NAPOLéON BONAPARTE (/nəˈpoʊliən ˈboʊnəpɑːrt/ ; French: ;
15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political
leader who rose to prominence during the
French Revolution and led
several successful campaigns during the
French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars . As
NAPOLEON I, he was
Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and
again briefly in 1815 (during the
Hundred Days ).
European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading
France against a series of coalitions in the
Napoleonic Wars . He won
most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a
large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final
collapse in 1815. One of the greatest commanders in history, his wars
and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's
political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most
celebrated and controversial leaders in human history .
He was born NAPOLEONE DI BUONAPARTE (Italian: ) in
Corsica , to a
relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution
broke out in 1789,
Napoleon was serving as an artillery officer in the
French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the
Revolution, he rapidly rose through the ranks of the military,
becoming a general at age 24. The Directory eventually gave him
command of the Army of
Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the
government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first
military campaign against the Austrians and their Italian
allies—winning virtually every battle, conquering the Italian
Peninsula in a year, and becoming a national hero. In 1798, he led a
military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political
power. He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul
of the Republic. His ambition and public approval inspired him to go
further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French.
Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were
Third Coalition by 1805.
Napoleon shattered this coalition
with decisive victories in the
Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph
over Russia and Austria at the
Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz , which led to the
elimination of the thousand-year-old
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire . In 1806, the
Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became
worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon
quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt , then
marched the Grand Army deep into
Eastern Europe and annihilated the
Russians in June 1807 at the
Battle of Friedland .
France then forced
the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of
Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit
signified the high watermark of the French Empire. In 1809, the
Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War
of the Fifth Coalition , but
Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe
after triumphing at the
Battle of Wagram in July.
Hoping to extend the
Continental System and choke off British trade
with the European mainland,
Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his
brother Joseph the King of
Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the
Portuguese revolted with British support. The
Peninsular War lasted
six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare , and ended in victory
for the Allies. The
Continental System caused recurring diplomatic
France and its client states, especially Russia.
Unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the
Russians routinely violated the
Continental System and enticed
Napoleon into another war. The French launched a major invasion of
Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the
collapse of the Grand Army and the destruction of Russian cities, and
inspired a renewed push against
Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813,
Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against
France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army
Napoleon at the
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The
Allies then invaded
France and captured
Paris in the spring of 1814,
Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of
Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power . However,
Napoleon escaped from
Elba in February 1815 and took control of France
once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition ,
Napoleon at the
Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo in June. The British
exiled him to the remote island of
Saint Helena in the South Atlantic
, where he died six years later at the age of 51.
Napoleon had an extensive and powerful influence on the modern world,
bringing liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered
and controlled, such as the
Low Countries ,
Switzerland , and large
parts of modern
Germany . He implemented fundamental liberal
France and throughout Western Europe. His legal
Napoleonic Code , has influenced the legal systems of
more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew
Roberts stated, "The ideas that underpin our modern
world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights,
religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so
on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically
extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local
administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science
and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification
of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire ".
* 1 Origins and education
* 2 Early career
Siege of Toulon
* 2.3 First Italian campaign
* 2.4 Egyptian expedition
* 3 Ruler of
* 3.1.1 Temporary peace in Europe
* 3.2 French Empire
War of the Third Coalition
* 3.2.2 Middle-Eastern alliances
War of the Fourth Coalition and Tilsit
Peninsular War and Erfurt
War of the Fifth Coalition and Marie Louise
* 3.2.6 Invasion of Russia
War of the Sixth Coalition
* 3.2.8 Exile to
* 4 Exile on
* 4.1 Death
* 4.1.1 Cause of death
* 5 Religion
* 5.1 Concordat
* 5.2 Religious emancipation
* 6 Personality
* 7 Image
* 8 Reforms
* 8.2 Warfare
* 8.4 Education
* 9 Memory and evaluation
* 9.1 Criticism
* 9.2 Propaganda and memory
* 9.3 Long-term influence outside
* 10 Marriages and children
* 11 Titles, styles, honours, and arms
* 12 Ancestry
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes
* 15 Citations
* 16 References
* 16.1 Biographical studies
* 16.2 Specialty studies
* 16.3 Historiography and memory
* 17 External links
ORIGINS AND EDUCATION
Carlo Buonaparte was
Corsica 's representative
to the court of
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France .
Napoleon was born on 15 August 1769, to Carlo Maria di Buonaparte and
Letizia Ramolino , in his family's ancestral home Casa
Ajaccio , the capital of the island of Corsica. He was
their fourth child and third son. This was a year after the island was
France by the
Republic of Genoa . He was christened
Napoleone di Buonaparte, probably named after an uncle (an older
brother who did not survive infancy was the first of the sons to be
called Napoleone). In his 20s, he adopted the more French-sounding
The Corsican Buonapartes were descended from minor Italian nobility
of Tuscan origin, who had come to
Liguria in the 16th
century. The nationalist Corsican leader
Pasquale Paoli ;
Richard Cosway , 1798
His father Nobile
Carlo Buonaparte was an attorney, and was named
Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. The
dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, Letizia
Ramolino, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child.
Napoleon's maternal grandmother had married into the Swiss Fesch
family in her second marriage, and Napoleon's uncle, the cardinal
Joseph Fesch , would fulfill a role as protector of the Bonaparte
family for some years.
He had an elder brother, Joseph , and younger siblings: Lucien ,
Elisa , Louis , Pauline , Caroline , and Jérôme . A boy and girl
were born before Joseph but died in infancy.
Napoleon was baptised as
Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background afforded him greater
opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of
the time. In January 1779, he was enrolled at a religious school in
Autun . In May, he was admitted to a military academy at
Brienne-le-Château . His first language was Corsican , and he always
spoke French with a marked Corsican accent and never learned to spell
French properly. He was teased by other students for his accent and
applied himself to reading. An examiner observed that
always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. He is
fairly well acquainted with history and geography... This boy would
make an excellent sailor".
On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784,
admitted to the elite
École Militaire in Paris. He trained to become
an artillery officer and, when his father's death reduced his income,
was forced to complete the two-year course in one year. He was the
first Corsican to graduate from the École Militaire. He was examined
by the famed scientist
Pierre-Simon Laplace .
Napoleon Bonaparte, aged 23, lieutenant-colonel of a battalion
of Corsican Republican volunteers
Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a
second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment . He served in
Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in
1789, and took nearly two years' leave in
this period. At this time, he was a fervent
Corsican nationalist , and
wrote to Corsican leader
Pasquale Paoli in May 1789, "As the nation
was perishing I was born. Thirty thousand Frenchmen were vomited on to
our shores, drowning the throne of liberty in waves of blood. Such was
the odious sight which was the first to strike me".
He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a
complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and
Corsican nationalists. He was a supporter of the republican Jacobin
movement, organising clubs in Corsica, and was given command over a
battalion of volunteers. He was promoted to captain in the regular
army in July 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading
a riot against French troops.
He came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to split with
France and sabotage the French assault on the Sardinian island of La
Maddalena . Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland in
June 1793 because of the split with Paoli.
SIEGE OF TOULON
Siege of Toulon Bonaparte at the
Siege of Toulon
In July 1793, Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet entitled
Le souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire ) which gained him the
Augustin Robespierre , younger brother of the Revolutionary
Maximilien Robespierre . With the help of his fellow Corsican
Antoine Christophe Saliceti , Bonaparte was appointed artillery
commander of the republican forces at the Siege of Toulon.
He adopted a plan to capture a hill where republican guns could
dominate the city's harbour and force the British to evacuate. The
assault on the position led to the capture of the city, but during it
Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh. He was promoted to brigadier
general at the age of 24. Catching the attention of the Committee of
Public Safety , he was put in charge of the artillery of France's Army
Napoleon spent time as inspector of coastal fortifications on the
Mediterranean coast near
Marseille while he was waiting for
confirmation of the Army of
Italy post. He devised plans for attacking
Kingdom of Sardinia as part of France's campaign against the First
Augustin Robespierre and Saliceti were ready to listen to
the freshly promoted artillery general.
The French army carried out Bonaparte's plan in the Battle of Saorgio
in April 1794, and then advanced to seize
Ormea in the mountains. From
Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions
Saorge . After this campaign,
Augustin Robespierre sent
Bonaparte on a mission to the
Republic of Genoa to determine that
country's intentions towards France.
Some contemporaries alleged that Bonaparte was put under house arrest
Nice for his association with the Robespierres following their fall
Thermidorian Reaction in July 1794, but Napoleon's secretary
Bourrienne disputed the allegation in his memoirs. According to
Bourrienne, jealousy was responsible, between the Army of the Alps and
the Army of
Italy (with whom
Napoleon was seconded at the time).
Bonaparte dispatched an impassioned defense in a letter to the
commissar Saliceti, and he was subsequently acquitted of any
He was released within two weeks and, due to his technical skills,
was asked to draw up plans to attack Italian positions in the context
of France's war with Austria. He also took part in an expedition to
Corsica from the British, but the French were repulsed by
the British Royal Navy.
By 1795, Bonaparte had become engaged to
Désirée Clary , daughter
François Clary . Désirée's sister
Julie Clary had married
Bonaparte's elder brother Joseph. In April 1795, he was assigned to
the Army of the West , which was engaged in the War in the Vendée
—a civil war and royalist counter-revolution in Vendée, a region in
France on the
Atlantic Ocean . As an infantry command, it
was a demotion from artillery general—for which the army already had
a full quota—and he pleaded poor health to avoid the posting.
13 Vendémiaire .
Artillery fire in front of the Church of
He was moved to the Bureau of
Topography of the Committee of Public
Safety and sought unsuccessfully to be transferred to Constantinople
in order to offer his services to the
Sultan . During this period, he
wrote the romantic novella
Clisson et Eugénie , about a soldier and
his lover, in a clear parallel to Bonaparte's own relationship with
Désirée. On 15 September, Bonaparte was removed from the list of
generals in regular service for his refusal to serve in the Vendée
campaign. He faced a difficult financial situation and reduced career
On 3 October, royalists in
Paris declared a rebellion against the
National Convention . Paul Barras , a leader of the Thermidorian
Reaction, knew of Bonaparte's military exploits at
Toulon and gave him
command of the improvised forces in defence of the Convention in the
Tuileries Palace .
Napoleon had seen the massacre of the King\'s Swiss
Guard there three years earlier and realised that artillery would be
the key to its defence.
He ordered a young cavalry officer named
Joachim Murat to seize large
cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795—13
Vendémiaire An IV in the
French Republican Calendar
French Republican Calendar . 1,400 royalists
died and the rest fled. He had cleared the streets with "a whiff of
grapeshot ", according to 19th-century historian
Thomas Carlyle in The
French Revolution: A History .
The defeat of the royalist insurrection extinguished the threat to
the Convention and earned Bonaparte sudden fame, wealth, and the
patronage of the new government, the Directory . Murat married one of
Napoleon's sisters and became his brother-in-law; he also served under
Napoleon as one of his generals. Bonaparte was promoted to Commander
of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy.
Within weeks, he was romantically attached to Joséphine de
Beauharnais , the former mistress of Barras. The couple married on 9
March 1796 in a civil ceremony.
FIRST ITALIAN CAMPAIGN
Main article: Italian campaigns of the
French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
Bonaparte at the Pont d\'Arcole , by Baron
Antoine-Jean Gros , (ca.
Musée du Louvre ,
Two days after the marriage, Bonaparte left
Paris to take command of
the Army of Italy. He immediately went on the offensive, hoping to
defeat the forces of Piedmont before their Austrian allies could
intervene. In a series of rapid victories during the Montenotte
Campaign , he knocked Piedmont out of the war in two weeks. The French
then focused on the Austrians for the remainder of the war, the
highlight of which became the protracted struggle for Mantua . The
Austrians launched a series of offensives against the French to break
the siege, but
Napoleon defeated every relief effort, scoring
victories at the battles of Castiglione , Bassano , Arcole , and
Rivoli . The decisive French triumph at Rivoli in January 1797 led to
the collapse of the Austrian position in Italy. At Rivoli, the
Austrians lost up to 14,000 men while the French lost about 5,000.
The next phase of the campaign featured the French invasion of the
Habsburg heartlands. French forces in Southern
Germany had been
defeated by the Archduke Charles in 1796, but the Archduke withdrew
his forces to protect
Vienna after learning about Napoleon's assault.
In the first encounter between the two commanders,
back his opponent and advanced deep into Austrian territory after
winning at the Battle of Tarvis in March 1797. The Austrians were
alarmed by the French thrust that reached all the way to
about 100 km from Vienna, and finally decided to sue for peace. The
Leoben , followed by the more comprehensive Treaty of Campo
Formio , gave
France control of most of northern
Italy and the Low
Countries , and a secret clause promised the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice to
Austria. Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending
1,100 years of independence. He also authorized the French to loot
treasures such as the
Horses of Saint Mark .
His application of conventional military ideas to real-world
situations enabled his military triumphs, such as creative use of
artillery as a mobile force to support his infantry. He stated later
in life: "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which
I did not know at the beginning. Look at Caesar; he fought the first
like the last".
Bonaparte could win battles by concealment of troop deployments and
concentration of his forces on the "hinge" of an enemy's weakened
front. If he could not use his favourite envelopment strategy , he
would take up the central position and attack two co-operating forces
at their hinge, swing round to fight one until it fled, then turn to
face the other. In this Italian campaign, Bonaparte's army captured
150,000 prisoners, 540 cannons, and 170 standards . The French army
fought 67 actions and won 18 pitched battles through superior
artillery technology and Bonaparte's tactics.
During the campaign, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in
French politics. He founded two newspapers: one for the troops in his
army and another for circulation in France. The royalists attacked
Bonaparte for looting
Italy and warned that he might become a
dictator. All told, Napoleon's forces extracted an estimated $45
million in funds from
Italy during their campaign there, another $12
million in precious metals and jewels; atop that, his forces
confiscated more than three-hundred priceless paintings and
sculptures. Bonaparte sent General
Pierre Augereau to
Paris to lead a
coup d'état and purge the royalists on 4 September—Coup of 18
Fructidor . This left Barras and his Republican allies in control
again but dependent on Bonaparte, who proceeded to peace negotiations
with Austria. These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo
Formio , and Bonaparte returned to
Paris in December as a hero. He
met Talleyrand , France's new Foreign Minister—who served in the
same capacity for Emperor Napoleon—and they began to prepare for an
invasion of Britain.
French campaign in Egypt and Syria Bonaparte
Before the Sphinx , (ca. 1868) by
Jean-Léon Gérôme ,
Battle of the Pyramids on 21 July 1798 by Louis-François,
Baron Lejeune , 1808
After two months of planning, Bonaparte decided that France's naval
power was not yet strong enough to confront the British Royal Navy. He
decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine
Britain's access to its trade interests in India . Bonaparte wished
to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the ultimate
dream of linking with Tipu
Sultan , a Muslim enemy of the British in
Napoleon assured the Directory that "as soon as he had conquered
Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and,
together with them, attack the English in their possessions". The
Directory agreed in order to secure a trade route to India.
In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of
Sciences . His Egyptian expedition included a group of 167 scientists,
with mathematicians, naturalists, chemists, and geodesists among them.
Their discoveries included the
Rosetta Stone , and their work was
published in the Description de l\'Égypte in 1809.
En route to Egypt, Bonaparte reached
Malta on 9 June 1798, then
controlled by the
Knights Hospitaller . Grand Master Ferdinand von
Hompesch zu Bolheim surrendered after token resistance, and Bonaparte
captured an important naval base with the loss of only three men.
General Bonaparte and his expedition eluded pursuit by the Royal Navy
and landed at
Alexandria on 1 July. He fought the Battle of Shubra
Khit against the Mamluks , Egypt's ruling military caste. This helped
the French practice their defensive tactic for the Battle of the
Pyramids , fought on 21 July, about 24 km (15 mi) from the pyramids .
General Bonaparte's forces of 25,000 roughly equalled those of the
Mamluks' Egyptian cavalry. Twenty-nine French and approximately 2,000
Egyptians were killed. The victory boosted the morale of the French
On 1 August 1798, the British fleet under
Horatio Nelson captured or
destroyed all but two French vessels in the
Battle of the Nile ,
defeating Bonaparte's goal to strengthen the French position in the
Mediterranean. His army had succeeded in a temporary increase of
French power in Egypt, though it faced repeated uprisings. In early
1799, he moved an army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria
Galilee ). Bonaparte led these 13,000 French soldiers in the
conquest of the coastal towns of
Arish , Gaza ,
Jaffa , and
The attack on
Jaffa was particularly brutal. Bonaparte discovered that
many of the defenders were former prisoners of war, ostensibly on
parole , so he ordered the garrison and 1,400 prisoners to be executed
by bayonet or drowning to save bullets. Men, women, and children were
robbed and murdered for three days.
Bonaparte began with an army of 13,000 men; 1,500 were reported
missing, 1,200 died in combat, and thousands perished from
disease—mostly bubonic plague . He failed to reduce the fortress of
Acre , so he marched his army back to Egypt in May. To speed up the
retreat, Bonaparte ordered plague-stricken men to be poisoned with
opium; the number who died remains disputed, ranging from a low of 30
to a high of 580. He also brought out 1,000 wounded men. Back in
Egypt on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at
RULER OF FRANCE
Main articles: 18 Brumaire and
Napoleonic era General Bonaparte
surrounded by members of the
Council of Five Hundred during the Coup
of 18 Brumaire, by
While in Egypt, Bonaparte stayed informed of European affairs. He
France had suffered a series of defeats in the War of the
Second Coalition . On 24 August 1799, he took advantage of the
temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set
sail for France, despite the fact that he had received no explicit
orders from Paris. The army was left in the charge of Jean Baptiste
Unknown to Bonaparte, the Directory had sent him orders to return to
ward off possible invasions of French soil, but poor lines of
communication prevented the delivery of these messages. By the time
that he reached
Paris in October, France's situation had been improved
by a series of victories. The Republic, however, was bankrupt and the
ineffective Directory was unpopular with the French population. The
Directory discussed Bonaparte's "desertion" but was too weak to punish
Despite the failures in Egypt,
Napoleon returned to a hero's welcome.
He drew together an alliance with director
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès ,
his brother Lucien, speaker of the
Council of Five Hundred Roger Ducos
Joseph Fouché , and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the
Directory by a coup d\'état on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire"
according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the council of
Napoleon became "first consul" for ten years, with two
consuls appointed by him who had consultative voices only. His power
was confirmed by the new "
Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII ", originally
devised by Sieyès to give
Napoleon a minor role, but rewritten by
Napoleon, and accepted by direct popular vote (3,000,000 in favor,
1,567 opposed). The constitution preserved the appearance of a
republic but in reality established a dictatorship.
French Consulate and
War of the Second Coalition
Bonaparte, First Consul , by Ingres . Posing the hand inside the
waistcoat was often used in portraits of rulers to indicate calm and
Napoleon as commander of the Army
Napoleon established a political system that historian Martyn Lyons
called "dictatorship by plebiscite". Worried by the democratic forces
unleashed by the Revolution, but unwilling to ignore them entirely,
Napoleon resorted to regular electoral consultations with the French
people on his road to imperial power. He drafted the Constitution of
the Year VIII and secured his own election as
First Consul , taking up
residence at the Tuileries. The constitution was approved in a rigged
plebiscite held the following January, with 99.94 percent officially
listed as voting "yes". Napoleon's brother, Lucien, had falsified the
returns to show that 3 million people had participated in the
plebiscite; the real number was 1.5 million. Political observers at
the time assumed the eligible French voting public numbered about 5
million people, so the regime artificially doubled the participation
rate to indicate popular enthusiasm for the Consulate. In the first
few months of the Consulate, with war in Europe still raging and
internal instability still plaguing the country, Napoleon's grip on
power remained very tenuous.
In the spring of 1800,
Napoleon and his troops crossed the Swiss Alps
into Italy, aiming to surprise the Austrian armies that had reoccupied
the peninsula when
Napoleon was still in Egypt. After a difficult
crossing over the Alps, the French army entered the plains of Northern
Italy virtually unopposed. While one French army approached from the
north, the Austrians were busy with another stationed in
Genoa , which
was besieged by a substantial force. The fierce resistance of this
French army, under
André Masséna , gave the northern force some time
to carry out their operations with little interference. After
spending several days looking for each other, the two armies collided
Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo on 14 June. General Melas had a numerical
advantage, fielding about 30,000 Austrian soldiers while Napoleon
commanded 24,000 French troops. The battle began favorably for the
Austrians as their initial attack surprised the French and gradually
drove them back. Melas stated that he'd won the battle and retired to
his headquarters around 3 pm, leaving his subordinates in charge of
pursuing the French. The French lines never broke during their
Napoleon constantly rode out among the troops urging
them to stand and fight. Late in the afternoon, a full division under
Desaix arrived on the field and reversed the tide of the battle. A
series of artillery barrages and cavalry charges decimated the
Austrian army, which fled over the Bormida River back to
leaving behind 14,000 casualties. The following day, the Austrian
army agreed to abandon Northern
Italy once more with the Convention of
Alessandria, which granted them safe passage to friendly soil in
exchange for their fortresses throughout the region.
Although critics have blamed
Napoleon for several tactical mistakes
preceding the battle, they have also praised his audacity for
selecting a risky campaign strategy, choosing to invade the Italian
peninsula from the north when the vast majority of French invasions
came from the west, near or along the coastline. As Chandler points
Napoleon spent almost a year getting the Austrians out of Italy
in his first campaign; in 1800, it took him only a month to achieve
the same goal. German strategist and field marshal Alfred von
Schlieffen concluded that "Bonaparte did not annihilate his enemy but
eliminated him and rendered him harmless" while " the object of the
campaign: the conquest of North Italy".
Napoleon's triumph at Marengo secured his political authority and
boosted his popularity back home, but it did not lead to an immediate
peace. Bonaparte's brother, Joseph, led the complex negotiations in
Lunéville and reported that Austria, emboldened by British support,
would not acknowledge the new territory that
France had acquired. As
negotiations became increasingly fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to
his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Moreau and the French
Bavaria and scored an overwhelming victory at
Hohenlinden in December 1800. As a result, the Austrians capitulated
and signed the Treaty of
Lunéville in February 1801. The treaty
reaffirmed and expanded earlier French gains at Campo Formio .
Britain now remained the only nation that was still at war with
Temporary Peace In Europe
After a decade of constant warfare,
France and Britain signed the
Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing the Revolutionary Wars to an
end. Amiens called for the withdrawal of British troops from recently
conquered colonial territories as well as for assurances to curtail
the expansionary goals of the French Republic. With Europe at peace
and the economy recovering, Napoleon's popularity soared to its
highest levels under the Consulate, both domestically and abroad. In
a new plebiscite during the spring of 1802, the French public came out
in huge numbers to approve a constitution that made the Consulate
permanent, essentially elevating
Napoleon to dictator for life.
Whereas the plebiscite two years earlier had brought out 1.5 million
people to the polls, the new referendum enticed 3.6 million to go and
vote (72% of all eligible voters). There was no secret ballot in 1802
and few people wanted to openly defy the regime; the constitution
gained approval with over 99% of the vote. His broad powers were
spelled out in the new constitution: Article 1. The French people
name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte
First Consul for
Life. After 1802, he was generally referred to as
The brief peace in Europe allowed
Napoleon to focus on the French
Saint-Domingue had managed to acquire a high level of
political autonomy during the Revolutionary Wars, with Toussaint
Louverture installing himself as de facto dictator by 1801. Napoleon
saw his chance to recuperate the formerly wealthy colony when he
signed the Treaty of Amiens. During the Revolution, the National
Convention voted to abolish slavery in February 1794. Under the terms
of Amiens, however,
Napoleon agreed to appease British demands by not
abolishing slavery in any colonies where the 1794 decree had never
been implemented. The resulting Law of 20 May never applied to
Guyane , even though rogue generals and
other officials used the pretext of peace as an opportunity to
reinstate slavery in some of these places. The Law of 20 May
officially restored the slave trade to the Caribbean colonies, not
Napoleon sent an expedition under General Leclerc
designed to reassert control over Sainte-Domingue. Although the French
managed to capture Toussaint Louverture, the expedition failed when
high rates of disease crippled the French army. In May 1803, the last
8000 French troops left the island and the slaves proclaimed an
independent republic that they called
Haïti in 1804. Seeing the
failure of his colonial efforts,
Napoleon decided in 1803 to sell the
Louisiana Territory to the United States, instantly doubling the size
of the U.S. The selling price in the
Louisiana Purchase was less than
three cents per acre, a total of $15 million.
The peace with Britain proved to be uneasy and controversial.
Britain did not evacuate
Malta as promised and protested against
Bonaparte's annexation of Piedmont and his
Act of Mediation , which
established a new Swiss Confederation . Neither of these territories
were covered by Amiens, but they inflamed tensions significantly. The
dispute culminated in a declaration of war by Britain in May 1803;
Napoleon responded by reassembling the invasion camp at Boulogne.
First French Empire
First French Empire
The Coronation of Napoleon by
Jacques-Louis David in 1804. See also:
Coronation of Napoleon I and
Napoleonic Wars Bust of
Napoleon I, 1807–1809. Marble, from
Italy . After Antoine-Denis Chaudet. The Victoria and Albert
Museum , London
During the Consulate,
Napoleon faced several royalist and Jacobin
assassination plots , including the
Conspiration des poignards (Dagger
plot) in October 1800 and the
Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise (also
known as the Infernal Machine) two months later. In January 1804, his
police uncovered an assassination plot against him that involved
Moreau and which was ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbon family, the
former rulers of France. On the advice of Talleyrand,
the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien , violating the sovereignty of
Baden . The Duke was quickly executed after a secret military trial,
even though he had not been involved in the plot. Enghien's execution
infuriated royal courts throughout Europe, becoming one of the
contributing political factors for the outbreak of the Napoleonic
To expand his power,
Napoleon used these assassination plots to
justify the creation of an imperial system based on the Roman model.
He believed that a
Bourbon restoration would be more difficult if his
family's succession was entrenched in the constitution. Launching yet
another referendum ,
Napoleon was elected as
Emperor of the French by
a tally exceeding 99%. As with the Life Consulate two years earlier,
this referendum produced heavy participation, bringing out almost 3.6
million voters to the polls.
A keen observer of Bonaparte’s rise to absolute power, Madame de
Rémusat , explains that "men worn out by the turmoil of the
Revolution … looked for the domination of an able ruler" and that
"people believed quite sincerely that Bonaparte, whether as consul or
emperor, would exert his authority and save from the perils of
Napoleon's coronation took place on 2 December 1804. Two separate
crowns were brought for the ceremony: a golden laurel wreath recalling
the Roman Empire and a replica of Charlemagne's crown. Napoleon
entered the ceremony wearing the laurel wreath and kept it on his head
throughout the proceedings. For the official coronation, he raised
Charlemagne crown over his own head in a symbolic gesture, but
never placed it on top because he was already wearing the golden
wreath. Instead he placed the crown on Josephine's head, the event
commemorated in the officially sanctioned painting by Jacques-Louis
Napoleon was also crowned
King of Italy , with the Iron Crown
of Lombardy , at the Cathedral of Milan on 26 May 1805. He created
eighteen Marshals of the Empire from amongst his top generals to
secure the allegiance of the army.
War Of The Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
Napoleon and the
Grande Armée receive the surrender of Austrian General Mack after the
Battle of Ulm in October 1805. The decisive finale of the
raised the tally of captured Austrian soldiers to 60,000. With the
Austrian army destroyed,
Vienna would fall to the French in November.
Great Britain had broken the Peace of Amiens by declaring war on
France in May 1803. In December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement
became the first step towards the creation of the Third Coalition. By
April 1805, Britain had also signed an alliance with Russia. Austria
had been defeated by
France twice in recent memory and wanted revenge,
so it joined the coalition a few months later.
Before the formation of the Third Coalition,
Napoleon had assembled
an invasion force, the Armée d'Angleterre, around six camps at
Boulogne in Northern France. He intended to use this invasion force to
strike at England. They never invaded, but Napoleon's troops received
careful and invaluable training for future military operations. The
men at Boulogne formed the core for what
Napoleon later called La
Grande Armée . At the start, this French army had about 200,000 men
organized into seven corps , which were large field units that
contained 36 to 40 cannons each and were capable of independent action
until other corps could come to the rescue. A single corps properly
situated in a strong defensive position could survive at least a day
without support, giving the
Grande Armée countless strategic and
tactical options on every campaign. On top of these forces, Napoleon
created a cavalry reserve of 22,000 organized into two cuirassier
divisions , four mounted dragoon divisions, one division of dismounted
dragoons, and one of light cavalry, all supported by 24 artillery
pieces. By 1805, the
Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000
men, who were well equipped, well trained, and led by competent
Napoleon knew that the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy
in a head-to-head battle, so he planned to lure it away from the
English Channel through diversionary tactics. The main strategic idea
French Navy escaping from the British blockades of Toulon
and Brest and threatening to attack the West Indies. In the face of
this attack, it was hoped, the British would weaken their defense of
Western Approaches by sending ships to the Caribbean, allowing a
combined Franco-Spanish fleet to take control of the channel long
enough for French armies to cross and invade . However, the plan
unraveled after the British victory at the Battle of Cape Finisterre
in July 1805. French Admiral Villeneuve then retreated to Cádiz
instead of linking up with French naval forces at Brest for an attack
English Channel .
By August 1805,
Napoleon had realized that the strategic situation
had changed fundamentally. Facing a potential invasion from his
continental enemies, he decided to strike first and turned his army's
sights from the
English Channel to the Rhine . His basic objective was
to destroy the isolated Austrian armies in Southern
their Russian allies could arrive. On 25 September, after great
secrecy and feverish marching, 200,000 French troops began to cross
the Rhine on a front of 260 km (160 mi). Austrian commander Karl
Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the
Napoleon swung his forces to the southeast
Grande Armée performed an elaborate wheeling movement that
outflanked the Austrian positions. The
Ulm Maneuver completely
surprised General Mack, who belatedly understood that his army had
been cut off. After some minor engagements that culminated in the
Battle of Ulm , Mack finally surrendered after realizing that there
was no way to break out of the French encirclement. For just 2,000
Napoleon had managed to capture a total of 60,000
Austrian soldiers through his army's rapid marching. The
is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential
in the development of the
Schlieffen Plan in the late 19th century.
For the French, this spectacular victory on land was soured by the
decisive victory that the Royal Navy attained at the Battle of
Trafalgar on 21 October. After Trafalgar, Britain had total domination
of the seas for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars.
the Battle of Austerlitz, by
François Gérard 1805. The Battle of
Austerlitz , also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one
of Napoleon's many victories, where the French Empire defeated the
Third Coalition .
Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna
in November. The fall of
Vienna provided the French a huge bounty as
they captured 100,000 muskets, 500 cannons, and the intact bridges
Danube . At this critical juncture, both Tsar Alexander I
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor Francis II decided to engage
battle, despite reservations from some of their subordinates. Napoleon
sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, but then ordered his
forces to retreat so that he could feign a grave weakness. Desperate
to lure the Allies into battle,
Napoleon gave every indication in the
days preceding the engagement that the French army was in a pitiful
state, even abandoning the dominant Pratzen Heights near the village
of Austerlitz. At the
Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz , in
Moravia on 2 December,
he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately
weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major
assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. A
forced march from
Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III
the gap left by
Napoleon just in time. Meanwhile, the heavy Allied
deployment against the French right weakened their center on the
Pratzen Heights, which was viciously attacked by the IV
Marshal Soult . With the Allied center demolished, the French swept
through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically,
capturing thousands of prisoners in the process. The battle is often
seen as a tactical masterpiece because of the near-perfect execution
of a calibrated but dangerous plan — of the same stature as Cannae ,
the celebrated triumph by
Hannibal some 2,000 years before.
The Allied disaster at Austerlitz significantly shook the faith of
Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort.
France and Austria
agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg
followed shortly after on 26 December. Pressburg took Austria out of
both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties
of Campo Formio and of
Lunéville between the two powers. The treaty
confirmed the Austrian loss of lands to
and lands in
Germany to Napoleon's German allies. It also imposed an
indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed
the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories
and back to their home soil.
Napoleon went on to say, "The battle of
Austerlitz is the finest of all I have fought".
Frank McLynn suggests
Napoleon was so successful at Austerlitz that he lost touch with
reality, and what used to be French foreign policy became a "personal
Vincent Cronin disagrees, stating that
not overly ambitious for himself, "he embodied the ambitions of thirty
Franco-Ottoman alliance and
The Iranian Envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini meeting with Napoleon
I at the
Finckenstein Palace , 27 April 1807, to sign the Treaty of
Napoleon continued to entertain a grand scheme to establish a French
presence in the Middle East in order to put pressure on Britain and
Russia, and perhaps form an alliance with the Ottoman Empire. In
February 1806, Ottoman Emperor
Selim III finally recognized Napoleon
as Emperor. He also opted for an alliance with France, calling France
"our sincere and natural ally". That decision brought the Ottoman
Empire into a losing war against Russia and Britain. A Franco-Persian
alliance was also formed between
Napoleon and the Persian Empire of
Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar
Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar . It collapsed in 1807, when
France and Russia
themselves formed an unexpected alliance. In the end,
made no effective alliances in the Middle East.
War Of The Fourth Coalition And Tilsit
War of the Fourth Coalition
Napoleon established the Confederation of the Rhine
in 1806. A collection of German states intended to serve as a buffer
France and Central Europe, the creation of the
Confederation spelled the end of the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire and
significantly alarmed the Prussians. The brazen reorganization of
German territory by the French risked threatening Prussian influence
in the region, if not eliminating it outright. War fever in Berlin
rose steadily throughout the summer of 1806. At the insistence of his
court, especially his wife Queen Louise , Frederick William III
decided to challenge the French domination of Central Europe by going
Napoleon reviews the Imperial Guard before the Battle of
The initial military maneuvers began in September 1806. In a letter
to Marshal Soult detailing the plan for the campaign, Napoleon
described the essential features of Napoleonic warfare and introduced
the phrase le bataillon-carré ("square battalion"). In the
bataillon-carré system, the various corps of the
Grande Armée would
march uniformly together in close supporting distance. If any single
corps was attacked, the others could quickly spring into action and
arrive to help.
Napoleon invaded Prussia with 180,000 troops, rapidly
marching on the right bank of the River
Saale . As in previous
campaigns, his fundamental objective was to destroy one opponent
before reinforcements from another could tip the balance of the war.
Upon learning the whereabouts of the Prussian army, the French swung
westwards and crossed the
Saale with overwhelming force. At the twin
battles of Jena and Auerstedt , fought on 14 October, the French
convincingly defeated the Prussians and inflicted heavy casualties.
With several major commanders dead or incapacitated, the Prussian king
proved incapable of effectively commanding the army, which began to
quickly disintegrate. In a vaunted pursuit that epitomized the "peak
of Napoleonic warfare", according to historian Richard Brooks, the
French managed to capture 140,000 soldiers, over 2,000 cannons and
hundreds of ammunition wagons, all in a single month. Historian David
Chandler wrote of the Prussian forces: "Never has the morale of any
army been more completely shattered". Despite their overwhelming
defeat, the Prussians refused to negotiate with the French until the
Russians had an opportunity to enter the fight. The Treaties of
Napoleon meeting with
Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I of Russia on a raft in the
middle of the
Following his triumph,
Napoleon imposed the first elements of the
Continental System through the
Berlin Decree issued in November 1806.
The Continental System, which prohibited European nations from trading
with Britain, was widely violated throughout his reign. In the next
Napoleon marched against the advancing Russian armies
through Poland and was involved in the bloody stalemate at the Battle
of Eylau in February 1807. After a period of rest and consolidation
on both sides, the war restarted in June with an initial struggle at
Heilsberg that proved indecisive. On 14 June, however, Napoleon
finally obtained an overwhelming victory over the Russians at the
Battle of Friedland , wiping out the majority of the Russian army in a
very bloody struggle. The scale of their defeat convinced the Russians
to make peace with the French. On 19 June, Czar Alexander sent an
envoy to seek an armistice with Napoleon. The latter assured the envoy
Vistula River represented the natural borders between French
and Russian influence in Europe. On that basis, the two emperors began
peace negotiations at the town of Tilsit after meeting on an iconic
raft on the River Niemen . The very first thing Alexander said to
Napoleon was probably well-calibrated: "I hate the English as much as
Alexander faced pressure from his brother, Duke Constantine , to make
peace with Napoleon. Given the victory he had just achieved, the
French emperor offered the Russians relatively lenient
terms–demanding that Russia join the Continental System, withdraw
its forces from
Moldavia , and hand over the Ionian
Islands to France. By contrast,
Napoleon dictated very harsh peace
terms for Prussia, despite the ceaseless exhortations of Queen Louise
. Wiping out half of Prussian territories from the map, Napoleon
created a new kingdom of 1,100 square miles called Westphalia. He then
appointed his young brother Jérôme as the new monarch of this
kingdom. Prussia's humiliating treatment at Tilsit caused a deep and
bitter antagonism which festered as the
Napoleonic era progressed.
Moreover, Alexander's pretensions at friendship with
Napoleon led the
latter to seriously misjudge the true intentions of his Russian
counterpart, who would violate numerous provisions of the treaty in
the next few years. Despite these problems, the
Treaties of Tilsit at
Napoleon a respite from war and allowed him to return to
France, which he had not seen in over 300 days.
Peninsular War And Erfurt
The settlements at Tilsit gave
Napoleon time to organize his empire.
One of his major objectives became enforcing the Continental System
against the British. He decided to focus his attention on the Kingdom
of Portugal , which consistently violated his trade prohibitions.
After defeat in the
War of the Oranges in 1801, Portugal adopted a
double-sided policy. At first, John VI agreed to close his ports to
British trade. The situation changed dramatically after the
Franco-Spanish defeat at Trafalgar; John grew bolder and officially
resumed diplomatic and trade relations with Britain. Joseph
Bonaparte , Napoleon's brother, as King of
Unhappy with this change of policy by the Portuguese government,
Napoleon negotiated a secret treaty with
Charles IV of Spain
Charles IV of Spain and sent
an army to invade Portugal. On 17 October 1807, 24,000 French troops
under General Junot crossed the
Pyrenees with Spanish cooperation and
headed towards Portugal to enforce Napoleon's orders. This attack was
the first step in what would eventually become the Peninsular War, a
six-year struggle that significantly sapped French strength.
Throughout the winter of 1808, French agents became increasingly
involved in Spanish internal affairs, attempting to incite discord
between members of the Spanish royal family . On 16 February 1808,
secret French machinations finally materialized when Napoleon
announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival
political factions in the country. Marshal Murat led 120,000 troops
Spain and the French arrived in
Madrid on 24 March, where wild
riots against the occupation erupted just a few weeks later. Napoleon
appointed his brother,
Joseph Bonaparte , as the new King of
the summer of 1808. The appointment enraged a heavily religious and
conservative Spanish population. Resistance to French aggression soon
spread throughout the country. The shocking French defeat at the
Battle of Bailén
Battle of Bailén in July gave hope to Napoleon's enemies and partly
persuaded the French emperor to intervene in person.
Before going to Iberia,
Napoleon decided to address several lingering
issues with the Russians. At the
Congress of Erfurt in October 1808,
Napoleon hoped to keep Russia on his side during the upcoming struggle
Spain and during any potential conflict against Austria. The two
sides reached an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, that called upon
Britain to cease its war against France, that recognized the Russian
conquest of Finland from Sweden , and that affirmed Russian support
France in a possible war against Austria "to the best of its
Napoleon then returned to
France and prepared for war. The
Grande Armée, under the Emperor's personal command, rapidly crossed
Ebro River in November 1808 and inflicted a series of crushing
defeats against the Spanish forces. After clearing the last Spanish
force guarding the capital at Somosierra ,
4 December with 80,000 troops. He then unleashed his soldiers against
Moore and the British forces. The British were swiftly driven to the
coast, and they withdrew from
Spain entirely after a last stand at the
Battle of Corunna
Battle of Corunna in January 1809.
Napoleon would end up leaving Iberia in order to deal with the
Austrians in Central Europe, but the
Peninsular War continued on long
after his absence. He never returned to
Spain after the 1808 campaign.
Several months after Corunna, the British sent another army to the
peninsula under the future Duke of Wellington . The war then settled
into a complex and asymmetric strategic deadlock where all sides
struggled to gain the upper hand. The highlight of the conflict became
the brutal guerrilla warfare that engulfed much of the Spanish
countryside. Both sides committed the worst atrocities of the
Napoleonic Wars during this phase of the conflict. The vicious
guerrilla fighting in Spain, largely absent from the French campaigns
in Central Europe, severely disrupted the French lines of supply and
France maintained roughly 300,000 troops in
Iberia during the Peninsular War, the vast majority were tied down to
garrison duty and to intelligence operations. The French were never
able to concentrate all of their forces effectively, prolonging the
war until events elsewhere in Europe finally turned the tide in favor
of the Allies. After the invasion of Russia in 1812, the number of
French troops in
Spain vastly declined as
reinforcements to conserve his strategic position in Europe. By 1814,
after scores of battles and sieges throughout Iberia, the Allies had
managed to push the French out of the peninsula.
The impact of the Napoleonic invasion of
Spain and ousting of the
Spanish Bourbon monarchy in favor of his brother Joseph had an
enormous impact on the
Spanish empire . In Spanish America many local
elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of
Ferdinand VII of Spain , whom they considered the legitimate Spanish
monarch. The outbreak of the
Spanish American wars of independence in
most of the empire was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in
Spain and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars.
War Of The Fifth Coalition And Marie Louise
War of the Fifth Coalition
Napoleon at the Battle
of Wagram , painted by
Horace Vernet .
After four years on the sidelines, Austria sought another war with
France to avenge its recent defeats. Austria could not count on
Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain , Sweden ,
Ottoman Empire in 1809. Frederick William of Prussia initially
promised to help the Austrians, but reneged before conflict began. A
report from the Austrian finance minister suggested that the treasury
would run out of money by the middle of 1809 if the large army that
the Austrians had formed since the
Third Coalition remained mobilized.
Although Archduke Charles warned that the Austrians were not ready
for another showdown with Napoleon, a stance that landed him in the
so-called "peace party", he did not want to see the army demobilized
either. On 8 February 1809, the advocates for war finally succeeded
when the Imperial Government secretly decided on another confrontation
against the French.
In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian
army crossed the
Inn River and invaded Bavaria. The early Austrian
attack surprised the French;
Napoleon himself was still in
he heard about the invasion. He arrived at
Donauwörth on the 17th to
Grande Armée in a dangerous position, with its two wings
separated by 75 miles (121 km) and joined together by a thin cordon of
Bavarian troops. Charles pressed the left wing of the French army and
hurled his men towards the III
Corps of Marshal Davout. In response,
Napoleon came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the
celebrated Landshut Maneuver. He realigned the axis of his army and
marched his soldiers towards the town of
Eckmühl . The French scored
a convincing win in the resulting Battle of
Eckmühl , forcing Charles
to withdraw his forces over the
Danube and into
Bohemia . On 13 May,
Vienna fell for the second time in four years, although the war
continued since most of the Austrian army had survived the initial
engagements in Southern Germany.
By 17 May, the main Austrian army under Charles had arrived on the
Marchfeld. Charles kept the bulk of his troops several miles away from
the river bank in hopes of concentrating them at the point where
Napoleon decided to cross. On 21 May, the French made their first
major effort to cross the Danube, precipitating the Battle of
Aspern-Essling . The Austrians enjoyed a comfortable numerical
superiority over the French throughout the battle; on the first day,
Charles disposed of 110,000 soldiers against only 31,000 commanded by
Napoleon. By the second day, reinforcements had boosted French
numbers up to 70,000. The battle was characterized by a vicious
back-and-forth struggle for the two villages of Aspern and Essling,
the focal points of the French bridgehead. By the end of the fighting,
the French had lost Aspern but still controlled Essling. A sustained
Austrian artillery bombardment eventually convinced
withdraw his forces back onto Lobau Island. Both sides inflicted about
23,000 casualties on each other. It was the first defeat Napoleon
suffered in a major set-piece battle, and it caused excitement
throughout many parts of Europe because it proved that he could be
beaten on the battlefield.
After the setback at Aspern-Essling,
Napoleon took more than six
weeks in planning and preparing for contingencies before he made
another attempt at crossing the Danube. From 30 June to the early
days of July, the French recrossed the
Danube in strength, with more
than 180,000 troops marching across the Marchfeld towards the
Austrians. Charles received the French with 150,000 of his own men.
In the ensuing
Battle of Wagram , which also lasted two days, Napoleon
commanded his forces in what was the largest battle of his career up
Napoleon finished off the battle with a concentrated
central thrust that punctured a hole in the Austrian army and forced
Charles to retreat. Austrian losses were very heavy, reaching well
over 40,000 casualties. The French were too exhausted to pursue the
Austrians immediately, but
Napoleon eventually caught up with Charles
at Znaim and the latter signed an armistice on 12 July. First
French Empire at its greatest extent in 1811 French Empire French
satellite states Allied states
Kingdom of Holland , the British launched the Walcheren
Campaign to open up a second front in the war and to relieve the
pressure on the Austrians. The British army only landed at Walcheren
on 30 July, by which point the Austrians had already been defeated.
Walcheren Campaign was characterized by little fighting but heavy
casualties thanks to the popularly dubbed "
Walcheren Fever ". Over
4000 British troops were lost in a bungled campaign, and the rest
withdrew in December 1809. The main strategic result from the
campaign became the delayed political settlement between the French
and the Austrians. Emperor Francis wanted to wait and see how the
British performed in their theater before entering into negotiations
with Napoleon. Once it became apparent that the British were going
nowhere, the Austrians agreed to peace talks.
Treaty of Schönbrunn in October 1809 was the harshest
France had imposed on Austria in recent memory. Metternich and
Archduke Charles had the preservation of the
Habsburg Empire as their
fundamental goal, and to this end they succeeded by making Napoleon
seek more modest goals in return for promises of friendship between
the two powers. Nevertheless, while most of the hereditary lands
remained a part of the Habsburg realm,
France received Carinthia ,
Carniola , and the Adriatic ports, while Galicia was given to the
Poles and the
Salzburg area of the Tyrol went to the Bavarians .
Austria lost over three million subjects, about one-fifth of her total
population, as a result of these territorial changes. Although
fighting in Iberia continued, the
War of the Fifth Coalition would be
the last major conflict on the European continent for the next three
Napoleon turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Empress
Joséphine had still not given birth to a child from Napoleon, who
became worried about the future of his empire following his death.
Desperate for a legitimate heir,
Napoleon divorced Joséphine in
January 1810 and started looking for a new wife. Hoping to cement the
recent alliance with Austria through a family connection, Napoleon
married the Archduchess Marie Louise , who was 18 years old at the
time. On 20 March 1811, Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom
Napoleon made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome .
His son never actually ruled the empire, but historians still refer to
Napoleon II .
Invasion Of Russia
French invasion of Russia The Moscow fire
depicted by an unknown German artist
Napoleon and Czar Alexander met at the
Congress of Erfurt to
preserve the Russo-French alliance. The leaders had a friendly
personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in 1807. By
1811, however, tensions had increased and Alexander was under pressure
Russian nobility to break off the alliance. A major strain on
the relationship between the two nations became the regular violations
Continental System by the Russians, which led
threaten Alexander with serious consequences if he formed an alliance
By 1812, advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an
invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. On receipt
of intelligence reports on Russia's war preparations, Napoleon
Grande Armée to more than 450,000 men. He ignored
repeated advice against an invasion of the Russian heartland and
prepared for an offensive campaign; on 24 June 1812 the invasion
commenced. Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, a painting by
In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and
Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War—the First
Polish War had been the
Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles
against Russia in 1768. Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of
Poland to be joined with the
Duchy of Warsaw
Duchy of Warsaw and an independent Poland
created. This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his
ally Austria this would not happen.
Napoleon refused to manumit the
Russian serfs because of concerns this might provoke a reaction in his
army's rear. The serfs later committed atrocities against French
soldiers during France's retreat.
The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement
and instead retreated deeper into Russia. A brief attempt at
resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated
in a series of battles, and
Napoleon resumed his advance. The Russians
again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved
Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the
opportunity arose. Owing to the Russian army's scorched earth tactics,
the French found it increasingly difficult to forage food for
themselves and their horses.
The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September:
Battle of Borodino
Battle of Borodino resulted in approximately 44,000 Russian and
35,000 French dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the
bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point in time. Although
the French had won, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the
Napoleon had hoped would be decisive. Napoleon's own
account was: "The most terrible of all my battles was the one before
Moscow. The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the
Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible".
The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow.
the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would
negotiate peace. However, on orders of the city's governor Feodor
Rostopchin , rather than capitulation, Moscow was burned. After five
Napoleon and his army left. In early November
concerned about loss of control back in
France after the Malet coup of
1812 . His army walked through snow up to their knees and nearly
10,000 men and horses froze to death on the night of 8/9 November
alone. After the
Battle of Berezina
Napoleon managed to escape but had
to abandon much of the remaining artillery and baggage train. On 5
December, shortly before arriving in Vilnius,
Napoleon left the army
in a sledge.
The French suffered in the course of a ruinous retreat, including
from the harshness of the
Russian Winter . The Armée had begun as
over 400,000 frontline troops, with fewer than 40,000 crossing the
Berezina River in November 1812. The Russians had lost 150,000 in
battle and hundreds of thousands of civilians.
War Of The Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition Napoleon's farewell to
his Imperial Guard, 20 April 1814
There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 while both
the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces;
Napoleon was able to
field 350,000 troops. Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia
joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and
Portugal in a new coalition.
Napoleon assumed command in
inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the
Battle of Dresden in August 1813.
Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against
Napoleon, and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its
size and lost at the
Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig . This was by far the largest
battle of the
Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90,000 casualties in
The Allies offered peace terms in the
Frankfurt proposals in November
Napoleon would remain as Emperor of France, but it would be
reduced to its "natural frontiers". That meant that
retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland (the west bank of
the Rhine River), while giving up control of all the rest, including
Spain and the Netherlands, and most of
Italy and Germany.
Napoleon these were the best terms the Allies were
likely to offer; after further victories, the terms would be harsher
and harsher. Metternich's motivation was to maintain
France as a
balance against Russian threats, while ending the highly destabilizing
series of wars.
Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this
opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer. When his
back was to the wall in 1814 he tried to reopen peace negotiations on
the basis of accepting the Frankfurt proposals. The Allies now had
new, harsher terms that included the retreat of
France to its 1791
boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium.
Napoleon would remain
Emperor, however he rejected the term. The British wanted Napoleon
permanently removed; they prevailed.
Napoleon adamantly refused.
Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70,000
soldiers, and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many
Allied troops. The French were surrounded: British armies pressed
from the south, and other Coalition forces positioned to attack from
the German states.
Napoleon won a series of victories in the Six
Days\' Campaign , though these were not significant enough to turn the
tide. The leaders of
Paris surrendered to the Coalition in March 1814.
Napoleon abdicated in Fontainebleau, 4 April 1814, by Paul
On 1 April, Alexander addressed the
Sénat conservateur . Long docile
to Napoleon, under Talleyrand's prodding it had turned against him.
Alexander told the Sénat that the Allies were fighting against
Napoleon, not France, and they were prepared to offer honorable peace
Napoleon were removed from power. The next day, the Sénat
passed the Acte de déchéance de l\'Empereur ("Emperor's Demise
Act"), which declared
Napoleon had advanced as far
Fontainebleau when he learned that
Paris was lost. When Napoleon
proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and
marshals mutinied. On 4 April, led by Ney , they confronted Napoleon.
Napoleon asserted the army would follow him, and Ney replied the army
would follow its generals. While the ordinary soldiers and regimental
officers wanted to fight on, without any senior officers or marshals
any prospective invasion of
Paris would have been impossible. Bowing
to the inevitable, on 4 April
Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son,
with Marie Louise as regent. However, the Allies refused to accept
this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that
find an excuse to retake the throne.
Napoleon was then forced to
announce his unconditional abdication only two days later.
Exile To Elba
British etching from 1814 in celebration of Napoleon's first
Elba at the close of the
War of the Sixth Coalition
The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor
Napoleon was the sole
obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon,
faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his
heirs, the thrones of
France and Italy, and that there is no personal
sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to do in the
interests of France.
Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April 1814. — Act of
In the Treaty of
Fontainebleau , the Allies exiled him to
Elba , an
island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 20 km (12 mi) off
the Tuscan coast. They gave him sovereignty over the island and
allowed him to retain the title of Emperor.
Napoleon attempted suicide
with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians
during the retreat from Moscow. Its potency had weakened with age,
however, and he survived to be exiled while his wife and son took
refuge in Austria. In the first few months on
Elba he created a small
navy and army, developed the iron mines, oversaw the construction of
new roads, issued decrees on modern agricultural methods, and
overhauled the island's legal and educational system.
A few months into his exile,
Napoleon learned that his ex-wife
Josephine had died in France. He was devastated by the news, locking
himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days.
Napoleon returned from Elba, by Karl
Stenben, 19th century
Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off
from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau,
and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in
the Atlantic Ocean,
Napoleon escaped from Elba, in the brig
Inconstant on 26 February 1815 with 700 men. Two days later, he
landed on the French mainland at
Golfe-Juan and started heading north.
The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just
Grenoble on 7 March 1815.
Napoleon approached the regiment
alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range,
shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish".
The soldiers quickly responded with, "Vive L'Empereur!" Ney, who had
boasted to the restored Bourbon king, Louis XVIII , that he would
Paris in an iron cage, affectionately kissed his
former emperor and forgot his oath of allegiance to the Bourbon
monarch. The two then marched together towards
Paris with a growing
army. The unpopular Louis XVIII fled to Belgium after realizing he had
little political support. On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of
Napoleon an outlaw . Four days later, Great Britain,
Russia, Austria, and Prussia each pledged to put 150,000 men into the
field to end his rule.
Napoleon arrived in
Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now
called the Hundred Days. By the start of June the armed forces
available to him had reached 200,000, and he decided to go on the
offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and
Prussian armies. The French Army of the North crossed the frontier
United Kingdom of the Netherlands , in modern-day Belgium.
Napoleon's forces fought the Coalition armies, commanded by the Duke
of Wellington and
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher , at the Battle of
Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Wellington's army withstood repeated attacks
by the French and drove them from the field while the Prussians
arrived in force and broke through Napoleon's right flank.
Napoleon returned to
Paris and found that both the legislature and
the people had turned against him. Realizing his position was
untenable, he abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son . He left
Paris three days later and settled at Josephine's former palace in
Malmaison (on the western bank of the
Seine about 17 kilometres (11
mi) west of Paris). Even as
Napoleon travelled to Paris, the Coalition
forces swept through
France (arriving in the vicinity of
Paris on 29
June), with the stated intent of restoring Louis XVIII to the French
Napoleon heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him
dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort , considering an escape to the
United States. British ships were blocking every port. Napoleon
demanded asylum from the British Captain Frederick Maitland on HMS
Bellerophon on 15 July 1815.
EXILE ON SAINT HELENA
Napoleon on the island of
Saint Helena in the Atlantic
Ocean, 1,870 km (1,162 mi) from the west coast of Africa.
Longwood House there in December 1815; it had fallen into
disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy. The
Times published articles insinuating the British government was trying
to hasten his death, and he often complained of the living conditions
in letters to the governor and his custodian,
Hudson Lowe .
With a small cadre of followers,
Napoleon dictated his memoirs and
grumbled about conditions. Lowe cut Napoleon's expenditure, ruled that
no gifts were allowed if they mentioned his imperial status, and made
his supporters sign a guarantee they would stay with the prisoner
Longwood House , Saint Helena: site of Napoleon's
There were rumors of plots and even of his escape, but in reality no
serious attempts were made. For English poet
Lord Byron , Napoleon
was the epitome of the Romantic hero, the persecuted, lonely, and
Further information: Napoleon\'s death mask and
Retour des cendres
Bronze death mask of
Napoleon I. Modeled in 1821, cast in 1833.
His personal physician, Barry O\'Meara , warned London that his
declining state of health was mainly caused by the harsh treatment.
Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched
habitation of Longwood.
In February 1821, Napoleon's health began to deteriorate rapidly. He
reconciled with the Catholic Church. He died on 5 May 1821, after
confession, Extreme Unction and
Viaticum in the presence of Father
Ange Vignali. His last words were, "France, l'armée, tête d'armée,
Joséphine" ("France, army, head of the army, Joséphine").
Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, although it
is not clear which doctor created it. In his will, he had asked to
be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he
should be buried on Saint Helena, in the Valley of the Willows.
Napoleon's tomb at
Louis Philippe I obtained permission from the British to
return Napoleon's remains to France. On 15 December 1840, a state
funeral was held. The hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down
Champs-Élysées , across the
Place de la Concorde
Place de la Concorde to the
Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme's
Chapel, where it remained until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti
In 1861, Napoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry stone
sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides.
Cause Of Death
The cause of his death has been debated. Napoleon's physician,
François Carlo Antommarchi , led the autopsy, which found the cause
of death to be stomach cancer . Antommarchi did not sign the official
report. Napoleon's father had died of stomach cancer, although this
was seemingly unknown at the time of the autopsy. Antommarchi found
evidence of a stomach ulcer; this was the most convenient explanation
for the British, who wanted to avoid criticism over their care of
Napoleon on His Death Bed, by
Horace Vernet , 1826
In 1955, the diaries of Napoleon's valet, Louis Marchand, were
published. His description of
Napoleon in the months before his death
Sten Forshufvud in a 1961 paper in Nature to put forward other
causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning .
Arsenic was used as a poison during the era because it was
undetectable when administered over a long period. Forshufvud, in a
1978 book with
Ben Weider , noted that Napoleon's body was found to be
well preserved when moved in 1840. Arsenic is a strong preservative,
and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis. Forshufvud and
Weider observed that
Napoleon had attempted to quench abnormal thirst
by drinking large amounts of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide
compounds in the almonds used for flavouring.
They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment
prevented his stomach from expelling these compounds and that his
thirst was a symptom of the poison. Their hypothesis was that the
calomel given to
Napoleon became an overdose, which killed him and
left extensive tissue damage behind. According to a 2007 article, the
type of arsenic found in Napoleon's hair shafts was mineral, the most
toxic, and according to toxicologist Patrick Kintz, this supported the
conclusion that he was murdered.
There have been modern studies that have supported the original
autopsy finding. In a 2008 study, researchers analysed samples of
Napoleon's hair from throughout his life, as well as samples from his
family and other contemporaries. All samples had high levels of
arsenic, approximately 100 times higher than the current average.
According to these researchers, Napoleon's body was already heavily
contaminated with arsenic as a boy, and the high arsenic concentration
in his hair was not caused by intentional poisoning; people were
constantly exposed to arsenic from glues and dyes throughout their
lives. Studies published in 2007 and 2008 dismissed evidence of
arsenic poisoning, and confirmed evidence of peptic ulcer and gastric
cancer as the cause of death.
Napoleon and the
Reorganisation of the religious geography:
France is divided into 59
dioceses and 10 ecclesiastical provinces .
Napoleon's baptism took place in
Ajaccio on 21 July 1771; he was
piously raised as a Catholic but he never developed much faith. As an
Napoleon was a deist . Napoleon's deity was an absent and
distant God. However he had a keen appreciation of the power of
organized religion in social and political affairs, and paid a great
deal of attention to bending it to his purposes. He noted the
influence of Catholicism's rituals and splendors.
Napoleon had a
civil marriage with Joséphine de Beauharnais, without religious
Napoleon was crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804 at
Paris in a ceremony presided over by
Pope Pius VII . On
1 April 1810,
Napoleon married the Austrian princess Marie Louise in a
Catholic ceremony. During his brother\'s rule in
Spain , he abolished
Spanish Inquisition in 1813.
Napoleon was excommunicated by the
Catholic Church, but later reconciled with the Church before his death
Concordat of 1801 Leaders of the Catholic
Church taking the civil oath required by the Concordat
Seeking national reconciliation between revolutionaries and
Concordat of 1801 was signed on 15 July 1801 between
Pope Pius VII . It solidified the Roman Catholic Church
as the majority church of
France and brought back most of its civil
status. The hostility of devout Catholics against the state had now
largely been resolved. It did not restore the vast church lands and
endowments that had been seized during the revolution and sold off. As
a part of the Concordat, he presented another set of laws called the
Organic Articles .
While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy , the balance
of church–state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon's favour. He
selected the bishops and supervised church finances.
Napoleon and the
pope both found the Concordat useful. Similar arrangements were made
with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon, especially
Italy and Germany. Now,
Napoleon could win favor with the Catholics
while also controlling Rome in a political sense.
Napoleon said in
April 1801, "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests.
They can both contain them and use them". French children were issued
a catechism that taught them to love and respect Napoleon.
Napoleon and the Jews and
Napoleon emancipated Jews , as well as Protestants in Catholic
countries and Catholics in Protestant countries, from laws which
restricted them to ghettos , and he expanded their rights to property,
worship, and careers. Despite the anti-semitic reaction to Napoleon's
policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed
emancipation would benefit
France by attracting Jews to the country
given the restrictions they faced elsewhere.
He stated, "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the
Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as
any other citizen in our country. It takes weakness to chase them out
of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them". He was
seen as so favourable to the Jews that the Russian Orthodox Church
formally condemned him as "
Antichrist and the Enemy of God".
Napoleon visiting the Palais Royal for the opening of the 8th
session of the Tribunat in 1807, by
Historians emphasize the strength of the ambition that took Napoleon
from an obscure village to command of most of Europe. George F. E.
Rudé stresses his "rare combination of will, intellect and physical
vigour". At 157 cm (5 ft 2 in) he was about average height for French
peasants, but short for an officer. In one-on-one situations he
typically had a hypnotic effect on people, seemingly bending the
strongest leaders to his will. He understood military technology, but
was not an innovator in that regard. He was an innovator in using the
financial, bureaucratic, and diplomatic resources of France. He could
rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to his subordinates,
keeping in mind where major units were expected to be at each future
point, and like a chess master, "seeing" the best plays moves ahead.
Napoleon maintained strict, efficient work habits, prioritizing what
needed to be done. He cheated at cards, but repaid the losses; he had
to win at everything he attempted. He kept relays of staff and
secretaries at work. Unlike many generals,
Napoleon did not examine
history to ask what
Hannibal or Alexander or anyone else did in a
similar situation. Critics said he won many battles simply because of
Napoleon responded, "Give me lucky generals", aware that "luck"
comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it. Dwyer
states that Napoleon's victories at Austerlitz and Jena in 1805–06
heightened his sense of self-grandiosity, leaving him even more
certain of his destiny and invincibility.
In terms of influence on events, it was more than Napoleon's
personality that took effect. He reorganized
France itself to supply
the men and money needed for wars. He inspired his men—Wellington
said his presence on the battlefield was worth 40,000 soldiers, for he
inspired confidence from privates to field marshals. He also unnerved
the enemy. At the
Battle of Auerstadt in 1806, King Frederick William
III of Prussia outnumbered the French by 63,000 to 27,000; however,
when he was told, mistakenly, that
Napoleon was in command, he ordered
a hasty retreat that turned into a rout. The force of his personality
neutralized material difficulties as his soldiers fought with the
confidence that with
Napoleon in charge they would surely win.
Cultural depictions of Napoleon Napoleon
is often represented in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur à
Cheval of the Imperial Guard , the regiment that often served as his
personal escort, with a large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture.
Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolises military
genius and political power.
Martin van Creveld described him as "the
most competent human being who ever lived". Since his death, many
towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named
after him. He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in
hundreds of thousands of books and articles.
Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British
press as a dangerous tyrant , poised to invade. The British nicknamed
him Boney. A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously
ate naughty people; the "bogeyman ". At the time of death he was
measured as 5 ft 2 in (157 cm) with an English yardstick. Napoleon
surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and was affectionately
nicknamed le petit caporal, reflecting his reported camaraderie with
his soldiers rather than his height. In spite of that, the Napoleon
Complex is named after him to describe men who have an inferiority
complex and become aggressive due to short stature.
Alfred Adler , a psychologist, cited
Napoleon to describe an
inferiority complex in which short people adopt an over-aggressive
behaviour to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term
Napoleon complex . The stock character of
Napoleon is a comically
short "petty tyrant" and this has become a cliché in popular culture.
He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a
hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in
1812 by Jacques-Louis David.
When he became
First Consul and later Emperor,
Napoleon eschewed his
general's uniform and habitually wore the green colonel uniform
(non-Hussar) of a colonel of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial
Guard , the regiment that served as his personal escort many times,
with a large bicorne . He also habitually wore (usually on Sundays)
the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers
(blue with white facings and red cuffs). He also wore his Légion
d\'honneur star, medal and ribbon, and the Order of the Iron Crown
decorations, white French-style culottes and white stockings. This was
in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his
marshals and those around him.
First remittance of the Légion d'Honneur, 15 July 1804, at
Saint-Louis des Invalides , by
Jean-Baptiste Debret (1812).
Napoleon instituted various reforms, such as higher education, a tax
code , road and sewer systems, and established the
Banque de France ,
the first central bank in French history. He negotiated the Concordat
of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly
Catholic population to his regime. It was presented alongside the
Organic Articles , which regulated public worship in France. He
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire prior to
German Unification later in
the 19th century. The sale of the
Louisiana Territory to the United
States doubled the size of the United States.
In May 1802, he instituted the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour , a substitute for
the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry , to encourage
civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest
decoration in France.
Napoleonic Code First page of the 1804 original
edition of the Code Civil
Napoleon's set of civil laws , the Code Civil—now often known as
the Napoleonic Code—was prepared by committees of legal experts
under the supervision of
Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès , the
Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the
Council of State that revised the drafts. The development of the code
was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system
with its stress on clearly written and accessible law. Other codes
Les cinq codes ") were commissioned by
Napoleon to codify criminal
and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which
enacted rules of due process .
The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Continental
Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force
after Napoleon's defeat.
Napoleon said: "My true glory is not to have
won forty battles ... Waterloo will erase the memory of so many
victories. ... But ... what will live forever, is my Civil Code". The
Code influences a quarter of the world's jurisdictions such as that of
in Continental Europe, the Americas and Africa.
Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project"
which spurred the development of bourgeois society in
Germany by the
extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the
end of feudalism .
Napoleon reorganised what had been the Holy Roman
Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities, into a more
Confederation of the Rhine ; this provided the
basis for the
German Confederation and the unification of
The movement toward national unification in
Italy was similarly
precipitated by Napoleonic rule. These changes contributed to the
development of nationalism and the nation state .
Napoleon implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in
across Continental Europe, especially in
Italy and Germany, as
summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts : The ideas that
underpin our modern world–meritocracy, equality before the law,
property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound
finances, and so on–were championed, consolidated, codified and
geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and
efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the
encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and
the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire.
Napoleon directly overthrew feudal remains in much of western
Continental Europe. He liberalised property laws , ended seigneurial
dues , abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate
entrepreneurship, legalised divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and
made Jews equal to everyone else. The Inquisition ended as did the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire . The power of church courts and religious authority
was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all
Napoleonic weaponry and warfare and Military
Napoleon Bonaparte Statue in Cherbourg-Octeville
Napoleon III in 1858.
Napoleon I strengthened the town's
defences to prevent British naval incursions.
In the field of military organisation ,
Napoleon borrowed from
previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert
, and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then
developed much of what was already in place. He continued the policy,
which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on
Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery
was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more
fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French
military doctrine. These methods are now referred to as essential
features of Napoleonic warfare. Though he consolidated the practice
of modern conscription introduced by the Directory, one of the
restored monarchy's first acts was to end it.
His opponents learned from Napoleon's innovations. The increased
importance of artillery after 1807 stemmed from his creation of a
highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and
changes in artillery practices. As a result of these factors,
Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's
defenses, now could use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a
break in the enemy's line that was then exploited by supporting
infantry and cavalry. McConachy rejects the alternative theory that
growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in 1807 was
an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and,
later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers. Weapons and other
kinds of military technology remained static through the Revolutionary
and Napoleonic eras, but 18th-century operational mobility underwent
Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare.
Antoine-Henri Jomini explained Napoleon's methods in a widely used
textbook that influenced all European and American armies. Napoleon
was regarded by the influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz
as a genius in the operational art of war, and historians rank him as
a great military commander. Wellington, when asked who was the
greatest general of the day, answered: "In this age, in past ages, in
any age, Napoleon".
Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just
outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory
occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more
decisive. The political effect of war increased; defeat for a European
power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves. Near-Carthaginian
peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the
Revolutionary phenomenon of total war.
France 1803-04-A 20 Francs.jpg Depicted as First Consul
on the 1803 20 gold Napoléon gold coin. Main articles: History of
the metric system ,
Mesures usuelles , and Units of measurement in
The official introduction of the metric system in September 1799 was
unpopular in large sections of French society. Napoleon's rule greatly
aided adoption of the new standard not only across
France but also
across the French sphere of influence .
Napoleon took a retrograde
step in 1812 when he passed legislation to introduce the mesures
usuelles (traditional units of measurement) for retail trade —a
system of measure that resembled the pre-revolutionary units but were
based on the kilogram and the metre; for example the livre metrique
(metric pound) was 500 g instead of 489.5 g—the value of the livre
du roi (the king's pound). Other units of measure were rounded in a
similar manner prior to the definitive introduction of the metric
system across parts of Europe in the middle of the 19th century.
Napoleon's educational reforms laid the foundation of a modern system
of education in
France and throughout much of Europe. Napoleon
synthesized the best academic elements from the Ancien Régime, The
Enlightenment , and the Revolution, with the aim of establishing a
stable, well-educated and prosperous society. He made French the only
official language. He left some primary education in the hands of
religious orders, but he offered public support to secondary
Napoleon founded a number of state secondary schools
(lycées ) designed to produce a standardized education that was
uniform across France. All students were taught the sciences along
with modern and classical languages. Unlike the system during the
Ancien Régime, religious topics did not dominate the curriculum,
although they were present with the teachers from the clergy. Napoleon
hoped to use religion to produce social stability. He gave special
attention to the advanced centers, such as the École Polytechnique,
that provided both military expertise and state-of-the-art research in
Napoleon made some of the first efforts at establishing a
system of secular and public education. The system featured
scholarships and strict discipline, with the result being a French
educational system that outperformed its European counterparts, many
of which borrowed from the French system.
MEMORY AND EVALUATION
The Third of May 1808 by
Francisco Goya , showing Spanish
resisters being executed by Napoleon's troops.
In the political realm, historians debate whether
Napoleon was "an
enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe or,
instead, a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before
the coming of Hitler". Many historians have concluded that he had
grandiose foreign policy ambitions. The Continental powers as late as
1808 were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but
some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too
much, until his empire collapsed.
Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France.
He was considered a tyrant and usurper by his opponents. His critics
charge that he was not troubled when faced with the prospect of war
and death for thousands, turned his search for undisputed rule into a
series of conflicts throughout Europe and ignored treaties and
conventions alike. His role in the
Haitian Revolution and decision to
reinstate slavery in France's overseas colonies are controversial and
affect his reputation.
Napoleon institutionalised plunder of conquered territories: French
museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe.
Artefacts were brought to the
Musée du Louvre for a grand central
museum; his example would later serve as inspiration for more
notorious imitators. He was compared to
Adolf Hitler most famously by
Pieter Geyl in 1947 and
Claude Ribbe in 2005. David G.
Chandler , a foremost historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in 1973
that, "Nothing could be more degrading to the former and more
flattering to the latter . The comparison is odious. On the whole
Napoleon was inspired by a noble dream, wholly dissimilar from
Napoleon left great and lasting testimonies to his
genius—in codes of law and national identities which survive to the
Adolf Hitler left nothing but destruction".
Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status
France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor
Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is
unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead ,
France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost". McLynn states that, "He
can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a
generation by the dislocating impact of his wars". Vincent Cronin
replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon
was responsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France
was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the
ideals of the Revolution.
PROPAGANDA AND MEMORY
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
, romantic version by
Jacques-Louis David in 1805 Bonaparte
Crossing the Alps , realist version by
Paul Delaroche in 1848
Napoleon's use of propaganda contributed to his rise to power,
legitimated his régime, and established his image for posterity.
Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theater,
and art, was part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as
bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France. The
propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and to the
atmosphere of Napoleon's reign, focusing first on his role as a
general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his
role as emperor and a civil leader. Specifically targeting his
Napoleon fostered a relationship with the
contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and
controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda
Hazareesingh (2004) explores how Napoleon's image and memory are best
understood. They played a key role in collective political defiance of
Bourbon restoration monarchy in 1815–1830. People from different
walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans,
drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of
the 1789 revolution.
Widespread rumors of Napoleon's return from St. Helena and Napoleon
as an inspiration for patriotism, individual and collective liberties,
and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious
materials, displaying the tricolor and rosettes. There were also
subversive activities celebrating anniversaries of Napoleon's life and
reign and disrupting royal celebrations—they demonstrated the
prevailing and successful goal of the varied supporters of
constantly destabilize the Bourbon regime.
Datta (2005) shows that, following the collapse of militaristic
Boulangism in the late 1880s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from
party politics and revived in popular culture. Concentrating on two
plays and two novels from the period—
Victorien Sardou 's Madame
Maurice Barrès 's Les Déracinés (1897), Edmond
Rostand 's L'Aiglon (1900), and
André de Lorde and Gyp 's
Napoléonette (1913)—Datta examines how writers and critics of the
Belle Époque exploited the Napoleonic legend for diverse political
and cultural ends.
Reduced to a minor character, the new fictional
Napoleon became not a
world historical figure but an intimate one, fashioned by individuals'
needs and consumed as popular entertainment. In their attempts to
represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and
detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for
exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of
democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and
International Napoleonic Congresses take place regularly, with
participation by members of the French and American military, French
politicians and scholars from different countries. In January 2012,
the mayor of
Montereau-Fault-Yonne , near Paris—the site of a late
victory of Napoleon—proposed development of Napoleon\'s Bivouac , a
commemorative theme park at a projected cost of 200 million euros.
LONG-TERM INFLUENCE OUTSIDE FRANCE
Main article: Influence of the
French Revolution Bas-relief of
Napoleon I in the chamber of the United States House of
Napoleon was responsible for spreading the values of the French
Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform and the
abolition of serfdom.
After the fall of Napoleon, not only was the
Napoleonic Code retained
by conquered countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of
Italy and Germany, but has been used as the basis of certain parts of
law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of
Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec. The memory of Napoleon
in Poland is favorable, for his support for independence and
opposition to Russia, his legal code, the abolition of serfdom, and
the introduction of modern middle class bureaucracies.
Napoleon could be considered one of the founders of modern Germany.
After dissolving the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire , he reduced the number of
German states from 300 to less than 50, prior to the German
Unification . A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong
German nationalism .
Napoleon also significantly aided
the United States when he agreed to sell the territory of Louisiana
for 15 million dollars during the presidency of
Thomas Jefferson .
That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding
the equivalent of 13 states to the Union.
MARRIAGES AND CHILDREN
Napoleon's first wife, Joséphine Napoleon's second wife,
Joséphine de Beauharnais in 1796, when he was 26;
she was a 32-year-old widow whose first husband had been executed
during the Revolution. Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as
"Rose", a name which he disliked. He called her "Joséphine" instead,
and she went by this name henceforth. Bonaparte often sent her love
letters while on his campaigns. He formally adopted her son Eugène
and cousin Stéphanie and arranged dynastic marriages for them.
Joséphine had her daughter Hortense marry Napoleon's brother Louis .
Joséphine had lovers, such as lieutenant Hippolyte Charles, during
Napoleon's Italian campaign.
Napoleon learnt of that affair and a
letter he wrote about it was intercepted by the British and published
widely, to embarrass Napoleon.
Napoleon had his own affairs too:
during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Foures, the wife
of a junior officer, as his mistress. She became known as "Cleopatra".
Plate showing statues of Amenhotep III at Luxor, Egypt.
Napoleon as a present to Josephine but she rejected
it. From France. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London
While Napoleon's mistresses had children by him, Joséphine did not
produce an heir, possibly because of either the stresses of her
imprisonment during the
Reign of Terror or an abortion she may have
had in her twenties.
Napoleon chose divorce so he could remarry in
search of an heir. Despite his divorce from Josephine,
his dedication to her for the rest of his life. When he heard the news
of her death while on exile in Elba, he locked himself in his room and
would not come out for two full days. Her name would also be his
final word on his deathbed in 1821.
In March 1810, he married the 19-year old Marie Louise , Archduchess
of Austria, and a great niece of
Marie Antoinette by proxy ; thus he
had married into a German royal and imperial family . Louise was less
than happy with the arrangement, at least at first, stating "Just to
see the man would be the worst form of torture". Her great-aunt had
been executed in France, while
Napoleon had fought numerous campaigns
against Austria all throughout his military career. However, she
seemed to warm up to him over time. After her wedding, she wrote to
her father "He loves me very much. I respond to his love sincerely.
There is something very fetching and very eager about him that is
impossible to resist".
Napoleon and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though
she did not join him in exile on
Elba and thereafter never saw her
husband again. The couple had one child,
Napoleon Francis Joseph
Charles (1811–1832), known from birth as the King of Rome . He
Napoleon II in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks. He was
awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of
tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.
Napoleon acknowledged one illegitimate son: Charles Léon
Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne . Alexandre
Colonna-Walewski (1810–1868), the son of his mistress Maria Walewska
, although acknowledged by Walewska's husband, was also widely known
to be his child, and the DNA of his direct male descendant has been
used to help confirm Napoleon's Y-chromosome haplotype . He may have
had further unacknowledged illegitimate offspring as well, such as
Eugen Megerle von Mühlfeld by Emilie Victoria Kraus and Hélène
Napoleone Bonaparte (1816–1907) by
Albine de Montholon .
TITLES, STYLES, HONOURS, AND ARMS
Titles and styles of Napoleon
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16. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte
8. Sebastiano Nicola Buonaparte
17. Maria Colonna Bozzi
Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte
18. Carlo Tusoli
9. Maria Anna Tusoli
19. Isabella ...
2. Carlo Maria Buonaparte
10. Giuseppe Maria Paravicini
5. Maria Saveria Paravicini
22. Angelo Agostino Salineri
11. Maria Angela Salineri
23. Francetta Merezano
1. NAPOLEON I, EMPEROR OF THE FRENCH
24. Giovanni Girolamo Ramolino
12. Giovanni Agostino Ramolino
25. Maria Laetitia Boggiano
6. Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino
26. Andrea Peri
13. Angela Maria Peri
27. Maria Maddalena Colonna d'Istria
28. Giovanni Antonio Pietrasanta
14. Giuseppe Maria Pietrasanta
29. Paola Brigida Sorba
7. Angela Maria Pietrasanta
15. Maria Giuseppa Malerba
* ^ He established a system of public education, abolished the
vestiges of feudalism , emancipated Jews and other religious
minorities, abolished the
Spanish Inquisition , enacted legal
protections for an emerging middle class, and centralized state power
at the expense of religious authorities.
* ^ His name was also spelled as Nabulione, Nabulio, Napolionne,
* ^ Aside from his name, there does not appear to be a connection
between him and Napoleon\'s theorem .
* ^ He was mainly referred to as Bonaparte until he became First
Consul for life.
* ^ This is depicted in
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps by Hippolyte
Delaroche and in Jacques-Louis David's imperial
Napoleon Crossing the
Alps. He is less realistically portrayed on a charger in the latter
* ^ It was customary to cast a death mask of a leader. At least
four genuine death masks of
Napoleon are known to exist: one in The
Cabildo in New Orleans, one in a Liverpool museum, another in Havana
and one in the library of the
University of North Carolina .
* ^ The body can tolerate large doses of arsenic if ingested
regularly, and arsenic was a fashionable cure-all .
* ^ One night, during an illicit liaison with the actress
Napoleon had a major fit. This and other more minor
attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if
so, to what extent.
* ^ E. Hales, "
Napoleon and the Pope", (London:1962) pg 114
* ^ "Napoleon". Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary .
* ^ A B Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, 2014,
* ^ Charles Messenger, ed. (2001). Reader\'s Guide to Military
History. Routledge. pp. 391–427. ISBN 978-1-135-95970-8 . CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link )
* ^ John Sainsbury (1842). Sketch of the
Napoleon Museum. London.
* ^ Philip Ingram (1998).
Napoleon and Europe. Nelson Thornes. pp.
* ^ Grab 2003 , p. 56.
* ^ Broers, M. and Hicks, P.The Napoleonic Empire and the New
European Political Culture. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 230
* ^ Conner, S. P. The Age of Napoleon. Greenwood Publishing Group,
2004, pp. 38–40.
* ^ Perez, Joseph. The Spanish Inquisition: A History. Yale
University Press, 2005, p. 98
* ^ Fremont-Barnes, G. and Fisher, T. The Napoleonic Wars: The Rise
and Fall of an Empire. Osprey Publishing, 2004, p. 336
* ^ Grab, A.
Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. Palgrave
Macmillan, 2003, Conclusion.
* ^ Andrew Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014), p. xxxiii.
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 6
* ^ A B Dwyer 2008 , p. xv
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 2
* ^ 2012 DNA tests found that some of the family's ancestors were
Caucasus region; "Le Figaro – Mon Figaro : Selon son ADN,
les ancêtres de Napoléon seraient du Caucase!". Le Figaro. 15
January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012. ; The study found haplogroup
type E1b1c1* , which originated in Northern Africa circa 1200 BC; the
people migrated into the
Caucasus and into Europe. "Haplogroup of the
Y Chromosome of Napoléon the First; Gerard Lucotte, Thierry
Thomasset, Peter Hrechdakian; Journal of Molecular Biology Research".
December 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
* ^ Cronin 1994, pp. 20–21
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , ch 1
* ^ Cronin 1994, p.27
* ^ A B C Roberts 2001, p.xvi
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 18
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 29
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 21
* ^ Wells 1992, p.74
* ^ A B Dwyer 2008 , p. 42
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 26
* ^ A B McLynn 1998 , p. 290
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 37
* ^ David Nicholls (1999). Napoleon: A Biographical Companion.
ABC-CLIO. p. 131.
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 55
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 61
* ^ A B C D E Roberts 2001, p.xviii
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 132
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 76
* ^ Chandler 1973 , p. 30
* ^ Patrice Gueniffey, Bonaparte: 1769–1802 (Harvard UP, 2015),
* ^ Bourrienne, Memoirs of Napoleon, p.39.
* ^ Bourrienne, Memoirs of Napoleon, p.38.
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 157
* ^ McLynn 1998 , pp. 76, 84
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 92
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 26
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 164
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 93
* ^ A B McLynn 1998 , p. 96
* ^ Johnson 2002, p.27
* ^ "The works of
Thomas Carlyle – The French Revolution,
vol.III, book 3.VII". Google.
* ^ Englund (2010) pp 92–94
* ^ Bell 2015 , p. 29.
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , pp. 284–5
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 132
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 145
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 142
* ^ Harvey 2006, p.179
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 135
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 306
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 305
* ^ Bell 2015 , p. 30.
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 322
* ^ A B C Watson 2003, pp.13–14
* ^ Amini 2000, p.12
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 342
* ^ Englund (2010) pp 127–8
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 175
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 179
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 372
* ^ A B C D Roberts 2001, p.xx
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 392
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , pp. 411–24
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 189
* ^ Gueniffey, Bonaparte: 1769–1802 pp 500–2.
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 442
* ^ A B C Connelly 2006, p.57
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 444
* ^ Dwyer 2008 , p. 455
* ^ François Furet, The French Revolution, 1770–1814 (1996), p.
* ^ Georges Lefebvre,
Napoleon from 18 Brumaire to Tilsit
1799–1807 (1969), pp. 60–68
* ^ A B C D Lyons 1994 , p. 111
* ^ Lefebvre,
Napoleon from 18 Brumaire to Tilsit 1799–1807
(1969), pp. 71–92
* ^ Chandler 2002 , p. 51
* ^ Chandler 1966 , pp. 279–81
* ^ A B McLynn 1998 , p. 235
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 292
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 293
* ^ A B Chandler 1966 , p. 296
* ^ A B Chandler 1966 , pp. 298–304
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 301
* ^ Schom 1997 , p. 302
* ^ A B Lyons 1994 , pp. 111–4
* ^ A B C D Lyons 1994 , p. 113
* ^ Edwards 1999, p.55
* ^ Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, 2014, p. 301
* ^ Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, 2014, p. 303
* ^ Connelly 2006, p.70
* ^ R.B. Mowat, The Diplomacy of
Napoleon (1924) is a survey
online; for a recent advanced diplomatic history, see Paul W.
Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (Oxford
U.P. 1996) pp 177–560
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 265
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 243
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 296
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 297
* ^ De Rémusat, Claire Elisabeth, Memoirs of Madame De Rémusat,
1802-1808 Volume 1, HardPress Publishing, 2012, 542 p., ISBN
* ^ A B C D Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Group, 2014,
* ^ Paul W. Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics
1763–1848 (1996) pp 231–86
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 328. Meanwhile, French territorial
Germany occurred without Russian consultation and
Napoleon's annexations in the Po valley increasingly strained
relations between the two.
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 331
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 323
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 332
* ^ A B Chandler 1966 , p. 333
* ^ Michael J. Hughes, Forging Napoleon's Grande Armée:
Motivation, Military Culture, and Masculinity in the French Army,
1800–1808 (NYU Press, 2012).
* ^ A B McLynn 1998 , p. 321
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 332
* ^ Richard Brooks (editor), Atlas of World Military History. p.
* ^ Andrew Uffindell, Great Generals of the Napoleonic Wars. p. 15
* ^ Richard Brooks (editor), Atlas of World Military History. p.
* ^ Richard Brooks (editor), Atlas of World Military History. p.
156. "It is a historical cliché to compare the
Schlieffen Plan with
Hannibal 's tactical envelopment at Cannae (216 BC); Schlieffen owed
more to Napoleon's strategic maneuver on
* ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 407
* ^ Adrian Gilbert (2000). The Encyclopedia of Warfare: From
Earliest Time to the Present Day. Taylor & Francis. p. 133. ISBN
978-1-57958-216-6 . Retrieved 11 July 2014.
* ^ Schom 1997, p.414
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 350
* ^ Cronin 1994, p.344
* ^ Karsh 2001, p.12
* ^ Sicker 2001 , p. 99.
* ^ Michael V. Leggiere (2015).
Napoleon and Berlin: The
Franco-Prussian War in North Germany, 1813. p. 9.
* ^ A B C Chandler 1966, p. 467–68
* ^ Brooks 2000, p. 110
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 497
* ^ Jacques Godechot et al. Napoleonic Era in Europe (1971) pp
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 370
* ^ August Fournier (1911).
Napoleon I.: A Biography. p. 459.
* ^ Roberts 2014 , pp. 458–59.
* ^ Roberts 2014 , pp. 459–61.
* ^ Horne, Alistair (1997). How Far From Austerlitz? Napoleon
1805–1815. Pan Macmillan. p. 238. ISBN 9781743285404 .
* ^ Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars: The
Rise and Fall of an Empire. p. 197.
* ^ Fisher & Fremont-Barnes pp. 198–99.
* ^ Fisher & Fremont-Barnes p. 199.
* ^ "The Erfurt Convention 1808". Napoleon-series.org. Retrieved 22
* ^ Fisher & Fremont-Barnes p. 205.
* ^ Chandler 1966 , pp. 659–60
* ^ John Lynch , Caudillos in Spanish America 1800-1850. Oxford:
Clarendon Press 1992, pp. 402–403.
* ^ A B C Fisher & Fremont-Barnes, p. 106.
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 690
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 701
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 705
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 706
* ^ Chandler 1966 , p. 707
* ^ A B David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 708.
* ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 720.
* ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 729.
* ^ "The British Expeditionary Force to Walcheren: 1809".
* ^ A B Todd Fisher & Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The Napoleonic Wars:
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* ^ David G. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. p. 732.
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 378
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 495
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 507
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 506
* ^ McLynn 1998 , pp. 504–505
* ^ Harvey 2006, p.773
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 518
* ^ Markham 1988, p.194
* ^ "Napoleon1812". napoleon-1812.nl.
* ^ Markham 1988, pp.190, 199
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 541
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 549
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 565
* ^ Chandler 1995, p.1020
* ^ A B J. P. Riley (2013).
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* ^ Leggiere (2007). The Fall of Napoleon: Volume 1, The Allied
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* ^ Fremont-Barnes 2004, p.14
* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 585
* ^ Gates 2003 , p. 259.
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* ^ Fulghum 2007
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* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 656
* ^ Johnson 2002, pp.180–1
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* ^ A B Cullen 2008, p.156
* ^ Cullen 2008, p.50
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* ^ Schwarzfuchs 1979, p.50
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* ^ Sally Waller (2002).
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* ^ Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014) pp 470–73
* ^ Gregory R. Copley (2007). The Art of Victory: Strategies for
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* ^ Dwyer 2013 , pp. 175–76
* ^ J. M. Thompson,
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* ^ McLynn 1998 , p. 357
* ^ Steven Englund, Napoleon: A Political Life (2004), pp.379ff
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* ^ Scheck 2008, Chapter: The Road to National Unification
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* ^ Alter 2006, pp.61–76
* ^ Andrew Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014) p xxxiii
* ^ Robert R. Palmer and Joel Colton, A History of the Modern World
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* ^ A B Archer et al. 2002, p.397
* ^ Flynn 2001, p.16
* ^ Bruce McConachy, "The Roots of
Artillery Doctrine: Napoleonic
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* ^ Archer et al. 2002, p.380
* ^ Roberts 2001, p.272
* ^ Archer et al. 2002, p.404
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HISTORIOGRAPHY AND MEMORY
* Dwyer, Philip (2008). "Remembering and Forgetting in Contemporary
France: Napoleon, Slavery, and the French History Wars". French
Politics, Culture & Society. 26 (3): 110–122.
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* Hazareesingh, Sudhir. "Memory and Political Imagination: The
Napoleon Revisited", French History (2004) 18#4 pp
* Hazareesingh, Sudhir (2005). "Napoleonic Memory in
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