Naphtha (/ˈnæpθə/ or /ˈnæfθə/) is a flammable liquid
Mixtures labelled naphtha have been produced from natural gas
condensates, petroleum distillates, and the distillation of coal tar
In different industries and regions naphtha may also be crude oil or
refined products such as kerosene. Mineral spirits, also historically
known as "naptha", are not the same chemical.
3 Health and safety considerations
4 See also
White gas, exemplified by Coleman Camp Fuel, is a common naphtha-based
fuel used in many lanterns and torches
The word naphtha is from
Ancient Greek (νάφθα), derived
Middle Persian naft ("wet", "naphtha"). In Ancient Greek,
it was used to refer to any sort of petroleum or pitch. In antiquity
the term entered
Semitic languages as well: it appears in Arabic as
نَفْط nafṭ ("petroleum"), in Syriac as ܢܰܦܬܳܐ naftā, and
Hebrew as נֵפְט neft.
Song of the Three Children
Song of the Three Children the Greek word νάφθα designates
one of the materials used to stoke the fiery furnace. The translation
of Charles Brenton renders this as "rosin".
The book of
II Maccabees tells how a "thick water" was put on a
sacrifice at the time of
Nehemiah and when the sun shone it caught
fire. It adds that "those around
Nehemiah termed this 'Nephthar',
which means Purification, but it is called Nephthaei by the many
[literally hoi polloi]."
Naphtha is the root of the word naphthalene. The second syllable of
"naphtha" can also be recognised in phthalate.
It also enters the word napalm, a contraction of the "na" of
naphthenic acid and "palm" of palmitic acid, originally made from a
mixture of naphthenic acid combined with aluminium and magnesium salts
of palmitic acid.
In older usage, "naphtha" simply meant crude oil, but this usage is
now obsolete in English. It was also used for mineral spirits (also
known as "Stoddard Solvent"), originally the main active ingredient in
Fels Naptha laundry soap. The Ukrainian and Belarusian word нафта
(lit. nafta), Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian "nafta", the Russian
word нефть (lit. neft') and the Persian naft (نفت) mean "crude
oil". Also, in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,
Italy, Serbia, Slovenia, nafta (нафта in Cyrillic) is
colloquially used to indicate diesel fuel and crude oil. In the Czech
Republic and Slovakia, nafta was historically used for both diesel
fuel and crude oil, but its use for crude oil is now obsolete and
it generally indicates diesel fuel. In Bulgarian, nafta means diesel
fuel, while neft, as well as petrol (петрол in Cyrillic), means
crude oil. Nafta is also used in everyday parlance in Argentina,
Paraguay and Uruguay to refer to gasoline/petrol. In Poland, the
word nafta means kerosene,, as in lampa naftowa "paraffin lamp";
crude oil and (colloquially) diesel fuel are called ropa "pus". In
Flemish, the word naft is used colloquially for gasoline.
There is a conjecture that the Greek word naphtha came from the
Indo-Iranian god name Apam Napat, which occurs in Vedic and in
Avestic; the name means "grandson of (the) waters", and the Vedas
describe him as fire emerging from water, perhaps inspired by a
burning seepage of natural gas.
Various qualifiers have been added to the term "naphtha" by different
sources in an effort to make it more specific:
One source distinguishes by boiling point:
Light naphtha is the fraction boiling between 30 °C and
90 °C and consists of molecules with 5–6 carbon atoms. Heavy
naphtha boils between 90 °C and 200 °C and consists of
molecules with 6–12 carbon atoms.
Another source differentiates light and heavy comments on the
hydrocarbon structure, but offers a less precise dividing line:
Light [is] a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic
aliphatic hydrocarbons having from five to six carbon atoms per
molecule. Heavy [is] a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained
and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from seven to nine carbon
atoms per molecule.
Both of these are useful definitions, but they are incompatible with
one another. These terms are also sufficiently broad that they are not
Health and safety considerations
The material safety data sheets (MSDSs) from various naphtha vendors
are also indicative of the non-specific nature of the product and
reflect the considerations due for a flammable mixture of
hydrocarbons: flammability, carcinogenicity, skin and airway
Humans can be exposed to naphtha in the workplace by breathing it in,
swallowing it, skin contact, and eye contact. The US Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the permissible
exposure limit for naphtha exposure in the workplace as 100 ppm
(400 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. The US National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure
limit (REL) of 100 ppm (400 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. At
levels of 1000 ppm, 10% of the lower explosive limit, naphtha is
immediately dangerous to life and health.
Fluid catalytic cracking
^ Christian Gizewski (Berlin Institute of Technology). "Persisches
Erbe im Griechischen, Lateinischen, Arabischen, Türkischen und in
verschiedenen heutigen europäischen Sprachen (Persian Heritage in
Greek, Latin, Arabic, Turkic and Various Modern European Languages)".
Technische Universität Berlin. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
^ David Neil MacKenzie (1971). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. Oxford
University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-934768-59-4.
^ 2 Maccabees 1:36
^ "Slovenské slovníky". Slovnik.juls.savba.sk. Retrieved
^ Pedro Mairal (2012). El año del desierto. Stockcero, Inc.
pp. 71–. ISBN 978-1-934768-59-4.
^ Andrey Taranov (23 October 2013). Polish vocabulary for English
speakers - 7000 words. BoD - Books on Demand. pp. 98–.
^ Michael G. Clyne (1992). Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in
Different Nations. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 85–.
p. 12. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
^ Prestvic, Rune; Kjell Moljord; Knut Grande; Anders Holmen (2004).
"Compositional analysis of naphtha and reformate". Catalytic naphtha
reforming. USA: CRC Press. p. 2. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
^ "Chemistry of Hazardous Materials, Third Edition", Meyer, E.,
Prentice Hall, 1998, page 458.
Petroleum Ether". Hazard.com. 1998-04-21. Retrieved
^ "Material Safety Data Sheet : Shellite" (PDF). Recochem.com.au.
^ "Material Safety Data Sheet : Ronsonol Lighter Fuel" (PDF).
Cooperbooth.com. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
^ "NAFAA". NAFAA. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
^ "CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards -
Naphtha (coal tar)".
www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
Look up naphtha in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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