HOME
        TheInfoList






The Nanchang Uprising (simplified Chinese: 南昌起义; traditional Chinese: 南昌起義; pinyin: Nánchāng qǐyì; 1 August 1927) was the first major Nationalist Party of ChinaCommunist Party of China engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Chinese Communists to counter the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by the Kuomintang.

The Kuomintang (KMT, or Nationalist Party) established a "Revolutionary Committee" at Nanchang to plant the spark that was expected to ignite a widespread peasant uprising. Deng Yanda, Song Qingling (Soong Ching-ling, Madame Sun Yat-sen) and Zhang Fakui (who later crushed the uprising) were among the political leaders.[1]

Military forces in Nanchang under the leadership of He Long and Zhou Enlai rebelled in an attempt to seize control of the city after the end of the first Kuomintang-Communist alliance. Other important leaders in this event were Zhu De, Ye Ting, and Liu Bocheng.

Communist forces successfully occupied Nanchang and escaped from the siege of Kuomintang forces by 5 August, withdrawing to the Jinggang Mountains of western Jiangxi. 1 August was later regarded as the anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army and the first action fought against the Kuomintang and the National Revolutionary Army.

Names

In Chinese, apart from the name shown above, the event is known as 1 August Nanchang Uprising (simplified Chinese: 八一南昌起义; traditional Chinese: 八一南昌起義; pinyin: Bāyī nánchāng qǐyì), 1 August Uprising (simplified Chinese: 八一起义; traditional Chinese: 八一起義; pinyin: Bāyī qǐyì), Nanchang Rebellion (Chinese: 南昌起事; pinyin: Nánchāng qǐshì), Nanchang Insurrection (simplified Chinese: 南昌暴动; traditional Chinese: 南昌暴動; pinyin: Nánchāng Bàodòng), or Nanchang Mutiny (simplified Chinese: 南昌兵变; traditional Chinese: 南昌兵變; pinyin: Nánchāng Bīngbiàn).

The Government of the People's Republic of China and the Communist Party of China refer this as the Nanchang Uprising, while the Government of the Republic of China and the Chinese Nationalist Party refer this as the Nanchang Rebellion.

Order of battle

Communist forces

Communist forces at their peak during the Nanchang Uprising totaled over 20,000, though some of them did not join the battle until a day later. The entire Communist force was organized into the 2nd Front Army, and over half of it was under He Long's command. He was also named Commander-in-Chief of the 2nd Front Army, and Ye Ting as deputy Commander-in-Chief and acting front-line Commander-in-Chief. Communist representative was Zhou Enlai, chief of staff was Liu Bocheng and Director of the Political Directorate of the 2nd Front Army was Guo Moruo. The following is the order of battle for the Communist forces:

  • 9th Army commanded by Zhou Enlai, with Zhu De as the deputy commander and Zhu Kejing (朱克靖) as the Communist Party representative.
  • 11th Army commanded by Ye Ting, with Cai Tingkai as the deputy commander and Nie Rongzhen as the party representative.
    • 10th Division commanded by Cai Tingkai (蔡廷锴)
    • 24th Division commanded by Gu Xunming/Dong Zhongming (古勋铭/董仲明)
    • 25th Division commanded by Li Hanhun (李汉魂), and after taking Nanchang by Zhou Shidi (周士第)
  • 20th Army commanded by He Long and Liao Qianwu (廖乾吾) as the communist representative
    • 1st Division commanded by He Jinzhai (贺锦斋)
    • 2nd Division commanded by Qing Guangyuan (秦光远)
    • 3rd Division commanded by Zhou Yiqun (周逸群)

Battle at Nanchang

The rebellion was initially planned to take place during the night of July 30, but due to complications with Zhang Guotao it was postponed until the next day. On the morning of 1 August 1927, at exactly 2:00 a.m., Zhou Enlai, He Long, Nie Rongzhen, Ye Ting, Ye Jianying, Lin Biao, Zhu De, Chen Yi and Liu Bocheng led their troops and attacked the city of Nanchang from different directions. Four hours later they took the city, capturing 5,000 small arms and around 1,000,000 rounds of ammunition.

Around noon the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Nationalist Party (中國國民黨革命委員會) was established (not to be confused with the Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang which was founded in 1948). The committee has 25 members:[2] Deng Yanda (邓演达), Zhang Fakui (张发奎), Tan Pingshan (谭平山), Chen Youren (陈友仁), Wu YuZhang (吴玉章), Peng Zemin (彭泽民), Lin Zuhan (林祖涵), He Long (贺龙), Guo Moruo (郭沫若), Huang Qixiang (黄琪翔), Yun Daiying (恽代英), Jiang Hao (江浩), Zhu Huiri (朱晖日), Zhou Enlai (周恩来), Zhang Guotao (张国焘), Ye Ting (叶挺), Zhang Shushi (张曙时), Li Lisan (李立三), Xu Teli (徐特立), Peng Pai (彭湃), Su Zhaozheng (苏兆征), Song Qingling (宋庆龄), He Xianning (何香凝), Yu Youren (于右任) and Jing Hengyi (经亨颐).

Retreat

Facing a counterattack from the Nationalists, the Communists decided to retreat south towards the province of Guangdong. Once there they would try to take over the city of Guangzhou while spreading their influence to the peasants and farms in that area.

The Kuomintang (KMT, or Nationalist Party) established a "Revolutionary Committee" at Nanchang to plant the spark that was expected to ignite a widespread peasant uprising. Deng Yanda, Song Qingling (Soong Ching-ling, Madame Sun Yat-sen) and Zhang Fakui (who later crushed the uprising) were among the political leaders.[1]

Military forces in Nanchang under the leadership of He Long and Zhou Enlai rebelled in an attempt to seize control of the city after the end of the first Kuomintang-Communist alliance. Other important leaders in this event were Zhu De, Ye Ting, and Liu Bocheng.

Communist forces successfully occupied Nanchang and escaped from the siege of Kuomintang forces by 5 August, withdrawing to the Jinggang Mountains of western Jiangxi. 1 August was later regarded as the anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army and the first action fought against the Kuomintang and the National Revolutionary Army.

In Chinese, apart from the name shown above, the event is known as 1 August Nanchang Uprising (simplified Chinese: 八一南昌起义; traditional Chinese: 八一南昌起義; pinyin: Bāyī nánchāng qǐyì), 1 August Uprising (simplified Chinese: 八一起义; traditional Chinese: 八一起義; pinyin: Bāyī qǐyì), Nanchang Rebellion (Chinese: 南昌起事; pinyin: Nánchāng qǐshì), Nanchang Insurrection (simplified Chinese: 南昌暴动; traditional Chinese: 南昌暴動; pinyin: Nánchāng Bàodòng), or Nanchang Mutiny (simplified Chinese: 南昌兵变; traditional Chinese: 南昌兵變; pinyin: Nánchāng Bīngbiàn).

The Government of the People's Republic of China and the Communist Party of China refer this as the Nanchang Uprising, while the Government of the Republic of China and the Chinese Nationalist Party refer this as the Nanchang Rebellion.

Order of battle

Communist forces

Communist forces at their peak during the Nanchang Uprising totaled over 20,000, though some of them did not join the battle until

The Government of the People's Republic of China and the Communist Party of China refer this as the Nanchang Uprising, while the Government of the Republic of China and the Chinese Nationalist Party refer this as the Nanchang Rebellion.

Communist forces at their peak during the Nanchang Uprising totaled over 20,000, though some of them did not join the battle until a day later. The entire Communist force was organized into the 2nd Front Army, and over half of it was under He Long's command. He was also named Commander-in-Chief of the 2nd Front Army, and Ye Ting as deputy Commander-in-Chief and acting front-line Commander-in-Chief. Communist representative was Zhou Enlai, chief of staff was Liu Bocheng and Director of the Political Directorate of the 2nd Front Army was Guo Moruo. The following is the order of battle for the Communist forces:

  • 9th Army commanded by Zhou Enlai, with Zhu De as the deputy commander and Zhu Kejing (朱克靖) as the Communist Party representative.
  • 11th Army commanded by Ye Ting, with Cai Tingkai as the deputy commander and Nie Rongzhen as the party representative.
    • 10th Division commanded by Cai Tingkai (蔡廷锴)
    • 24th Division commanded by Gu Xunming/Dong Zhongming (古勋铭/董仲明)
    • 25th Division commanded by Li Hanhun (李汉魂), and after taking Nanchang by Zhou Shidi (周士第)
  • 20th Army commanded by He Long and Liao Qianwu (廖乾吾) as the communist representative
    • 1st Division commanded by He Jinzhai (贺锦斋)
    • 2nd Division commanded by Qing Guangyuan (秦光远)
    • 3rd Division commanded by Zhou Yiqun (周逸群)

Battle at Nanchang

The rebellion was initially planned to take place during the night of July 30, but due to complications with Zhang Guotao it was postponed until the next day. On the morning of 1 August 1927, at exactly 2:00 a.m., Zhou Enlai, He Long, Nie Rongzhen

The rebellion was initially planned to take place during the night of July 30, but due to complications with Zhang Guotao it was postponed until the next day. On the morning of 1 August 1927, at exactly 2:00 a.m., Zhou Enlai, He Long, Nie Rongzhen, Ye Ting, Ye Jianying, Lin Biao, Zhu De, Chen Yi and Liu Bocheng led their troops and attacked the city of Nanchang from different directions. Four hours later they took the city, capturing 5,000 small arms and around 1,000,000 rounds of ammunition.

Around noon the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Nationalist Party (中國國民黨革命委員會) was established (not to be confused with the Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang which was founded in 1948). The committee has 25 members:[2] Deng Yanda (邓演达), Zhang Fakui (张发奎), Tan Pingshan (谭平山), Chen Youren (陈友仁), Wu YuZhang (吴玉章), Peng Zemin (彭泽民), Lin Zuhan (林祖涵), He Long (贺龙), Guo Moruo (郭沫若), Huang Qixiang (黄琪翔), Yun Daiying (恽代英), Jiang Hao (江浩), Zhu Huiri (朱晖日), Zhou Enlai (周恩来), Zhang Guotao (张国焘), Ye Ting (叶挺), Zhang Shushi (张曙时), Li Lisan (李立三), Xu Teli (徐特立), Peng Pai (彭湃), Su Zhaozheng (苏兆征), Song Qingling (宋庆龄), He Xianning (何香凝), Yu Youren (于右任) and Jing Hengyi (经亨颐).

Retreat