for constitutional limits on monarchs. The increasing voice of the middle classes with rising commerce and industry meant that restored European monarchs found it difficult to restore pre-revolutionary absolutism and had to retain many of the reforms enacted during Napoleon's rule. Institutional legacies remain to this day in the form of civil law, with clearly defined codes of law—an enduring legacy of the Napoleonic Code.

The national boundaries within Europe
Europe
are set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815

France's constant warfare with the combined forces of the other major powers of Europe
Europe
for over two decades finally took its toll. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, France
France
no longer held the role of the dominant power in Continental Europe, as it had since the times of Louis XIV, as the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
produced a "balance of power" by resizing the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. In this regard, Prussia was restored in its former borders, and also received large chunks of Poland
Poland
and Saxony. Greatly enlarged, Prussia became a permanent Great Power. In order to drag Prussia's attention towards the west and France, the Congress also gave the Rhineland
Rhineland
and Westphalia to Prussia. These industrial regions transformed agrarian Prussia into an industrial leader in the nineteenth century.[112] Britain emerged as the most important economic power, and its Royal Navy
Royal Navy
held unquestioned naval superiority across the globe well into the 20th century.[113] After the Napoleonic period, nationalism, a relatively new movement, became increasingly significant. This shaped much of the course of future European history. Its growth spelled the beginning of some states and the end of others, as the map of Europe
Europe
changed dramatically in the hundred years following the Napoleonic Era. Rule by fiefdoms and aristocracy was widely replaced by national ideologies based on shared origins and culture. Bonaparte's reign over Europe sowed the seeds for the founding of the nation-states of Germany
Germany
and Italy
Italy
by starting the process of consolidating city-states, kingdoms and principalities. At the end of the war Denmark
Denmark
was forced to cede Norway to Sweden, but because Norway had signed its own constitution on 17 May 1814, Sweden
Sweden
was forced to fight for the right to own Norway. The resulting union between Sweden
Sweden
and Norway gave Norway more independence than under Denmark
Denmark
and ended with Norway becoming an independent country in 1905. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of the Netherlands created as a buffer state against France
France
dissolved rapidly with the independence of Belgium in 1830.[114] The Napoleonic wars also played a key role in the independence of the Latin American colonies from Spain
Spain
and Portugal. The conflict weakened the authority and military power of Spain, especially after the Battle of Trafalgar. There were many uprisings in Spanish America, leading to the wars of independence. In Portuguese America, Brazil
Brazil
experienced greater autonomy as it now served as seat of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
and ascended politically to the status of Kingdom. These events also contributed to the Portuguese Liberal Revolution in 1820 and the Independence of Brazil
Independence of Brazil
in 1822.[8] The century of relative transatlantic peace, after the Congress of Vienna, enabled the “greatest intercontinental migration in human history”[115] beginning with "a big spurt of immigration after the release of the dam erected by the Napoleonic Wars."[116] Immigration inflows relative to the US population rose to record levels (peaking at 1.6% in 1850-51)[117] as 30 million Europeans relocated to the United States between 1815 and 1914.[118] Another concept emerged from the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
– that of a unified Europe. After his defeat, Napoleon
Napoleon
deplored the fact that his dream of a free and peaceful "European association" remained unaccomplished. Such a European association would share the same principles of government, system of measurement, currency and Civil Code. One-and-a-half centuries later, and after two world wars several of these ideals re-emerged in the form of the European Union. Military legacy[edit] Enlarged scope[edit]

In 1800 Bonaparte took the French Army across the Alps, eventually defeating the Austrians at Marengo.

Until the time of Napoleon, European states employed relatively small armies, made up of both national soldiers and mercenaries. These regulars were highly drilled professional soldiers. Ancien Régime armies could only deploy small field armies due to rudimentary staffs and comprehensive yet cumbersome logistics. Both issues combined to limit field forces to approximately 30,000 men under a single commander. Military innovators in the mid-18th century began to recognise the potential of an entire nation at war: a "nation in arms".[119] The scale of warfare dramatically enlarged during the Revolutionary and subsequent Napoleonic Wars. During Europe's major pre-revolutionary war, the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
of 1756–1763, few armies ever numbered more than 200,000 with field forces often numbering less than 30,000. The French innovations of separate corps (allowing a single commander to efficiently command more than the traditional command span of 30,000 men) and living off the land (which allowed field armies to deploy more men without requiring an equal increase in supply arrangements such as depots and supply trains) allowed the French republic to field much larger armies than their opponents. Napoleon
Napoleon
ensured during the time of the French republic that separate French field armies operated as a single army under his control, often allowing him to substantially outnumber his opponents. This forced his continental opponents to increase the size of their armies as well, moving away from the traditional small, well drilled Ancien Régime armies of the 18th century to mass conscript armies.

Napoleon
Napoleon
on the field of Eylau

The Battle of Marengo, which largely ended the War of the Second Coalition, was fought with fewer than 60,000 men on both sides. The Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz
which ended the War of the Third Coalition involved fewer than 160,000 men. The Battle of Friedland
Battle of Friedland
which led to peace with Russia
Russia
in 1807 involved about 150,000 men. After these defeats, the continental powers developed various forms of mass conscription to allow them to face France
France
on even terms, and the size of field armies increased rapidly. The battle of Wagram of 1809 involved 300,000 men, and 500,000 fought at Leipzig in 1813, of whom 150,000 were killed or wounded. About a million French soldiers became casualties (wounded, invalided or killed), a higher proportion than in the First World War. The European total may have reached 5,000,000 military deaths, including disease.[120][121] France
France
had the second-largest population in Europe
Europe
by the end of the 18th century (27 million, as compared to Britain's 12 million and Russia's 35 to 40 million).[122] It was well poised to take advantage of the levée en masse. Before Napoleon's efforts, Lazare Carnot played a large part in the reorganisation of the French army from 1793 to 1794—a time which saw previous French misfortunes reversed, with Republican armies advancing on all fronts.

Napoleon's retreat from Russia
Russia
in 1812. His Grande Armée
Grande Armée
had lost about half a million men.

The French army peaked in size in the 1790s with 1.5 million Frenchmen enlisted although battlefield strength was much less. Haphazard bookkeeping, rudimentary medical support and lax recruitment standards ensured that many soldiers either never existed, fell ill or were unable to withstand the physical demands of soldiering. About 2.8 million Frenchmen fought on land and about 150,000 at sea, bringing the total for France
France
to almost 3 million combatants during almost 25 years of warfare.[23]

The Battle of Trafalgar

Britain had 750,000 men under arms between 1792 and 1815 as its army expanded from 40,000 men in 1793[123] to a peak of 250,000 men in 1813.[20] Over 250,000 sailors served in the Royal Navy. In September 1812, Russia
Russia
had 900,000 enlisted men in its land forces, and between 1799 and 1815 2.1 million men served in its army. Another 200,000 served in the Russian Navy. Out of the 900,000 men, the field armies deployed against France
France
numbered less than 250,000. There are no consistent statistics for other major combatants. Austria's forces peaked at about 576,000 (during the War of the Sixth Coalition) and had little or no naval component yet never fielded more than 250,000 men in field armies. After Britain, Austria proved the most persistent enemy of France; more than a million Austrians served during the long wars. Its large army was overall quite homogeneous and solid and in 1813 operated in Germany
Germany
(140,000 men), Italy
Italy
and the Balkans (90,000 men at its peak, about 50,000 men during most of the campaigning on these fronts). Austria's manpower was becoming quite limited towards the end of the wars, leading its generals to favour cautious and conservative strategies, to limit their losses.

French soldiers in skirmish with Bashkirs
Bashkirs
and Cossacks
Cossacks
in 1813

Prussia never had more than 320,000 men under arms at any time. In 1813-1815, the core of its army (about 100,000 men) was characterised by competence and determination, but the bulk of its forces consisted of second- and third-line troops, as well as militiamen of variable strength. Many of these troops performed reasonably well and often displayed considerable bravery but lacked the professionalism of their regular counterparts and were not as well equipped. Others were largely unfit for operations, except sieges. During the 1813 campaign, 130,000 men were used in the military operations, with 100,000 effectively participating in the main German campaign, and about 30,000 being used to besiege isolated French garrisons.[124] Spain's armies also peaked at around 200,000 men, not including more than 50,000 guerrillas scattered over Spain. In addition the Maratha Confederation, the Ottoman Empire, Italy, Naples and the Duchy of Warsaw each had more than 100,000 men under arms. Even small nations now had armies rivalling the size of the Great Powers' forces of past wars but most of these were poor quality forces only suitable for garrison duties. The size of their combat forces remained modest yet they could still provide a welcome addition to the major powers. The percentage of French troops in the Grande Armee which Napoleon
Napoleon
led into Russia
Russia
was about 50% while the French allies also provided a significant contribution to the French forces in Spain. As these small nations joined the coalition forces in 1813-1814, they provided a useful addition to the coalition while depriving Napoleon
Napoleon
of much needed manpower. Innovations[edit] The initial stages of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
had much to do with larger military forces—it became easy to mass-produce weapons and thus to equip larger forces. Britain was the largest single manufacturer of armaments in this period. It supplied most of the weapons used by the coalition powers throughout the conflicts. France produced the second-largest total of armaments, equipping its own huge forces as well as those of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
and other allies.[125] Napoleon
Napoleon
showed innovative tendencies in his use of mobility to offset numerical disadvantages, as demonstrated in the rout of the Austro-Russian forces in 1805 in the Battle of Austerlitz. The French Army redefined the role of artillery, forming independent, mobile units, as opposed to the previous tradition of attaching artillery pieces in support of troops.[126] The semaphore system had allowed the French War-Minister, Carnot, to communicate with French forces on the frontiers throughout the 1790s. The French continued to use this system throughout the Napoleonic wars. Aerial surveillance
Aerial surveillance
was used for the first time when the French used a hot-air balloon to survey coalition positions before the Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794.[36] Total war[edit] Main article: Total war

The Second of May 1808
The Second of May 1808
was the beginning of the popular Spanish resistance against Napoleon.

Historians have explored how the Napoleonic wars became total wars. Most historians argue that the escalation in size and scope came from two sources. First was the ideological clash between revolutionary/egalitarian and conservative/hierarchical belief systems. Second was the emerging nationalism in France, Germany, Spain, and elsewhere that made these "people's wars" instead of contests between monarchs.[127] Bell has argued that even more important than ideology and nationalism were the intellectual transformations in the culture of war that came about through the Enlightenment.[128] One factor, he says, is that war was no longer a routine event but a transforming experience for societies—a total experience. Secondly the military emerged in its own right as a separate sphere of society distinct from the ordinary civilian world. The French Revolution
French Revolution
made every civilian a part of the war machine, either as a soldier through universal conscription, or as a vital cog in the home front machinery supporting and supplying the army. Out of that, says Bell, came "militarism," the belief that the military role was morally superior to the civilian role in times of great national crisis. The fighting army represented the essence of the nation's soul.[129] As Napoleon
Napoleon
proclaimed, "It is the soldier who founds a Republic and it is the soldier who maintains it."[130] In fiction[edit] Main article: Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in fiction

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See also[edit]

Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
portal

International relations, 1648–1814, for diplomacy British Army during the Napoleonic Wars Coalition forces of the Napoleonic Wars Imperial and Royal Army during the Napoleonic Wars Royal Prussian Army of the Napoleonic Wars List of Napoleonic battles Uniforms of La Grande Armée

Notes[edit]

^ Hanover was in a Personal Union
Personal Union
with Great Britain ^ a b The term "Austrian Empire" came into use after Napoleon
Napoleon
crowned himself Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
in 1804, whereby Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor took the title Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
(Kaiser von Österreich) in response. The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was dissolved in 1806, and consequently "Emperor of Austria" became Francis' primary title. For this reason, "Austrian Empire" is often used instead of "Holy Roman Empire" for brevity's sake when speaking of the Napoleonic Wars, even though the two entities are not synonymous. ^ a b c Both Austria and Prussia briefly became allies of France
France
and contributed forces to the French Invasion of Russia
Russia
in 1812. ^ a b Russia
Russia
became an ally of France
France
following the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807. The alliance broke down in 1810, which led to the French invasion in 1812. During that time Russia
Russia
waged war against Sweden (1808–1809) and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1806–1812), and nominally against Britain (1807–1812). ^ a b Nominally, Sweden
Sweden
declared war against Great Britain after its defeat by Russia
Russia
in the Finnish War
Finnish War
(1808–1809). ^ a b c Spain
Spain
was an ally of France
France
until a stealthy French invasion in 1808, then fought France
France
in the Peninsular War. ^ a b The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
fought against Napoleon
Napoleon
in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria as part of the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Napoleonic era of 1803 to 1815, the Empire participated in two wars against the Allies: against Britain in the Anglo-Turkish War (1807–1809) and against Russia
Russia
in the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812). Russia
Russia
was allied with Napoleon
Napoleon
1807–1810. ^ a b Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
fought against Russia
Russia
from 1804 to 1813; the Russians were allied with Napoleon
Napoleon
1807–1812. ^ Sicily remained in personal union with Naples until Naples became a French client-republic following the Battle of Campo Tenese
Battle of Campo Tenese
in 1806. ^ The Kingdom of Hungary participated in the war with separate Hungarian regiments[1][2] in the Imperial and Royal Army, and also by a traditional army ("insurrectio").[3] The Hungarian Diet voted to join in war and agreed to pay one third of the war expenses. ^ a b Napoleon
Napoleon
established the Duchy of Warsaw, ruled by the Kingdom of Saxony in 1807. Polish Legions had already been serving in the French armies beforehand. ^ The French Empire annexed the Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of Holland
in 1810. Dutch troops fought against Napoleon
Napoleon
during the Hundred Days
Hundred Days
in 1815. ^ The French Empire annexed the Kingdom of Etruria
Kingdom of Etruria
in 1807. ^ The Kingdom of Naples, briefly allied with Austria in 1814, allied with France
France
again and fought against Austria during the Neapolitan War in 1815. ^ Sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg) established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806 following the Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz
(December 1805). Following the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt
Battle of Jena-Auerstedt
(October 1806), various other German states that had previously fought alongside the anti-French allies, including Saxony and Westphalia, also allied with France
France
and joined the Confederation. Saxony changed sides again in 1813 during the Battle of Leipzig, causing most other member-states to quickly follow suit and declare war on France. ^ These four states[which?] were the leading nations of the Confederation, but the Confederation was made up of a total of 43 principalities, kingdoms, and duchies. ^ Denmark-Norway
Denmark-Norway
remained neutral until the Battle of Copenhagen (1807). Denmark
Denmark
was compelled to cede Norway to Sweden
Sweden
by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. Following a brief Swedish campaign against Norway, Norway entered a personal union with Sweden. ^ £3 trillion in modern economic cost terms.[72]

References[edit]

^ James R. Arnold: Napoleon
Napoleon
Conquers Austria: The 1809 Campaign for Vienna, ABC-Clio, 2003 [1] ^ The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809: The Hungarian Royal Army [2] ^ Todd Fisher: The Napoleonic Wars: The Empires Fight Back 1808–1812, Oshray Publishing, 2001 [3] ^ John Sainsbury (1842). Sketch of the Napoleon
Napoleon
Museum. London. p. 15.  ^ Reich 1905, p. 622 ^ "Denmark". World Statesmen. Retrieved January 18, 2015.  ^ "Norway". World Statesmen. Retrieved January 18, 2015.  ^ a b c Benjamin Keen and Keith Haynes, A History of Latin America (2012) ch 8 ^ Schäfer, Anton (2002). Zeittafel der Rechtsgeschichte. Von den Anfängen über Rom bis 1919. Mit Schwerpunkt Österreich und zeitgenössischen Bezügen (in German) (3 ed.). Edition Europa Verlag. ISBN 3-9500616-8-1. p. 137 ^ Edward et al., pp. 522-524 ^ "De Grondwet van 1815". Parlement & Politiek (in Dutch). Retrieved 26 June 2014.  ^ "The Royal Navy". Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ "The Rise of Prussia 1700-1830".  ^ Collier, Martin (2003). Italian unification, 1820–71. Heinemann Advanced History (First ed.). Oxford: Heinemann. p. 2. ISBN 0-435-32754-2. The Risorgimento is the name given to the process that ended with the political unification of Italy
Italy
in 1871  ^ Riall, Lucy (1994). The Italian Risorgimento: state, society, and national unification (First ed.). London: Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 0-203-41234-6. The functional importance of the Risorgimento to both Italian politics and Italian historiography has made this short period (1815–60) one of the most contested and controversial in modern Italian history  ^ Jakob Walter, and Marc Raeff. The diary of a Napoleonic foot soldier. Princeton, N.J., 1996. ^ Martyn Lyons p. 234–36 ^ Payne 1973, pp. 432–433. ^ Esdaile 2008, p. [page needed]. ^ a b Chandler & Beckett, p. 132 ^ Blücher, scourge of Napoleon, Leggiere ^ Riehn 1991, p. 50. ^ a b John France
France
(2011). Perilous Glory: The Rise of Western Military Power. Yale UP. p. 351.  ^ Correspondance générale - Tome 12: La campagne de Russie, 1812 Par Fondation Napoléon - https://books.google.com/books/about/Correspondance_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale_Tome_12.html?id=toua1U8uORQC&redir_esc=y ^ a b White 2014, Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
cites Urlanis 1971 ^ Canales 2004. ^ a b White 2014 cites Dumas 1923 citing Hodge ^ White 2014 cites Bodart 1916 ^ a b c Philo 2010. ^ a b Jones, Colin. The Cambridge Illustrated History of France
France
(1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 193–194. ISBN 0-521-43294-4.  ^ a b c Frederick Kagan, The End of the Old Order: Napoleon
Napoleon
and Europe, 1801-1805 (2007) pp 42-43 ^ "The Rise of Prussia 1700-1830".  ^ Ferguson, Niall (2004). Empire, The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02328-2.  ^ Bell, David Avrom (2007). The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe
Europe
and the birth of warfare as we know it. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 51. ISBN 0-618-34965-0.  ^ Geoffrey Wawro (2002). Warfare and Society in Europe, 1792–1914. Routledge. p. 9.  ^ a b R. R. Palmer (1941). Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution. Princeton UP. pp. 81–83.  ^ Boot, Max (2013). Invisible Armies: An Epic History of Guerrilla Warfare from Ancient Times to the Present. Liveright. pp. 10–11, 55. ISBN 978-0-87140-424-4.  ^ Dmitry Shlapentokh, The French Revolution
French Revolution
and the Russian Anti-Democratic Tradition (Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1997), p. 220-8 ^ Palmer, R.R. & Colton, Joel A History of the Modern World p. 361 ^ Suzanne Desan et al. eds. The French Revolution
French Revolution
in Global Perspective (2013), pp. 3, 8, 10 ^ Frank McLynn, Napoleon
Napoleon
(1998). p 215. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2012). The Encyclopedia of the War Of 1812. ABC-CLIO. p. 499.  ^ Arthur H. Buffinton, The Second Hundred Years' War, 1689–1815 (1929). See also: Francois Crouzet, "The Second Hundred Years War: Some Reflections". French History 10 (1996), pp. 432–450. and H. M. Scott, "Review: The Second 'Hundred Years War' 1689–1815". The Historical Journal 35 (1992), pp. 443–469. ^ Rapport, Mike (2013). The Napoleonic Wars: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780191642517. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ France
France
- Les guerres de la Révolution et de l'Empire. Herodote.net. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ Rabich, Adalbert (2011). "erster+napoleonischer+krieg"&hl=en Die Regionalgeschichte von Dülmen und Umgebung, Teil 2 (in German). Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag. p. 37. ISBN 9783640805846. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ (in Dutch) Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "coalitieoorlogen". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. ^ Chandler, David (1966). The Campaigns of Napoleon. The Mind and Method of History's Greatest Soldier. New York: Macmillan.  ^ Sutherland, Donald M. G. (2008). The French Revolution
French Revolution
and Empire: The Quest for a Civic Order. Wiley. p. 356.  ^ McConachy, Bruce (2001). "The Roots of Artillery
Artillery
Doctrine: Napoleonic Artillery
Artillery
Tactics Reconsidered". Journal of Military History. 65 (3): 617–640. JSTOR 2677528.  McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in 1807 was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers. ^ a b c d e f g h i Annual Register... for the Year 1803 (1805) ^ Haine, Scott. The History of France
France
(1st ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-313-30328-2.  ^ Mahan, A.T. The influence of sea power on the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Empire Vol. II (1892) pp. 106-107 ^ Andrew Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014) p 316 ^ Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014) p 309 ^ John D. Grainger, Amiens Truce: Britain & Bonaparte, 1801-1803 (2004) has a well-balanced analysis of both sides ^ Arthur Bryant, Years of victory: 1802-1812 (1944), pp 1-52, although older, is a well-regarded interpretation from the British perspective ^ Kagan, The End of the Old Order: Napoleon
Napoleon
and Europe, 1801-1805 (2007) pp 1-50 stresses Napoleon's initiatives. ^ Paul Schroeder, The Transformation of European politics 1763-1848 (1994) pp 231-45 is highly analytical and hostile to Napoleon ^ Jean Tulard, Napoleon: The Myth of the Saviour (1984) p 351. ^ Colin S. Gray (2007). War, Peace and International Relations: An Introduction to Strategic History. Routledge. p. 47.  ^ Robin Neillands (2003). Wellington & Napoleon: Clash of Arms. Pen and Sword. p. 22.  ^ Alistair Horne in Robert Cowley, ed. (2000). What If?: The World's Foremost Historians Imagine What Might Have Been. Penguin. p. 161. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Steve Chan (2013). Looking for Balance: China, the United States, and Power Balancing in East Asia. Stanford UP. p. 55.  ^ Martin Malia (2008). History's Locomotives: Revolutions and the Making of the Modern World. Yale UP. p. 205.  ^ "The Annual Register, Or, A View of the History, Politics, and Literature for ..."  ^ Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (1994) pp 307–10 ^ a b Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers
Great Powers
– economic change and military conflict from 1500 to 2000 (1989), pp. 128–9 ^ John M. Sherwig, Guineas and Gunpowder British Foreign Aid in the War with France, 1793–1815 (1969) ^ Alan Palmer, Alexander I (1974) p 86 ^ Asa Briggs, The Making of Modern England 1783–1867: The Age of Improvement (1959) p 143 ^ "Measuring Worth - Purchase Power of the Pound". Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ Élie Halévy, A History of the English People in 1815 (1924) vol 2 p 205–28 ^ Roger Knight, Britain Against Napoleon: The Organisation of Victory, 1793–1815 (2013) ^ J. Steven Watson, The Reign of George III 1760–1815 (1960), 374-77, 406-7, 463-71, ^ "Auguste Mayer's picture as described by the website of the Musée national de la Marine (in French)". Musee-marine.fr. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2011.  ^ Paul W. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (1994) pp 231–86 ^ Frederick Kagan (2007). The End of the Old Order: Napoleon
Napoleon
and Europe, 1801–1805. Da Capo Press. pp. 141ff.  ^ "Invasion of Britain – National Maritime Museum". Nmm.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 May 2011.  ^ "O'Meara's account of Napoleon
Napoleon
on the invasion of the England". Napoleon.org. Retrieved 21 May 2011.  ^ Esdaille, Napoleon's Wars, pp 252-53 ^ A. N. Ryan, "The Causes of the British Attack upon Copenhagen in 1807." English Historical Review (1953): 37-55. in JSTOR ^ Thomas Munch-Petersen, Defying Napoleon: How Britain Bombarded Copenhagen and Seized the Danish Fleet in 1807 (2007) ^ Otto Pivka (2012). Napoleon's Polish Troops. Osprey Publishing. pp. 8–10.  ^ J. P. Riley, Napoleon
Napoleon
and the World War of 1813: Lessons in Coalition Warfighting (2000) pp 27–8. ^ Alexander Grab, Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Transformation of Europe
Europe
(2003) pp 176–87 ^ J. M. Thompson, Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte: His rise and fall (1951) pp 235-40 ^ Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(3): The Peninsular War 1807-1814 (2014) ^ David Gates, The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War (1986) ^ John Lawrence Tone, "Partisan Warfare in Spain
Spain
and Total War," in Roger Chickering and Stig Förster, eds. (2010). War in an Age of Revolution, 1775–1815. Cambridge UP. p. 243. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015. p. 157.  ^ Jeremy Black, The War of 1812
War of 1812
in the Age of Napoleon
Napoleon
(2009) ^ John Lynch, Caudillos in Spanish America 1800-1850. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1992, pp. 402–403. ^ Alan Palmer, Alexander I: Tsar
Tsar
of War and Peace (1974) ^ Charles Esdaile, Napoleon's Wars: An International History, 1803–1815 (2007) p 438 ^ Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics: 1763 – 1848 (1994) p 419 ^ Riehn, Richard =K. (1990), 1812: Napoleon's Russian campaign  ^ Riehn 1990, pp. 138–140. ^ Reihn 1990, p. 185. ^ Philip Haythornthwaite, Borodino 1812; Napoleon's great gamble (2012). ^ Reihn, 1812, pp. 253–254 ^ With Napoleon
Napoleon
in Russia, The Memoirs of General Coulaincourt, Chapter VI 'The Fire' pp. 109–107 Pub. William Morrow and Co 1945 ^ The Wordsworth Pocket Encyclopedia, page 17, Hertfordshire 1993 ^ Philip Dwyer, Citizen Emperor: Napoleon
Napoleon
in Power (2013), pp 431-74 ^ J. P. Riley (2013). Napoleon
Napoleon
and the World War of 1813: Lessons in Coalition Warfighting. Routledge. p. 206.  ^ Peter Young and James Philip Lawford, Wellington's masterpiece: the battle and campaign of Salamanca (outledge, 2015). ^ Michael Glover, Wellington's Peninsular Victories: Busaco, Salamanca, Vitoria, Nivelle (1963). ^ Peter Hofschroer, Leipzig 1813: The Battle of the Nations (1993) ^ Philip Dwyer, Citizen Emperor: Napoleon
Napoleon
In Power (2013) pp 464-98 ^ Peter Hofschroer, The Waterloo Campaign: Wellington, His German Allies and the Battles of Ligny and Quatre Bras (2006) ^ Jacques Godechot, et al. The Napoleonic era in Europe
Europe
(1971) ^ "The Rise of Prussia 1700-1830".  ^ "The Royal Navy". Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ "Les Transformations des Universités du Xiiie Au Xxie Siècle".  ^ Drew Keeling, “The Transportation Revolution and Transatlantic Migration," Research in Economic History 19 (1999), p. 39. ^ Franklin D. Scott, The Peopling of America: Perspectives of Immigration (1984), p. 24. Marcus Hansen, The Atlantic Migration (1940), pp. 79-106, termed this a "new beginning" for American immigration. For further background context, see "North Atlantic, 1815-19". Migration as a travel business. Retrieved 3 June 2015.  ^ Drew Keeling, “Transport Capacity Management and Transatlantic Migration, 1900-1914." Research in Economic History 25 (2008), pp. 267-68. ^ Maldwyn Jones, American Immigration (1992, 2nd ed.)‚ p. 79. Jones referred to this unprecedented migration as “one of the wonders of the age” (p. 78). ^ "Napoleon's Total War". HistoryNet.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008.  ^ David A.Bell, The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe
Europe
and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It (2007) p 7 ^ Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers
Great Powers
Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (1987) pp 99–100 ^ Colin McEvedy and Richard M. Jones, Atlas of World Population History (1978) pp 41–222 ^ Chappell, p. 8 ^ Blücher, scourge of Napoleon, Leggiere ^ Christopher David Hall (1992). British Strategy in the Napoleonic War, 1803–15. Manchester U.P. p. 28.  ^ Geoffrey Wawro (2002). Warfare and Society in Europe, 1792–1914. Routledge. p. 9.  ^ Donald Stoker; et al. (2008). Conscription in the Napoleonic Era: A Revolution in Military Affairs?. Routledge. pp. 24, 31–32, 38.  ^ Bell, The First Total War (2008) pp 7–13 ^ Many historians say it was not the "first" total war; for a critique of Bell see Frederick C. Schneid (2012). Napoleonic Wars. Potomac Books. p. 1802.  ^ Robert Harvey (2013). The War of Wars. Constable & Robinson. p. 328. 

Sources[edit]

Canales, Esteban (2004), 1808–1814: demografía y guerra en España (PDF) (in Spanish), Autonomous University of Barcelona, retrieved 3 May 2017  Philo, Tom (2010), Military and Civilian War Related Deaths Through the Ages, archived from the original on 20 April 2010 [unreliable source][better source needed] Riehn, Richard K. (1991), 1812: Napoleon's Russian Campaign (Paperback ed.), New York: Wiley, ISBN 978-0471543022  White, Matthew (2014), Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century, retrieved 3 May 2017 . This source references:

Bodart, Gaston (1916), Losses of Life in Modern Wars  Dumas, Samuel (1923), Losses of Life Caused By War  Urlanis, Boris (1971), Wars and Population 

Further reading[edit] General and reference books[edit]

Bell, David A. The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe
Europe
and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It (2008) excerpt and text search Bruun, Geoffrey. Europe
Europe
and the French Imperium, 1799-1814 (1938) online, political and diplomatic context Bruce, Robert B. et al. Fighting Techniques of the Napoleonic Age 1792–1815: Equipment, Combat Skills, and Tactics (2008) excerpt and text search Dupuy, Trevor N. and Dupuy, R. Ernest. The Encyclopedia of Military History (2nd ed. 1970) pp 730–770 Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon's Wars: An International History, 1803–1815 (2008); 645pp excerpt and text search a standard scholarly history Gates, David. The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
1803-1815 (NY: Random House, 2011) Godechot, Jacques; Béatrice Fry Hyslop; David Lloyd Dowd; et al. (1971). The Napoleonic era in Europe. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  Harvey, Robert (2013). The War of Wars. Constable & Robinson. p. 328. , well-written popular survey of these wars Linch, Kevin. Desertion
Desertion
from the British Army during Napoleonic Wars:Journal of Social History, Volume 49 Number 4 (2016) pp 808–828 Pope, Stephen (1999). The Cassel Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Cassel. ISBN 0-304-35229-2.  Rapport, Mike. The Napoleonic Wars: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford UP, 2013) Richardson, Hubert N. B. A Dictionary of Napoleon
Napoleon
and His Times (1920) online free 489pp Ross, Steven T. European Diplomatic History, 1789–1815: France Against Europe
Europe
(1969) Ross, Steven T. The A to Z of the Wars of the French Revolution (Rowman & Littlefield, 2010); 1st edition was Historical dictionary of the wars of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(Scarecrow Press, 1998) Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1988). "The Origins, Causes, and Extension of the Wars of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon". Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 18 (4): 771–793. JSTOR 204824.  Rothenberg, E. Gunther. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon (1977) Schneid, Frederick C. (2011). The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Mainz: Institute of European History.  Schneid, Frederick C. Napoleon's Conquest of Europe: The War of the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(2005) excerpt and text search Schneid, Frederick C. Napoleonic Wars: The Essential Bibliography (2012) excerpt and text search 121 pp. online review in H-FRANCE Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (1994) 920pp; online; advanced analysis of diplomacy Smith, Digby George. The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Data Book: Actions and Losses in Personnel, Colours, Standards and Artillery
Artillery
(1998) Stirk, Peter. "The concept of military occupation in the era of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars." Comparative Legal History 3#1 (2015): 60-84.

Napoleon
Napoleon
and French[edit]

Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon
Napoleon
(1973) 1172 pp; a detailed guide to all major battles excerpt and text search Chandler, David G., ed. Napoleon's Marshals (1987) short scholarly biographies Dwyer, Philip. Napoleon: The Path to Power (2008) excerpt vol 1; Citizen Emperor: Napoleon
Napoleon
in Power (2013) excerpt and text search v 2; most recent scholarly biography Elting, John R. Swords Around a Throne: Napoleon's Grand Armee (1988). Forrest, Alan I. Napoleon's Men: The Soldiers of the Empire Revolution and Empire (2002). Forrest, Alan. Conscripts and Deserters: The Army and French Society during Revolution and the Empire (1989) excerpt and text search Gallaher, John G. Napoleon’s Enfant Terrible: General Dominique Vandamme (2008). excerpt Griffith, Paddy. The Art of War of Revolutionary France, 1789–1802 (1998) excerpt and text search Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Napoleon's Military Machine (1995) excerpt and text search Hazen, Charles Downer. The French Revolution
French Revolution
and Napoleon
Napoleon
(1917) online free Kagan, Frederick W. The End of the Old Order: Napoleon
Napoleon
and Europe, 1801-1805 (2007) McLynn, Frank. Napoleon: A Biography (1997) Nester, William R. Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Art of Diplomacy: How War and Hubris Determined the Rise and Fall of the French Empire (2011). excerpt Parker, Harold T. "Why Did Napoleon
Napoleon
Invade Russia? A Study in Motivation and the Interrelations of Personality and Social Structure," Journal of Military History (1990) 54#2 pp 131–46 in JSTOR. Riley, Jonathon P. Napoleon
Napoleon
as a General (Hambledon Press, 2007) Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life (2014) Major new biography by a leading British Historian

British, Austrian, Prussian & Russian roles[edit]

Andress, David. The Savage Storm: Britain on the Brink in the Age of Napoleon
Napoleon
(2013), emphasises turmoil inside Britain & impact on military Bamford, Andrew. Sickness, Suffering, and the Sword: The British Regiment on Campaign, 1808-1815 (2013). excerpt Black, Jeremy. "British Strategy and the Struggle with France 1793–1815." Journal of Strategic Studies 31#4 (2008): 553-569. Bryant, Arthur. Years of Endurance 1793–1802 (1942); and Years of Victory, 1802–1812 (1944) well-written surveys of the British story Christie, Ian R. Wars and Revolutions Britain, 1760–1815 (1982) Cookson, J. E. The British Armed Nation 1793–1815 (1997) DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206583.001.0001 online Davey, James. In Nelson's Wake: The Navy and the Napoleonic Wars (2016). Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt: The Consuming Struggle (Volume 3) (1996) Esdaile, Charles J. "The British Army in the Napoleonic Wars: Approaches Old and New." English Historical Review 130#542 (2015): 123-137. Glover, Richard. Peninsular Preparation: The Reform of the British Army 1795–1809 (1963) excerpt and text search Hall, Christopher D. British Strategy in the Napoleonic War, 1803–15 (1992) Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Wellington's Military Machine, 1792–1815 (1989) Haythornthwaite, Philip J. The Russian Army of the Napoleonic Wars (1987) vol 1: Infantry 1799–1814; vol 2: Cavalry, 1799–1814 Knight, Roger. Britain Against Napoleon: The Organization Of Victory; 1793-1815 (2013); 710pp Lavery, Brian. Nelson's Navy: The Ships, Men, and Organization, 1793–1815 (2nd ed. 2012) Leggiere, Michael V. Blücher: Scourge of Napoleon
Napoleon
(2014). excerpt Lieven, D. C. " Russia
Russia
and the Defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
(1812–14)," Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History (2006) 7#2 pp 283–308. Linch, Kevin, and Matthew McCormack. "Wellington's Men: The British Soldier of the Napoleonic Wars" History Compass (2015) 13#6 pp 288–296. Muir, Rory. Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon: 1807–1815 (1996) Muir, Rory. Wellington: The Path to Victory 1769–1814 (2013) vol 1 of two-volume scholarly biography excerpt and text search Nester, William R. Titan: The Art of British Power in the Age of Revolution and Napoleon
Napoleon
(2016) Robson, Martin. A History of the Royal Navy: The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
I. B. Tauris, 20140 256pp. Rothenberg, Gunther E. Napoleon's Great Adversaries: The Archduke Charles and the Austrian Army 1792–1814 (1982) Schneid, Frederick C. ed. European Armies of the French Revolution, 1789–1802 (2015) Nine essays by leading scholars. Uglow, Jenny. In These Times: Living in Britain Through Napoleon's Wars, 1793-1815 (2015) 752pp excerpt Willis, Sam. In the Hour of Victory: The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
at War in the Age of Nelson (2013) Excerpt and text search

Historiography and memory[edit]

Esdaile, Charles. "The Napoleonic Period: Some Thoughts on Recent Historiography," European History Quarterly, (1993) 23: 415–32 online Forrest, Alan et al. eds. War Memories: The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in Modern European Culture (2013) Hyatt, Albert M.J. "The Origins of Napoleonic Warfare: A Survey of Interpretations." Military Affairs (1966) 30#4 pp 177–185. Lieven, D. C. " Russia
Russia
and the Defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
(1812–14)." Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History (2006) 7#2 pp 283–308. Linch, Kevin. "War Memories: The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in Modern European Culture." Social History 40#2 (2015): 253-254. Martin, Jean-Clément. "War Memories. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars in Modern European Culture." Annales Historiques De La Revolution Francaise. (2015) No. 381. Messenger, Charles, ed. (2001). Reader's Guide to Military History. Routledge. pp. 391–427. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) evaluation of the major books on Napoleon
Napoleon
and his wars published by 2001. Mikaberidze, Alexander. "Recent Trends in the Russian Historiography of the Napoleonic Wars," Journal of Military History (2010) 74#1 pp 189–194.

Primary sources[edit]

Dwyer, Philip G. "Public remembering, private reminiscing: French military memoirs and the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars," French Historical Studies (2010) 33#2 pp. 231–258 online Kennedy, Catriona. Narratives of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: Military and Civilian Experience in Britain and Ireland (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) Leighton, James. Witnessing the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in German Central Europe
Europe
(2013), diaries, letters and accounts by civilians Online review

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Napoleonic Wars.

Wikivoyage has travel information for Napoleonic Wars.

Texts on Wikisource:

Beck, Archibald Frank (1911). "Waterloo Campaign". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). pp. 371–381.  Maude, Frederic Natusch (1911). "Napoleonic Campaigns". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). pp. 212–236.  Robinson, Charles Walker (1911). "Peninsular War". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). pp. 90–98.  Rose, John Holland (1911). " Napoleon
Napoleon
I.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). pp. 190–211. 

The Legend of Bonaparte The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Exhibition held by The European Library 15th Kings Light Dragoons (Hussars) Re-enactment Regiment 2nd Bt. 95th Rifles Reenactment and Living History Society The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Collection Website Napoleon, His Army and Enemies Napoleonic Guide War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy Napoleonic Wars

v t e

Client states of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815)

Sister republics

Germany

Cisrhenia Mainz

Greece

Septinsular

Ireland

Connacht

Italy

Alba Ancona Bergamo Bologna Brescia Cisalpinia Cispadania Crema Italy Liguria Lucca Parthenopea Piedmont Rome Subalpinia Tiberinia Transpadania

Netherlands

Batavia Bouillon Liège

Poland

Danzig

Switzerland

Helvetia Lemania Rauracia Rhodania Swiss Confederation

Europe
Europe
at the height of Napoleon's Empire

Napoleonic creations

Germany

Aschaffenburg Confederation of the Rhine Baden Bavaria Berg Erfurt Frankfurt Hesse Leyen Regensburg Salm Salm-Horstmar Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck Saxony Westphalia Wetzlar Württemberg Würzburg

Italy

Benevento Etruria Guastalla Italy Lucca and Piombino Massa and Carrara Naples Pontecorvo Tuscany

Malta

Gozo

Netherlands

Holland

Poland

Warsaw

Spain

Spain

v t e

Napoleonic Wars

Third Coalition Fourth Coalition Peninsular War Fifth Coalition French Invasion of Russia Sixth Coalition Seventh Coalition

Belli- gerents

France, client states and allies

France Polish Legions Italy Holland Etruria Swiss Confederation Naples Confederation of the Rhine

Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg

Denmark–Norway Ottoman Empire Persia Spain

Coalition forces

United Kingdom Austria Russia Prussia Spain Portugal Sicily Papal States Ottoman Empire Persia Sardinia Sweden Netherlands Brunswick Hanover Nassau French Royalists

Major battles

Prelude

French Revolution First Coalition Second Coalition 18 Brumaire Planned invasion of the United Kingdom Duc d'Enghien Execution Coronation of Napoleon

1805

Diamond Rock Cape Finisterre Wertingen Günzburg Haslach-Jungingen Elchingen Ulm Verona Trafalgar Caldiero Cape Ortegal Amstetten Dürenstein Schöngrabern Austerlitz

1806

Gaeta Campo Tenese Maida Schleiz Saalfeld Jena–Auerstedt Erfurt Halle Magdeburg Prenzlau Pasewalk Stettin Waren-Nossentin Lübeck Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising Hameln Czarnowo Golymin Pułtusk

1807

Mohrungen Stralsund Eylau Ostrołęka Kolberg Danzig Mileto Guttstadt-Deppen Heilsberg Friedland Copenhagen Invasion of Portugal

1808

Dos de Mayo Bruch Rosily Squadron Cabezón 1st Zaragoza Valencia Medina de Rioseco Bailén Roliça Vimeiro Pancorbo Valmaseda Burgos Espinosa Tudela Somosierra 2nd Zaragoza Sahagún Benavente

1809

Castellón Uclés Corunna Valls Tyrolean Rebellion Villafranca Yevenes/Yébenes Ciudad Real 1st Porto Medellín Bergisel Sacile Teugen-Hausen Raszyn Abensberg Landshut Eckmühl Ratisbon Neumarkt-Sankt Veit Dalmatian Campaign Ebelsberg Gerona Piave River Grijó 2nd Porto Wörgl Tarvis Aspern-Essling Alcañiz Sankt Michael Stralsund Raab María Graz Wagram Korneuburg Stockerau Gefrees Hollabrunn Schöngrabern Armistice of Znaim Talavera Walcheren Campaign Ölper Almonacid Tamames Ocaña Alba de Tormes

1810

Cádiz Astorga Ciudad Rodrigo Barquilla Côa Almeida Bussaco

1811

Gebora Barrosa Pombal Redinha Casal Novo Campo Maior Sabugal Almeida Fuentes de Oñoro Tarragona Albuera Usagre Saguntum Arroyo dos Molinos Valencia

1812

Ciudad Rodrigo Badajoz Villagarcia Almaraz Maguilla Mir Salamanca García Hernández Saltanovka Ostrovno Vitebsk Klyastitsy Majadahonda Smolensk 1st Polotsk Valutino Mesoten Borodino Burgos Tarutino 2nd Polotsk Venta del Pozo Maloyaroslavets Chashniki Vyazma Smoliani Krasnoi Berezina

1813

Castalla Lützen Bautzen Tarragona Luckau Vitoria San Sebastián Pyrenees Sorauren Großbeeren Katzbach Dresden 1st Kulm San Marcial Dennewitz 2nd Kulm Göhrde Bidassoa Leipzig Hanau Nivelle Bornhöved Sehested

1814

Brienne La Rothière Mincio River Champaubert Montmirail Château-Thierry Vauchamps Garris Mormant Montereau Orthez Bar-sur-Aube Laon Reims Craonne Arcis-sur-Aube Fère-Champenoise Saint-Dizier Montmartre Paris Toulouse Bayonne

1815

Panaro Occhiobello Carpi Casaglia Ronco Cesenatico Pesaro Scapezzano Tolentino Ancona Castel di Sangro San Germano Gaeta Quatre Bras Ligny Waterloo Wavre Rocheserviere La Suffel Rocquencourt Issy

Info

French and ally military and political leaders

Napoleon Louis-Alexandre Berthier Joachim Murat Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean Lannes Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Michel Ney Jean-de-Dieu Soult Marshal Victor Jean-Baptiste Bessières Pierre-Charles Villeneuve Joseph I Louis Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Prince Poniatowski Prince Eugène Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick I of Württemberg Frederick VI of Denmark

Coalition military and political leaders

Duke of Wellington Rowland Hill John Moore Horatio Nelson Thomas Cochrane Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Manuel Lapeña Archduke Charles Prince von Schwarzenberg Archduke John of Austria Alexander I of Russia Mikhail Kutuzov Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Count Bennigsen Pyotr Bagration Frederick William III of Prussia Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII
of Spain Miguel de Álava Maria I of Portugal Prince Regent John of Portugal Count of Feira William, Prince of Orange Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden Prince Charles John of Sweden Louis XVIII
Louis XVIII
of France

Related conflicts

Anglo-Russian War Anglo-Spanish War Anglo-Swedish War Anglo-Turkish War English Wars

Gunboat War Dano-Swedish War

Finnish War Pomeranian War (Franco-Swedish War) Russo-Persian War Russo-Turkish War Spanish American Wars of Independence Swedish–Norwegian War War of 1812

Treaties

Campo Formio Lunéville Amiens Artlenburg Pressburg Finckenstein Tilsit Cintra Schönbrunn Paris (1810) Tauroggen Ried Chaumont Kiel Mantua Casalanza Paris (1815)

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Bourbon Restoration Casualties Congress of Erfurt Continental System England expects that every man will do his duty Grande Armée Longwood House

Portal Military History definition media quotes

v t e

Hundred Days

Waterloo Campaign
Waterloo Campaign
– Main battles

Battle of Ligny Battle of Quatre Bras Battle of Waterloo Battle of Wavre

Other battles

Battle of Rocheserviere Battle of La Suffel Battle of Rocquencourt Battle of Issy

Related articles

Napoleonic Wars Timeline of the Napoleonic era Minor Campaigns Military mobilisation Order of battle of the Waterloo Campaign Neapolitan War

v t e

History of Europe

Prehistory

Paleolithic Europe Neolithic Europe Bronze Age Europe Iron Age Europe

Classical antiquity

Classical Greece Roman Republic Hellenistic period Roman Empire Early Christianity Crisis of the Third Century Fall of the Western Roman Empire Late antiquity

Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages Migration Period Christianization Francia Byzantine Empire Maritime republics Viking Age Kievan Rus' Holy Roman Empire High Middle Ages Feudalism Crusades Mongol invasion Late Middle Ages Hundred Years' War Kalmar Union Renaissance

Early modern

Reformation Age of Discovery Baroque Thirty Years' War Absolute monarchy Ottoman Empire Portuguese Empire Spanish Empire Early modern France Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Dutch Republic British Empire Habsburg Monarchy Russian Empire Age of Enlightenment

Modern

Great Divergence Industrial Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Nationalism Revolutions of 1848 World War I Russian Revolution Interwar period World War II Cold War European integration

See also

Art of Europe Genetic history of Europe History of the Mediterranean region History of the European Union History of Western civilization Maritime history of Europe Military history of Europe

Authority control

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