The NANBAN TRADE (南蛮貿易, Nanban bōeki, "Southern barbarian
trade") or the NANBAN TRADE PERIOD (南蛮貿易時代, Nanban bōeki
jidai, "Southern barbarian trade period") in the history of Japan
extends from the arrival of the first Europeans – Portuguese
explorers, missionaries and merchants – to
Japan in 1543, to their
near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the
promulgation of the "
Sakoku " Seclusion Edicts. First Westerners
in Japan, by
Hokusai , 1817. Caption: "On August 25, 1543, these
foreigners were cast upon the island of Tanegashima, Ōsumi Province
", followed by the two names Murashukusha (unknown) and Kirishitamōta
(i.e. António da Mota , also known as Cristóvão, the Portuguese
equivalent to Cristopher).
Nanban (南蛮, "southern barbarian") is a Sino-Japanese word ,
Chinese Nánmán , originally referring to the peoples of South Asia
Southeast Asia . In Japan, the word took on a new meaning when it
came to designate the Portuguese, who first arrived in 1543, and later
* 1 Cultural encounter
* 1.1 Japanese accounts of Europeans
* 1.2 European accounts of
* 2 Trade exchanges
* 2.1 Portuguese trade in the 16th century
* 2.1.1 Portuguese trade in Japanese slaves
* 2.2 Dutch involvement
* 3 Technological and cultural exchanges
Red seal ships
* 3.3 Catholicism in
* 3.4 Other Nanban influences
* 4 Decline of Nanban exchanges
* 5 Usages of the word "Nanban"
* 6 Timeline
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 External links
JAPANESE ACCOUNTS OF EUROPEANS
The characters for "Nanban" (lit. "Southern barbarian").
Following contact with the Portuguese on
Tanegashima in 1542, the
Japanese were at first rather wary of the newly arrived foreigners.
The culture shock was quite strong, especially due to the fact that
Europeans were not able to understand the
Japanese writing system
Japanese writing system nor
accustomed to using chopsticks.
They eat with their fingers instead of with chopsticks such as we
use. They show their feelings without any self-control. They cannot
understand the meaning of written characters. (from Boxer, Christian
Century). Shrimp tempura
The Japanese were introduced to several new technologies and cultural
practices (so were the Europeans to Japanese, see
Japonism ), whether
in the military area (the arquebus , European-style cuirasses ,
European ships), religion (
Christianity ), decorative art , language
(integration to Japanese of a Western vocabulary ) and culinary: the
Portuguese introduced the tempura and above all the valuable refined
sugar, creating nanbangashi (南蛮菓子), "southern barbarian
confectionery", with confectioneries like castella , konpeitō ,
aruheitō, karumera, keiran sōmen, bōro and bisukauto .
Many foreigners were befriended by Japanese rulers, and their ability
was sometimes recognized to the point of promoting one to the rank of
samurai (William Adams ), and giving him a fief in the Miura Peninsula
, south of
EUROPEAN ACCOUNTS OF JAPAN
Renaissance Europeans were quite fond of Japan's immense richness in
precious metals, mainly owing to
Marco Polo 's accounts of gilded
temples and palaces, but also due to the relative abundance of surface
ores characteristic of a volcanic country, before large-scale
deep-mining became possible in Industrial times.
Japan was to become a
major exporter of copper and silver during the period. A group of
Portuguese Nanban foreigners, 17th century, Japan.
Japan was also noted for being much more populated and urbanized than
any Western country (in the 16th century,
Japan had 26 million
inhabitants against 16 million for France and 4.5 million for
England). . At the time, some Europeans became quite fascinated with
Alessandro Valignano even writing that the Japanese "excel not
only all the other Oriental peoples, they surpass the Europeans as
Early European visitors noted the quality of Japanese craftsmanship
and metalsmithing. This stems from the fact that
Japan itself is
rather poor in natural resources found commonly in Europe, especially
iron . Thus, the Japanese were famously frugal with their consumable
resources; what little they had they used with expert skill though
because of this, they had not reached European levels.
Japanese military prowess was also well noted. "A Spanish royal
decree of 1609 specifically directed Spanish commanders in the Pacific
'not to risk the reputation of our arms and state against Japanese
soldier.'" (Giving Up the Gun, Noel Perrin). Troops of Japanese
samurai were later employed in the
Maluku Islands in
Southeast Asia by
the Dutch to fight off the English.
Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan. 16th-century six-fold
lacquer and gilded screen. Portuguese traders landing in
PORTUGUESE TRADE IN THE 16TH CENTURY
Soon after the first contacts in 1543, Portuguese ships started to
arrive in Japan. At that time, there were already trade exchanges
Goa (since around 1515), consisting of 3 to 4
Lisbon with silver to purchase cotton and spices in
India. Out of these, only one carrack went on to
China in order to
purchase silk , also in exchange for Portuguese silver.
Accordingly, the cargo of the first Portuguese ships (usually about 4
smaller-sized ships every year) arriving in
Japan almost entirely
consisted of Chinese goods (silk , porcelain). The Japanese were very
much looking forward to acquiring such goods, but had been prohibited
from any contact with
China by the Emperor of
China , as a punishment
Wokou pirate raids. The Portuguese therefore found the opportunity
to act as intermediaries in Asian trade.
With the foundation of the port of
Nagasaki , through the combined
initiatives of converted daimyo
Ōmura Sumitada and his Portuguese
friend and confessor,
Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela, in 1571, the
extent of Portuguese trade and influence in Japan, and particularly in
Kyūshū , would increase dramatically for the next thirty on years,
even furthering the depth of its foothold on the strategic harbour,
after having assisted Sumitada in repelling an attack on the port by
Ryūzōji clan in 1578, which in turn led Sumitada to cede
Nagasaki "in perpetuity" to the
Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus two years later.
A Portuguese carrack in
Nagasaki , 17th century.
From the time of the acquisition of
Macau in 1557, and their formal
recognition as trade partners by the Chinese, the Portuguese Crown
started to regulate trade to Japan, by selling to the highest bidder
the annual "Capitaincy" to Japan, in effect conferring exclusive
trading rights for a single carrack bound for
Japan every year. The
carracks were very large ships, usually between 1000 and 1500 tons,
about double or triple the size of a regular galleon or a large junk .
That trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was
prohibited on the ground that the ships were smuggling priests into
Portuguese trade was progressively more and more challenged by
Chinese smugglers on junks , Japanese
Red Seal Ships from around 1592
(about ten ships every year), Spanish ships from
Manila from around
1600 (about one ship a year), the Dutch from 1609 and the English from
1613 (about one ship per year).
Portuguese Trade In Japanese Slaves
See also: Slavery in
After the Portuguese first made contact with
Japan in 1543, a large
scale slave trade developed in which Portuguese purchased Japanese as
Japan and sold them to various locations overseas, including
Portugal itself, throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Many documents mention the large slave trade along with protests
against the enslavement of Japanese. Japanese slaves are believed to
be the first of their nation to end up in Europe, and the Portuguese
purchased large numbers of Japanese slave girls to bring to Portugal
for sexual purposes, as noted by the Church in 1555. King Sebastian
feared that it was having a negative effect on Catholic
proselytization since the slave trade in Japanese was growing to
massive proportions, so he commanded that it be banned in 1571
Japanese slave women were sold as concubines to black African
crewmembers, along with their European counterparts serving on
Portuguese ships trading in Japan, as mentioned by Luis Cerqueira, a
Portuguese Jesuit, in a 1598 document. Japanese slaves were brought
by the Portuguese to
Macau , where some of them not only ended up
being enslaved to Portuguese, but as slaves to other slaves, with the
Portuguese owning Malay and African slaves, who in turn owned Japanese
slaves of their own.
The imperial regent,
Toyotomi Hideyoshi was so disgusted that his own
Japanese people were being sold en masse into slavery on
Kyushu , that
he wrote a letter to
Gaspar Coelho on 24 July
1587 to demand the Portuguese, Siamese, and Cambodians stop purchasing
and enslaving Japanese and return Japanese slaves who ended up as far
as India. Toyotomi blamed the Portuguese and
Jesuits for this slave
trade and banned
Christian proselytizing as a result.
Some Korean slaves were bought by the Portuguese and brought back to
Portugal from Japan, where they had been among the tens of thousands
of Korean prisoners of war transported to
Japan during the Japanese
Korea (1592–98) . Historians pointed out that at the
Hideyoshi expressed his indignation and outrage at the
Portuguese trade in Japanese slaves, he himself was engaging in a mass
slave trade of Korean prisoners of war in Japan. Japanese Christian
Daimyos were mainly responsible for selling to the Portuguese their
fellow Japanese. Japanese women and Japanese men, Javanese, Chinese ,
and Indians were all sold as slaves in
Macau received an
influx of African slaves, Japanese slaves as well as
slaves who were bought by the Portuguese from the Japanese after they
were taken prisoner during the Japanese invasions of
in the era of
Fillippo Sassetti saw some Chinese and Japanese slaves in Lisbon
among the large slave community in 1578, although most of the slaves
The Portuguese "highly regarded" Asian slaves like Chinese and
Japanese much more "than slaves from sub-Saharan Africa". The
Portuguese attributed qualities like intelligence and industriousness
to Chinese and Japanese slaves which is why they favored them more.
In 1571 a law was passed by
Portugal banning the selling and buying
of Chinese and Japanese slaves.
The Dutch , who, rather than "Nanban" were called "Kōmō" (Jp:
紅毛, lit. "Red Hair") by the Japanese, first arrived in
1600, on board the Liefde ("liefde" meaning "love"). Their pilot was
William Adams , the first Englishman to reach Japan.
In 1605, two of the Liefde's crew were sent to
Pattani by Tokugawa
Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan. The head of the
trading post, Victor Sprinckel, refused on the ground that he was too
busy dealing with Portuguese opposition in Southeast Asia. In 1609
however, the Dutchman
Jacques Specx arrived with two ships in Hirado,
and through Adams obtained trading privileges from Ieyasu.
The Dutch also engaged in piracy and naval combat to weaken
Portuguese and Spanish shipping in the Pacific, and ultimately became
the only westerners to be allowed access to
Japan from the small
Dejima after 1638 and for the next two centuries.
Japanese Red seal trade in the early 17th century.
TECHNOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGES
Firearms of Japan
Tanegashima gun Japanese
arquebus of the
Edo era (Tanegasima).
The Japanese were interested in Portuguese hand-held guns . The first
two Europeans to reach
Japan in the year 1543 were the Portuguese
traders António da Mota and Francisco Zeimoto (Fernão Mendes Pinto
claimed to have arrived on this ship as well, but this is in direct
conflict with other data he presents), arriving on a Chinese ship at
the southern island of
Tanegashima where they introduced hand-held
guns for trade. The Japanese were already familiar with gunpowder
weaponry (invented by, and transmitted from China), and had been using
basic Chinese originated guns and cannon tubes called "Teppō" (鉄砲
Iron cannon") for around 270 years before the arrival of the
Portuguese. In comparison, the Portuguese guns were light, had a
matchlock firing mechanism, and were easy to aim. Because the
Portuguese-made firearms were introduced into Tanegashima, the
arquebus was ultimately called
Tanegashima in Japan. At that time,
Japan was in the middle of a civil war called the Sengoku period
(Warring States period).
Within a year after the first trade in guns, Japanese swordsmiths and
ironsmiths managed to reproduce the matchlock mechanism and
mass-produce the Portuguese guns. Barely fifty years later, "by the
end of the 16th century, guns were almost certainly more common in
Japan than in any other country in the world", its armies equipped
with a number of guns dwarfing any contemporary army in Europe
(Perrin). The guns were strongly instrumental in the unification of
Toyotomi Hideyoshi and
Tokugawa Ieyasu , as well as in the
Korea in 1592 and 1597. The daimyo who initiated the
unification of Japan,
Oda Nobunaga , made extensive use of guns
(arquebus ) when playing a key role in the
Battle of Nagashino
Battle of Nagashino , as
Akira Kurosawa 's 1980 film
Kagemusha (Shadow Warrior).
RED SEAL SHIPS
Red seal ships A 1634 Japanese
Red seal ship ,
incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft
designs. The ships were typically armed with 6 to 8 cannons. Tokyo
Naval Science Museum. The Japanese-built 1613 galleon San Juan
Bautista , in Ishinomaki ,
European ships (galleons ) were also quite influential in the
Japanese shipbuilding industry and actually stimulated many Japanese
The Shogunate established a system of commercial ventures on licensed
ships called red seal ships (朱印船, shuinsen), which sailed
throughout East and
Southeast Asia for trade. These ships incorporated
many elements of galleon design, such as sails, rudder, and gun
disposition. They brought to Southeast Asian ports many Japanese
traders and adventurers, who sometimes became quite influential in
local affairs, such as the adventurer
Yamada Nagamasa in
Siam , or
later became Japanese popular icons, such as
Tenjiku Tokubei .
By the beginning of the 17th century, the shogunate had built,
usually with the help of foreign experts, several ships of purely
Nanban design, such as the galleon San Juan Bautista , which crossed
the Pacific two times on embassies to Nueva España (Mexico).
CATHOLICISM IN JAPAN
Kirishitan The Bell of Nanbanji , made in
Portugal for Nanbanji Church, established by
Jesuits in 1576 and
Japan Portrait of
Oda Nobunaga , by Jesuit
Giovanni Niccolo , 1583–1590.
With the arrival of the leading
Francis Xavier in 1549,
Catholicism progressively developed as a major religious force in
Japan. Although the tolerance of Western "padres" was initially linked
to trade, Catholics could claim around 200,000 converts by the end of
the 16th century, mainly located in the southern island of
Jesuits managed to obtain jurisdiction over the trading city of
The first reaction from the kampaku
Hideyoshi came in 1587, when he
promulgated the interdiction of
Christianity and ordered the departure
of all "padres". This resolution was not followed upon however (only 3
out of 130
Jesuits left Japan), and the
Jesuits were essentially able
to pursue their activities.
Hideyoshi had written that
Japan is a country of the Gods, and for the padres to come
hither and preach a devilish law, is a reprehensible and devilish
thing ... 2. For the padres to come to
Japan and convert people to
their creed, destroying Shinto and Buddhist temples to this end, is a
hitherto unseen and unheard-of thing ... to stir the canaille to
commit outrages of this sort is something deserving of severe
punishment." (From Boxer, The
Christian Century in Japan)
Hideyoshi's reaction to
Christianity proved stronger when a
shipwrecked Spanish galleon brought
Japan in 1597.
Twenty-six Christians (6 Franciscans, 17 of their Japanese neophytes,
and 3 Japanese
Jesuit lay brothers – included by mistake-) were
Nagasaki on February 5, 1597. It seems Hideyoshi's
decision was taken following encouragements by the
eliminate the rival order, his being informed by the Spanish that
military conquest usually followed Catholic proselytism, and by his
own desire to take over the cargo of the ship. Although close to a
hundred churches were destroyed, most of the
Jesuits remained in
The final blow came with
Tokugawa Ieyasu 's firm interdiction of
Christianity in 1614, which led to underground activities by the
Jesuits and to their participation in Hideyori 's revolt in the Siege
of Osaka (1614–15). Repression of Catholicism became virulent after
Ieyasu's death in 1616, leading to the torturing and killing of around
2,000 Christians (70 westerners and the rest Japanese) and the
apostasy of the remaining 200–300,000. The last major reaction of
the Christians in
Japan was the
Shimabara rebellion in 1637.
Thereafter, Catholicism in
Japan was driven underground as the
so-called "Hidden Christians" .
OTHER NANBAN INFLUENCES
The Nanban also had various other influences:
* NANBANDō (南蛮胴) designates a type of cuirass covering the
trunk in one piece, a design imported from Europe.
* NANBANBIJUTSU (南蛮美術) generally describes Japanese art with
Nanban themes or influenced by Nanban designs(See
Nanban art ).
* NANBANGA (南蛮画) designates the numerous pictorial
representations that were made of the new foreigners and defines a
whole style category in Japanese art (See
Namban art and an example
at: or )
* NANBANNURI (南蛮塗り) describes lacquers decorated in the
Portuguese style, which were very popular items from the late 16th
century (See example at: ).
* NANBANGASHI (南蛮菓子) is a variety of sweets derived from
Portuguese or Spanish recipes. The most popular sweets are "
(カステラ), named after Castile , and "
Kompeito " (金平糖
こんぺいとう), from the Portuguese word "confeito" ("sugar
candy"), and "
Biscuit "(ビスケット), etc. These "Southern
barbarian" sweets are on sale in many Japanese supermarkets today.
* NANBANJI or NANBANDERA (南蛮寺) was the first
in Kyoto. With support from
Nobunaga Oda , the
Gnecchi-Soldo Organtino established this church in 1576. Eleven years
later (1587), Nanbanji was destroyed by
Hideyoshi Toyotomi .
Currently, The bell is preserved as "Nanbanji-no-kane" (the Bell of
Shunkoin temple in Kyoto.Shunkoin Temple
DECLINE OF NANBAN EXCHANGES
After the country was pacified and unified by
Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1603
Japan progressively closed itself to the outside world,
mainly because of the rise of
By 1650, except for the trade outpost of
Nagasaki , for the
Netherlands, and some trade with China, foreigners were subject to the
death penalty, and
Christian converts were persecuted. Guns were
almost completely eradicated to revert to the more "civilized" sword.
Travel abroad and the building of large ships were also prohibited.
Thence started a period of seclusion, peace, prosperity and mild
progress known as the
Edo period .
The "barbarians" would come back 250 years later, strengthened by
industrialization, and end Japan's isolation with the forcible opening
Japan to trade by an American military fleet under the command of
Commodore Matthew Perry in 1854.
USAGES OF THE WORD "NANBAN"
A Japanese votive altar, Nanban style. End of 16th century.
Guimet Museum . NANBANDō, a western-style cuirass, 16th
century. Japanese inro depicting Nanban foreigners, 17th
The term "Nanban" did not disappear from common usage until the Meiji
restoration , when
Japan decided to Westernize radically in order to
better resist the West and essentially stopped considering the West as
fundamentally uncivilized. Words like "Yōfu" (洋風 "western style")
and "Obeifu" (欧米風 "European-American style)" replaced "Nanban"
in most usages.
Still, the exact principle of westernization was Wakon-Yōsai
(和魂洋才 "Japanese spirit Western talent"), implying that,
although technology may be more advanced in the West, Japanese spirit
is better than the West's. Hence though the West may be lacking, it
has its strong points, which takes the affront out of calling it
Today the word "Nanban" is only used in a historical context, and is
essentially felt as picturesque and affectionate. It can sometimes be
used jokingly to refer to Western people or civilization in a cultured
There is an area where Nanban is used exclusively to refer to a
certain style, and that is cooking and the names of dishes. Nanban
dishes are not American or European, but an odd variety not using soy
sauce or miso but rather curry powder and vinegar as their flavoring,
a characteristic derived from Indo-Portuguese Goan cuisine. Some of
these dishes resemble Southeast Asian cuisines but are so heavily
changed to fit Japanese tastes like ramen that they should be
* 1543 – Portuguese sailors (among them possibly Fernão Mendes
Pinto ) arrive in
Tanegashima and transmit the arquebus .
* 1549 – St
Francis Xavier arrives in
* 1557 – Establishment of
Macau by the Portuguese. Dispatch of
annual trading ships to Japan.
* 1565 –
Battle of Fukuda Bay , the first recorded naval clash
between the Europeans and the Japanese
* 1570 – Japanese pirates occupy parts of
Taiwan , from where they
prey on China.
* 1571 –
Ōmura Sumitada assists the Portuguese in
establishing the port of
* 1575 –
Battle of Nagashino
Battle of Nagashino , where firearms are used
* 1577 – First Japanese ships travel to
Cochinchina , southern
* 1579 – The
Alessandro Valignano arrives in Japan.
* 1580 –
Ōmura Sumitada cedes
Nagasaki "in perpetuity" to the
Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus .
* 1580 –
Japan escape to
* 1584 –
Mancio Ito arrives in
Lisbon with three other Japanese,
accompanied by a
* 1588 –
Hideyoshi prohibits piracy.
* 1592 –
Korea in the Seven-Year War with an army of
- First known mention of
Red Seal Ships .
* 1597 – Martyrdom of 26 Christians (essentially
Franciscans ) in
* 1598 – Death of
* 1600 – Arrival of William Adams on the Liefde.
Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara unites
Tokugawa Ieyasu .
* 1602 – Dutch warships attack the Portuguese carrack Santa
Portuguese Malacca .
* 1603 – Establishment of
Edo as the seat of
- Establishment of the English factory (trading post) at Bantam ,
Java . -
Nippo Jisho Japanese to Portuguese dictionary is published by
Jesuits in Nagasaki, containing entries for 32,293 Japanese words in
* 1605 – Two of William Adams's shipmates are sent to
Tokugawa Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan.
* 1609 – The Dutch open a trading factory in
* 1610 – Destruction of the Nossa Senhora da Graça near Nagasaki,
leading to a 2-year hiatus in Portuguese trade
* 1612 –
Yamada Nagamasa settles in Ayutthaya ,
* 1613 – England opens a trading factory in Hirado.
Hasekura Tsunenaga leaves for his embassy to the
Europe. He returns in 1620.
* 1614 – Expulsion of the
Jesuits from Japan. Prohibition of
* 1615 – Japanese
Jesuits start to proselytise in
* 1616 – Death of
Tokugawa Ieyasu .
* 1622 – Mass martyrdom of Christians.
- Death of
Hasekura Tsunenaga .
* 1623 – The English close their factory at Hirado, because of
Yamada Nagamasa sails from
Siam to Japan, with an Ambassador of
the Siamese king
Songtham . He returns to
Siam in 1626. - Prohibition
of trade with the Spanish
* 1624 – Interruption of diplomatic relations with Spain.
Jesuits start to proselytise in Siam.
* 1628 – Destruction of Takagi Sakuemon's (高木作右衛門) Red
Seal ship in Ayutthaya , Siam, by a Spanish fleet. Portuguese trade in
Japan is prohibited for 3 years as a reprisal.
* 1632 – Death of Tokugawa Hidetada.
* 1634 – On orders of shogun Iemitsu ,
Dejima artificial island is
built to constrain Portuguese merchants living in Nagasaki.
* 1637 –
Shimabara Rebellion by
* 1638 – Definitive prohibition of trade with
Portugal as result
Shimabara Rebellion blamed on Catholic intrigues.
* 1641 – The Dutch trading factory is moved from
Hirado to Dejima
* ^ Frequently referred to today in scholarship as kaikin , or
"maritime restrictions", more accurately reflecting the booming trade
that continued during this period and the fact that
Japan was far from
"closed" or "secluded."
* ^ Noel Perrin "Giving up the gun", p.7 ISBN 978-0-87923-773-8
* ^ Noel Perrin, "Giving up the gun"
* ^ Valignano, 1584, Historia del Principio y Progreso de la
Compañía de Jesús en las Indias Orientales.
* ^ Boxer, The
Christian Century In
Japan 1549–1650, p. 100–101
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story of Japanese sold as slaves by Portuguese traders". The Japan
Times. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
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influências, marcas, ecos e sobrevivências chinesas na sociedade e
na arte brasileiras (in Portuguese). UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de
Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 85-268-0436-7 . Retrieved 2012-05-05. Idéias e
China podem ter-nos chegado também através de escravos
chineses, de uns poucos dos quais sabe-se da presença no Brasil de
começos do Setecentos.17 Mas não deve ter sido através desses raros
infelizes que a influência chinesa nos atingiu, mesmo porque escravos
chineses (e também japoneses) já existiam aos montes em Lisboa por
volta de 1578, quando Filippo Sassetti visitou a cidade,18 apenas
suplantados em número pelos africanos. Parece aliás que aos últimos
cabia o trabalho pesado, ficando reservadas aos chins tarefas e
funções mais amenas, inclusive a de em certos casos secretariar
autoridades civis, religiosas e militares.
* ^ Jeanette Pinto (1992). Slavery in Portuguese India,
1510–1842. Himalaya Pub. House. p. 18. Retrieved 2012-05-05. ing
Chinese as slaves, since they are found to be very loyal, intelligent
and hard working' ... their culinary bent was also evidently
appreciated. The Florentine traveller Fillippo Sassetti, recording his
impressions of Lisbon's enormous slave population circa 1580, states
that the majority of the Chinese there were employed as cooks.
Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East
1550–1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). 2, illustrated, reprint. p.
225. Retrieved 2012-05-05. be very loyal, intelligent, and
hard-working. Their culinary bent (not for nothing is Chinese cooking
regarded as the Asiatic equivalent to French cooking in Europe) was
evidently appreciated. The Florentine traveller Filipe Sassetti
recording his impressions of Lisbon's enormous slave population circa
1580, states that the majority of the Chinese there were employed as
cooks. Dr. John Fryer, who gives us an interesting ...
* ^ José Roberto Teixeira Leite (1999). A
China No Brasil:
Influencias, Marcas, Ecos E Sobrevivencias Chinesas Na Sociedade E Na
Arte Brasileiras (in Portuguese). UNICAMP. Universidade Estadual de
Campinas. p. 19. ISBN 85-268-0436-7 . Retrieved 2014-02-02.
* ^ Paul Finkelman (1998). Paul Finkelman, Joseph Calder Miller,
ed. Macmillan encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 2. Macmillan
Reference USA, Simon & Schuster Macmillan. p. 737. ISBN 0-02-864781-5
. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
* ^ Finkelman & Miller 1998 , p. 737
* ^ Duarte de Sande (2012). Derek Massarella, ed. Japanese
Travellers in Sixteenth-century Europe: A Dialogue Concerning the
Mission of the Japanese Ambassadors to the Roman Curia (1590). Volume
25 of 3: Works, Hakluyt Society Hakluyt Society. Ashgate Publishing,
Ltd. ISBN 1-4094-7223-X . ISSN 0072-9396 . Retrieved 2014-02-02.
* ^ A. C. de C. M. Saunders (1982). A Social History of Black
Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal, 1441–1555. Volume 25 of 3: Works,
Hakluyt Society Hakluyt Society (illustrated ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-521-23150-7 . Retrieved 2014-02-02.
* ^ Jeanette Pinto (1992). Slavery in Portuguese India,
1510–1842. Himalaya Pub. House. p. 18. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East
1550–1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P. p. 225.
* ^ Dias 2007 , p. 71
* ^ "Histoire du Japon", p. 72, Michel Vie, ISBN 2-13-052893-7
* Giving Up the Gun, Noel Perrin, David R. Godine Publisher, Boston.
* Samurai, Mitsuo Kure , Tuttle publishing, Tokyo. ISBN
* The Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy. Development and
Technology in Asia from 1540 to the Pacific War, Christopher Howe, The
University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-35485-7
* Yoshitomo Okamoto, The Namban Art of Japan, translated by Ronald
K. Jones, Weatherhill/Heibonsha, New York & Tokyo, 1972
* José Yamashiro , Choque luso no Japão dos séculos XVI e XVII,
* Armando Martins Janeira , O impacto português sobre a
civilização japonesa, Publicações Dom Quixote, Lisboa, 1970
Wenceslau de Moraes , Relance da história do Japão, 2ª ed.,
Parceria A. M. Pereira Ltda, Lisboa, 1972
Christian Century in
Charles Ralph Boxer
* They came to Japan, an anthology of European reports on Japan,
1543–1640, ed. by Michael Cooper, University of California press,
* João Rodrigues's Account of Sixteenth-Century Japan, ed. by
Michael Cooper, London: The Hakluyt Society, 2001 (ISBN 0-904180-73-5
* Dias, Maria Suzette Fernandes (2007), Legacies of slavery:
comparative perspectives, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p. 238, ISBN
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