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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.[1][2] He was born Napoleone di Buonaparte (Italian: [napoleˈoːne di bwɔnaˈparte]) in Corsica
Corsica
to a relatively modest family of Italian ancestry from the minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution
French Revolution
erupted in 1789. He rapidly rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory
French Directory
eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy
Italy
after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and their Italian allies—winning virtually every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year, and becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power. He orchestrated a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul
First Consul
of the Republic. His ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and he became the first Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition
Third Coalition
by 1805. Napoleon
Napoleon
shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign
Ulm Campaign
and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
at the Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz
which led to the Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon
Napoleon
quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, then marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France
France
then forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit
Treaties of Tilsit
in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon
Napoleon
solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram
Battle of Wagram
in July. Napoleon
Napoleon
then invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System
Continental System
and choke off British trade with the European mainland, and declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War
Peninsular War
lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies. The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France
France
and its client states, especially Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and routinely violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon
Napoleon
into another war. The French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign destroyed Russian cities but resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon
Napoleon
by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon
Napoleon
at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil. The Allies then invaded France
France
and captured Paris
Paris
in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon
Napoleon
to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba
Elba
off the coast of Tuscany, and the Bourbon dynasty
Bourbon dynasty
was restored to power. However, Napoleon
Napoleon
escaped from Elba
Elba
in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
in June. The British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena
Saint Helena
in the South Atlantic, where he died six years later at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries, Switzerland, and large parts of modern Italy
Italy
and Germany. He implemented fundamental liberal policies in France
France
and throughout Western Europe.[note 1] His Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code
has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".[9]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career

2.1 Siege of Toulon 2.2 13 Vendémiaire 2.3 First Italian campaign 2.4 Egyptian expedition

3 Ruler of France

3.1 French Consulate

3.1.1 Temporary peace in Europe

3.2 French Empire

3.2.1 War of the Third Coalition 3.2.2 Middle-Eastern alliances 3.2.3 War of the Fourth Coalition
War of the Fourth Coalition
and Tilsit 3.2.4 Peninsular War
Peninsular War
and Erfurt 3.2.5 War of the Fifth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
and Marie Louise 3.2.6 Invasion of Russia 3.2.7 War of the Sixth Coalition 3.2.8 Exile to Elba 3.2.9 Hundred Days

4 Exile on Saint Helena

4.1 Death

4.1.1 Cause of death

5 Religion

5.1 Concordat 5.2 Arrest of Pope
Pope
Pius VII 5.3 Religious emancipation

6 Personality 7 Image 8 Reforms

8.1 Napoleonic Code 8.2 Warfare 8.3 Metric system 8.4 Education

9 Memory and evaluation

9.1 Criticism 9.2 Propaganda and memory 9.3 Long-term influence outside France

10 Marriages and children 11 Titles, styles, honours, and arms 12 Ancestry 13 Notes 14 Citations 15 References

15.1 Biographical studies 15.2 Primary sources 15.3 Specialty studies 15.4 Historiography and memory

16 External links

Early life

Napoleon's father Carlo Buonaparte
Carlo Buonaparte
was Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI of France.

The ancestors of Napoleon
Napoleon
descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica
Corsica
from Liguria
Liguria
in the 16th century.[10][11] His parents Carlo Maria di Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino
Letizia Ramolino
maintained an ancestral home called "Casa Buonaparte" in Ajaccio. Napoleon
Napoleon
was born there on 15 August 1769, their fourth child and third son. A boy and girl were born first but died in infancy. He had an elder brother, Joseph, and younger siblings Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline, and Jérôme. Napoleon
Napoleon
was baptised as a Catholic.[12] Although he was born "Napoleone di Buonaparte" (Italian: [napoleˈoːne di bwɔnaˈparte]),[13] he changed his name to the more French-sounding "Napoléon Bonaparte" (French: [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt]) when he was 27.[note 2][15][16][17]

The nationalist Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli; portrait by Richard Cosway, 1798

Napoleon
Napoleon
was born the same year the Republic of Genoa, a former commune of Italy,[18] transferred Corsica
Corsica
to France.[19] The state ceded sovereign rights a year before his birth in 1768, was transferred to France
France
during the year of his birth and formally incorporated as a province in 1770, after 200 years under nominal Genoese rule.[note 3] His father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child.[24] Napoleon's maternal grandmother had married into the Swiss Fesch family in her second marriage, and Napoleon's uncle, the cardinal Joseph Fesch, would fulfill a role as protector of the Bonaparte family for some years. Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time.[25] When he turned 9 years old,[26][27] he moved to the French mainland and enrolled at a religious school in Autun
Autun
in January 1779. In May, he transferred with a scholarship to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château.[28] In his youth he was an outspoken Corsican nationalist and supported the state's independence from France.[26] Like many Corsicans, Napoleon
Napoleon
spoke and read Corsican (as his mother tongue) and Italian (as the official language of Corsica).[29][30][31] He began learning French in school at age 10.[32] Although he became fluent in French, he spoke with a distinctive Corsican accent and never learned how to spell French correctly.[33] He was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent, birthplace, short stature, mannerisms and inability to speak French quickly.[30] Bonaparte became reserved and melancholy applying himself to reading. An examiner observed that Napoleon
Napoleon
"has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. He is fairly well acquainted with history and geography ... This boy would make an excellent sailor".[note 4][35] In early adulthood, he briefly intended to become a writer; he authored a history of Corsica
Corsica
and a romantic novella.[26] On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon
Napoleon
was admitted to the École Militaire
École Militaire
in Paris. He trained to become an artillery officer and, when his father's death reduced his income, was forced to complete the two-year course in one year.[36] He was the first Corsican to graduate from the École Militaire.[36] He was examined by the famed scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace.[37] Early career

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Rise of Napoleon. (Discuss) (March 2018)

Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte, aged 23, lieutenant-colonel of a battalion of Corsican Republican volunteers. Portrait by Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux.

Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment.[28][note 5] He served in Valence and Auxonne
Auxonne
until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, and took nearly two years' leave in Corsica
Corsica
and Paris
Paris
during this period. At this time, he was a fervent Corsican nationalist, and wrote to Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli
Pasquale Paoli
in May 1789, "As the nation was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood. Such was the odious sight which was the first to strike me".[39] He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. He was a supporter of the republican Jacobin movement, organising clubs in Corsica,[40] and was given command over a battalion of volunteers. He was promoted to captain in the regular army in July 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against French troops.[41] He came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to split with France and sabotage the Corsican contribution to the Expédition de Sardaigne, by preventing a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena.[42] Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland in June 1793 because of the split with Paoli.[43] Siege of Toulon Main article: Siege of Toulon

Bonaparte at the Siege of Toulon

In July 1793, Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet entitled Le souper de Beaucaire
Le souper de Beaucaire
(Supper at Beaucaire) which gained him the support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. With the help of his fellow Corsican Antoine Christophe Saliceti, Bonaparte was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the Siege of Toulon.[44] He adopted a plan to capture a hill where republican guns could dominate the city's harbour and force the British to evacuate. The assault on the position led to the capture of the city, but during it Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh. He was promoted to brigadier general at the age of 24. Catching the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, he was put in charge of the artillery of France's Army of Italy.[45] Napoleon
Napoleon
spent time as inspector of coastal fortifications on the Mediterranean coast near Marseille
Marseille
while he was waiting for confirmation of the Army of Italy
Italy
post. He devised plans for attacking the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
as part of France's campaign against the First Coalition. Augustin Robespierre
Augustin Robespierre
and Saliceti were ready to listen to the freshly promoted artillery general.[46] The French army carried out Bonaparte's plan in the Battle of Saorgio in April 1794, and then advanced to seize Ormea
Ormea
in the mountains. From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge. After this campaign, Augustin Robespierre
Augustin Robespierre
sent Bonaparte on a mission to the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
to determine that country's intentions towards France.[47] 13 Vendémiaire Main article: 13 Vendémiaire Some contemporaries alleged that Bonaparte was put under house arrest at Nice
Nice
for his association with the Robespierres following their fall in the Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
in July 1794, but Napoleon's secretary Bourrienne disputed the allegation in his memoirs. According to Bourrienne, jealousy was responsible, between the Army of the Alps and the Army of Italy
Italy
(with whom Napoleon
Napoleon
was seconded at the time).[48] Bonaparte dispatched an impassioned defense in a letter to the commissar Saliceti, and he was subsequently acquitted of any wrongdoing.[49] He was released within two weeks and, due to his technical skills, was asked to draw up plans to attack Italian positions in the context of France's war with Austria. He also took part in an expedition to take back Corsica
Corsica
from the British, but the French were repulsed by the British Royal Navy.[50] By 1795, Bonaparte had become engaged to Désirée Clary, daughter of François Clary. Désirée's sister Julie Clary
Julie Clary
had married Bonaparte's elder brother Joseph.[51] In April 1795, he was assigned to the Army of the West, which was engaged in the War in the Vendée—a civil war and royalist counter-revolution in Vendée, a region in west central France
France
on the Atlantic Ocean. As an infantry command, it was a demotion from artillery general—for which the army already had a full quota—and he pleaded poor health to avoid the posting.[52]

Journée du 13 Vendémiaire, artillery fire in front of the Church of Saint-Roch, Paris, Rue Saint-Honoré

He was moved to the Bureau of Topography
Topography
of the Committee of Public Safety and sought unsuccessfully to be transferred to Constantinople in order to offer his services to the Sultan.[53] During this period, he wrote the romantic novella Clisson et Eugénie, about a soldier and his lover, in a clear parallel to Bonaparte's own relationship with Désirée.[54] On 15 September, Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service for his refusal to serve in the Vendée campaign. He faced a difficult financial situation and reduced career prospects.[55] On 3 October, royalists in Paris
Paris
declared a rebellion against the National Convention.[56] Paul Barras, a leader of the Thermidorian Reaction, knew of Bonaparte's military exploits at Toulon
Toulon
and gave him command of the improvised forces in defence of the Convention in the Tuileries Palace. Napoleon
Napoleon
had seen the massacre of the King's Swiss Guard there three years earlier and realised that artillery would be the key to its defence.[28] He ordered a young cavalry officer named Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795—13 Vendémiaire An IV in the French Republican Calendar; 1,400 royalists died and the rest fled.[56] He had cleared the streets with "a whiff of grapeshot", according to 19th-century historian Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
in The French Revolution: A History.[57][58] The defeat of the royalist insurrection extinguished the threat to the Convention and earned Bonaparte sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new government, the Directory. Murat married one of Napoleon's sisters, becoming his brother-in-law; he also served under Napoleon
Napoleon
as one of his generals. Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy.[43] Within weeks, he was romantically involved with Joséphine de Beauharnais, the former mistress of Barras. The couple married on 9 March 1796 in a civil ceremony.[59] First Italian campaign Main article: Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars

Bonaparte at the Pont d'Arcole, by Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, (ca. 1801), Musée du Louvre, Paris

Two days after the marriage, Bonaparte left Paris
Paris
to take command of the Army of Italy. He immediately went on the offensive, hoping to defeat the forces of Piedmont before their Austrian allies could intervene. In a series of rapid victories during the Montenotte Campaign, he knocked Piedmont out of the war in two weeks. The French then focused on the Austrians for the remainder of the war, the highlight of which became the protracted struggle for Mantua. The Austrians launched a series of offensives against the French to break the siege, but Napoleon
Napoleon
defeated every relief effort, scoring victories at the battles of Castiglione, Bassano, Arcole, and Rivoli. The decisive French triumph at Rivoli in January 1797 led to the collapse of the Austrian position in Italy. At Rivoli, the Austrians lost up to 14,000 men while the French lost about 5,000.[60] The next phase of the campaign featured the French invasion of the Habsburg heartlands. French forces in Southern Germany
Germany
had been defeated by the Archduke Charles in 1796, but the Archduke withdrew his forces to protect Vienna
Vienna
after learning about Napoleon's assault. In the first encounter between the two commanders, Napoleon
Napoleon
pushed back his opponent and advanced deep into Austrian territory after winning at the Battle of Tarvis in March 1797. The Austrians were alarmed by the French thrust that reached all the way to Leoben, about 100 km from Vienna, and finally decided to sue for peace.[61] The Treaty of Leoben, followed by the more comprehensive Treaty of Campo Formio, gave France
France
control of most of northern Italy
Italy
and the Low Countries, and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
to Austria. Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending 1,100 years of independence. He also authorized the French to loot treasures such as the Horses of Saint Mark.[62]

Bonaparte during the Italian campaign in 1797

His application of conventional military ideas to real-world situations enabled his military triumphs, such as creative use of artillery as a mobile force to support his infantry. He stated later in life:[when?] "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning. Look at Caesar; he fought the first like the last".[63] Bonaparte could win battles by concealment of troop deployments and concentration of his forces on the "hinge" of an enemy's weakened front. If he could not use his favourite envelopment strategy, he would take up the central position and attack two co-operating forces at their hinge, swing round to fight one until it fled, then turn to face the other.[64] In this Italian campaign, Bonaparte's army captured 150,000 prisoners, 540 cannons, and 170 standards.[65] The French army fought 67 actions and won 18 pitched battles through superior artillery technology and Bonaparte's tactics.[66] During the campaign, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. He founded two newspapers: one for the troops in his army and another for circulation in France.[67] The royalists attacked Bonaparte for looting Italy
Italy
and warned that he might become a dictator.[68] All told, Napoleon's forces extracted an estimated $45 million in funds from Italy
Italy
during their campaign there, another $12 million in precious metals and jewels; atop that, his forces confiscated more than three-hundred priceless paintings and sculptures.[69] Bonaparte sent General Pierre Augereau
Pierre Augereau
to Paris
Paris
to lead a coup d'état and purge the royalists on 4 September—Coup of 18 Fructidor. This left Barras and his Republican allies in control again but dependent on Bonaparte, who proceeded to peace negotiations with Austria. These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio, and Bonaparte returned to Paris
Paris
in December as a hero.[70] He met Talleyrand, France's new Foreign Minister—who served in the same capacity for Emperor Napoleon—and they began to prepare for an invasion of Britain.[43] Egyptian expedition Main article: French campaign in Egypt and Syria

Bonaparte Before the Sphinx, (ca. 1868) by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Hearst Castle

Battle of the Pyramids
Battle of the Pyramids
on 21 July 1798 by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune, 1808

After two months of planning, Bonaparte decided that France's naval power was not yet strong enough to confront the British Royal Navy. He decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine Britain's access to its trade interests in India.[43] Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate dream of linking with Tipu Sultan, a Muslim enemy of the British in India.[71] Napoleon
Napoleon
assured the Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions".[72] The Directory agreed in order to secure a trade route to India.[73] In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences. His Egyptian expedition included a group of 167 scientists, with mathematicians, naturalists, chemists, and geodesists among them. Their discoveries included the Rosetta Stone, and their work was published in the Description de l'Égypte
Description de l'Égypte
in 1809.[74] En route to Egypt, Bonaparte reached Malta
Malta
on 9 June 1798, then controlled by the Knights Hospitaller. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim surrendered after token resistance, and Bonaparte captured an important naval base with the loss of only three men.[75] General Bonaparte and his expedition eluded pursuit by the Royal Navy and landed at Alexandria
Alexandria
on 1 July.[43] He fought the Battle of Shubra Khit against the Mamluks, Egypt's ruling military caste. This helped the French practise their defensive tactic for the Battle of the Pyramids, fought on 21 July, about 24 km (15 mi) from the pyramids. General Bonaparte's forces of 25,000 roughly equalled those of the Mamluks' Egyptian cavalry. Twenty-nine French[76] and approximately 2,000 Egyptians were killed. The victory boosted the morale of the French army.[77] On 1 August 1798, the British fleet under Sir Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
captured or destroyed all but two French vessels in the Battle of the Nile, defeating Bonaparte's goal to strengthen the French position in the Mediterranean.[78] His army had succeeded in a temporary increase of French power in Egypt, though it faced repeated uprisings.[79] In early 1799, he moved an army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria and Galilee). Bonaparte led these 13,000 French soldiers in the conquest of the coastal towns of Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa.[80] The attack on Jaffa
Jaffa
was particularly brutal. Bonaparte discovered that many of the defenders were former prisoners of war, ostensibly on parole, so he ordered the garrison and 1,400 prisoners to be executed by bayonet or drowning to save bullets.[78] Men, women, and children were robbed and murdered for three days.[81] Bonaparte began with an army of 13,000 men; 1,500 were reported missing, 1,200 died in combat, and thousands perished from disease—mostly bubonic plague. He failed to reduce the fortress of Acre, so he marched his army back to Egypt in May. To speed up the retreat, Bonaparte ordered plague-stricken men to be poisoned with opium; the number who died remains disputed, ranging from a low of 30 to a high of 580. He also brought out 1,000 wounded men.[82] Back in Egypt on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir.[83] Ruler of France Main articles: 18 Brumaire and Napoleonic era

General Bonaparte surrounded by members of the Council of Five Hundred during the Coup of 18 Brumaire, by François Bouchot

While in Egypt, Bonaparte stayed informed of European affairs. He learned that France
France
had suffered a series of defeats in the War of the Second Coalition.[84] On 24 August 1799, he took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact that he had received no explicit orders from Paris.[78] The army was left in the charge of Jean Baptiste Kléber.[85] Unknown to Bonaparte, the Directory had sent him orders to return to ward off possible invasions of French soil, but poor lines of communication prevented the delivery of these messages.[84] By the time that he reached Paris
Paris
in October, France's situation had been improved by a series of victories. The Republic, however, was bankrupt and the ineffective Directory was unpopular with the French population.[86] The Directory discussed Bonaparte's "desertion" but was too weak to punish him.[84] Despite the failures in Egypt, Napoleon
Napoleon
returned to a hero's welcome. He drew together an alliance with director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, his brother Lucien, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred
Council of Five Hundred
Roger Ducos, director Joseph Fouché, and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d'état on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire" according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the Council of Five Hundred. Napoleon
Napoleon
became "first consul" for ten years, with two consuls appointed by him who had consultative voices only. His power was confirmed by the new "Constitution of the Year VIII", originally devised by Sieyès to give Napoleon
Napoleon
a minor role, but rewritten by Napoleon, and accepted by direct popular vote (3,000,000 in favor, 1,567 opposed). The constitution preserved the appearance of a republic but in reality established a dictatorship.[87][88] French Consulate Main articles: French Consulate
French Consulate
and War of the Second Coalition

Bonaparte, First Consul, by Ingres. Posing the hand inside the waistcoat was often used in portraits of rulers to indicate calm and stable leadership.

Napoleon
Napoleon
established a political system that historian Martyn Lyons called "dictatorship by plebiscite".[89] Worried by the democratic forces unleashed by the Revolution, but unwilling to ignore them entirely, Napoleon
Napoleon
resorted to regular electoral consultations with the French people on his road to imperial power.[89] He drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
and secured his own election as First Consul, taking up residence at the Tuileries. The constitution was approved in a rigged plebiscite held the following January, with 99.94 percent officially listed as voting "yes".[90] Napoleon's brother, Lucien, had falsified the returns to show that 3 million people had participated in the plebiscite; the real number was 1.5 million.[89] Political observers at the time assumed the eligible French voting public numbered about 5 million people, so the regime artificially doubled the participation rate to indicate popular enthusiasm for the Consulate.[89] In the first few months of the Consulate, with war in Europe still raging and internal instability still plaguing the country, Napoleon's grip on power remained very tenuous.[91] In the spring of 1800, Napoleon
Napoleon
and his troops crossed the Swiss Alps into Italy, aiming to surprise the Austrian armies that had reoccupied the peninsula when Napoleon
Napoleon
was still in Egypt.[note 6] After a difficult crossing over the Alps, the French army entered the plains of Northern Italy
Italy
virtually unopposed.[93] While one French army approached from the north, the Austrians were busy with another stationed in Genoa, which was besieged by a substantial force. The fierce resistance of this French army, under André Masséna, gave the northern force some time to carry out their operations with little interference.[94]

The battle of Marengo was Napoleon's first great victory as head of state.

After spending several days looking for each other, the two armies collided at the Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
on 14 June. General Melas had a numerical advantage, fielding about 30,000 Austrian soldiers while Napoleon
Napoleon
commanded 24,000 French troops.[95] The battle began favorably for the Austrians as their initial attack surprised the French and gradually drove them back. Melas stated that he'd won the battle and retired to his headquarters around 3 pm, leaving his subordinates in charge of pursuing the French.[96] The French lines never broke during their tactical retreat; Napoleon
Napoleon
constantly rode out among the troops urging them to stand and fight. Late in the afternoon, a full division under Desaix arrived on the field and reversed the tide of the battle. A series of artillery barrages and cavalry charges decimated the Austrian army, which fled over the Bormida River back to Alessandria, leaving behind 14,000 casualties.[97] The following day, the Austrian army agreed to abandon Northern Italy
Italy
once more with the Convention of Alessandria, which granted them safe passage to friendly soil in exchange for their fortresses throughout the region.[97] Although critics have blamed Napoleon
Napoleon
for several tactical mistakes preceding the battle, they have also praised his audacity for selecting a risky campaign strategy, choosing to invade the Italian peninsula from the north when the vast majority of French invasions came from the west, near or along the coastline.[98] As Chandler points out, Napoleon
Napoleon
spent almost a year getting the Austrians out of Italy
Italy
in his first campaign; in 1800, it took him only a month to achieve the same goal.[98] German strategist and field marshal Alfred von Schlieffen concluded that "Bonaparte did not annihilate his enemy but eliminated him and rendered him harmless" while "[attaining] the object of the campaign: the conquest of North Italy".[99] Napoleon's triumph at Marengo secured his political authority and boosted his popularity back home, but it did not lead to an immediate peace. Bonaparte's brother, Joseph, led the complex negotiations in Lunéville
Lunéville
and reported that Austria, emboldened by British support, would not acknowledge the new territory that France
France
had acquired. As negotiations became increasingly fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau and the French swept through Bavaria
Bavaria
and scored an overwhelming victory at Hohenlinden in December 1800. As a result, the Austrians capitulated and signed the Treaty of Lunéville
Lunéville
in February 1801. The treaty reaffirmed and expanded earlier French gains at Campo Formio.[100] Temporary peace in Europe See also: Haitian Revolution After a decade of constant warfare, France
France
and Britain signed the Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
in March 1802, bringing the Revolutionary Wars to an end. Amiens called for the withdrawal of British troops from recently conquered colonial territories as well as for assurances to curtail the expansionary goals of the French Republic.[94] With Europe at peace and the economy recovering, Napoleon's popularity soared to its highest levels under the Consulate, both domestically and abroad.[101] In a new plebiscite during the spring of 1802, the French public came out in huge numbers to approve a constitution that made the Consulate permanent, essentially elevating Napoleon
Napoleon
to dictator for life.[101] Whereas the plebiscite two years earlier had brought out 1.5 million people to the polls, the new referendum enticed 3.6 million to go and vote (72% of all eligible voters).[102] There was no secret ballot in 1802 and few people wanted to openly defy the regime; the constitution gained approval with over 99% of the vote.[102] His broad powers were spelled out in the new constitution: Article 1. The French people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul
First Consul
for Life.[103] After 1802, he was generally referred to as Napoleon
Napoleon
rather than Bonaparte.[38]

The 1803 Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
totaled 827,987 square miles (2,144,480 square kilometers), doubling the size of the United States.

The brief peace in Europe allowed Napoleon
Napoleon
to focus on the French colonies abroad. Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
had managed to acquire a high level of political autonomy during the Revolutionary Wars, with Toussaint Louverture installing himself as de facto dictator by 1801. Napoleon saw his chance to recuperate the formerly wealthy colony when he signed the Treaty of Amiens. During the Revolution, the National Convention voted to abolish slavery in February 1794. Under the terms of Amiens, however, Napoleon
Napoleon
agreed to appease British demands by not abolishing slavery in any colonies where the 1794 decree had never been implemented. The resulting Law of 20 May never applied to colonies like Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
or Guyane, even though rogue generals and other officials used the pretext of peace as an opportunity to reinstate slavery in some of these places. The Law of 20 May officially restored the slave trade to the Caribbean colonies, not slavery itself.[104] Napoleon
Napoleon
sent an expedition under General Leclerc designed to reassert control over Sainte-Domingue. Although the French managed to capture Toussaint Louverture, the expedition failed when high rates of disease crippled the French army. In May 1803, the last 8000 French troops left the island and the slaves proclaimed an independent republic that they called Haïti
Haïti
in 1804.[105] Seeing the failure of his colonial efforts, Napoleon
Napoleon
decided in 1803 to sell the Louisiana Territory
Louisiana Territory
to the United States, instantly doubling the size of the U.S. The selling price in the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
was less than three cents per acre, a total of $15 million.[1][106] The peace with Britain proved to be uneasy and controversial.[107] Britain did not evacuate Malta
Malta
as promised and protested against Bonaparte's annexation of Piedmont and his Act of Mediation, which established a new Swiss Confederation. Neither of these territories were covered by Amiens, but they inflamed tensions significantly.[108] The dispute culminated in a declaration of war by Britain in May 1803; Napoleon
Napoleon
responded by reassembling the invasion camp at Boulogne.[78] French Empire Main article: First French Empire See also: Coronation of Napoleon I
Coronation of Napoleon I
and Napoleonic Wars

The Coronation of Napoleon
The Coronation of Napoleon
by Jacques-Louis David

During the Consulate, Napoleon
Napoleon
faced several royalist and Jacobin assassination plots, including the Conspiration des poignards (Dagger plot) in October 1800 and the Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise
(also known as the Infernal Machine) two months later.[109] In January 1804, his police uncovered an assassination plot against him that involved Moreau and which was ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbon family, the former rulers of France. On the advice of Talleyrand, Napoleon
Napoleon
ordered the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien, violating the sovereignty of Baden. The Duke was quickly executed after a secret military trial, even though he had not been involved in the plot.[110] Enghien's execution infuriated royal courts throughout Europe, becoming one of the contributing political factors for the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars. To expand his power, Napoleon
Napoleon
used these assassination plots to justify the creation of an imperial system based on the Roman model. He believed that a Bourbon restoration would be more difficult if his family's succession was entrenched in the constitution.[111] Launching yet another referendum, Napoleon
Napoleon
was elected as Emperor of the French by a tally exceeding 99%.[102] As with the Life Consulate two years earlier, this referendum produced heavy participation, bringing out almost 3.6 million voters to the polls.[102] A keen observer of Bonaparte's rise to absolute power, Madame de Rémusat, explains that "men worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution … looked for the domination of an able ruler" and that "people believed quite sincerely that Bonaparte, whether as consul or emperor, would exert his authority and save [them] from the perils of anarchy.[112]" Napoleon's coronation took place on 2 December 1804. Two separate crowns were brought for the ceremony: a golden laurel wreath recalling the Roman Empire and a replica of Charlemagne's crown.[113] Napoleon entered the ceremony wearing the laurel wreath and kept it on his head throughout the proceedings.[113] For the official coronation, he raised the Charlemagne
Charlemagne
crown over his own head in a symbolic gesture, but never placed it on top because he was already wearing the golden wreath.[113] Instead he placed the crown on Josephine's head, the event commemorated in the officially sanctioned painting by Jacques-Louis David.[113] Napoleon
Napoleon
was also crowned King of Italy, with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, at the Cathedral of Milan on 26 May 1805. He created eighteen Marshals of the Empire from amongst his top generals to secure the allegiance of the army on 18 May 1804, the official start of the Empire. War of the Third Coalition Main article: War of the Third Coalition

Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
receive the surrender of Austrian General Mack after the Battle of Ulm
Battle of Ulm
in October 1805. The decisive finale of the Ulm Campaign
Ulm Campaign
raised the tally of captured Austrian soldiers to 60,000. With the Austrian army destroyed, Vienna
Vienna
would fall to the French in November.

Great Britain had broken the Peace of Amiens by declaring war on France
France
in May 1803.[114] In December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement became the first step towards the creation of the Third Coalition. By April 1805, Britain had also signed an alliance with Russia.[115] Austria had been defeated by France
France
twice in recent memory and wanted revenge, so it joined the coalition a few months later.[116] Before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon
Napoleon
had assembled an invasion force, the Armée d'Angleterre, around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France. He intended to use this invasion force to strike at England. They never invaded, but Napoleon's troops received careful and invaluable training for future military operations.[117] The men at Boulogne formed the core for what Napoleon
Napoleon
later called La Grande Armée. At the start, this French army had about 200,000 men organized into seven corps, which were large field units that contained 36–40 cannons each and were capable of independent action until other corps could come to the rescue.[118] A single corps properly situated in a strong defensive position could survive at least a day without support, giving the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
countless strategic and tactical options on every campaign. On top of these forces, Napoleon
Napoleon
created a cavalry reserve of 22,000 organized into two cuirassier divisions, four mounted dragoon divisions, one division of dismounted dragoons, and one of light cavalry, all supported by 24 artillery pieces.[119] By 1805, the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
had grown to a force of 350,000 men,[119] who were well equipped, well trained, and led by competent officers.[120] Napoleon
Napoleon
knew that the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy in a head-to-head battle, so he planned to lure it away from the English Channel through diversionary tactics.[121] The main strategic idea involved the French Navy
French Navy
escaping from the British blockades of Toulon and Brest and threatening to attack the West Indies. In the face of this attack, it was hoped, the British would weaken their defense of the Western Approaches
Western Approaches
by sending ships to the Caribbean, allowing a combined Franco-Spanish fleet to take control of the channel long enough for French armies to cross and invade.[121] However, the plan unraveled after the British victory at the Battle of Cape Finisterre in July 1805. French Admiral Villeneuve then retreated to Cádiz instead of linking up with French naval forces at Brest for an attack on the English Channel.[122] By August 1805, Napoleon
Napoleon
had realized that the strategic situation had changed fundamentally. Facing a potential invasion from his continental enemies, he decided to strike first and turned his army's sights from the English Channel
English Channel
to the Rhine. His basic objective was to destroy the isolated Austrian armies in Southern Germany
Germany
before their Russian allies could arrive. On 25 September, after great secrecy and feverish marching, 200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine
Rhine
on a front of 260 km (160 mi).[123][124] Austrian commander Karl Mack
Karl Mack
had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm
Ulm
in Swabia. Napoleon
Napoleon
swung his forces to the southeast and the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
performed an elaborate wheeling movement that outflanked the Austrian positions. The Ulm
Ulm
Maneuver completely surprised General Mack, who belatedly understood that his army had been cut off. After some minor engagements that culminated in the Battle of Ulm, Mack finally surrendered after realizing that there was no way to break out of the French encirclement. For just 2,000 French casualties, Napoleon
Napoleon
had managed to capture a total of 60,000 Austrian soldiers through his army's rapid marching.[125] The Ulm Campaign is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential in the development of the Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
in the late 19th century.[126] For the French, this spectacular victory on land was soured by the decisive victory that the Royal Navy attained at the Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
on 21 October. After Trafalgar, Britain had total domination of the seas for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars.[citation needed]

Napoleon
Napoleon
at the Battle of Austerlitz, by François Gérard
François Gérard
1805. The Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's many victories, where the French Empire defeated the Third Coalition.

Following the Ulm
Ulm
Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna
Vienna
in November. The fall of Vienna
Vienna
provided the French a huge bounty as they captured 100,000 muskets, 500 cannons, and the intact bridges across the Danube.[127] At this critical juncture, both Tsar Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II decided to engage Napoleon
Napoleon
in battle, despite reservations from some of their subordinates. Napoleon
Napoleon
sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, but then ordered his forces to retreat so that he could feign a grave weakness. Desperate to lure the Allies into battle, Napoleon
Napoleon
gave every indication in the days preceding the engagement that the French army was in a pitiful state, even abandoning the dominant Pratzen Heights near the village of Austerlitz. At the Battle of Austerlitz, in Moravia
Moravia
on 2 December, he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. A forced march from Vienna
Vienna
by Marshal Davout and his III Corps
Corps
plugged the gap left by Napoleon
Napoleon
just in time. Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right weakened their center on the Pratzen Heights, which was viciously attacked by the IV Corps
Corps
of Marshal Soult. With the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process. The battle is often seen as a tactical masterpiece because of the near-perfect execution of a calibrated but dangerous plan – of the same stature as Cannae, the celebrated triumph by Hannibal
Hannibal
some 2,000 years before.[128] The Allied disaster at Austerlitz significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort. France
France
and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after on 26 December. Pressburg took Austria out of both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville
Lunéville
between the two powers. The treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands to France
France
in Italy
Italy
and Bavaria, and lands in Germany
Germany
to Napoleon's German allies. It also imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories and back to their home soil. Napoleon
Napoleon
went on to say, "The battle of Austerlitz is the finest of all I have fought".[129] Frank McLynn suggests that Napoleon
Napoleon
was so successful at Austerlitz that he lost touch with reality, and what used to be French foreign policy became a "personal Napoleonic one".[130] Vincent Cronin
Vincent Cronin
disagrees, stating that Napoleon
Napoleon
was not overly ambitious for himself, "he embodied the ambitions of thirty million Frenchmen".[131] Middle-Eastern alliances Main articles: Franco-Ottoman alliance
Franco-Ottoman alliance
and Franco-Persian alliance

The Iranian envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini meeting with Napoleon
Napoleon
I at the Finckenstein Palace
Finckenstein Palace
in West Prussia, 27 April 1807, to sign the Treaty of Finckenstein.

Napoleon
Napoleon
continued to entertain a grand scheme to establish a French presence in the Middle East in order to put pressure on Britain and Russia, and perhaps form an alliance with the Ottoman Empire.[71] In February 1806, Ottoman Emperor Selim III
Selim III
finally recognized Napoleon as Emperor. He also opted for an alliance with France, calling France "our sincere and natural ally".[132] That decision brought the Ottoman Empire into a losing war against Russia and Britain. A Franco-Persian alliance was also formed between Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Persian Empire of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar. It collapsed in 1807, when France
France
and Russia themselves formed an unexpected alliance.[71] In the end, Napoleon
Napoleon
had made no effective alliances in the Middle East.[133] War of the Fourth Coalition
War of the Fourth Coalition
and Tilsit Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition After Austerlitz, Napoleon
Napoleon
established the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806. A collection of German states intended to serve as a buffer zone between France
France
and Central Europe, the creation of the Confederation spelled the end of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and significantly alarmed the Prussians. The brazen reorganization of German territory by the French risked threatening Prussian influence in the region, if not eliminating it outright. War fever in Berlin rose steadily throughout the summer of 1806. At the insistence of his court, especially his wife Queen Louise, Frederick William III decided to challenge the French domination of Central Europe by going to war.[134]

Napoleon
Napoleon
reviews the Imperial Guard before the Battle of Jena.

The initial military maneuvers began in September 1806. In a letter to Marshal Soult detailing the plan for the campaign, Napoleon
Napoleon
described the essential features of Napoleonic warfare and introduced the phrase le bataillon-carré ("square battalion").[135] In the bataillon-carré system, the various corps of the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
would march uniformly together in close supporting distance.[135] If any single corps was attacked, the others could quickly spring into action and arrive to help. Napoleon
Napoleon
invaded Prussia with 180,000 troops, rapidly marching on the right bank of the River Saale. As in previous campaigns, his fundamental objective was to destroy one opponent before reinforcements from another could tip the balance of the war. Upon learning the whereabouts of the Prussian army, the French swung westwards and crossed the Saale
Saale
with overwhelming force. At the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt, fought on 14 October, the French convincingly defeated the Prussians and inflicted heavy casualties. With several major commanders dead or incapacitated, the Prussian king proved incapable of effectively commanding the army, which began to quickly disintegrate. In a vaunted pursuit that epitomized the "peak of Napoleonic warfare", according to historian Richard Brooks,[136] the French managed to capture 140,000 soldiers, over 2,000 cannons and hundreds of ammunition wagons, all in a single month. Historian David Chandler wrote of the Prussian forces: "Never has the morale of any army been more completely shattered".[135] Despite their overwhelming defeat, the Prussians refused to negotiate with the French until the Russians had an opportunity to enter the fight.

The Treaties of Tilsit: Napoleon
Napoleon
meeting with Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I of Russia
on a raft in the middle of the Neman River

Following his triumph, Napoleon
Napoleon
imposed the first elements of the Continental System
Continental System
through the Berlin Decree issued in November 1806. The Continental System, which prohibited European nations from trading with Britain, was widely violated throughout his reign.[137][138] In the next few months, Napoleon
Napoleon
marched against the advancing Russian armies through Poland and was involved in the bloody stalemate at the Battle of Eylau
Battle of Eylau
in February 1807.[139] After a period of rest and consolidation on both sides, the war restarted in June with an initial struggle at Heilsberg that proved indecisive. On 14 June, however, Napoleon
Napoleon
finally obtained an overwhelming victory over the Russians at the Battle of Friedland, wiping out the majority of the Russian army in a very bloody struggle. The scale of their defeat convinced the Russians to make peace with the French. On 19 June, Czar Alexander sent an envoy to seek an armistice with Napoleon. The latter assured the envoy that the Vistula River
Vistula River
represented the natural borders between French and Russian influence in Europe. On that basis, the two emperors began peace negotiations at the town of Tilsit after meeting on an iconic raft on the River Niemen. The very first thing Alexander said to Napoleon
Napoleon
was probably well-calibrated: "I hate the English as much as you do".[140] Alexander faced pressure from his brother, Duke Constantine, to make peace with Napoleon. Given the victory he had just achieved, the French emperor offered the Russians relatively lenient terms – demanding that Russia join the Continental System, withdraw its forces from Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia, and hand over the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
to France.[141] By contrast, Napoleon
Napoleon
dictated very harsh peace terms for Prussia, despite the ceaseless exhortations of Queen Louise. Wiping out half of Prussian territories from the map, Napoleon
Napoleon
created a new kingdom of 1,100 square miles called Westphalia and appointed his young brother Jérôme as its monarch. Prussia's humiliating treatment at Tilsit caused a deep and bitter antagonism which festered as the Napoleonic era
Napoleonic era
progressed. Moreover, Alexander's pretensions at friendship with Napoleon
Napoleon
led the latter to seriously misjudge the true intentions of his Russian counterpart, who would violate numerous provisions of the treaty in the next few years. Despite these problems, the Treaties of Tilsit
Treaties of Tilsit
at last gave Napoleon
Napoleon
a respite from war and allowed him to return to France, which he had not seen in over 300 days.[142] Peninsular War
Peninsular War
and Erfurt Main article: Peninsular War The settlements at Tilsit gave Napoleon
Napoleon
time to organize his empire. One of his major objectives became enforcing the Continental System against the British. He decided to focus his attention on the Kingdom of Portugal, which consistently violated his trade prohibitions. After defeat in the War of the Oranges
War of the Oranges
in 1801, Portugal adopted a double-sided policy. At first, John VI agreed to close his ports to British trade. The situation changed dramatically after the Franco-Spanish defeat at Trafalgar; John grew bolder and officially resumed diplomatic and trade relations with Britain.[citation needed]

Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, as King of Spain

Unhappy with this change of policy by the Portuguese government, Napoleon
Napoleon
negotiated a secret treaty with Charles IV of Spain
Charles IV of Spain
and sent an army to invade Portugal.[143] On 17 October 1807, 24,000 French troops under General Junot crossed the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
with Spanish cooperation and headed towards Portugal to enforce Napoleon's orders.[144] This attack was the first step in what would eventually become the Peninsular War, a six-year struggle that significantly sapped French strength. Throughout the winter of 1808, French agents became increasingly involved in Spanish internal affairs, attempting to incite discord between members of the Spanish royal family. On 16 February 1808, secret French machinations finally materialized when Napoleon
Napoleon
announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country.[145] Marshal Murat led 120,000 troops into Spain
Spain
and the French arrived in Madrid
Madrid
on 24 March,[146] where wild riots against the occupation erupted just a few weeks later. Napoleon
Napoleon
appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as the new King of Spain
King of Spain
in the summer of 1808. The appointment enraged a heavily religious and conservative Spanish population. Resistance to French aggression soon spread throughout the country. The shocking French defeat at the Battle of Bailén
Battle of Bailén
in July gave hope to Napoleon's enemies and partly persuaded the French emperor to intervene in person.[citation needed] Before going to Iberia, Napoleon
Napoleon
decided to address several lingering issues with the Russians. At the Congress of Erfurt
Congress of Erfurt
in October 1808, Napoleon
Napoleon
hoped to keep Russia on his side during the upcoming struggle in Spain
Spain
and during any potential conflict against Austria. The two sides reached an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, that called upon Britain to cease its war against France, that recognized the Russian conquest of Finland from Sweden, and that affirmed Russian support for France
France
in a possible war against Austria "to the best of its ability".[147] Napoleon
Napoleon
then returned to France
France
and prepared for war. The Grande Armée, under the Emperor's personal command, rapidly crossed the Ebro
Ebro
River in November 1808 and inflicted a series of crushing defeats against the Spanish forces. After clearing the last Spanish force guarding the capital at Somosierra, Napoleon
Napoleon
entered Madrid
Madrid
on 4 December with 80,000 troops.[148] He then unleashed his soldiers against Moore and the British forces. The British were swiftly driven to the coast, and they withdrew from Spain
Spain
entirely after a last stand at the Battle of Corunna
Battle of Corunna
in January 1809.[citation needed]

Napoleon
Napoleon
accepts the surrender of Madrid, 4 December 1808

Napoleon
Napoleon
would end up leaving Iberia in order to deal with the Austrians in Central Europe, but the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
continued on long after his absence. He never returned to Spain
Spain
after the 1808 campaign. Several months after Corunna, the British sent another army to the peninsula under the future Duke of Wellington. The war then settled into a complex and asymmetric strategic deadlock where all sides struggled to gain the upper hand. The highlight of the conflict became the brutal guerrilla warfare that engulfed much of the Spanish countryside. Both sides committed the worst atrocities of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
during this phase of the conflict. The vicious guerrilla fighting in Spain, largely absent from the French campaigns in Central Europe, severely disrupted the French lines of supply and communication. Although France
France
maintained roughly 300,000 troops in Iberia during the Peninsular War, the vast majority were tied down to garrison duty and to intelligence operations.[149] The French were never able to concentrate all of their forces effectively, prolonging the war until events elsewhere in Europe finally turned the tide in favor of the Allies. After the invasion of Russia in 1812, the number of French troops in Spain
Spain
vastly declined as Napoleon
Napoleon
needed reinforcements to conserve his strategic position in Europe. By 1814, after scores of battles and sieges throughout Iberia, the Allies had managed to push the French out of the peninsula.[citation needed] The impact of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain
Spain
and ousting of the Spanish Bourbon monarchy in favor of his brother Joseph had an enormous impact on the Spanish empire. In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain, whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch. The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence
Spanish American wars of independence
in most of the empire was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in Spain
Spain
and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars.[150] War of the Fifth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
and Marie Louise Main article: War of the Fifth Coalition

Napoleon
Napoleon
at the Battle of Wagram, painted by Horace Vernet

After four years on the sidelines, Austria sought another war with France
France
to avenge its recent defeats. Austria could not count on Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1809. Frederick William of Prussia initially promised to help the Austrians, but reneged before conflict began.[151] A report from the Austrian finance minister suggested that the treasury would run out of money by the middle of 1809 if the large army that the Austrians had formed since the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
remained mobilized.[151] Although Archduke Charles warned that the Austrians were not ready for another showdown with Napoleon, a stance that landed him in the so-called "peace party", he did not want to see the army demobilized either.[151] On 8 February 1809, the advocates for war finally succeeded when the Imperial Government secretly decided on another confrontation against the French.[citation needed] In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian army crossed the Inn River
Inn River
and invaded Bavaria. The early Austrian attack surprised the French; Napoleon
Napoleon
himself was still in Paris
Paris
when he heard about the invasion. He arrived at Donauwörth
Donauwörth
on the 17th to find the Grande Armée
Grande Armée
in a dangerous position, with its two wings separated by 75 miles (121 km) and joined together by a thin cordon of Bavarian troops. Charles pressed the left wing of the French army and hurled his men towards the III Corps
Corps
of Marshal Davout. In response, Napoleon
Napoleon
came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the celebrated Landshut Maneuver.[152] He realigned the axis of his army and marched his soldiers towards the town of Eckmühl. The French scored a convincing win in the resulting Battle of Eckmühl, forcing Charles to withdraw his forces over the Danube
Danube
and into Bohemia. On 13 May, Vienna
Vienna
fell for the second time in four years, although the war continued since most of the Austrian army had survived the initial engagements in Southern Germany.

The entry of Bonaparte in Schönbrunn, Vienna

By 17 May, the main Austrian army under Charles had arrived on the Marchfeld. Charles kept the bulk of his troops several miles away from the river bank in hopes of concentrating them at the point where Napoleon
Napoleon
decided to cross. On 21 May, the French made their first major effort to cross the Danube, precipitating the Battle of Aspern-Essling. The Austrians enjoyed a comfortable numerical superiority over the French throughout the battle; on the first day, Charles disposed of 110,000 soldiers against only 31,000 commanded by Napoleon.[153] By the second day, reinforcements had boosted French numbers up to 70,000.[154] The battle was characterized by a vicious back-and-forth struggle for the two villages of Aspern and Essling, the focal points of the French bridgehead. By the end of the fighting, the French had lost Aspern but still controlled Essling. A sustained Austrian artillery bombardment eventually convinced Napoleon
Napoleon
to withdraw his forces back onto Lobau Island. Both sides inflicted about 23,000 casualties on each other.[155] It was the first defeat Napoleon suffered in a major set-piece battle, and it caused excitement throughout many parts of Europe because it proved that he could be beaten on the battlefield.[156] After the setback at Aspern-Essling, Napoleon
Napoleon
took more than six weeks in planning and preparing for contingencies before he made another attempt at crossing the Danube.[157] From 30 June to the early days of July, the French recrossed the Danube
Danube
in strength, with more than 180,000 troops marching across the Marchfeld towards the Austrians.[157] Charles received the French with 150,000 of his own men.[158] In the ensuing Battle of Wagram, which also lasted two days, Napoleon
Napoleon
commanded his forces in what was the largest battle of his career up until then. Napoleon
Napoleon
finished off the battle with a concentrated central thrust that punctured a hole in the Austrian army and forced Charles to retreat. Austrian losses were very heavy, reaching well over 40,000 casualties.[159] The French were too exhausted to pursue the Austrians immediately, but Napoleon
Napoleon
eventually caught up with Charles at Znaim and the latter signed an armistice on 12 July.

First French Empire
First French Empire
at its greatest extent in 1811   French Empire   French satellite states   Allied states

In the Kingdom of Holland, the British launched the Walcheren
Walcheren
Campaign to open up a second front in the war and to relieve the pressure on the Austrians. The British army only landed at Walcheren
Walcheren
on 30 July, by which point the Austrians had already been defeated. The Walcheren Campaign was characterized by little fighting but heavy casualties thanks to the popularly dubbed " Walcheren
Walcheren
Fever". Over 4000 British troops were lost in a bungled campaign, and the rest withdrew in December 1809.[160] The main strategic result from the campaign became the delayed political settlement between the French and the Austrians. Emperor Francis wanted to wait and see how the British performed in their theater before entering into negotiations with Napoleon. Once it became apparent that the British were going nowhere, the Austrians agreed to peace talks.[citation needed] The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn
Treaty of Schönbrunn
in October 1809 was the harshest that France
France
had imposed on Austria in recent memory. Metternich and Archduke Charles had the preservation of the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
as their fundamental goal, and to this end they succeeded by making Napoleon seek more modest goals in return for promises of friendship between the two powers.[161] Nevertheless, while most of the hereditary lands remained a part of the Habsburg realm, France
France
received Carinthia, Carniola, and the Adriatic ports, while Galicia was given to the Poles and the Salzburg
Salzburg
area of the Tyrol went to the Bavarians.[161] Austria lost over three million subjects, about one-fifth of her total population, as a result of these territorial changes.[162] Although fighting in Iberia continued, the War of the Fifth Coalition
War of the Fifth Coalition
would be the last major conflict on the European continent for the next three years.[citation needed] Napoleon
Napoleon
turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Empress Joséphine had still not given birth to a child from Napoleon, who became worried about the future of his empire following his death. Desperate for a legitimate heir, Napoleon
Napoleon
divorced Joséphine on 10 January 1810 and started looking for a new wife. Hoping to cement the recent alliance with Austria through a family connection, Napoleon married the Archduchess Marie Louise, who was 18 years old at the time. On 20 March 1811, Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom Napoleon
Napoleon
made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome. His son never actually ruled the empire, but historians still refer to him as Napoleon
Napoleon
II.[citation needed] Invasion of Russia Main article: French invasion of Russia In 1808, Napoleon
Napoleon
and Czar Alexander met at the Congress of Erfurt
Congress of Erfurt
to preserve the Russo-French alliance. The leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in 1807.[163] By 1811, however, tensions had increased and Alexander was under pressure from the Russian nobility
Russian nobility
to break off the alliance. A major strain on the relationship between the two nations became the regular violations of the Continental System
Continental System
by the Russians, which led Napoleon
Napoleon
to threaten Alexander with serious consequences if he formed an alliance with Britain.[164]

The Moscow fire depicted by an unknown German artist

Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, painting by Adolph Northen

By 1812, advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. On receipt of intelligence reports on Russia's war preparations, Napoleon expanded his Grande Armée
Grande Armée
to more than 450,000 men.[165] He ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the Russian heartland and prepared for an offensive campaign; on 24 June 1812 the invasion commenced.[166] In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon
Napoleon
termed the war the Second Polish War—the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in 1768. Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of Poland to be joined with the Duchy of Warsaw
Duchy of Warsaw
and an independent Poland created. This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his ally Austria this would not happen. Napoleon
Napoleon
refused to manumit the Russian serfs because of concerns this might provoke a reaction in his army's rear. The serfs later committed atrocities against French soldiers during France's retreat.[167] The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia. A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles, and Napoleon
Napoleon
resumed his advance. The Russians again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved because Napoleon
Napoleon
uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose. Owing to the Russian army's scorched earth tactics, the French found it increasingly difficult to forage food for themselves and their horses.[168] The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September: the Battle of Borodino
Battle of Borodino
resulted in approximately 44,000 Russian and 35,000 French dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point in time.[169] Although the French had won, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the major battle Napoleon
Napoleon
had hoped would be decisive. Napoleon's own account was: "The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow. The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible".[170] The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. Napoleon
Napoleon
entered the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would negotiate peace. However, on orders of the city's governor Feodor Rostopchin, rather than capitulation, Moscow was burned. After five weeks, Napoleon
Napoleon
and his army left. In early November Napoleon
Napoleon
got concerned about loss of control back in France
France
after the Malet coup of 1812. His army walked through snow up to their knees, and nearly 10,000 men and horses froze to death on the night of 8/9 November alone. After the Battle of Berezina
Battle of Berezina
Napoleon
Napoleon
managed to escape but had to abandon much of the remaining artillery and baggage train. On 5 December, shortly before arriving in Vilnius, Napoleon
Napoleon
left the army in a sledge.[171] The French suffered in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter. The Armée had begun as over 400,000 frontline troops, with fewer than 40,000 crossing the Berezina River in November 1812.[172] The Russians had lost 150,000 in battle and hundreds of thousands of civilians.[173] War of the Sixth Coalition Main article: War of the Sixth Coalition

Napoleon's farewell to his Imperial Guard, 20 April 1814

There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon
Napoleon
was able to field 350,000 troops.[174] Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new coalition. Napoleon
Napoleon
assumed command in Germany
Germany
and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the Battle of Dresden
Battle of Dresden
in August 1813.[175] Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon, and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig. This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and cost more than 90,000 casualties in total.[176] The Allies offered peace terms in the Frankfurt proposals
Frankfurt proposals
in November 1813. Napoleon
Napoleon
would remain as Emperor of France, but it would be reduced to its "natural frontiers". That meant that France
France
could retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland (the west bank of the Rhine
Rhine
River), while giving up control of all the rest, including all of Spain
Spain
and the Netherlands, and most of Italy
Italy
and Germany. Metternich told Napoleon
Napoleon
these were the best terms the Allies were likely to offer; after further victories, the terms would be harsher and harsher. Metternich's motivation was to maintain France
France
as a balance against Russian threats, while ending the highly destabilizing series of wars.[177] Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer. When his back was to the wall in 1814 he tried to reopen peace negotiations on the basis of accepting the Frankfurt proposals. The Allies now had new, harsher terms that included the retreat of France
France
to its 1791 boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium. Napoleon
Napoleon
would remain Emperor, however he rejected the term. The British wanted Napoleon permanently removed, and they prevailed, but Napoleon
Napoleon
adamantly refused.[177][178]

Napoleon
Napoleon
abdicated in Fontainebleau, 4 April 1814, by Paul Delaroche

Napoleon
Napoleon
withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70,000 soldiers and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many Allied troops.[179] The French were surrounded: British armies pressed from the south, and other Coalition forces positioned to attack from the German states. Napoleon
Napoleon
won a series of victories in the Six Days' Campaign, though these were not significant enough to turn the tide. The leaders of Paris
Paris
surrendered to the Coalition in March 1814.[180] On 1 April, Alexander addressed the Sénat conservateur. Long docile to Napoleon, under Talleyrand's prodding it had turned against him. Alexander told the Sénat that the Allies were fighting against Napoleon, not France, and they were prepared to offer honorable peace terms if Napoleon
Napoleon
were removed from power. The next day, the Sénat passed the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur
Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur
("Emperor's Demise Act"), which declared Napoleon
Napoleon
deposed. Napoleon
Napoleon
had advanced as far as Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
when he learned that Paris
Paris
was lost. When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and marshals mutinied.[181] On 4 April, led by Ney, they confronted Napoleon. Napoleon
Napoleon
asserted the army would follow him, and Ney replied the army would follow its generals. While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, without any senior officers or marshals any prospective invasion of Paris
Paris
would have been impossible. Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon
Napoleon
abdicated in favour of his son, with Marie Louise as regent. However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne.[182] Napoleon
Napoleon
was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication only two days later. Exile to Elba

British etching from 1814 in celebration of Napoleon's first exile to Elba
Elba
at the close of the War of the Sixth Coalition

The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France
France
and Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to do in the interests of France. Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April 1814. — Act of abdication of Napoleon[183]

In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the Allies exiled Napoleon
Napoleon
to Elba, an island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 20 km (12 mi) off the Tuscan coast. They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain the title of Emperor. Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians during the retreat from Moscow. Its potency had weakened with age, however, and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Austria.[184] In the first few months on Elba
Elba
he created a small navy and army, developed the iron mines, oversaw the construction of new roads, issued decrees on modern agricultural methods, and overhauled the island's legal and educational system.[185][186] A few months into his exile, Napoleon
Napoleon
learned that his ex-wife Josephine had died in France. He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days.[187] Hundred Days Main article: Hundred Days

Napoleon's return from Elba, by Charles de Steuben

Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean,[188] Napoleon
Napoleon
escaped from Elba, in the brig Inconstant on 26 February 1815 with 700 men.[188] Two days later, he landed on the French mainland at Golfe-Juan
Golfe-Juan
and started heading north.[188] The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just south of Grenoble
Grenoble
on 7 March 1815. Napoleon
Napoleon
approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish".[189] The soldiers quickly responded with, "Vive L'Empereur!" Ney, who had boasted to the restored Bourbon king, Louis XVIII, that he would bring Napoleon
Napoleon
to Paris
Paris
in an iron cage, affectionately kissed his former emperor and forgot his oath of allegiance to the Bourbon monarch. The two then marched together towards Paris
Paris
with a growing army. The unpopular Louis XVIII fled to Belgium after realizing he had little political support. On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon
Napoleon
an outlaw. Four days later, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia each pledged to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule.[190] Napoleon
Napoleon
arrived in Paris
Paris
on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days. By the start of June the armed forces available to him had reached 200,000, and he decided to go on the offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and Prussian armies. The French Army of the North crossed the frontier into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in modern-day Belgium.[191] Napoleon's forces fought the Coalition armies, commanded by the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Wellington's army withstood repeated attacks by the French and drove them from the field while the Prussians arrived in force and broke through Napoleon's right flank. Napoleon
Napoleon
returned to Paris
Paris
and found that both the legislature and the people had turned against him. Realizing his position was untenable, he abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son. He left Paris
Paris
three days later and settled at Josephine's former palace in Malmaison (on the western bank of the Seine
Seine
about 17 kilometres (11 mi) west of Paris). Even as Napoleon
Napoleon
travelled to Paris, the Coalition forces swept through France
France
(arriving in the vicinity of Paris
Paris
on 29 June), with the stated intent of restoring Louis XVIII to the French throne. When Napoleon
Napoleon
heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort, considering an escape to the United States. British ships were blocking every port. Napoleon demanded asylum from the British Captain Frederick Maitland on HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815.[192] Exile on Saint Helena

Napoleon
Napoleon
on Saint Helena, watercolor by Franz Josef Sandmann

Longwood House, Saint Helena, site of Napoleon's captivity

Britain kept Napoleon
Napoleon
on the island of Saint Helena
Saint Helena
in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,870 km (1,162 mi) from the west coast of Africa. Napoleon
Napoleon
was moved to Longwood House
Longwood House
there in December 1815; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy.[193][194] The Times
The Times
published articles insinuating the British government was trying to hasten his death. Napoleon
Napoleon
often complained of the living conditions in letters to the governor and his custodian, Hudson Lowe,[195] while his attendants complained of "colds, catarrhs, damp floors and poor provisions."[196] It has been speculated by modern scientists that his later illness arose from arsenic poisoning caused by copper arsenite in the wallpaper at Longwood House.[197] With a small cadre of followers, Napoleon
Napoleon
dictated his memoirs and grumbled about conditions. Lowe cut Napoleon's expenditure, ruled that no gifts were allowed if they mentioned his imperial status, and made his supporters sign a guarantee they would stay with the prisoner indefinitely.[198] While in exile, Napoleon
Napoleon
wrote a book about Julius Caesar, one of his great heroes.[199] He also studied English under the tutelage of Count Emmanuel de Las Cases with the main aim of being able to read English newspapers and books, as access to French newspapers and books was heavily restricted to him on Saint Helena.[200] There were rumors of plots and even of his escape, but in reality no serious attempts were made.[201] For English poet Lord Byron, Napoleon was the epitome of the Romantic hero, the persecuted, lonely, and flawed genius.[202] Death Further information: Napoleon's death mask
Napoleon's death mask
and Retour des cendres

Bronze death mask of Napoleon
Napoleon
I, modelled in 1821, cast in 1833

Napoleon's personal physician, Barry O'Meara, warned London that his declining state of health was mainly caused by the harsh treatment. Napoleon
Napoleon
confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched habitation of Longwood.[203] In February 1821, Napoleon's health began to deteriorate rapidly, and he reconciled with the Catholic Church. He died on 5 May 1821, after confession, Extreme Unction and Viaticum
Viaticum
in the presence of Father Ange Vignali. His last words were, France, l'armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine ("France, the army, head of the army, Joséphine").[204][205] Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, although it is not clear which doctor created it.[206][note 7] In his will, he had asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he should be buried on Saint Helena, in the Valley of the Willows.[204]

Napoleon's tomb at Les Invalides

In 1840, Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France. On 15 December 1840, a state funeral was held. The hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs-Élysées, across the Place de la Concorde
Place de la Concorde
to the Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme's Chapel, where it remained until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti
Louis Visconti
was completed. In 1861, Napoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry stone sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides.[208] Cause of death The cause of his death has been debated. Napoleon's physician, François Carlo Antommarchi, led the autopsy, which found the cause of death to be stomach cancer. Antommarchi did not sign the official report.[209] Napoleon's father had died of stomach cancer, although this was apparently unknown at the time of the autopsy.[210] Antommarchi found evidence of a stomach ulcer; this was the most convenient explanation for the British, who wanted to avoid criticism over their care of Napoleon.[204]

Napoleon
Napoleon
on His Death Bed, by Horace Vernet, 1826

In 1955, the diaries of Napoleon's valet, Louis Marchand, were published. His description of Napoleon
Napoleon
in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud in a 1961 paper in Nature to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning.[211] Arsenic was used as a poison during the era because it was undetectable when administered over a long period. Forshufvud, in a 1978 book with Ben Weider, noted that Napoleon's body was found to be well preserved when moved in 1840. Arsenic is a strong preservative, and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis. Forshufvud and Weider observed that Napoleon
Napoleon
had attempted to quench abnormal thirst by drinking large amounts of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide compounds in the almonds used for flavouring.[211] They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment prevented his stomach from expelling these compounds and that his thirst was a symptom of the poison. Their hypothesis was that the calomel given to Napoleon
Napoleon
became an overdose, which killed him and left extensive tissue damage behind.[211] According to a 2007 article, the type of arsenic found in Napoleon's hair shafts was mineral, the most toxic, and according to toxicologist Patrick Kintz, this supported the conclusion that he was murdered.[212] There have been modern studies that have supported the original autopsy finding.[212] In a 2008 study, researchers analysed samples of Napoleon's hair from throughout his life, as well as samples from his family and other contemporaries. All samples had high levels of arsenic, approximately 100 times higher than the current average. According to these researchers, Napoleon's body was already heavily contaminated with arsenic as a boy, and the high arsenic concentration in his hair was not caused by intentional poisoning; people were constantly exposed to arsenic from glues and dyes throughout their lives.[note 8] Studies published in 2007 and 2008 dismissed evidence of arsenic poisoning, and confirmed evidence of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer as the cause of death.[214] Religion Further information: Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Catholic Church

Reorganisation of the religious geography: France
France
is divided into 59 dioceses and 10 ecclesiastical provinces.

Napoleon's baptism took place in Ajaccio
Ajaccio
on 21 July 1771; he was piously raised as a Catholic but he never developed much faith.[215] As an adult, Napoleon
Napoleon
was a deist. Napoleon's deity was an absent and distant God. However he had a keen appreciation of the power of organized religion in social and political affairs, and paid a great deal of attention to bending it to his purposes. He noted the influence of Catholicism's rituals and splendors.[215] Napoleon
Napoleon
had a civil marriage with Joséphine de Beauharnais, without religious ceremony. Napoleon
Napoleon
was crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804 at Notre-Dame de Paris
Paris
in a ceremony presided over by Pope
Pope
Pius VII. On the eve of the Coronation ceremony, and at the insistence of Pope
Pope
Pius VII, a private religious wedding ceremony of Napoleon
Napoleon
and Josephine was celebrated. Cardinal Fesch performed the wedding[216]. This marriage was annulled by tribunals under Napoleon's control in January 1810. On 1 April 1810, Napoleon
Napoleon
married the Austrian princess Marie Louise in a Catholic ceremony. During his brother's rule in Spain, he abolished the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
in 1813. Napoleon
Napoleon
was excommunicated by the Catholic Church, but later reconciled with the Church before his death in 1821. Concordat Further information: Concordat of 1801

Leaders of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
taking the civil oath required by the Concordat

Seeking national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics, the Concordat of 1801
Concordat of 1801
was signed on 15 July 1801 between Napoleon
Napoleon
and Pope
Pope
Pius VII. It solidified the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as the majority church of France
France
and brought back most of its civil status. The hostility of devout Catholics against the state had now largely been resolved. It did not restore the vast church lands and endowments that had been seized during the revolution and sold off. As a part of the Concordat, he presented another set of laws called the Organic Articles.[217][218] While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy, the balance of church–state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon's favour. He selected the bishops and supervised church finances. Napoleon
Napoleon
and the pope both found the Concordat useful. Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon, especially Italy
Italy
and Germany.[219] Now, Napoleon
Napoleon
could win favor with the Catholics while also controlling Rome in a political sense. Napoleon said in April 1801, "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests. They can both contain them and use them". French children were issued a catechism that taught them to love and respect Napoleon.[220] Arrest of Pope
Pope
Pius VII In 1809, under Napoleon's orders, Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius VII
was placed under arrest in Italy, and in 1812 the prisoner Pontiff was transferred to France, being held in the Palace of Fontainebleau.[221] Because the arrest was made in a clandestine manner, some sources[222][223] describe it as a kidnapping. The Pope
Pope
was only released in 1814 when the Allies invaded France. In January 1813, Napoleon
Napoleon
personally forced the Pope
Pope
to sign a humiliating "Concordat of Fontainebleau".[224] The 1813 document was later repudiated by the Pontiff.[225] Religious emancipation Further information: Napoleon and the Jews
Napoleon and the Jews
and Napoleon
Napoleon
and Protestants Napoleon
Napoleon
emancipated Jews, as well as Protestants in Catholic countries and Catholics in Protestant countries, from laws which restricted them to ghettos, and he expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers. Despite the anti-semitic reaction to Napoleon's policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed emancipation would benefit France
France
by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere.[226] In 1806 an Assembly of Jewish notables was gathered by Napoleon
Napoleon
to discuss 12 questions broadly dealing with the relations between Jews, Christians and other issues dealing with the Jewish ability to integrate into the general French society. Later, after the questions were answered in a satisfactory way according to the Emperor, a "great Sanhedrin" was brought together to transform the answers into decisions that would form the basis of the future status of the Jews in France
France
and the rest of the Empire Napoleon
Napoleon
was building.[227] He stated, "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country. It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them".[228] He was seen as so favourable to the Jews that the Russian Orthodox Church formally condemned him as " Antichrist
Antichrist
and the Enemy of God".[229] One year after the final meeting of the Sanhedrin, on March 17, 1808, Napoleon
Napoleon
placed the Jews on probation. Several new laws restricting the citizenship the Jews had been offered 17 years previously were instituted at that time. However, despite pressure from leaders of a number of Christian communities to refrain from granting Jews emancipation, within one year of the issue of the new restrictions, they were once again lifted in response to the appeal of Jews from all over France.[227] Personality

Napoleon
Napoleon
visiting the Palais Royal for the opening of the 8th session of the Tribunat in 1807, by Merry-Joseph Blondel

Historians emphasize the strength of the ambition that took Napoleon from an obscure village to command of most of Europe.[230] In-depth academic studies about his early life conclude that up until age 2, he had a "gentle disposition".[231] His older brother, Joseph, frequently received their mother's attention which made Napoleon
Napoleon
more assertive and approval-driven. During his early schooling years he would be harshly bullied by classmates for his Corsican identity and control of the French language. To withstand the stress he became domineering, eventually developing an inferiority complex.[231] George F. E. Rudé stresses his "rare combination of will, intellect and physical vigour".[232] In one-on-one situations he typically had a hypnotic effect on people, seemingly bending the strongest leaders to his will.[233] He understood military technology, but was not an innovator in that regard.[234] He was an innovator in using the financial, bureaucratic, and diplomatic resources of France. He could rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to his subordinates, keeping in mind where major units were expected to be at each future point, and like a chess master, "seeing" the best plays moves ahead.[235] Napoleon
Napoleon
maintained strict, efficient work habits, prioritizing what needed to be done. He cheated at cards, but repaid the losses; he had to win at everything he attempted.[236] He kept relays of staff and secretaries at work. Unlike many generals, Napoleon
Napoleon
did not examine history to ask what Hannibal
Hannibal
or Alexander or anyone else did in a similar situation. Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon
Napoleon
responded, "Give me lucky generals", aware that "luck" comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it.[237] Dwyer states that Napoleon's victories at Austerlitz and Jena in 1805–06 heightened his sense of self-grandiosity, leaving him even more certain of his destiny and invincibility.[238] In terms of influence on events, it was more than Napoleon's personality that took effect. He reorganized France
France
itself to supply the men and money needed for wars.[239] He inspired his men—Wellington said his presence on the battlefield was worth 40,000 soldiers, for he inspired confidence from privates to field marshals.[240] He also unnerved the enemy. At the Battle of Auerstadt in 1806, King Frederick William III of Prussia
Frederick William III of Prussia
outnumbered the French by 63,000 to 27,000; however, when he was told, mistakenly, that Napoleon
Napoleon
was in command, he ordered a hasty retreat that turned into a rout.[241] The force of his personality neutralized material difficulties as his soldiers fought with the confidence that with Napoleon
Napoleon
in charge they would surely win.[242] Image Further information: Cultural depictions of Napoleon Napoleon
Napoleon
has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolises military genius and political power. Martin van Creveld
Martin van Creveld
described him as "the most competent human being who ever lived".[243] Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him. He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles.[244]

Napoleon
Napoleon
is often represented in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that often served as his personal escort, with a large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture.

When met in person, many of his contemporaries were surprised by his apparently unremarkable physical appearance in contrast to his significant deeds and reputation, especially in his youth, when he was consistently described as small and thin. Joseph Farington, who observed Napoleon
Napoleon
personally in 1802, commented that "Samuel Rogers stood a little way from me and ... seemed to be disappointed in the look of [Napoleon's] countenance [face] and said it was that of a little Italian." Farington said Napoleon's eyes were "lighter, and more of a grey, than I should have expected from his complexion", that "His person is below middle size", and that "his general aspect was milder than I had before thought it."[245] A personal friend of Napoleon's said that when he first met him in Brienne-le-Château
Brienne-le-Château
as a young man, Napoleon
Napoleon
was only notable "for the dark color of his complexion, for his piercing and scrutinising glance, and for the style of his conversation"; he also said that Napoleon
Napoleon
was personally a serious and somber man: "his conversation bore the appearance of ill-humor, and he was certainly not very amiable."[246] Johann Ludwig Wurstemberger, who accompanied Napoleon
Napoleon
from Camp Fornio in 1797 and on the Swiss campaign of 1798, noted that "Bonaparte was rather slight and emaciated-looking; his face, too, was very thin, with a dark complexion ... his black, unpowdered hair hung down evenly over both shoulders", but that, despite his slight and unkempt appearance, "His looks and expression were earnest and powerful."[247] Denis Davydov met him personally and considered him remarkably average in appearance: "His face was slightly swarthy, with regular features. His nose was not very large, but straight, with a slight, hardly noticeable bend. The hair on his head was dark reddish-blond; his eyebrows and eyelashes were much darker than the colour of his hair, and his blue eyes, set off by the almost black lashes, gave him a most pleasing expression ... The man I saw was of short stature, just over five feet tall, rather heavy although he was only 37 years old."[248]

Napoleon's death mask. Musée de l'Armée, Paris

During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade. Napoleon
Napoleon
was mocked in British newspapers as a short tempered small man and he was nicknamed "Little Boney in a strong fit".[249] A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; the "bogeyman".[250] At 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m), he was the height of an average French male but short for an aristocrat or officer (part of why he was assigned to the artillery, since at the time the infantry and cavalry required more commanding figures).[251] It is possible he was taller at 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m) due to the difference in the French measurement of inches.[252] Some historians believe that the reason for the mistake about his size at death came from use of an obsolete old French yardstick (a French foot equals 33 cm, while an English foot equals 30.47 cm).[251]. Napoleon
Napoleon
was a champion of the metric system and had no use for the old yardsticks. It is more likely that he was 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m), the height he was measured at on St. Helena (a British island), since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime.[251] Napoleon surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and was affectionately nicknamed le petit caporal (the little corporal), reflecting his reported camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his height. When he became First Consul
First Consul
and later Emperor, Napoleon
Napoleon
eschewed his general's uniform and habitually wore the green colonel uniform (non-Hussar) of a colonel of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that served as his personal escort many times, with a large bicorne. He also habitually wore (usually on Sundays) the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers (blue with white facings and red cuffs). He also wore his Légion d'honneur star, medal and ribbon, and the Order of the Iron Crown
Order of the Iron Crown
decorations, white French-style culottes and white stockings. This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him. In his later years he gained quite a bit of weight and had a complexion considered pale or sallow, something contemporaries took note of. Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in 1811 on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon
Napoleon
"yellow, obese, and bloated".[253] A British captain who met him in 1815 stated "I felt very much disappointed, as I believe everyone else did, in his appearance ... He is fat, rather what we call pot-bellied, and although his leg is well shaped, it is rather clumsy ... He is very sallow, with light grey eyes, and rather thin, greasy-looking brown hair, and altogether a very nasty, priestlike-looking fellow."[254] The stock character of Napoleon
Napoleon
is a comically short "petty tyrant" and this has become a cliché in popular culture. He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in 1812 by Jacques-Louis David.[255] In 1908 Alfred Adler, a psychologist, cited Napoleon
Napoleon
to describe an inferiority complex in which short people adopt an over-aggressive behaviour to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon
Napoleon
complex.[256] Reforms

First remittance of the Légion d'Honneur, 15 July 1804, at Saint-Louis des Invalides, by Jean-Baptiste Debret
Jean-Baptiste Debret
(1812)

Napoleon
Napoleon
instituted various reforms, such as higher education, a tax code, road and sewer systems, and established the Banque de France, the first central bank in French history. He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. It was presented alongside the Organic Articles, which regulated public worship in France. He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
prior to German Unification
German Unification
later in the 19th century. The sale of the Louisiana Territory
Louisiana Territory
to the United States doubled the size of the United States.[257] In May 1802, he instituted the Legion of Honour, a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry, to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France.[258] Napoleonic Code Main article: Napoleonic Code

First page of the 1804 original edition of the Code Civil

Napoleon's set of civil laws, the Code Civil—now often known as the Napoleonic Code—was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, the Second Consul. Napoleon
Napoleon
participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law. Other codes ("Les cinq codes") were commissioned by Napoleon
Napoleon
to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process.[259] The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Continental Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat. Napoleon
Napoleon
said: "My true glory is not to have won forty battles ... Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. ... But ... what will live forever, is my Civil Code".[260] The Code influences a quarter of the world's jurisdictions such as that of in Continental Europe, the Americas and Africa.[261] Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany
Germany
by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism. Napoleon
Napoleon
reorganised what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities,[quantify] into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine; this provided the basis for the German Confederation
German Confederation
and the unification of Germany in 1871.[262] The movement toward national unification in Italy
Italy
was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule.[263] These changes contributed to the development of nationalism and the nation state.[264] Napoleon
Napoleon
implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in France
France
and across Continental Europe, especially in Italy
Italy
and Germany, as summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts:

The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire.[265]

Napoleon
Napoleon
directly overthrew remnants of feudalism in much of western Continental Europe. He liberalised property laws, ended seigneurial dues, abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalised divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else. The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men.[266] Warfare Further information: Napoleonic weaponry and warfare
Napoleonic weaponry and warfare
and Military career of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte

Statue in Cherbourg-Octeville
Cherbourg-Octeville
unveiled by Napoleon III
Napoleon III
in 1858. Napoleon
Napoleon
I strengthened the town's defences to prevent British naval incursions.

In the field of military organisation, Napoleon
Napoleon
borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert, and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place. He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit.[267] Corps
Corps
replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine. These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare.[267] Though he consolidated the practice of modern conscription introduced by the Directory, one of the restored monarchy's first acts was to end it.[268] His opponents learned from Napoleon's innovations. The increased importance of artillery after 1807 stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices. As a result of these factors, Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's defenses, now could use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy's line that was then exploited by supporting infantry and cavalry. McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in 1807 was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers.[269] Weapons and other kinds of military technology remained static through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, but 18th-century operational mobility underwent change.[270] Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. Antoine-Henri Jomini
Antoine-Henri Jomini
explained Napoleon's methods in a widely used textbook that influenced all European and American armies.[271] Napoleon
Napoleon
was regarded by the influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz as a genius in the operational art of war, and historians rank him as a great military commander.[272] Wellington, when asked who was the greatest general of the day, answered: "In this age, in past ages, in any age, Napoleon".[273] Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. The political effect of war increased; defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves. Near-Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war.[274] Metric system Main articles: History of the metric system, Mesures usuelles, and Units of measurement in France

Depicted as First Consul
First Consul
on the 1803 20 gold Napoléon gold coin

The official introduction of the metric system in September 1799 was unpopular in large sections of French society. Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard not only across France
France
but also across the French sphere of influence. Napoleon
Napoleon
took a retrograde step in 1812 when he passed legislation to introduce the mesures usuelles (traditional units of measurement) for retail trade,[275] a system of measure that resembled the pre-revolutionary units but were based on the kilogram and the metre; for example, the livre metrique (metric pound) was 500 g,[276] in contrast to the value of the livre du roi (the king's pound), 489.5 g.[277] Other units of measure were rounded in a similar manner prior to the definitive introduction of the metric system across parts of Europe in the middle of the 19th century.[278] Education Napoleon's educational reforms laid the foundation of a modern system of education in France
France
and throughout much of Europe.[279] Napoleon synthesized the best academic elements from the Ancien Régime, The Enlightenment, and the Revolution, with the aim of establishing a stable, well-educated and prosperous society. He made French the only official language. He left some primary education in the hands of religious orders, but he offered public support to secondary education. Napoleon
Napoleon
founded a number of state secondary schools (lycées) designed to produce a standardized education that was uniform across France. All students were taught the sciences along with modern and classical languages. Unlike the system during the Ancien Régime, religious topics did not dominate the curriculum, although they were present with the teachers from the clergy. Napoleon hoped to use religion to produce social stability.[280] He gave special attention to the advanced centers, such as the École Polytechnique, that provided both military expertise and state-of-the-art research in science.[281] Napoleon
Napoleon
made some of the first efforts at establishing a system of secular and public education.[when?] The system featured scholarships and strict discipline, with the result being a French educational system that outperformed its European counterparts, many of which borrowed from the French system.[282] Memory and evaluation Criticism

The Third of May 1808
The Third of May 1808
by Francisco Goya, showing Spanish resisters being executed by Napoleon's troops.

In the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon
Napoleon
was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe or, instead, a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler".[283] Many historians have concluded that he had grandiose foreign policy ambitions. The Continental powers as late as 1808 were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too much, until his empire collapsed.[284][285] Napoleon
Napoleon
ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France.[286] He was considered a tyrant and usurper by his opponents.[287] His critics[who?] charge that he was not troubled when faced with the prospect of war and death for thousands, turned his search for undisputed rule into a series of conflicts throughout Europe and ignored treaties and conventions alike. His role in the Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
and decision to reinstate slavery in France's overseas colonies are controversial and affect his reputation.[288] Napoleon
Napoleon
institutionalised plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe. Artefacts were brought to the Musée du Louvre
Musée du Louvre
for a grand central museum; his example would later serve as inspiration for more notorious imitators.[289] He was compared to Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
most famously by the historian Pieter Geyl
Pieter Geyl
in 1947[290] and Claude Ribbe
Claude Ribbe
in 2005.[291] David G. Chandler, a foremost historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in 1973 that, "Nothing could be more degrading to the former [Napoleon] and more flattering to the latter [Hitler]. The comparison is odious. On the whole Napoleon
Napoleon
was inspired by a noble dream, wholly dissimilar from Hitler's ... Napoleon
Napoleon
left great and lasting testimonies to his genius—in codes of law and national identities which survive to the present day. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
left nothing but destruction."[292] Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France
France
and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France
France
bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost."[293] McLynn states that, "He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars."[287] Vincent Cronin replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon was responsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the ideals of the Revolution.[294] Propaganda and memory Main article: Napoleonic propaganda

Napoleon
Napoleon
Crossing the Alps, romantic version by Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis David
in 1805

Bonaparte Crossing the Alps, realist version by Paul Delaroche
Paul Delaroche
in 1848

Napoleon's use of propaganda contributed to his rise to power, legitimated his régime, and established his image for posterity. Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theater, and art, was part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France. The propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and to the atmosphere of Napoleon's reign, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his role as emperor and a civil leader. Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon
Napoleon
fostered a relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals.[295] Hazareesingh (2004) explores how Napoleon's image and memory are best understood. They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in 1815–1830. People from different walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the 1789 revolution.[296] Widespread rumors of Napoleon's return from St. Helena and Napoleon
Napoleon
as an inspiration for patriotism, individual and collective liberties, and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious materials, displaying the tricolor and rosettes. There were also subversive activities celebrating anniversaries of Napoleon's life and reign and disrupting royal celebrations—they demonstrated the prevailing and successful goal of the varied supporters of Napoleon
Napoleon
to constantly destabilize the Bourbon regime.[296] Datta (2005) shows that, following the collapse of militaristic Boulangism
Boulangism
in the late 1880s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from party politics and revived in popular culture. Concentrating on two plays and two novels from the period—Victorien Sardou's Madame Sans-Gêne (1893), Maurice Barrès's Les Déracinés (1897), Edmond Rostand's L'Aiglon (1900), and André de Lorde and Gyp's Napoléonette (1913)—Datta examines how writers and critics of the Belle Époque exploited the Napoleonic legend for diverse political and cultural ends.[297] Reduced to a minor character, the new fictional Napoleon
Napoleon
became not a world historical figure but an intimate one, fashioned by individuals' needs and consumed as popular entertainment. In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture.[297] International Napoleonic Congresses take place regularly, with participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries.[298] In January 2012, the mayor of Montereau-Fault-Yonne, near Paris—the site of a late victory of Napoleon—proposed development of Napoleon's Bivouac, a commemorative theme park at a projected cost of 200 million euros.[299] Long-term influence outside France Main article: Influence of the French Revolution

Bas-relief of Napoleon
Napoleon
I in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives

Napoleon
Napoleon
was responsible for spreading the values of the French Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform and the abolition of serfdom.[300] After the fall of Napoleon, not only was the Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code
retained by conquered countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy
Italy
and Germany, but has been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec.[301] The memory of Napoleon
Napoleon
in Poland is favorable, for his support for independence and opposition to Russia, his legal code, the abolition of serfdom, and the introduction of modern middle class bureaucracies.[302] Napoleon
Napoleon
could be considered one of the founders of modern Germany. After dissolving the Holy Roman Empire, he reduced the number of German states from 300 to less than 50, prior to the German Unification. A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism. Napoleon
Napoleon
also significantly aided the United States when he agreed to sell the territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding the equivalent of 13 states to the Union.[303] Marriages and children

Napoleon's first wife, Joséphine

Napoleon's second wife, Marie-Louise

Napoleon
Napoleon
married Joséphine de Beauharnais
Joséphine de Beauharnais
in 1796, when he was 26; she was a 32-year-old widow whose first husband had been executed during the Revolution. Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as "Rose", a name which he disliked. He called her "Joséphine" instead, and she went by this name henceforth. Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns.[304] He formally adopted her son Eugène and cousin Stéphanie and arranged dynastic marriages for them. Joséphine had her daughter Hortense marry Napoleon's brother Louis.[305] Joséphine had lovers, such as Lieutenant Hippolyte Charles, during Napoleon's Italian campaign.[306] Napoleon
Napoleon
learnt of that affair and a letter he wrote about it was intercepted by the British and published widely, to embarrass Napoleon. Napoleon
Napoleon
had his own affairs too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Foures, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress. She became known as "Cleopatra".[307][note 9] While Napoleon's mistresses had children by him, Joséphine did not produce an heir, possibly because of either the stresses of her imprisonment during the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
or an abortion she may have had in her twenties.[309] Napoleon
Napoleon
chose divorce so he could remarry in search of an heir. Despite his divorce from Josephine, Napoleon showed his dedication to her for the rest of his life. When he heard the news of her death while on exile in Elba, he locked himself in his room and would not come out for two full days.[187] Her name would also be his final word on his deathbed in 1821. On 11 March 1810 by proxy, he married the 19-year-old Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette. Thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family.[310] Louise was less than happy with the arrangement, at least at first, stating: "Just to see the man would be the worst form of torture". Her great-aunt had been executed in France, while Napoleon
Napoleon
had fought numerous campaigns against Austria all throughout his military career. However, she seemed to warm up to him over time. After her wedding, she wrote to her father: "He loves me very much. I respond to his love sincerely. There is something very fetching and very eager about him that is impossible to resist".[187] Napoleon
Napoleon
and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba
Elba
and thereafter never saw her husband again. The couple had one child, Napoleon
Napoleon
Francis Joseph Charles (1811–1832), known from birth as the King of Rome. He became Napoleon II
Napoleon II
in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.[310] Napoleon
Napoleon
acknowledged one illegitimate son: Charles Léon (1806–1881) by Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne.[311] Alexandre Colonna-Walewski (1810–1868), the son of his mistress Maria Walewska, although acknowledged by Walewska's husband, was also widely known to be his child, and the DNA of his direct male descendant has been used to help confirm Napoleon's Y-chromosome haplotype.[312] He may have had further unacknowledged illegitimate offspring as well, such as Eugen Megerle von Mühlfeld by Emilie Victoria Kraus[313] and Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte (1816–1907) by Albine de Montholon. Titles, styles, honours, and arms Main article: Titles and styles of Napoleon Ancestry

Napoleon's ancestry[314]

16. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte (1663–1703)

8. Sebastiano Nicola Buonaparte (1683–1720/60)

17. Maria Colonna Bozzi (1668–1704)

4. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte (1713–1763)

18. Carlo Tusoli

9. Maria Anna Tusoli (1690–1760)

19. Isabella ...

2. Carlo Maria Buonaparte (1746–1785)

10. Giuseppe Maria Paravicini

5. Maria Saveria Paravicini (1715–bef. 1750)

22. Angelo Agostino Salineri

11. Maria Angela Salineri

23. Francetta Merezano

1. Napoleon
Napoleon
I, Emperor of the French (1769–1821)

24. Giovanni Girolamo Ramolino (1645–?)

12. Giovanni Agostino Ramolino

25. Maria Laetitia Boggiano

6. Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino (1723–1755)

26. Andrea Peri (1669–?)

13. Angela Maria Peri

27. Maria Maddalena Colonna d'Istria

3. Maria Letizia Ramolino (1750–1836)

28. Giovanni Antonio Pietrasanta

14. Giuseppe Maria Pietrasanta

29. Paola Brigida Sorba

7. Angela Maria Pietrasanta (1725–1790)

15. Maria Giuseppa Malerba

Notes

^ He established a system of public education,[3] abolished the vestiges of feudalism,[4] emancipated Jews and other religious minorities,[5] abolished the Spanish Inquisition,[6] enacted legal protections for an emerging middle class,[7] and centralized state power at the expense of religious authorities.[8] ^ The first known record of him signing his name as Bonaparte was in 1796. In his youth, his name was also spelled as Nabulione, Nabulio, Napolionne, and Napulione.[14] ^ Although the 1768 Treaty of Versailles formally ceded Corsica's rights, it remained un-incorporated during 1769[20] until it became a province of France
France
in 1770.[21] Corsica
Corsica
would be legally integrated as a département in 1789.[22][23] ^ Aside from his name, there does not appear to be a connection between him and Napoleon's theorem.[34] ^ He was mainly referred to as Bonaparte until he became First Consul for life.[38] ^ This is depicted in Bonaparte Crossing the Alps
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps
by Hippolyte Delaroche and in Jacques-Louis David's imperial Napoleon
Napoleon
Crossing the Alps. He is less realistically portrayed on a charger in the latter work.[92] ^ It was customary to cast a death mask of a leader. At least four genuine death masks of Napoleon
Napoleon
are known to exist: one in The Cabildo in New Orleans, one in a Liverpool museum, another in Havana and one in the library of the University of North Carolina.[207] ^ The body can tolerate large doses of arsenic if ingested regularly, and arsenic was a fashionable cure-all.[213] ^ One night, during an illicit liaison with the actress Marguerite George, Napoleon
Napoleon
had a major fit. This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent.[308]

Citations

^ a b Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, 2014, Introduction. ^ Charles Messenger, ed. (2001). Reader's Guide to Military History. Routledge. pp. 391–427. ISBN 978-1-135-95970-8. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Grab 2003, p. 56. ^ Broers, M. and Hicks, P. The Napoleonic Empire and the New European Political Culture. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 230 ^ Conner, S. P. The Age of Napoleon. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, pp. 38–40. ^ Perez, Joseph. The Spanish Inquisition: A History. Yale University Press, 2005, p. 98 ^ Fremont-Barnes, G. and Fisher, T. The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. Osprey Publishing, 2004, p. 336 ^ Grab, A. Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Transformation of Europe. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, Conclusion. ^ Andrew Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014), p. xxxiii. ^ McLynn 1998, p. 2 ^ 2012 DNA tests found that some of the family's ancestors were from the Caucasus
Caucasus
region; "Le Figaro – Mon Figaro : Selon son ADN, les ancêtres de Napoléon seraient du Caucase!". Le Figaro. 15 January 2012. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012. ; The study found haplogroup type E1b1c1*, which originated in Northern Africa circa 1200 BC; the people migrated into the Caucasus
Caucasus
and into Europe. "Haplogroup of the Y Chromosome of Napoléon the First; Gerard Lucotte, Thierry Thomasset, Peter Hrechdakian; Journal of Molecular Biology Research". December 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ Dwyer 2008, ch 1 ^ "6 Things You Should Know About Napoleon". HISTORY.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ Dwyer 2008, p. xv ^ Roberts, Andrew (2014-11-04). Napoleon: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 9780698176287.  ^ Dwyer 2008, ch 1 ^ " Napoleon
Napoleon
I Biography, Achievements, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Genoa-Italy". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ McLynn 1998, p. 6 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 6 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 20 ^ " Corsica
Corsica
History, Geography, & Points of Interest". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 28 November 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ Roberts, Andrew (4 November 2014). Napoleon: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 9780698176287. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018.  ^ Cronin 1994, pp. 20–21 ^ Cronin 1994, p.27 ^ a b c International School History (8 February 2012), Napoleon's Rise to Power, archived from the original on 8 May 2015, retrieved 29 January 2018  ^ Johnson, Paul (2006). Napoleon: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 9780143037453. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018.  ^ a b c Roberts 2001, p.xvi ^ Roberts, Andrew (2014-11-04). Napoleon: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 9780698176287.  ^ a b Parker, Harold T. (1971). "The Formation of Napoleon's Personality: An Exploratory Essay". French Historical Studies. 7 (1): 6–26. doi:10.2307/286104. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018.  ^ Adams, Michael (9 April 2014). Napoleon
Napoleon
and Russia. A&C Black. ISBN 9780826442123. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018.  ^ Roberts, Andrew (2014-11-04). Napoleon: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 9780698176287.  ^ McLynn 1998, p. 18 ^ Wells 1992, p.74 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 21 ^ a b Dwyer 2008, p. 42 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 26 ^ a b McLynn 1998, p. 290 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 37 ^ David Nicholls (1999). Napoleon: A Biographical Companion. ABC-CLIO. p. 131. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018.  ^ McLynn 1998, p. 55 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 61 ^ a b c d e Roberts 2001, p.xviii ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 132 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 76 ^ Chandler 1973, p. 30 ^ Patrice Gueniffey, Bonaparte: 1769–1802 (Harvard UP, 2015), pp 137–59. ^ Bourrienne, Memoirs of Napoleon, p.39. ^ Bourrienne, Memoirs of Napoleon, p.38. ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 157 ^ McLynn 1998, pp. 76, 84 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 92 ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 26 ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 164 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 93 ^ a b McLynn 1998, p. 96 ^ Johnson 2002, p.27 ^ "The works of Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
– The French Revolution, vol.III, book 3.VII". Google. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015.  ^ Englund (2010) pp 92–94 ^ Bell 2015, p. 29. ^ Dwyer 2008, pp. 284–5 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 132 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 145 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 142 ^ Harvey 2006, p.179 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 135 ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 306 ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 305 ^ Bell 2015, p. 30. ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 322 ^ a b c Watson 2003, pp.13–14 ^ Amini 2000, p.12 ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 342 ^ Englund (2010) pp 127–8 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 175 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 179 ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 372 ^ a b c d Roberts 2001, p.xx ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 392 ^ Dwyer 2008, pp. 411–24 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 189 ^ Gueniffey, Bonaparte: 1769–1802 pp 500–2. ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 442 ^ a b c Connelly 2006, p.57 ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 444 ^ Dwyer 2008, p. 455 ^ François Furet, The French Revolution, 1770–1814 (1996), p. 212 ^ Georges Lefebvre, Napoleon
Napoleon
from 18 Brumaire to Tilsit 1799–1807 (1969), pp. 60–68 ^ a b c d Lyons 1994, p. 111 ^ Lefebvre, Napoleon
Napoleon
from 18 Brumaire to Tilsit 1799–1807 (1969), pp. 71–92 ^ Holt, Lucius Hudson; Chilton, Alexander Wheeler (1919). A Brief History of Europe from 1789-1815. Macmillan. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016.  ^ Chandler 2002, p. 51 ^ Chandler 1966, pp. 279–81 ^ a b McLynn 1998, p. 235 ^ Chandler 1966, p. 292 ^ Chandler 1966, p. 293 ^ a b Chandler 1966, p. 296 ^ a b Chandler 1966, pp. 298–304 ^ Chandler 1966, p. 301 ^ Schom 1997, p. 302 ^ a b Lyons 1994, pp. 111–4 ^ a b c d Lyons 1994, p. 113 ^ Edwards 1999, p.55 ^ Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, 2014, p. 301 ^ Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, 2014, p. 303 ^ Connelly 2006, p.70 ^ R.B. Mowat, The Diplomacy of Napoleon
Napoleon
(1924) is a survey online; for a recent advanced diplomatic history, see Paul W. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (Oxford U.P. 1996) pp 177–560 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 265 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 243 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 296 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 297 ^ De Rémusat, Claire Elisabeth, Memoirs of Madame De Rémusat, 1802-1808 Volume 1, HardPress Publishing, 2012, 542 p., ISBN 978-1290517478. ^ a b c d Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, 2014, p. 355. ^ Paul W. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (1996) pp 231–86 ^ Chandler 1966, p. 328. Meanwhile, French territorial rearrangements in Germany
Germany
occurred without Russian consultation and Napoleon's annexations in the Po valley increasingly strained relations between the two. ^ Chandler 1966, p. 331 ^ Chandler 1966, p. 323 ^ Chandler 1966, p. 332 ^ a b Chandler 1966, p. 333 ^ Michael J. Hughes, Forging Napoleon's Grande Armée: Motivation, Military Culture, and Masculinity in the French Army, 1800–1808 (NYU Press, 2012). ^ a b McLynn 1998, p. 321 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 332 ^ Richard Brooks (editor), Atlas of World Military History. p. 108 ^ Andrew Uffindell, Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. p. 15 ^ Richard Brooks (editor), Atlas of World Military History. p. 156. ^ Richard Brooks (editor), Atlas of World Military History. p. 156. "It is a historical cliché to compare the Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
with Hannibal's tactical envelopment at Cannae (216 BC); Schlieffen owed more to Napoleon's strategic maneuver on Ulm
Ulm
(1805)". ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 407 ^ Adrian Gilbert (2000). The Encyclopedia of Warfare: From Earliest Time to the Present Day. Taylor & Francis. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-57958-216-6. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.  ^ Schom 1997, p.414 ^ McLynn 1998, p. 350 ^ Cronin 1994, p.344 ^ Karsh 2001, p.12 ^ Sicker 2001, p. 99. ^ Michael V. Leggiere (2015). Napoleon
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Paris
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Napoleon
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References

Biographical studies

Abbott, John (2005). Life of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-7063-4.  Bell, David A. (2015). Napoleon: A Concise Biography. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-026271-6.  only 140pp; by a scholar Blaufarb, Rafe (2007). Napoleon: Symbol for an Age, A Brief History with Documents. Bedford. ISBN 0-312-43110-4.  Chandler, David (2002). Napoleon. Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-750-3.  Cronin, Vincent (1994). Napoleon. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-637521-9.  Dwyer, Philip (2008). Napoleon: The Path to Power. Yale University Press. ASIN B00280LN5G.  Dwyer, Philip (2013). Citizen Emperor: Napoleon
Napoleon
in Power. Yale University Press. ASIN B00GGSG3W4.  Englund, Steven (2010). Napoleon: A Political Life. Scribner. ISBN 0-674-01803-6.  Gueniffey, Patrice. Bonaparte: 1769–1802 (Harvard UP, 2015, French edition 2013); 1008 pp.; vol 1 of most comprehensive recent scholarly biography by leading French specialist; less emphasis on battles and campaigns excerpt; also online review Johnson, Paul (2002). Napoleon: A life. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03078-3. ; 200 pp.; quite hostile Lefebvre, Georges (1969). Napoleon
Napoleon
from 18 Brumaire to Tilsit, 1799–1807. Columbia University Press.  influential wide-ranging history

Lefebvre, Georges (1969). Napoleon: from Tilsit to Waterloo, 1807–1815. Columbia University Press. 

Lyons, Martyn (1994). Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution. St. Martin's Press.  Markham, Felix (1963). Napoleon. Mentor. ; 303 pp.; short biography by an Oxford scholar online McLynn, Frank (1998). Napoleon. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6247-2. ASIN 0712662472.  Roberts, Andrew (2014). Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-670-02532-9.  Thompson, J. M. (1951). Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte: His Rise and Fall. Oxford U.P. , 412 pp.; by an Oxford scholar

Primary sources

Gourgaud, Gaspard (1903) [1899]. Talks of Napoleon
Napoleon
at St. Helena. Translated from the French by Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer. Chicago: A. C. McClurg. 

Specialty studies

Alder, Ken (2002). The Measure of All Things—The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-1675-X.  Alter, Peter (2006). T. C. W. Blanning and Hagen Schulze, ed. Unity and Diversity in European Culture c. 1800. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-726382-8.  Amini, Iradj (2000). Napoleon
Napoleon
and Persia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-934211-58-2.  Archer, Christon I.; Ferris, John R.; Herwig, Holger H. (2002). World History of Warfare. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4423-1.  Astarita, Tommaso (2005). Between Salt Water And Holy Water: A History Of Southern Italy. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-05864-6.  Bell, David (2007). The First Total War. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-618-34965-0.  Bordes, Philippe (2007). Jacques-Louis David. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-12346-9.  Brooks, Richard (2000). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-7607-2025-8.  Chandler, David (1966). The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Scribner. ISBN 9780025236608. OCLC 740560411.  Chandler, David (1973) [1966]. The Campaigns of Napoleon.  Chesney, Charles (2006). Waterloo Lectures:A Study Of The Campaign Of 1815. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4286-4988-3.  Connelly, Owen (2006). Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5318-3.  Cordingly, David (2004). The Billy Ruffian: The Bellerophon and the Downfall of Napoleon. Bloomsbury. ISBN 1-58234-468-X.  Cullen, William (2008). Is Arsenic an Aphrodisiac?. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0-85404-363-2.  Driskel, Paul (1993). As Befits a Legend. Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-484-9.  Flynn, George Q. (2001). Conscription
Conscription
and democracy: The Draft in France, Great Britain, and the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-31912-X.  Fremont-Barnes, Gregory; Fisher, Todd (2004). The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-831-6.  Fulghum, Neil (2007). "Death Mask of Napoleon". University of North Carolina. Retrieved 4 August 2008.  Gates, David (2001). The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81083-2.  Gates, David (2003). The Napoleonic Wars, 1803–1815. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-0719-6.  Godechot, Jacques; et al. (1971). The Napoleonic era
Napoleonic era
in Europe. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.  Grab, Alexander (2003). Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Transformation of Europe. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-68275-3.  Hall, Stephen (2006). Size Matters. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-618-47040-9.  Harvey, Robert (2006). The War of Wars. Robinson. ISBN 978-1-84529-635-3.  Hindmarsh, J. Thomas; Savory, John (2008). "The Death of Napoleon, Cancer or Arsenic?". Clinical Chemistry. American Association for Clinical Chemistry. 54 (12): 2092. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.117358. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  Karsh, Inari (2001). Empires of the Sand: The Struggle for Mastery in the Middle East, 1789–1923. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00541-4.  Mowat, R.B. (1924) The Diplomacy of Napoleon
Napoleon
(1924) 350pp online O'Connor, J; Robertson, E F (2003). "The history of measurement". St Andrew's University. Retrieved 18 July 2008.  Poulos, Anthi (2000). "1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict". International Journal of Legal Information (vol 28 ed.).  Richardson, Hubert N.B. A Dictionary of Napoleon
Napoleon
and His Times (1920) online free 489pp Roberts, Chris (2004). Heavy Words Lightly Thrown. Granta. ISBN 1-86207-765-7.  Schom, Alan (1997). Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-017214-5.  Schroeder, Paul W. (1996). The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848. Oxford U.P. pp. 177–560. ISBN 978-0-19-820654-5.  advanced diplomatic history of Napoleon
Napoleon
and his era Schwarzfuchs, Simon (1979). Napoleon, the Jews and the Sanhedrin. Routledge. ISBN 0-19-710023-6.  Watson, William (2003). Tricolor and crescent. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-97470-7. Retrieved 12 June 2009.  Sicker, Martin (2001). The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Greenwood. p. 99.  Wells, David (1992). The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Geometry. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-011813-6. 

Historiography and memory

Broadley, Alexander Meyrick. Napoleon
Napoleon
in caricature, 1795-1821 (1911) online Dwyer, Philip (2008). "Remembering and Forgetting in Contemporary France: Napoleon, Slavery, and the French History Wars". French Politics, Culture & Society. 26 (3): 110–122.  Englund, Steven. " Napoleon
Napoleon
and Hitler". Journal of the Historical Society (2006) 6#1 pp. 151–169. Geyl, Pieter (1982) [1947]. Napoleon
Napoleon
For and Against. Penguin Books. [permanent dead link] Hanson, Victor Davis (2003). "The Claremont Institute: The Little Tyrant, A review of Napoleon: A Penguin Life". The Claremont Institute.  Missing or empty url= (help) Hazareesingh, Sudhir (2005). The Legend of Napoleon.  excerpt and text search

Hazareesingh, Sudhir. "Memory and Political Imagination: The Legend of Napoleon
Napoleon
Revisited", French History (2004) 18#4 pp 463–483. Hazareesingh, Sudhir (2005). "Napoleonic Memory in Nineteenth-Century France: The Making of a Liberal Legend". MLN. 120 (4): 747–773. 

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Napoleon
Napoleon
I of France House of Bonaparte Born: 15 August 1769 Died: 5 May 1821

Political offices

New title Directory dissolved

Provisional Consul of the French Republic 11 November – 12 December 1799 Served alongside: Roger Ducos
Roger Ducos
and Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Became First Consul

New title Consulate established

First Consul
First Consul
of the French Republic 12 December 1799 – 18 May 1804 Served alongside: Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès
(Second Consul) Charles-François Lebrun (Third Consul) Became Emperor

New title Italian Republic established

President of the Italian Republic 26 January 1802 – 17 March 1805 Vacant (Became King) Title next held by Enrico De Nicola

New title Helvetic Republic
Helvetic Republic
dissolved

Mediator of the Swiss Confederation 19 February 1803 – 19 October 1813 New Confederation established

Regnal titles

Vacant French Revolution Title last held by Louis XVI as King of the French Emperor of the French 18 May 1804 – 11 April 1814 Succeeded by Louis XVIII as King of France
France
and Navarre

Vacant Title last held by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as last crowned monarch, 1530 King of Italy 17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814 Vacant Title next held by Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II
of Savoy

Vacant Title last held by Louis XVI Co-Prince of Andorra 1806 – 11 April 1814 Succeeded by Louis XVIII

New title State created

Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine 12 July 1806 – 19 October 1813 Confederation dissolved successive ruler: Francis I of Austria as Head of the Präsidialmacht Austria

New title Sovereign of the Island of Elba 11 April 1814 – 20 March 1815 Relinquished title

Preceded by Louis XVIII as King of France
France
and Navarre Emperor of the French Co-Prince of Andorra 20 March – 22 June 1815 Succeeded by Louis XVIII as King of France
France
and Navarre ( Napoleon II
Napoleon II
according to his will only)

Titles in pretence

New title — TITULAR — Emperor of the French 11 April 1814 – 20 March 1815 Vacant Title next held by Napoleon
Napoleon
II

v t e

Napoleonic Wars

Third Coalition Fourth Coalition Peninsular War Fifth Coalition French Invasion of Russia Sixth Coalition Seventh Coalition

Belli- gerents

France, client states and allies

France Polish Legions Italy Holland Etruria Swiss Confederation Naples Confederation of the Rhine

Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg

Denmark–Norway Ottoman Empire Persia Spain

Coalition forces

United Kingdom Austria Russia Prussia Spain Portugal Sicily Papal States Ottoman Empire Persia Sardinia Sweden Netherlands Brunswick Hanover Nassau French Royalists

Major battles

Prelude

French Revolution First Coalition Second Coalition 18 Brumaire Planned invasion of the United Kingdom Duc d'Enghien Execution Coronation of Napoleon

1805

Diamond Rock Cape Finisterre Wertingen Günzburg Haslach-Jungingen Elchingen Ulm Verona Trafalgar Caldiero Cape Ortegal Amstetten Dürenstein Schöngrabern Austerlitz

1806

Gaeta Campo Tenese Maida Schleiz Saalfeld Jena–Auerstedt Erfurt Halle Magdeburg Prenzlau Pasewalk Stettin Waren-Nossentin Lübeck Greater Poland Uprising Hameln Czarnowo Golymin Pułtusk

1807

Mohrungen Stralsund Eylau Ostrołęka Kolberg Danzig Mileto Guttstadt-Deppen Heilsberg Friedland Copenhagen Invasion of Portugal

1808

Dos de Mayo Bruch Rosily Squadron Cabezón 1st Zaragoza Valencia Medina de Rioseco Bailén Roliça Vimeiro Pancorbo Valmaseda Burgos Espinosa Tudela Somosierra 2nd Zaragoza Sahagún Benavente

1809

Castellón Uclés Corunna Valls Tyrolean Rebellion Villafranca Yevenes/Yébenes Ciudad Real 1st Porto Medellín Bergisel Sacile Teugen-Hausen Raszyn Abensberg Landshut Eckmühl Ratisbon Neumarkt-Sankt Veit Dalmatian Campaign Ebelsberg Gerona Piave River Grijó 2nd Porto Wörgl Tarvis Aspern-Essling Alcañiz Sankt Michael Stralsund Raab María Graz Wagram Korneuburg Stockerau Gefrees Hollabrunn Schöngrabern Armistice of Znaim Talavera Walcheren
Walcheren
Campaign Ölper Almonacid Tamames Ocaña Alba de Tormes

1810

Cádiz Astorga Ciudad Rodrigo Barquilla Côa Almeida Bussaco

1811

Gebora Barrosa Pombal Redinha Casal Novo Campo Maior Sabugal Almeida Fuentes de Oñoro Tarragona Albuera Usagre Saguntum Arroyo dos Molinos Valencia

1812

Ciudad Rodrigo Badajoz Villagarcia Almaraz Maguilla Mir Salamanca García Hernández Saltanovka Ostrovno Vitebsk Klyastitsy Majadahonda Smolensk 1st Polotsk Valutino Mesoten Borodino Burgos Tarutino 2nd Polotsk Venta del Pozo Maloyaroslavets Chashniki Vyazma Smoliani Krasnoi Berezina

1813

Castalla Lützen Bautzen Tarragona Luckau Vitoria San Sebastián Pyrenees Sorauren Großbeeren Katzbach Dresden 1st Kulm San Marcial Dennewitz 2nd Kulm Göhrde Bidassoa Leipzig Hanau Nivelle Bornhöved Sehested

1814

Brienne La Rothière Mincio River Champaubert Montmirail Château-Thierry Vauchamps Garris Mormant Montereau Orthez Bar-sur-Aube Laon Reims Craonne Arcis-sur-Aube Fère-Champenoise Saint-Dizier Montmartre Paris Toulouse Bayonne

1815

Panaro Occhiobello Carpi Casaglia Ronco Cesenatico Pesaro Scapezzano Tolentino Ancona Castel di Sangro San Germano Gaeta Quatre Bras Ligny Waterloo Wavre Rocheserviere La Suffel Rocquencourt Issy

Info

French and ally military and political leaders

Napoleon Louis-Alexandre Berthier Joachim Murat Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean Lannes Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Michel Ney Jean-de-Dieu Soult Marshal Victor Jean-Baptiste Bessières Pierre-Charles Villeneuve Joseph I Louis Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Prince Poniatowski Prince Eugène Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick I of Württemberg Frederick VI of Denmark

Coalition military and political leaders

Duke of Wellington Rowland Hill John Moore Horatio Nelson Thomas Cochrane Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Manuel Lapeña Archduke Charles Prince von Schwarzenberg Archduke John of Austria Alexander I of Russia Mikhail Kutuzov Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Count Bennigsen Pyotr Bagration Frederick William III of Prussia Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of Hohenlohe Ferdinand VII of Spain Miguel de Álava Maria I of Portugal Prince Regent John of Portugal Count of Feira William, Prince of Orange Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden Prince Charles John of Sweden Louis XVIII of France

Related conflicts

Anglo-Russian War Anglo-Spanish War Anglo-Swedish War Anglo-Turkish War English Wars

Gunboat War Dano-Swedish War

Finnish War Pomeranian War (Franco-Swedish War) Russo-Persian War Russo-Turkish War Spanish American Wars of Independence Swedish–Norwegian War War of 1812

Treaties

Campo Formio Lunéville Amiens Artlenburg Pressburg Finckenstein Tilsit Cintra Schönbrunn Paris
Paris
(1810) Tauroggen Ried Chaumont Kiel Mantua Casalanza Paris
Paris
(1815)

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Bourbon Restoration Casualties Congress of Erfurt Continental System England expects that every man will do his duty Grande Armée Longwood House

Portal Military History definition media quotes

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French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism
Feudalism
(4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz
Cádiz
(25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack
Karl Mack
von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

v t e

Imperial House of France
France
of the First French Empire

Emperor and immediate family

Napoleon, Emperor of the French Joséphine, Empress of the French Marie Louise, Empress of the French Napoleon, King of Rome

French Princes

Joseph Bonaparte Louis Bonaparte Joachim Murat Eugène de Beauharnais Elisa Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Lucien Bonaparte

Several family members held additional titles in vassal states

v t e

Bonaparte family

1st generation

Joseph I of Spain Napoléon I Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano Elisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany Louis I of Holland Pauline, Princess of Guastalla Caroline, Queen of Naples and Sicily Jérôme of Westfalia

2nd generation

Zénaïde, Princess of Canino and Musignano Princess Charlotte Napoléon II Charlotte, Princess Mario Gabrielli Charles Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano Prince Louis Lucien Prince Pierre Napoléon Napoléon Charles, Prince Royal of Holland Louis II of Holland Napoléon III Jérôme Napoléon Jérôme Napoléon Charles, Prince of Montfort Mathilde, Princess of San Donato Napoléon Joseph, Prince Napoléon

3rd generation

Joseph Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte, Prince of Canino and Musignano Augusta, Princess Placido Gabrielli Napoléon Charles, Prince of Canino and Musignano Roland, Prince of Canino and Musignano Jeanne, Marchioness of Villeneuve-Escaplon Napoléon, Prince Imperial
Napoléon, Prince Imperial
of France Jerome Napoleon
Napoleon
II Charles Victor, Prince Napoléon Prince Louis Bonaparte Marie Letizia, Duchess of Aosta William Bonaparte-Wyse Marie Bonaparte-Wyse Lucien Bonaparte-Wyse

4th generation

Princess Mary, Mrs. Enrico Gotti Eugénie, Princess of La Moskowa Marie, Princess George of Greece and Denmark Marie Clotilde, Countess Serge de Witt Louis, Prince Napoléon Andrew Bonaparte-Wyse

5th generation

Charles, Prince Napoléon Prince Jérôme Napoléon

6th generation

Princess Caroline Napoléon Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

v t e

German Confederations (1806–1871)

Confederation of the Rhine 1806–1813

Protector

Napoleon
Napoleon
I (1806–1813)

Prince primate

Karl Theodor von Dalberg (1806–1813) Eugène de Beauharnais
Eugène de Beauharnais
(1813)

German Confederation 1815–1866

Presidents

Francis I of Austria (1815–1835) Ferdinand I of Austria
Ferdinand I of Austria
(1835–1848) Francis Joseph I of Austria (1850–1866)

Imperial regent

Archduke Johann of Austria (1848–1849)

North German Confederation 1867–1871

President

Wilhelm I of Prussia (1867–1871)

Chancellor

Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
(1867–1871)

List of German monarchs History of Germany House of Habsburg-Lorraine House of Hohenzollern

v t e

Pretenders to the French throne since 1792

Monarchy in exile (1792–1815)

1792 Louis XVI 1793 Louis XVII 1795 Louis XVIII 1814 1815

Legitimist pretenders (1830–present)

1830 Charles X 1836 Louis Antoine 1844 Henri 1883 Jean 1887 Charles 1909 Jacques 1931 Alphonse Charles 1936 Alphonse 1941 Jacques 1975 Alphonse 1989 Louis Alphonse present

Orléanist
Orléanist
pretenders (1848–present)

1848 Louis Philippe I 1850 Philippe 1894 Philippe 1926 Jean 1940 Henri 1999 Henri present

Unionist succession (1830–present)

1830 Charles X 1836 Louis Antoine 1844 Henri 1883 Philippe 1894 Philippe 1926 Jean 1940 Henri 1999 Henri present

Bonapartist Prince Imperial (1814–present)

1814 1815 Napoléon I 1821 Napoléon II 1832 Joseph 1844 Louis 1846 Napoléon III (Emperor 1852–1870) 1873 Napoléon 1879 Victor 1926 Louis 1997 Charles / Jean-Christophe present (disputed)

Bonapartist Prince Canino (1832–1924)

1832 Lucien 1840 Charles 1857 Joseph 1865 Lucien 1895 Napoléon Charles 1899 Roland 1924

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

v t e

French Consulate
French Consulate
(10 November 1799 – 18 May 1804)

Provisional consuls

Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Roger Ducos

Bonaparte First Consul

Consuls

Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance

Ministers

Foreign Affairs

Charles-Frédéric Reinhard Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord

Justice

Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès André Joseph Abrial Claude Ambroise Régnier

War

Louis-Alexandre Berthier Lazare Carnot Louis-Alexandre Berthier

Finance

Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin

Police

Joseph Fouché

Interior

Pierre-Simon Laplace Lucien Bonaparte Jean-Antoine Chaptal

Navy and Colonies

Marc Antoine Bourdon de Vatry Pierre-Alexandre-Laurent Forfait Denis Decrès

Secretary of State

Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano

Treasury

François Barbé-Marbois

War Administration

Jean François Aimé Dejean

Preceded by French Directory Followed by First cabinet of Napoleon

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 106964661 LCCN: n79054933 ISNI: 0000 0001 2283 8283 GND: 118586408 SELIBR: 207147 SUDOC: 02733791X BNF: cb12008245w (data) BPN: 55397934 BIBSYS: 90272048 ULAN: 500122388 HDS: 41455 LIR: 1735 NLA: 35372777 NDL: 00450992 NKC: jn20000604140 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV96977 BNE: XX954

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