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ṆAMōKāRA MANTRA is the most significant mantra in Jainism
Jainism
. This is the first prayer recited by the Jains while meditating . The mantra is also variously referred to as the _Pancha Namaskāra Mantra_, _Navakāra Mantra_ or _Namaskāra Mantra_. While reciting this mantra, the devotee bows with respect to the _Panch Parameshti_ (the Supreme Five):

* _Arihant _— Those who have destroyed the four inimical _karmas _ * _ Siddha _ — The liberated souls * _Acharyas _ — The spiritual leaders or Preceptors * _Upadhayaya_ — Preceptor of less advanced ascetics * _Sādhu_ — The monks or sages in the world

There is no mention of any particular names of the gods or any specific person. The prayer is done towards the guṇa (the good qualities) of the gods, teachers and the saints. Jains do not ask for any favors or material benefits from the tirthankaras or monastics. This mantra simply serves as a gesture of deep respect towards beings whom they believe are spiritually ahead, as well as to remind the people of their ultimate goal i.e. _moksha _ (liberation). Navkar Mantra consists of 35 letters.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 The Ṇamōkāra Mantra * 3 Meditation * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources

HISTORY

Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
by King Khāravela at Udayagiri Hills

A 162 BCE inscription, the Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
starts with the Namokar Mantra. It was inscribed by the Jain monarch Kharavela
Kharavela
.

THE ṆAMōKāRA MANTRA

_PRAKRIT_ ENGLISH MEANING

णमो अरिहंताणं Ṇamō Arihantāṇaṁ I bow to the Arihants , the Conquerors.

णमो सिद्धाणं Ṇamō Siddhāṇaṁ I bow to the Siddhas .

णमो आयरियाणं Ṇamō Ayariyāṇaṁ I bow to the Acharyas .

णमो उवज्झायाणं Ṇamō Uvajjhāyāṇaṁ I bow to the Upadhyayas .

णमो लोए सव्व साहूणं Ṇamō Lōē Savva Sāhūṇaṁ I bow to all the Sages of the world.

एसोपंचणमोक्कारो, सव्वपावप्पणासणो Ēsōpan̄caṇamōkkārō, savvapāvappaṇāsaṇō This five-fold salutation completely destroys all the sins.

मंगला णं च सव्वेसिं, पडमम हवई मंगलं Maṅgalā ṇaṁ ca savvēsiṁ, paḍamama havaī maṅgalaṁ And, of all auspicious mantras, (it) is indeed the foremost auspicious one.

MEDITATION

Obeisance to Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings)

According to Dravyasaṃgraha , a major Jain text
Jain text
:

Meditate on, recite or chant the sacred mantras, consisting of thirty-five, sixteen, six, five, four, two and one letter(s), pronouncing the virtues of the five supreme beings (_Pañca-Parameṣṭhi_). Besides, meditate on and chant other mantras as per the teachings of the Preceptor (guru).

SEE ALSO

* God in Jainism
Jainism
* Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra

REFERENCES

* ^ Voorst 2015 , p. 107. * ^ Jaina, Ravīndrakumāra and Kusuma Jaina (1993). _A Scientific Treatise on Great Namokar Mantra_. Delhi: Arihant International, Keladevi Sumatiprasad Trust. ISBN 81-7277-029-4 . * ^ Jain 1917 , p. 61. * ^ Shah, Natubhai (1998). _Jainism: The World of Conquerors_. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1-898723-31-1 . * ^ Rapson, "Catalogue of the Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc...", p XVII. * ^ Full text of the Hathigumpha Inscription in English Archived 17 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Jain, Yogendra (2007). _Jain Way of Life - A Guide to Compassionate, Healthy and Happy Living_. Boston, MA: JAINA (Federation of Jain Associations of North America). p. 6. ISBN 978-0-9773178-5-1 . * ^ Jain 2013 , p. 173.

SOURCES

* Voorst, Robert E. Van (2015), _RELG: World_ (Second ed.), Cengage Learning, ISBN 978-1-285-43468-1 * Jain, Vijay K. (2013), _Ācārya Nemichandra\'s Dravyasaṃgraha_, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 9788190363952 , Non-copyright * Jain, Champat Rai (1917), _The Ratna Karanda Sravakachara_, The Central Jaina Publishing House

* v * t * e

JAIN LITERATURE

FOURTEEN PURVAS (THE PRIOR KNOWLEDGE – _CONSIDERED TOTALLY LOST_)

* ŚVēTāMBARA CANONICAL TEXTS

_

ANGāGAMA

* Acharanga Sutra * Sutrakritanga * Sthananga Sutra * Samavayanga Sutra * Vyākhyāprajñapti * Jnatrdharmakathah * Upasakadasah * Antakrddaasah * Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh
Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh
* Prasnavyakaranani * Vipakasruta * Drstivada (now extinct)

UPANGA āGAMAS

* Aupapatika * Rājapraśnīya * Jīvājīvābhigama * Prajñāpana * Sūryaprajñapti * Jambūdvīpaprajñapti * Candraprajñapti * Nirayārvalī * Kalpāvatamsikāh * Puspikāh * Puspacūlikāh * Vrasnidaśāh

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* Ācāradaśāh * Brhatkalpa * Vyavahāra * Nishitha * Mahāniśītha * Jītakalpa * Kalpa Sūtra

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* Nandī-sūtra * Anuyogadvāra-sūtra

* DIGAMBARA TEXTS

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* Shatkhandagama * Kasayapahuda
Kasayapahuda

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* Mahapurana

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Tiloya Panatti
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* Sarvārthasiddhi
Sarvārthasiddhi
(commentary on Tattvārthasūtra)

OTHERS

* Siribhoovalaya * Uvasagharam Stotra * Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra
* Jinvani * Namokar Mantra

Tattvartha Sutra is accepted by both Digambara
Digambara
and Śvetāmbara as their texts although Śvetāmbaras do not include it under canonical texts.

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