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Revolutionary France
Revolutionary France
enacted laws that first emancipated Jews in France, establishing them as equal citizens to other Frenchmen. In countries that Napoleon Bonaparte 's ensuing First French Empire conquered during the Napoleonic Wars , he emancipated the Jews and introduced other ideas of freedom from the French Revolution. For instance, he overrode old laws restricting Jews to reside in ghettos , as well as lifting laws that limited Jews' rights to property, worship, and certain occupations.

Historians have disagreed about Napoleon's intentions in these actions, as well as his personal and political feelings about the Jewish community. Some have said he had political reasons but did not have sympathy for the Jews. His actions were generally opposed by the leaders of monarchies in other countries. After his defeat by Great Britain, a counter-revolution swept many of these countries and they restored discriminatory measures against the Jews.

CONTENTS

* 1 Napoleon\'s Law and the Jews

* 1.1 Bonaparte\'s alleged proclamation to the Jews of Africa and Asia

* 2 Napoleon\'s legacy

* 2.1 Reactions of major European powers * 2.2 Jews in Europe

* 3 Footnotes * 4 References * 5 External links

NAPOLEON\'S LAW AND THE JEWS

The French Revolution abolished the different treatment of people according to religion or origin that had existed under the monarchy. Roman Catholicism had been the established state religion, closely tied historically to the monarchy, which represented both religious and political authority. The 1789, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guaranteed freedom of religion and free exercise of worship, provided that it did not contradict public order. At that time, most other European countries implemented measures that restricted the rights of people in their nations who practiced minority religions.

In the early 19th century, through his conquests in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte spread the modernist ideas of revolutionary France: equality of citizens and the rule of law. Napoleon's personal attitude towards the Jews has been interpreted in various ways by different historians, as at various times he made statements both in support and opposition to the Jewish people. Orthodox Rabbi Berel Wein in Triumph of Survival: The Story of the Jews in the Modern Era 1650-1990 (1990) claims that Napoleon
Napoleon
was interested primarily in seeing the Jews assimilate, rather than prosper as a distinct community: "Napoleon's outward tolerance and fairness toward Jews was actually based upon his grand plan to have them disappear entirely by means of total assimilation, intermarriage, and conversion."

Napoleon
Napoleon
was concerned about the role of Jews as money lenders, wanting to end that. The treatment of the Alsace Jews and their debtors was raised in the Imperial Council on 30 April 1806. His liberation of the Jewish communities in Italy (notably in Ancona
Ancona
in the Papal States
Papal States
) and his insistence on the integration of Jews as equals in French and Italian societies demonstrate that he distinguished between usurers (whether Jewish or not), whom he compared to locusts , and Jews who accepted non-Jews as their equals.

His letter to Champagny, Minister of the Interior of 29 November 1806, expresses his thoughts: reduce, if not destroy, the tendency of Jewish people to practice a very great number of activities that are harmful to civilisation and to public order in society in all the countries of the world. It is necessary to stop the harm by preventing it; to prevent it, it is necessary to change the Jews. Once part of their youth will take its place in our armies, they will cease to have Jewish interests and sentiments; their interests and sentiments will be French.

(While insisting on the primacy of civil law over the military, Napoleon
Napoleon
retained a deep respect and affection for the military as a profession. He often hired former soldiers in civilian occupations).

Through his policies overall, Napoleon
Napoleon
greatly improved the condition of the Jews in France and Europe, and they widely admired him. Starting in 1806, Napoleon
Napoleon
passed a number of measures enhancing the position of the Jews in the French Empire. He recognized a representative group elected by the Jewish community, the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
, as their representatives to the French government.

In conquered countries, he abolished laws restricting Jews to living in ghettos . In 1807, he designated Judaism as one of the official religions of France, along with Roman Catholicism (long the established state religion), and Lutheran
Lutheran
and Calvinist Protestantism . (Followers of the latter had been severely persecuted by the monarchy in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.)

In 1808 Napoleon
Napoleon
rolled back a number of reforms (under the so-called décret infâme of 17 March 1808), declaring all debts with Jews to be annulled, reduced or postponed. This caused so much financial loss that the Jewish community nearly collapsed. In an effort to promote assimilation, Jews were restricted in where they could live, unless they converted to Christianity. Napoleon
Napoleon
ended these restrictions by 1811.

Historian Ben Weider
Ben Weider
argued that Napoleon
Napoleon
had to be extremely careful in defending oppressed minorities such as Jews, because of keeping balance with other political interests, but says that the leader clearly saw political benefit to his Empire in the long term in supporting them. Napoleon
Napoleon
hoped to use equality as a way of gaining advantage from discriminated groups, like Jews or Protestants.

Both aspects of his thinking can be seen in an 1822 response to physician Barry O'Meara, who had written to Napoleon
Napoleon
after he had been exiled, asking why he pressed for the emancipation of the Jews: I wanted to make them leave off usury , and become like other men...by putting them upon an equality, with Catholics, Protestants, and others, I hoped to make them become good citizens, and conduct themselves like others of the community...as their rabbins explained to them, that they ought not to practise usury to their own tribes, but were allowed to do so with Christians and others, that, therefore, as I had restored them to all their privileges...they were not permitted to practise usury with me or them, but to treat us as if we were of the tribe of Judah. Besides, I should have drawn great wealth to France as the Jews are very numerous, and would have flocked to a country where they enjoyed such superior privities. Moreover, I wanted to establish an universal liberty of conscience.

In a private letter to his brother Jérome Napoleon
Napoleon
, dated 6 March 1808, Napoleon
Napoleon
expressed a conflicting view: I have undertaken to reform the Jews, but I have not endeavoured to draw more of them into my realm. Far from that, I have avoided doing anything which could show any esteem for the most despicable of mankind.

BONAPARTE\'S ALLEGED PROCLAMATION TO THE JEWS OF AFRICA AND ASIA

During Napoleon's siege of Acre
Acre
in 1799, Le Moniteur Universel , the main French newspaper during the French Revolution, published on 3 Prairial
Prairial
, Year vii ( French Republican Calendar
French Republican Calendar
, equivalent to 22 May 1799) a short statement that:

"Buonaparte a fait publier une proclamation, dans laquelle il invite les juifs de l'Asie et de l'Afrique à venir se ranger sous ses drapeaux, pour rétablir l'ancienne Jérusalem; il en a déjà armé un grand nombre, et leurs bataillons menacent Alep."

This has been translated in English as:

"Bonaparte has published a proclamation in which he invites all the Jews of Asia and Africa to gather under his flag in order to re-establish the ancient Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. He has already given arms to a great number, and their battalions threaten Aleppo
Aleppo
."

Napoleon's forces lost to Great Britain
Great Britain
and he never carried out his alleged plan. Historians such as Nathan Schur in Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Holy Land (2006) believe that Napoleon
Napoleon
intended the proclamation for propaganda and to build support for his campaign among the Jews in those regions. Ronald Schechter believes that the newspaper was reporting a rumor, as there is no documentation that Napoleon contemplated such a policy. Other historians suggest that the proclamation was intended to gain support from Haim Farhi
Haim Farhi
, the Jewish advisor to Ahmed al Jazzar , the Muslim ruler of Acre
Acre
, and to bring him over to Napoleon's side. Farhi commanded the defence of Acre
Acre
on the field.

In 1940, historian Franz Kobler claimed to have found a detailed version of the proclamation from a German translation. Kobler's claim was published in The New Judaea, the official periodical of the Zionist Organisation . The Kobler version suggests that Napoleon
Napoleon
was inviting Jews across the Mideast and North Africa to create a Jewish state. It includes phrases such as "Rightful heirs of Palestine!" and "your political existence as a nation among the nations." These concepts have been more commonly associated with the Zionist movement, which developed in the late 19th century.

Historians such as Henry Laurens, Ronald Schechter, and Jeremy Popkin believe that the German document (which has never been found) was a forgery, as asserted by Simon Schwarzfuchs in his 1979 book.

NAPOLEON\'S LEGACY

Napoleon
Napoleon
had more influence on the Jews in Europe than detailed in his decrees. By breaking up the feudal castes of mid-Europe and introducing the equality of the French Revolution , he achieved more for Jewish emancipation than had been accomplished during the three preceding centuries. As part of recognizing the Jewish community, he established a national Israelite Consistory in France, with sub-organizations for various regions. It was intended to serve as a centralizing authority for Jewish religious and community life. Similarly he established the Westphalia (Royal Westphalian Consistory of the Israelites (he)). This served as a model for other German states until after the fall of Napoleon. Napoleon
Napoleon
permanently improved the condition of the Jews in the Prussian Rhine provinces
Rhine provinces
by his rule of this area.

Heine and Börne both recorded their sense of obligation to Napoleon's principles of action. The German Jews in particular have historically regarded Napoleon
Napoleon
as the major forerunner of Jewish emancipation in Germany. When the government required Jews to select surnames according to the mainstream model, some are said to have taken the name of Schöntheil, a translation of "Bonaparte." In the Jewish ghettos, legends grew up about Napoleon's actions. Twentieth-century Italian author Primo Levi
Primo Levi
wrote that Italian Jews often chose Napoleone and Bonaparte as their given name to recognize their historic liberator.

REACTIONS OF MAJOR EUROPEAN POWERS

The Russian Czar Alexander I objected to Napoleon's emancipation of the Jews and establishment of the Great Sanhedrin. He vehemently denounced the liberties given Jews and demanded that the Russian Orthodox Church protest against Napoleon's tolerant religious policy. He referred to the Emperor in a proclamation as "the Anti-Christ" and the "Enemy of God".

The Holy Synod of Moscow proclaimed: "In order to destroy the foundations of the Churches of Christendom, the Emperor of the French has invited into his capital all the Judaic synagogues and he furthermore intends to found a new Hebrew Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
― the same council that the Christian bible states, condemned to death (by crucifixion) the revered figure, Jesus of Nazareth."

The Czar persuaded Napoleon
Napoleon
to sign a 17 March 1808 decree restricting the freedoms accorded to the Jews. Napoleon
Napoleon
expected in exchange that the Czar would help persuade Great Britain
Great Britain
to end the war in Europe. Absent that, three months later, Napoleon
Napoleon
effectively cancelled the decree by allowing local authorities to implement his earlier reforms. More than half of the French départements restored citizens' guaranteed freedoms to the Jews.

In Austria, Chancellor Metternich wrote, "I fear that the Jews will believe (Napoleon) to be their promised Messiah".

In Prussia, leaders of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church were extremely hostile to Napoleon's actions. Italian kingdoms were suspicious of his actions, although expressing less violent opposition.

Great Britain, which was at war with Napoleon, rejected the principle and doctrine of the Sanhedrin.

JEWS IN EUROPE

All the states under French authority applied Napoleon's reforms. In Italy, the Netherlands, and the German states, the Jews were emancipated and able to act as free men for the first time in those nations. After the British defeated Napoleon
Napoleon
at Waterloo , a counter-revolution in many of these countries resulted in the restoration of discriminatory measures against Jews.

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Barry Edward O'Meara (1822). " Napoleon
Napoleon
in Exile". Retrieved 12 December 2012. * ^ "New letters of Napoleon
Napoleon
I". 1898. Retrieved 15 December 2012. * ^ "Buonaparte peint par lui-même dans sa carrière militaire et politique". * ^ Ben Weider
Ben Weider
(1997). "Napoléon et les Juifs (in French)" (PDF). Congrès de la Société Internationale Napoléoni