Coordinates: 22°S 17°E / 22°S 17°E / -22; 17
Republic of Namibia
8 National language names
Republiek van Namibië (Afrikaans)
Republik Namibia (German)
Namibiab Republiki dib (Nama)
Republika yaNamibia (Herero)
Orepublika yaNamibia (Kwanyama)
Republika zaNamibia (Kwangali)
Repaboleki ya Namibia (Tswana)
Namibia ye Lukuluhile (Lozi)
Coat of arms
Motto: "Unity, Liberty, Justice"
Anthem: "Namibia, Land of the Brave"
Location of Namibia (dark blue)
– in Africa (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union (light blue)
and largest city
22°34.2′S 17°5.167′E / 22.5700°S 17.086117°E /
Recognised national languages
Afrikaans, German, Otjiherero, Khoekhoe, Oshiwambo, Kwangali,
Recognised regional languages
Ju'hoansi, Rumanyo, Thimbukushu
Ethnic groups (2014)
7.0% Namibian whites
3.5% Lozi (Caprivian)
Unitary dominant-party semi-presidential republic
• Vice President
• Prime Minister
• Deputy Prime Minister
• Upper house
• Lower house
Independence from South Africa
9 February 1990
21 March 1990
825,615 km2 (318,772 sq mi) (34th)
• Water (%)
• 2017 census
3.2/km2 (8.3/sq mi) (235th)
• Per capita
• Per capita
medium · 125th
Namibian dollar (NAD),
South African rand
South African rand (ZAR)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Namibia (/nəˈmɪbiə/ ( listen), /næˈ-/),
Namibia (German: Republik
Namibia (help·info); Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië), is a
country in southern
Africa whose western border is the
It shares land borders with
Angola to the north, Botswana
to the east and South
Africa to the south and east. Although it does
not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the
(essentially a small bulge in
Botswana to achieve a Botswana/Zambia
micro-border) separates the two countries.
Namibia gained independence
Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of
Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a
member state of the
United Nations (UN), the Southern African
Development Community (SADC), the
African Union (AU), and the
Commonwealth of Nations.
The dry lands of
Namibia were inhabited since early times by the San,
Damara, and Nama peoples. Since about the 14th century, immigrating
Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since then the
Bantu groups in total, one of which is known as the Ovambo people,
have dominated the population of the country and since the late 19th
century, have constituted a majority.
In 1878 the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, had annexed the
Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands; these became an
integral part of the new Union of South
Africa at its creation in
1910. In 1884, the
German Empire established rule over most of the
territory as a protectorate (Schutzgebiet). It began to develop
infrastructure and farming, and maintained this German colony until
1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after
the end of World War I, the
League of Nations
League of Nations mandated the country to
the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed
its laws, including racial classifications and rules.
From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa
applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa.
In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political
representation by native African political activists seeking
independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over
the territory in 1966, but South
Africa maintained de facto rule. In
1973 the UN recognised the South West
Africa People's Organisation
(SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the
party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large majority in the
territory. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa
installed an interim administration in
Namibia in 1985. Namibia
obtained full independence from South
Africa in 1990. However, Walvis
Bay and the
Penguin Islands remained under South African control until
Namibia has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable
multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and
the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds,
uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the basis of its
economy. The large, arid
Namib Desert has resulted in
overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world.
2.1 Pre-colonial period
2.2 German rule
2.3 South African rule
2.4 Land issues
2.5 After independence
3.2 Water sources
3.3 Communal Wildlife Conservancies
4 Politics and government
4.1 Foreign relations
4.3 Administrative division
5.2 Mining and electricity
5.4 Water supply and sanitation
6.3 Largest cities
11 See also
12.3 General references
13 External links
The name of the country is derived from the
Namib Desert, considered
to be the oldest desert in the world. The name,
Namib itself, is
of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in
1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa
(Deutsch-Südwestafrika), then as South-West Africa, reflecting the
colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans (technically
on behalf of the British crown reflecting South Africa's dominion
status within the British Empire).
Main article: History of Namibia
The dry lands of
Namibia were inhabited since early times by San,
Damara, and Nama. From about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu
people arrived during the
Bantu expansion from central Africa. From
the late 18th century onwards,
Oorlam people from
Cape Colony crossed
Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern
Namibia. Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were
largely peaceful. The missionaries accompanying the Oorlam were well
received by them, the right to use waterholes and grazing was
granted against an annual payment. On their way further
northwards, however, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at
Windhoek, Gobabis, and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment. The
Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after
German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented
the status quo among the Nama, Oorlam, and Herero.
The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the
Diogo Cão in 1485 and
Bartolomeu Dias in 1486,
but the Portuguese crown did not try to claim the area. Like most of
interior Sub-Saharan Africa,
Namibia was not extensively explored by
Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers
came principally from Germany and Sweden. In the late 19th century,
Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the South African
Republic to Angola. Some of them settled in
Namibia instead of
continuing their journey.
See also: German South West
Africa and Herero and Namaqua genocide
German church and monument to colonists in Windhoek
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck to
forestall British encroachment and was known as German South West
Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika). However, the Palgrave Commission
by the British governor in Cape Town had determined that only the
natural deep-water harbor of
Walvis Bay was worth occupying – and
this was annexed to the Cape province of British South Africa.
From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against
brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German
occupiers, what has been called the 'first genocide of the Twentieth
Century' was committed, as government officials ordered extinction of
the natives. In the Herero and Namaqua genocide, the Germans
systematically killed 10,000 Nama (half the population) and
approximately 65,000 Herero (about 80% of the population). The
survivors, when finally released from detention, were subjected to a
policy of dispossession, deportation, forced labor, racial
segregation, and discrimination in a system that in many ways
anticipated the apartheid established by South
Africa in 1948.
Most Africans were confined to so-called native territories, which
later under South African rule after 1949 were turned into "homelands"
(Bantustans). Indeed, some historians have speculated that the German
Namibia was a model used by Nazis in the Holocaust.
The memory of genocide remains relevant to ethnic identity in
Namibia and to relations with Germany. The German
government formally apologized for the Namibian genocide in 2004.
South African rule
See also: South West Africa
Africa occupied the colony in 1915 after defeating the German
forces during World War I. It administered it from 1919 onward as a
League of Nations
League of Nations mandate (nominally under the British Crown).
Although the South African government wanted to annex South West
Africa into its official territory, it never did so. But, it
administered the territory as its de facto "fifth province". The white
minority of South West
Africa elected representatives to the
whites-only Parliament of South Africa. They also elected their own
local administration, the SWA Legislative Assembly. The South African
government appointed the SWA administrator, who had extensive
Following the League's replacement by the
United Nations in 1946,
Africa refused to surrender its earlier mandate. The UN intended
that it be replaced by a
United Nations Trusteeship agreement,
requiring closer international monitoring of the territory's
administration and a definite schedule to achieve independence of
Namibia. After the rise of the National Party in South Africa, South
Africa established apartheid in both South
Africa and South West
Africa. The Herero Chief's Council submitted a number of petitions to
the UN in the 1950s calling for it to grant
Namibia independence but
was not successful. During the 1960s, as European powers such as
France and the
United Kingdom granted independence to some colonies
and trust territories in Africa, pressure mounted on South
do so in Namibia.
In 1966 the
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice dismissed a complaint
Liberia against South Africa's continued
presence in the territory, but the U.N. General Assembly subsequently
revoked South Africa's mandate. In response to that 1966 ruling,
Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) military wing,
People's Liberation Army of Namibia, a guerrilla group began their
armed struggle for independence. South
Africa continued to
exercise de facto rule while
SWAPO expanded its guerrilla efforts for
independence. In 1971 the
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice issued an
"advisory opinion" declaring South Africa's continued administration
to be illegal. However, it was not until 1988 that South Africa
agreed to end its occupation of Namibia, in accordance with a UN
peace plan for the entire region.
Map of Bantustans, land set aside for black inhabitation, in South
During the decades of German and South African occupation of Namibia,
white commercial farmers, most of whom came as settlers from South
Africa and represented 0.2% of the national population, came to own
74% of the arable land. Outside the central-southern area of
Namibia (known as the "Police Zone" since the German era), which
contained the main towns, industries, mines and best arable land,
Africa designated areas of the country as "homelands" for
various tribes, including the multiracial Basters, who had occupied
the Rehoboth District since the late 19th century. It was an attempt
to establish the bantustans, but most indigenous Namibian tribes did
Africa was formally recognised as
Namibia by the UN; the
General Assembly changed the territory's name by Resolution 2372
(XXII) of 12 June 1968. In 1978 the
United Nations Security
Council passed Resolution 435, which laid out a plan for transition
toward independence for Namibia. Attempts to persuade South
agree to the plan's implementation were not successful until 1988,
after years of warfare. The transition to independence finally started
under a diplomatic agreement between South Africa,
Angola and Cuba,
with the USSR and the USA as observers. Under this, South Africa
agreed to withdraw and demobilise its forces in Namibia. As a result,
Cuba agreed to pull back its troops in southern Angola, who were sent
to support the
MPLA in its war for control of
Angola against UNITA.
Angola also resolved its civil war, although not until 2002.
A combined UN civilian and peace-keeping force called UNTAG (United
Nations Transition Assistance Group), led by Finnish diplomat Martti
Ahtisaari, was deployed from April 1989 to March 1990 to monitor the
peace process and elections, and to supervise military withdrawals. As
UNTAG began to deploy peacekeepers, military observers, police, and
political workers, hostilities were briefly renewed on the day the
transition process was supposed to begin. After a new round of
negotiations, a second date was set, and the elections process began
After the return of more than 46,000
SWAPO exiles, Namibia's first one
man, one vote elections for the constitutional assembly took place in
November 1989. The official election slogan was "Free and Fair
Elections". This was won by
SWAPO although it did not gain the
two-thirds majority it had hoped for; the South African-backed DTA of
Namibia became the official opposition. The elections were peaceful
and declared free and fair.
The Namibian Constitution adopted in February 1990 incorporated
protection for human rights, compensation for state expropriations of
private property, and established an independent judiciary,
legislature, and an executive presidency (the constituent assembly
became the national assembly). The country officially became
independent on 21 March 1990.
Sam Nujoma was sworn in as the first
President of Namibia
President of Namibia at a ceremony attended by
Nelson Mandela of South
Africa (who had been released from prison the previous month) and
representatives from 147 countries, including 20 heads of state.
Upon the end of
Apartheid in South
Africa in 1994, the nation ceded
Walvis Bay to Namibia.
Namibia has successfully completed the transition
from white minority apartheid rule to parliamentary democracy.
Multiparty democracy was introduced and has been maintained, with
local, regional and national elections held regularly. Several
registered political parties are active and represented in the
National Assembly, although the
SWAPO has won every election since
independence. The transition from the 15-year rule of President
Sam Nujoma to his successor
Hifikepunye Pohamba in 2005 went
Since independence, the Namibian government has promoted a policy of
national reconciliation. It issued an amnesty for those who had fought
on either side during the liberation war. The civil war in Angola
spilled over and adversely affected Namibians living in the north of
the country. In 1998,
Namibia Defence Force
Namibia Defence Force (NDF) troops were sent to
Republic of the Congo as part of a Southern African
Development Community (SADC) contingent.
In 1999, the national government successfully quashed a secessionist
attempt in the northeastern Caprivi Strip. The Caprivi conflict
was initiated by the
Caprivi Liberation Army (CLA), a rebel group led
by Mishake Muyongo. It wanted the
Caprivi Strip to secede in order to
form its own society.
Main article: Geography of Namibia
Sand dunes in the Namib, Namibia
Shaded relief map of Namibia
Namibia map of Köppen climate classification
At 825,615 km2 (318,772 sq mi),
Namibia is the
world's thirty-fourth largest country (after Venezuela). It lies
mostly between latitudes 17° and 29°S (a small area is north of
17°), and longitudes 11° and 26°E.
Being situated between the
Namib and the Kalahari deserts,
the least rainfall of any country in sub-Saharan Africa.
The Namibian landscape consists generally of five geographical areas,
each with characteristic abiotic conditions and vegetation, with some
variation within and overlap between them: the Central Plateau, the
Namib, the Great Escarpment, the Bushveld, and the Kalahari Desert.
The Central Plateau runs from north to south, bordered by the Skeleton
Coast to the northwest, the
Namib Desert and its coastal plains to the
Orange River to the south, and the
Kalahari Desert to
the east. The Central Plateau is home to the highest point in Namibia
at Königstein elevation 2,606 metres (8,550 ft).
Namib is a broad expanse of hyper-arid gravel plains and dunes
that stretches along Namibia's entire coastline. It varies between 100
and many hundreds of kilometres in width. Areas within the Namib
Skeleton Coast and the
Kaokoveld in the north and the
Namib Sand Sea along the central coast.
The Great Escarpment swiftly rises to over 2,000 metres
(6,562 ft). Average temperatures and temperature ranges increase
further inland from the cold
Atlantic waters, while the lingering
coastal fogs slowly diminish. Although the area is rocky with poorly
developed soils, it is significantly more productive than the Namib
Desert. As summer winds are forced over the Escarpment, moisture is
extracted as precipitation.
Bushveld is found in north-eastern
Namibia along the Angolan
border and in the Caprivi Strip. The area receives a significantly
greater amount of precipitation than the rest of the country,
averaging around 400 mm (15.7 in) per year. The area is
generally flat and the soils sandy, limiting their ability to retain
water and support agriculture.
The Kalahari Desert, an arid region that extends into South
Botswana, is one of Namibia's well-known geographical features. The
Kalahari, while popularly known as a desert, has a variety of
localised environments, including some verdant and technically
non-desert areas. The
Succulent Karoo is home to over 5,000 species of
plants, nearly half of them endemic; approximately 10 percent of the
world's succulents are found in the Karoo. The reason behind this
high productivity and endemism may be the relatively stable nature of
Namibia's Coastal Desert is one of the oldest deserts in the world.
Its sand dunes, created by the strong onshore winds, are the highest
in the world. Because of the location of the shoreline, at the
point where the Atlantic's cold water reaches Africa's hot climate,
often extremely dense fog forms along the coast. Near the coast
there are areas where the dunes are vegetated with hammocks.
Namibia has rich coastal and marine resources that remain largely
Fish River Canyon
Namibia is primarily a large desert and semi-desert plateau.
Namibia extends from 17°S to 25°S latitude: climatically the range
of the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt. Its overall climate
description is arid, descending from the Sub-Humid (mean rain above
500 mm) through Semi-Arid between 300 and 500 mm (embracing
most of the waterless Kalahari) and Arid from 150 to 300 mm
(these three regions are inland from the western escarpment) to the
Hyper-Arid coastal plain with less than a 100 mm mean.
Temperature maxima are limited by the overall elevation of the entire
region: only in the far south, Warmbad for instance, are
mid-40 °C maxima recorded.
Typically the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt, with frequent clear
skies, provides more than 300 days of sunshine per year. It is
situated at the southern edge of the tropics; the Tropic of Capricorn
cuts the country about in half. The winter (June – August) is
generally dry. Both rainy seasons occur in summer: the small rainy
season between September and November, the big one between February
and April. Humidity is low, and average rainfall varies from
almost zero in the coastal desert to more than 600 mm in the
Caprivi Strip. Rainfall is highly variable, and droughts are
common. The last[update] rainy season with rainfall far below the
annual average occurred in summer 2006/07.
Weather and climate in the coastal area are dominated by the cold,
Benguela Current of the
Atlantic Ocean, which accounts
for very low precipitation (50 mm per year or less), frequent
dense fog, and overall lower temperatures than in the rest of the
country. In Winter, occasionally a condition known as Bergwind
(German for "mountain breeze") or Oosweer (
Afrikaans for "east
weather") occurs, a hot dry wind blowing from the inland to the coast.
As the area behind the coast is a desert, these winds can develop into
sand storms, leaving sand deposits in the
Atlantic Ocean that are
visible on satellite images.
The Central Plateau and Kalahari areas have wide diurnal temperature
ranges of up to 30 °C.
Efundja, the annual seasonal flooding of the northern parts of the
country, often causes not only damage to infrastructure but loss of
life. The rains that cause these floods originate in Angola, flow
into Namibia's Cuvelai basin, and fill the oshanas (Oshiwambo: flood
plains) there. The worst floods so far[update] occurred in March 2011
and displaced 21,000 people.
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Namibia
Namibia is the driest country in sub-Saharan
Africa and depends
largely on groundwater. With an average rainfall of about 350 mm
per annum, the highest rainfall occurs in the Caprivi in the northeast
(about 600 mm per annum) and decreases in a westerly and
southwesterly direction to as little as 50 mm and less per annum
at the coast. The only perennial rivers are found on the national
borders with South Africa, Angola, Zambia, and the short border with
Botswana in the Caprivi. In the interior of the country, surface water
is available only in the summer months when rivers are in flood after
exceptional rainfalls. Otherwise, surface water is restricted to a few
large storage dams retaining and damming up these seasonal floods and
their runoff. Where people do not live near perennial rivers or make
use of the storage dams, they are dependent on groundwater. Even
isolated communities and those economic activities located far from
good surface water sources, such as mining, agriculture, and tourism,
can be supplied from groundwater over nearly 80% of the country.
More than 100,000 boreholes have been drilled in
Namibia over the past
century. One third of these boreholes have been drilled dry.
Communal Wildlife Conservancies
Quivertree Forest, Bushveld
Main article: Communal Wildlife Conservancies in Namibia
Namibia is one of few countries in the world to specifically address
conservation and protection of natural resources in its
constitution. Article 95 states, "The State shall actively promote
and maintain the welfare of the people by adopting international
policies aimed at the following: maintenance of ecosystems, essential
ecological processes, and biological diversity of Namibia, and
utilisation of living natural resources on a sustainable basis for the
benefit of all Namibians, both present and future."
In 1993, the newly formed government of
Namibia received funding from
United States Agency for International Development
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through
its Living in a Finite Environment (LIFE) Project. The Ministry of
Environment and Tourism, with the financial support from organisations
such as USAID, Endangered Wildlife Trust, WWF, and Canadian
Ambassador's Fund, together form a Community Based Natural Resource
Management (CBNRM) support structure. The main goal of this project is
promote sustainable natural resource management by giving local
communities rights to wildlife management and tourism.
Politics and government
Tintenpalast, the centre of Namibia's government
Main article: Politics of Namibia
Namibia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic
President of Namibia
President of Namibia is elected to a five-year
term and is both the head of state and the head of government.
However, while the President is both head of state and government, all
members of the government are individually and collectively
responsible to the legislature.
Constitution of Namibia
Constitution of Namibia guarantees the separation of powers:
Executive: Executive power is exercised by the President and the
Namibia has a bicameral Parliament with the National
Assembly as lower house, and the National Council as the upper
Namibia has a system of courts that interpret and apply the
law in the name of the state.
While the constitution envisaged a multi-party system for Namibia's
SWAPO party has been dominant since independence in
Main article: Foreign relations of Namibia
Namibia follows a largely independent foreign policy, with persisting
affiliations with states that aided the independence struggle,
including Cuba. With a small army and a fragile economy, the Namibian
Government's principal foreign policy concern is developing
strengthened ties within the Southern African region. A dynamic member
of the Southern African Development Community,
Namibia is a vocal
advocate for greater regional integration.
Namibia became the 160th
member of the UN on 23 April 1990. On its independence it became the
fiftieth member of the
Commonwealth of Nations.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2015)
Main article: Namibian Defence Force
Namibia does not have any enemies in the region although it has been
involved in various disputes regarding borders and construction
plans. It consistently spends more as a percentage of
GDP on its military than all of its neighbours, except Angola.
Military expenditure rose from 2.7% of GDP in 2000 to 3.7% in 2009,
and the arrival of 12
Chengdu J-7 Airguard jets in 2006 and 2008 made
Namibia for a short time one of the top arms importers in Sub-Saharan
Africa. By 2015, military expenditure was estimated at between 4%
and 5% of GDP.
The constitution of
Namibia defined the role of the military as
"defending the territory and national interests."
Namibia formed the
Namibian Defence Force
Namibian Defence Force (NDF), comprising former enemies in a 23-year
bush war: the
People's Liberation Army of Namibia
People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) and South
West African Territorial Force (SWATF). The British formulated the
plan for integrating these forces and began training the NDF, which
consists of a small headquarters and five battalions.
United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG)'s Kenyan
infantry battalion remained in
Namibia for three months after
independence to help train the NDF and to stabilise the north.
According to the Namibian Defence Ministry, enlistments of both men
and women will number no more than 7,500. The current minister of the
Namibian Military is Hon Penda YaNdakolo
The fourteen regions of Namibia.
Main article: Administrative divisions of Namibia
Namibia is divided into 14 regions and subdivided into 121
constituencies. The administrative division of
Namibia is tabled by
Delimitation Commissions and accepted or declined by the National
Assembly. Since state foundation four Delimitation Commissions have
delivered their work, the last one in 2013 under the chairmanship of
Judge Alfred Siboleka.
Regional councillors are directly elected through secret ballots
(regional elections) by the inhabitants of their constituencies.
Local authorities in
Namibia can be in the form of municipalities
(either Part 1 or Part 2 municipalities), town councils or
Main article: Economy of Namibia
Tsumeb's main road
Namibia's economy is tied closely to South Africa's due to their
shared history. The largest economic sectors are mining (10.4%
of the gross domestic product in 2009), agriculture (5.0%),
manufacturing (13.5%), and tourism.
Namibia has a highly developed banking sector with modern
infrastructure, such as online banking and cellphone banking. The Bank
Namibia (BoN) is the central bank of
Namibia responsible for
performing all other functions ordinarily performed by a central bank.
There are 5 BoN authorised commercial banks in Namibia: Bank Windhoek,
First National Bank, Nedbank, Standard Bank and Small and Medium
According to the
Namibia Labour Force Survey Report 2012, conducted by
Namibia Statistics Agency, the country's unemployment rate is
27.4%. "Strict unemployment" (people actively seeking a full-time
job) stood at 20.2% in 2000, 21.9% in 2004 and spiraled to 29.4% in
2008. Under a broader definition (including people that have given up
searching for employment) unemployment rose to 36.7% in 2004. This
estimate considers people in the informal economy as employed. Labour
and Social Welfare Minister
Immanuel Ngatjizeko praised the 2008 study
as "by far superior in scope and quality to any that has been
available previously", but its methodology has also received
In 2004 a labour act was passed to protect people from job
discrimination stemming from pregnancy and HIV/AIDS status. In early
2010 the Government tender board announced that "henceforth 100 per
cent of all unskilled and semi-skilled labour must be sourced, without
exception, from within Namibia".
In 2013, global business and financial news provider, Bloomberg, named
Namibia the top emerging market economy in
Africa and the 13th best in
the world. Only four African countries made the Top 20 Emerging
Markets list in the March 2013 issue of Bloomberg Markets magazine,
Namibia was rated ahead of
Morocco (19th), South
Africa (15th) and
Zambia (14th). Worldwide,
Namibia also fared better than Hungary,
Brazil and Mexico. Bloomberg Markets magazine ranked the top 20 based
on more than a dozen criteria. The data came from Bloomberg's own
financial-market statistics, IMF forecasts and the World Bank. The
countries were also rated on areas of particular interest to foreign
investors: the ease of doing business, the perceived level of
corruption and economic freedom. In order to attract foreign
investment, the government has made improvement in reducing red tape
resulted from excessive government regulations making the country one
of the least bureaucratic places to do business in the region.
However, facilitation payments are occasionally demanded by customs
due to cumbersome and costly customs procedures.
Namibia is also
classified as an Upper Middle Income country by the World Bank, and
ranks 87th out of 185 economies in terms of ease of doing
The cost of living in
Namibia is relatively high because most of the
goods including cereals need to be imported. Business monopoly in some
sectors causes higher profit bookings and further raising of
prices. Its capital city,
Windhoek is currently
ranked as the 150th most expensive place in the world for expatriates
Taxation in Namibia
Taxation in Namibia includes personal income tax, which is applicable
to total taxable income of an individual and all individuals are taxed
at progressive marginal rates over a series of income brackets. The
value added tax (VAT) is applicable to most of the commodities and
The B2 between
Swakopmund and Walvis Bay, Namibia
Despite the remote nature of much of the country,
seaports, airports, highways, and railways (narrow-gauge). The country
seeks to become a regional transportation hub; it has an important
seaport and several landlocked neighbours. The Central Plateau already
serves as a transportation corridor from the more densely populated
north to South Africa, the source of four-fifths of Namibia's
Main article: Agriculture in Namibia
Welcoming sign of the Burgsdorf farm in Hardap
About half of the population depends on agriculture (largely
subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood, but
Namibia must still
import some of its food. Although per capita GDP is five times the per
capita GDP of Africa's poorest countries, the majority of Namibia's
people live in rural areas and exist on a subsistence way of life.
Namibia has one of the highest rates of income inequality in the
world, due in part to the fact that there is an urban economy and a
more rural cash-less economy. The inequality figures thus take into
account people who do not actually rely on the formal economy for
their survival. Although arable land accounts for only 1% of Namibia,
nearly half of the population is employed in agriculture.
About 4,000, mostly white, commercial farmers own almost half of
Namibia's arable land. The governments of Germany and Britain will
finance Namibia's land reform process, as
Namibia plans to start
expropriating land from white farmers to resettle landless black
Agreement has been reached on the privatisation of several more
enterprises in coming years, with hopes that this will stimulate much
needed foreign investment. However, reinvestment of environmentally
derived capital has hobbled Namibian per capita income. One of the
fastest growing areas of economic development in
Namibia is the growth
of wildlife conservancies. These conservancies are particularly
important to the rural, generally unemployed, population.
An aquifer called "Ohangwena II" has been discovered, capable of
supplying the 800,000 people in the North for 400 years. Experts
Namibia has 7,720 km3 of underground water.
Mining and electricity
Main article: Mining in Namibia
Providing 25% of Namibia's revenue, mining is the single most
important contributor to the economy.
Namibia is the fourth
largest exporter of non-fuel minerals in
Africa and the world's fourth
largest producer of uranium. There has been significant investment in
uranium mining and
Namibia is set to become the largest exporter of
uranium by 2015. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make
primary source for gem-quality diamonds. While
Namibia is known
predominantly for its gem diamond and uranium deposits, a number of
other minerals are extracted industrially such as lead, tungsten,
gold, tin, fluorspar, manganese, marble, copper and zinc. There are
offshore gas deposits in the
Atlantic Ocean that are planned to be
extracted in the future. According to "The Diamond Investigation",
a book about the global diamond market, from 1978, De Beers, the
largest diamond company, bought most of the Namibian diamonds, and
would continue to do so, because "whatever government eventually comes
to power they will need this revenue to survive".
Domestic supply voltage is 220V AC. Electricity is generated mainly by
thermal and hydroelectric power plants. Non-conventional methods of
electricity generation also play some role. Encouraged by the rich
uranium deposits the Namibian government plans to erect its first
nuclear power station by 2018, also uranium enrichment is envisaged to
An example of Namibian wildlife, the plains zebra, is one focus of
Main article: Tourism in Namibia
Tourism is a major contributor (14.5%) to Namibia's GDP, creating tens
of thousands of jobs (18.2% of all employment) directly or indirectly
and servicing over a million tourists per year. The country is a
prime destination in
Africa and is known for ecotourism which features
Namibia's extensive wildlife.
There are many lodges and reserves to accommodate eco-tourists. Sport
hunting is also a large, and growing component of the Namibian
economy, accounting for 14% of total tourism in the year 2000, or
$19.6 million US dollars, with
Namibia boasting numerous species
sought after by international sport hunters. In addition, extreme
sports such as sandboarding, skydiving and 4x4ing have become popular,
and many cities have companies that provide tours.
The most visited places include the capital city of Windhoek, Caprivi
Strip, Fish River Canyon, Sossusvlei, the
Skeleton Coast Park,
Etosha Pan and the coastal towns of Swakopmund, Walvis Bay
The capital city of
Windhoek plays a very important role in Namibia's
tourism due to its central location and close proximity to Hosea
Kutako International Airport. According to The
Namibia Tourism Exit
Survey, which was produced by the
Millennium Challenge Corporation
Millennium Challenge Corporation for
the Namibian Directorate of Tourism, 56% of all tourists visiting
Namibia during the time period, 2012 – 2013, visited
Windhoek. Many of Namibia's tourism related parastatals and
governing bodies such as
Namibia Wildlife Resorts,
Air Namibia and the
Namibia Tourism Board as well as Namibia's tourism related trade
associations such as the
Hospitality Association of Namibia are also
all headquartered in Windhoek. There are also a number of notable
Windhoek such as
Windhoek Country Club Resort and some
international hotel chains also operate in Windhoek, such as Avani
Hotels and Resorts and Hilton Hotels and Resorts.
Namibia's primary tourism related governing body, the
Board (NTB), was established by an Act of Parliament: the Namibia
Tourism Board Act, 2000 (Act 21 of 2000). Its primary objectives are
to regulate the tourism industry and to market
Namibia as a tourist
destination. There are also a number of trade associations that
represent the tourism sector in Namibia, such as the Federation of
Namibia Tourism Associations (the umbrella body for all tourism
associations in Namibia), the Hospitality Association of Namibia, the
Association of Namibian Travel Agents, Car Rental Association of
Namibia and the Tour and Safari Association of Namibia.
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Namibia
Namibia is the only country in Sub-Saharan
Africa to provide water
through municipal departments. The only bulk water supplier in
Namibia is NamWater, which sells it to the respective municipalities
which in turn deliver it through their reticulation networks. In
rural areas, the Directorate of Rural Water Supply in the Ministry of
Agriculture, Water and Forestry is in charge of drinking water
The UN evaluated in 2011 that
Namibia has improved its water access
network significantly since independence in 1990. A large part of the
population can not, however, make use of these resources due to the
prohibitively high consumption cost and the long distance between
residences and water points in rural areas. As a result, many
Namibians prefer the traditional wells over the available water points
Compared to the efforts made to improve access to safe water, Namibia
is lagging behind in the provision of adequate sanitation. This
includes 298 schools that have no toilet facilities. Over 50% of
child deaths are related to lack of water, sanitation, or hygiene; 23%
are due to diarrhea alone. The UN has identified a "sanitation crisis"
in the country.
Apart from residences for upper and middle class households,
sanitation is insufficient in most residential areas. Private flush
toilets are too expensive for virtually all residents in townships due
to their water consumption and installation cost. As a result, access
to improved sanitation has not increased much since independence: In
Namibia's rural areas 13% of the population had more than basic
sanitation, up from 8% in 1990. Many of Namibia's inhabitants have to
resort to "flying toilets", plastic bags to defecate which after use
are flung into the bush. The use of open areas close to
residential land to urinate and defecate is very common and has
been identified as a major health hazard.
Main article: Demographics of Namibia
Population density in
Namibia by regions (census 2011)
Namibia has the second-lowest population density of any sovereign
country, after Mongolia. The majority of the Namibian population
is of Bantu-speaking origin – mostly of the Ovambo ethnicity,
which forms about half of the population – residing mainly in
the north of the country, although many are now resident in towns
throughout Namibia. Other ethnic groups are the Herero and Himba
people, who speak a similar language, and the Damara, who speak the
same "click" language as the Nama.
In addition to the Bantu majority, there are large groups of Khoisan
(such as Nama and San), who are descendants of the original
inhabitants of Southern Africa. The country also contains some
descendants of refugees from Angola. There are also two smaller groups
of people with mixed racial origins, called "Coloureds" and "Basters",
who together make up 8.0% (with the Coloureds outnumbering the Basters
two to one). There is a substantial Chinese minority in Namibia; it
stood at 40,000 in 2006.
Himba people in northern Namibia
Whites (mainly of Afrikaner, German, British and Portuguese origin)
make up between 4.0 and 7.0% of the population. Although their
percentage of population decreased after independence due to
emigration and lower birth rates they still form the second-largest
population of European ancestry, both in terms of percentage and
actual numbers, in Sub-Saharan
Africa (after South Africa). The
majority of Namibian whites and nearly all those who are mixed race
Afrikaans and share similar origins, culture, and religion as
the white and coloured populations of South Africa. A large minority
of whites (around 30,000) trace their family origins back to the
German settlers who colonized
Namibia prior to the British
confiscation of German lands after World War One, and they maintain
German cultural and educational institutions. Nearly all Portuguese
settlers came to the country from the former Portuguese colony of
Angola. The 1960 census reported 526,004 persons in what was then
South-West Africa, including 73,464 whites (14%).
Children in Namibia
Namibia conducts a census every ten years. After independence the
first Population and Housing Census was carried out in 1991; further
rounds followed in 2001 and 2011. The data collection method is
to count every person resident in
Namibia on the census reference
night, wherever they happen to be. This is called the de facto
method. For enumeration purposes the country is demarcated into
4,042 enumeration areas. These areas do not overlap with constituency
boundaries to get reliable data for election purposes as well.
The 2011 Population and Housing Census counted 2,113,077 inhabitants
of Namibia. Between 2001 and 2011 the annual population growth was
1.4%, down from 2.6% in the previous ten–year period.
Main article: Religion in Namibia
Lutheran church in Swakopmund
The Christian community makes up 80%–90% of the population of
Namibia, with at least 75% being Protestant, and at least 50%
Lutheran. Lutherans are the largest religious group – a legacy
of the German and Finnish missionary work during the country's
colonial times. 10%–20% of the population hold indigenous
Missionary activities during the second half of the 19th century
resulted in many Namibians converting to Christianity. Today most
Christians are Lutheran, but there also are Roman Catholic, Methodist,
Anglican, African Methodist Episcopal, Dutch Reformed and Mormons (The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints).
Islam in Namibia
Islam in Namibia is subscribed to by about 9,000 Muslims, many of
whom are Nama.
Namibia is home to a small Jewish community of
about 100 members.
Main article: Languages of Namibia
Although its official language is English,
Namibia is a multilingual
country as is illustrated by these examples in English, German,
Afrikaans and Oshiwambo.
Up to 1990, English, German and
Afrikaans were official languages.
Long before Namibia's independence from South Africa,
SWAPO was of the
opinion that the country should become officially monolingual,
choosing this approach in contrast to that of its neighbour South
Africa (which granted all 11 of its major languages official status),
which was seen by them as "a deliberate policy of ethnolinguistic
SWAPO instituted English as the
sole official language of
Namibia though only about 3% of the
population speaks it as a home language. Its implementation is focused
on the civil service, education and the broadcasting system. Some
other languages have received semi-official recognition by being
allowed as medium of instruction in primary schools. It is expected of
private schools to follow the same policy as state schools, and
"English language" is a compulsory subject. As in other
postcolonial African societies, the push for monolingual instruction
and policy has resulted in a high rate of school drop-outs and of
individuals whose academic competence in any language is low.
According to the 2011 census, the most common languages are Oshiwambo
(the most spoken language for 49% of households), Nama/Damara
Afrikaans (10.4%), Kavango (9%),
The most widely understood and spoken language is English. Both
Afrikaans and English are used primarily as a second language reserved
for public communication.
Most of the white population speaks either German or Afrikaans. Even
today, 103 years after the end of the German colonial era, the German
language plays a role as a commercial language.
Afrikaans is spoken by
60% of the white community, German is spoken by 32%, English is spoken
by 7% and Portuguese by 1%. Geographical proximity to
Angola explains the relatively high number of
Portuguese speakers; in 2011 these were estimated to be 100,000, or
4–5% of the total population.
See also: List of cities and towns in Namibia
Largest cities or towns in Namibia
Sport in Namibia
Sport in Namibia and Rugby union in Namibia
Namibia rugby team
The most popular sport in
Namibia is association football. The Namibia
national football team qualified for the 2008
Africa Cup of Nations
but has yet to qualify for any World Cups.
The most successful national team is the Namibian rugby team, having
competed in five separate World Cups.
Namibia were participants in the
1999, 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015 Rugby World Cups.
Cricket is also
popular, with the national side having played in the 2003 Cricket
World Cup. In December 2017,
Cricket reached the final of the
Africa (CSA) Provincial One Day Challenge for the first
time. In February 2018
Namibia will host the ICC World Cricket
League Division 2 with Namibia, Kenya, UAE, Nepal,
Canada and Oman to
compete for the final two ICC
Cricket World Cup Qualifier positions in
Netball is popular as well.
Inline hockey was first played in 1995 and has also become more and
more popular in the last years. The Women's inline hockey National
Team participated in the 2008 FIRS World Championships.
Namibia is the home for one of the toughest footraces in the world,
the Namibian ultra marathon.
The most famous athlete from
Namibia is Frankie Fredericks, sprinter
in the 100 and 200 m events. He won four Olympic silver medals (1992,
1996) and also has medals from several World Athletics Championships.
He is also known for humanitarian activities in
Namibia and beyond.
Trevor Dodds won the
Greater Greensboro Open
Greater Greensboro Open in 1998, one of 15
tournaments in his career. He achieved a career high world ranking of
78th in 1998. Professional cyclist and Namibian Road Race champion Dan
Namibia at the
2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics in both the
road race and individual time trial. Boxer
Julius Indongo is the
unified WBA, IBF, and IBO world champion in the Light welterweight
Skydiving Club in
Swakopmund was founded in 1974, and
See also: Media of Namibia
Although Namibia's population is fairly small, the country has a
diverse choice of media; two TV stations, 19 radio stations (without
counting community stations), 5 daily newspapers, several weeklies and
special publications compete for the attention of the audience.
Additionally, a mentionable amount of foreign media, especially South
African, is available. Online media are mostly based on print
Namibia has a state-owned Press Agency, called
The first newspaper in
Namibia was the German-language Windhoeker
Anzeiger, founded 1898. Radio was introduced in 1969, TV in 1981.
During German rule, the newspapers mainly reflected the living reality
and the view of the white German-speaking minority. The black majority
was ignored or depicted as a threat. During South African rule, the
white bias continued, with mentionable influence of the Pretoria
government on the "South West African" media system. Independent
newspapers were seen as a menace to the existing order, critical
The daily newspapers include the private publications The Namibian
(English and other languages),
Die Republikein (Afrikaans), Allgemeine
Zeitung (German) and
Namibian Sun (English) as well as the state-owned
New Era (predominantly English). Except for the largest newspaper, The
Namibian, which is owned by a trust, the other mentioned private
newspapers are part of the Democratic Media Holdings.
Other mentionable newspapers are the tabloid Informanté owned by
TrustCo, the weekly
Windhoek Observer, the weekly
as well as the regional
Namib Times. Current affairs magazines include
Insight Namibia, Vision2030 Focus magazine and Prime
Sister Namibia Magazine stands out as the longest running NGO
magazine in Namibia, while
Namibia Sport is the only national sport
magazine. Furthermore, the print market is complemented with party
publications, student newspapers and PR publications.
The broadcasting sector is dominated by the state-run Namibian
Broadcasting Corporation (NBC). The public broadcaster offers a TV
station as well as a "National Radio" in English and nine language
services in locally spoken languages. The nine private radio stations
in the country are mainly English-language channels, except for Radio
Omulunga (Oshiwambo) and Kosmos 94.1 (Afrikaans). Privately held One
Africa TV has competed with NBC since the 2000s.
Compared to neighbouring countries,
Namibia has a large degree of
media freedom. Over the past years, the country usually ranked in the
upper quarter of the
Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index of Reporters without Borders,
reaching position 21 in 2010, being on par with
Canada and the
best-positioned African country. The African Media Barometer
shows similarly positive results. However, as in
other countries, there is still mentionable influence of
representatives of state and economy on media in Namibia. In
Namibia dropped to position 36 on the Press Freedom Index.
In 2013, it was 19th. In 2014 it ranked 22nd 
Media and journalists in
Namibia are represented by the Namibian
chapter of the Media Institute of Southern
Africa and the Editors'
Forum of Namibia. An independent media ombudsman was appointed in 2009
to prevent a state-controlled media council.
Secondary school students
Main article: Education in Namibia
See also: List of schools in Namibia
Namibia has free education for both primary and secondary education
levels. Grades 1–7 are primary level, grades 8–12 are secondary.
In 1998, there were 400,325 Namibian students in primary school and
115,237 students in secondary schools. The pupil-teacher ratio in 1999
was estimated at 32:1, with about 8% of the GDP being spent on
education. Curriculum development, educational research, and
professional development of teachers is centrally organised by the
National Institute for Educational Development (NIED) in
Most schools in
Namibia are state-run, but there are some private
schools, which are also part of the country's education system. There
are four teacher training universities, three colleges of agriculture,
a police training college, and two universities: University of Namibia
Namibia University of Science and Technology
Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST).
Main article: Health in Namibia
See also: HIV/AIDS in Namibia
Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 64 years in 2017 –
among the lowest in the world.
Namibia launched a National Health Extension Programme in 2012
deployment 1,800 (2015) of a total ceiling of 4,800 health extension
workers trained for six months in community health activities
including first aid, health promotion for disease prevention,
nutritional assessment and counseling, water sanitation and hygiene
practices, HIV testing and community-based antiretroviral
Namibia faces non-communicable disease burden. The Demographic and
Health Survey (2013) summarizes findings on elevated blood pressure,
hypertension, diabetes and obesity:
Among eligible respondents age 35–64, more than 4 in 10 women (44
percent) and men (45 percent) have elevated blood pressure or are
currently taking medicine to lower their blood pressure.
Forty-nine percent of women and 61 percent of men are not aware that
they have elevated blood pressure. • Forty-three percent of women
and 34 percent of men with hypertension are taking medication for
Only 29 percent of women and 20 percent of men with hypertension are
taking medication and have their blood pressure under control.
Six percent of women and 7 percent of men are diabetic; that is, they
have elevated fasting plasma glucose values or report that they are
taking diabetes medication. An additional 7 percent of women and 6
percent of men are prediabetic.
Sixty-seven percent of women and 74 percent of men with diabetes are
taking medication to lower their blood glucose.
Women and men with a higher-than-normal body mass index (25.0 or
higher) are more likely to have elevated blood pressure and elevated
fasting blood glucose.
The HIV epidemic remains a public health issue in
significant achievements made by the Ministry of Health and Social
Services to expand HIV treatment services. In 2001, there were an
estimated 210,000 people living with HIV/AIDS, and the estimated death
toll in 2003 was 16,000. According to the 2011
UNAIDS Report, the
Namibia "appears to be leveling off." As the HIV/AIDS
epidemic has reduced the working-aged population, the number of
orphans has increased. It falls to the government to provide
education, food, shelter and clothing for these orphans. A
Demographic and Health Survey with an HIV biomarker was completed in
2013 and served as the fourth comprehensive, national-level population
and health survey conducted in
Namibia as part of the global
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme. The DHS observed
important characteristics associated to the HIV epidemic:
Overall, 26 percent of men age 15–49 and 32 percent of those age
50–64 have been circumcised. HIV prevalence for men age 15–49
is lower among circumcised (8.0 percent) than among uncircumcised men
(11.9 percent). The pattern of lower HIV prevalence among circumcised
than uncircumcised men is observed across most background
characteristics. For each age group, circumcised men have lower HIV
prevalence than those who are not circumcised; the difference is
especially pronounced for men age 35–39 and 45–49 (11.7 percentage
points each). The difference in HIV prevalence between uncircumcised
and circumcised men is larger among urban than rural men (5.2
percentage points versus 2.1 percentage points).
HIV prevalence among respondents age 15–49 is 16.9 percent for women
and 10.9 percent for men. HIV prevalence rates among women and men age
50–64 are similar (16.7 percent and 16.0 percent, respectively).
HIV prevalence peaks in the 35–39 age group for both women and men
(30.9 percent and 22.6 percent, respectively). It is lowest among
respondents age 15–24 (2.5–6.4 percent for women and 2.0–3.4
percent for men).
Among respondents age 15–49, HIV prevalence is highest for women and
Zambezi (30.9 percent and 15.9 percent, respectively) and
lowest for women in Omaheke (6.9 percent) and men in Ohangwena (6.6
In 76.4 percent of the 1,007 cohabiting couples who were tested for
HIV in the 2013 NDHS, both partners were HIV negative; in 10.1 percent
of the couples, both partners were HIV positive; and 13.5 percent of
the couples were discordant (that is, one partner was infected with
HIV and the other was not).
As of 2015, the Ministry of Health and Social Services and UNAIDS
produced a Progress Report in which
UNAIDS projected HIV prevalence
among 15 – 49 year olds at 13.3% [12.2% – 14.5%] and an
estimated 210 000 [200 000 – 230 000] living with HIV.
The malaria problem seems to be compounded by the AIDS epidemic.
Research has shown that in
Namibia the risk of contracting malaria is
14.5% greater if a person is also infected with HIV. The risk of
death from malaria is also raised by approximately 50% with a
concurrent HIV infection. The country had only 598 physicians in
Index of Namibia-related articles
Music of Namibia
Outline of Namibia
Shark Island Concentration Camp
Telecommunications in Namibia
United Nations Commissioner for Namibia
Visa policy of Namibia
List of cities and towns in Namibia
List of colonial governors of South-West Africa
List of Namibians
List of national parks of Namibia
List of schools in Namibia
List of villages and settlements in Namibia
^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Afrikaans" (PDF). Government of Namibia.
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^ "Communal Land Reform Act, German" (PDF). Government of Namibia.
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^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Khoekhoegowab" (PDF). Government of
Namibia. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Otjiherero" (PDF). Government of Namibia.
Retrieved 18 February 2016. [permanent dead link]
^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Oshiwambo" (PDF). Government of Namibia.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 18
^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Rukwangali" (PDF). Government of Namibia.
Retrieved 18 February 2016.
^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Setswana" (PDF). Government of Namibia.
Retrieved 18 February 2016.
^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Lozi" (PDF). Government of Namibia.
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^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential
Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate
School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States:
University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential
Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French
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doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Retrieved 4 September 2016. Of the
contemporary cases, only four provide the assembly majority an
unrestricted right to vote no confidence, and of these, only two allow
the president unrestricted authority to appoint the prime minister.
Mozambique and Namibia, as well as the Weimar Republic,
thus resemble most closely the structure of authority depicted in the
right panel of Figure 3, whereby the dual accountability of the
cabinet to both the president and the assembly is maximized. (...)
Namibia allows the president to dissolve [the assembly] at any time
but places a novel negative incentive on his exercise of the right: He
must stand for a new election at the same time as the new assembly
elections. CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
^ a b "National Council". Parliament.gov
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^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF).
United Nations Development
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^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th
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^ Dierks, Klaus. "Warmbad becomes two hundred years". Klausdierks.com.
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^ Vedder 1997, p. 177.
^ Vedder 1997, p. 659.
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^ David Olusoga. "Dear Pope Francis,
Namibia was the 20th century's
David Olusoga Comment is free". The Guardian.
Retrieved 26 November 2015.
^ Drechsler, Horst (1980). The actual number of deaths in the limited
number of battles with the Germany Schutztruppe (expeditionary force)
were limited; most of the deaths occurred after fighting had ended.
The German military governor Lotha von Trotha issued an explicit
extermination order, and many Herero died of disease and abuse in
detention camps after being taken from their land. A substantial
minority of Herero crossed the Kalahari desert into the British colony
of Bechuanaland (modern-day Botswana), where a small community
continues to live in western
Botswana near to border with Namibia. Let
us die fighting, originally published (1966) under the title
Südwestafrika unter deutsche Kolonialherrschaft. Berlin:
^ Adhikari, Mohamed (2008). "'Streams of Blood And Streams of Money':
New Perspectives on the Annihilation of the Herero and Nama Peoples of
Namibia, 1904–1908". Kronos. 34: 303–320.
^ Madley, Benjamin (2005). "From
Africa to Auschwitz: How German South
Africa Incubated Ideas and Methods Adopted and Developed by the
Nazis in Eastern Europe". European History Quarterly. 35 (3):
429–464. doi:10.1177/0265691405054218. says it influenced
^ Reinhart Kössler, and Henning Melber, "Völkermord und Gedenken:
Der Genozid an den Herero und Nama in Deutsch-Südwestafrika
1904–1908," ("Genocide and memory: the genocide of the Herero and
Nama in German South-West Africa, 1904–08") Jahrbuch zur Geschichte
und Wirkung des Holocaust 2004: 37–75
^ Andrew Meldrum in Pretoria. "German apology for
World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
^ Petronella Sibeene (17 April 2009). "Swapo Party Turns 49". New
Namibian War of Independence
Namibian War of Independence 1966–1988". Armed Conflict Events
Database. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
Klaus Dierks Chronology of Namibian History, 1977".
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