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Coordinates: 22°S 17°E / 22°S 17°E / -22; 17

Republic
Republic
of Namibia

8 National language names

Republiek van Namibië  (Afrikaans)[1] Republik Namibia  (German)[2] Namibiab Republiki dib  (Nama)[3] Republika yaNamibia  (Herero)[4] Orepublika yaNamibia  (Kwanyama)[5] Republika zaNamibia  (Kwangali)[6] Repaboleki ya Namibia  (Tswana)[7] Namibia
Namibia
ye Lukuluhile  (Lozi)[8]

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Unity, Liberty, Justice"

Anthem: "Namibia, Land of the Brave"

Location of  Namibia  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital and largest city Windhoek 22°34.2′S 17°5.167′E / 22.5700°S 17.086117°E / -22.5700; 17.086117

Official languages English

Recognised national languages Afrikaans, German, Otjiherero, Khoekhoe, Oshiwambo, Kwangali, Setswana, Silozi[9]

Recognised regional languages Ju'hoansi, Rumanyo, Thimbukushu

Ethnic groups (2014)

49.5% Ovambo 9.2% Kavango 8.0% Coloured  –(including Basters) 7.0% Herero 7.0% Damara 7.0% Namibian whites 4.7% Nama 3.5% Lozi (Caprivian) 3.0% San 0.6% Tswana 0.5% Others

Demonym Namibian

Government Unitary dominant-party semi-presidential republic[10][11]

• President

Hage Geingob

• Vice President

Nangolo Mbumba

• Prime Minister

Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila

• Deputy Prime Minister

Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah

Legislature Parliament

• Upper house

National Council[12]

• Lower house

National Assembly

Independence from South Africa

• Constitution

9 February 1990

• Independence

21 March 1990

Area

• Total

825,615 km2 (318,772 sq mi) (34th)

• Water (%)

negligible

Population

• 2017 census

2,606,971[13]

• Density

3.2/km2 (8.3/sq mi) (235th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$27.451 billion[14]

• Per capita

$11,838[14]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$11.765 billion[14]

• Per capita

$5,073[14]

Gini (2009) 59.7[15] high

HDI (2015)  0.640[16] medium · 125th

Currency Namibian dollar
Namibian dollar
(NAD), South African rand
South African rand
(ZAR)

Time zone CAT (UTC+2)

Drives on the left

Calling code +264

ISO 3166 code NA

Internet TLD .na

Namibia
Namibia
(/nəˈmɪbiə/ ( listen), /næˈ-/),[17][18] officially the Republic
Republic
of Namibia
Namibia
(German:  Republik Namibia (help·info); Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa
Africa
whose western border is the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean. It shares land borders with Zambia
Zambia
and Angola
Angola
to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa
Africa
to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi
Zambezi
River (essentially a small bulge in Botswana
Botswana
to achieve a Botswana/Zambia micro-border) separates the two countries. Namibia
Namibia
gained independence from South Africa
Africa
on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a member state of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union
African Union
(AU), and the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations. The dry lands of Namibia
Namibia
were inhabited since early times by the San, Damara, and Nama peoples. Since about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples
Bantu peoples
arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since then the Bantu groups in total, one of which is known as the Ovambo people, have dominated the population of the country and since the late 19th century, have constituted a majority. In 1878 the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
and the offshore Penguin Islands; these became an integral part of the new Union of South Africa
Africa
at its creation in 1910. In 1884, the German Empire
German Empire
established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate (Schutzgebiet). It began to develop infrastructure and farming, and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations
League of Nations
mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa. In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa
Africa
maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa
Africa
People's Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large majority in the territory. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia
Namibia
in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa
Africa
in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands
Penguin Islands
remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia
Namibia
has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert
Namib Desert
has resulted in Namibia
Namibia
being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-colonial period 2.2 German rule 2.3 South African rule 2.4 Land issues 2.5 After independence

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Water sources 3.3 Communal Wildlife Conservancies

4 Politics and government

4.1 Foreign relations 4.2 Military 4.3 Administrative division

5 Economy

5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Mining and electricity 5.3 Tourism 5.4 Water supply and sanitation

6 Demographics

6.1 Religion 6.2 Language 6.3 Largest cities

7 Sport 8 Media 9 Education 10 Health 11 See also

11.1 Lists

12 References

12.1 Footnotes 12.2 Bibliography 12.3 General references

13 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of the country is derived from the Namib
Namib
Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world.[19] The name, Namib
Namib
itself, is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika), then as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans (technically on behalf of the British crown reflecting South Africa's dominion status within the British Empire). History[edit] Main article: History of Namibia Pre-colonial period[edit] The dry lands of Namibia
Namibia
were inhabited since early times by San, Damara, and Nama. From about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people arrived during the Bantu expansion
Bantu expansion
from central Africa. From the late 18th century onwards, Oorlam people
Oorlam people
from Cape Colony
Cape Colony
crossed the Orange River
Orange River
and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.[20] Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were largely peaceful. The missionaries accompanying the Oorlam were well received by them,[21] the right to use waterholes and grazing was granted against an annual payment.[22] On their way further northwards, however, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek, Gobabis, and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment. The Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire
German Empire
deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama, Oorlam, and Herero.[23] The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
in 1486, but the Portuguese crown did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia
Namibia
was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Germany and Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the South African Republic
Republic
to Angola. Some of them settled in Namibia
Namibia
instead of continuing their journey. German rule[edit] See also: German South West Africa
Africa
and Herero and Namaqua genocide

German church and monument to colonists in Windhoek

Namibia
Namibia
became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
to forestall British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa
Africa
(Deutsch-Südwestafrika).[24] However, the Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town had determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
was worth occupying – and this was annexed to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, what has been called the 'first genocide of the Twentieth Century' was committed, as government officials ordered extinction of the natives.[25] In the Herero and Namaqua genocide, the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama (half the population) and approximately 65,000 Herero (about 80% of the population).[26][27] The survivors, when finally released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, deportation, forced labor, racial segregation, and discrimination in a system that in many ways anticipated the apartheid established by South Africa
Africa
in 1948. Most Africans were confined to so-called native territories, which later under South African rule after 1949 were turned into "homelands" (Bantustans). Indeed, some historians have speculated that the German genocide in Namibia
Namibia
was a model used by Nazis in the Holocaust.[28] The memory of genocide remains relevant to ethnic identity in independent Namibia
Namibia
and to relations with Germany.[29] The German government formally apologized for the Namibian genocide in 2004.[30] South African rule[edit] See also: South West Africa South Africa
Africa
occupied the colony in 1915 after defeating the German forces during World War I. It administered it from 1919 onward as a League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate (nominally under the British Crown). Although the South African government wanted to annex South West Africa
Africa
into its official territory, it never did so. But, it administered the territory as its de facto "fifth province". The white minority of South West Africa
Africa
elected representatives to the whites-only Parliament of South Africa. They also elected their own local administration, the SWA Legislative Assembly. The South African government appointed the SWA administrator, who had extensive executive powers. Following the League's replacement by the United Nations
United Nations
in 1946, South Africa
Africa
refused to surrender its earlier mandate. The UN intended that it be replaced by a United Nations
United Nations
Trusteeship agreement, requiring closer international monitoring of the territory's administration and a definite schedule to achieve independence of Namibia. After the rise of the National Party in South Africa, South Africa
Africa
established apartheid in both South Africa
Africa
and South West Africa. The Herero Chief's Council submitted a number of petitions to the UN in the 1950s calling for it to grant Namibia
Namibia
independence but was not successful. During the 1960s, as European powers such as France
France
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
granted independence to some colonies and trust territories in Africa, pressure mounted on South Africa
Africa
to do so in Namibia. In 1966 the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
dismissed a complaint brought by Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Liberia
Liberia
against South Africa's continued presence in the territory, but the U.N. General Assembly subsequently revoked South Africa's mandate. In response to that 1966 ruling, South-West Africa
Africa
People's Organisation (SWAPO) military wing, People's Liberation Army of Namibia, a guerrilla group began their armed struggle for independence.[31] South Africa
Africa
continued to exercise de facto rule while SWAPO
SWAPO
expanded its guerrilla efforts for independence. In 1971 the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
issued an "advisory opinion" declaring South Africa's continued administration to be illegal.[32] However, it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its occupation[33] of Namibia, in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Land issues[edit]

Map of Bantustans, land set aside for black inhabitation, in South West Africa

During the decades of German and South African occupation of Namibia, white commercial farmers, most of whom came as settlers from South Africa
Africa
and represented 0.2% of the national population, came to own 74% of the arable land.[34] Outside the central-southern area of Namibia
Namibia
(known as the "Police Zone" since the German era), which contained the main towns, industries, mines and best arable land, South Africa
Africa
designated areas of the country as "homelands" for various tribes, including the multiracial Basters, who had occupied the Rehoboth District since the late 19th century. It was an attempt to establish the bantustans, but most indigenous Namibian tribes did not cooperate. South West Africa
Africa
was formally recognised as Namibia
Namibia
by the UN; the General Assembly changed the territory's name by Resolution 2372 (XXII) of 12 June 1968.[35] In 1978 the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council passed Resolution 435, which laid out a plan for transition toward independence for Namibia. Attempts to persuade South Africa
Africa
to agree to the plan's implementation were not successful until 1988, after years of warfare. The transition to independence finally started under a diplomatic agreement between South Africa, Angola
Angola
and Cuba, with the USSR and the USA as observers. Under this, South Africa agreed to withdraw and demobilise its forces in Namibia. As a result, Cuba
Cuba
agreed to pull back its troops in southern Angola, who were sent to support the MPLA
MPLA
in its war for control of Angola
Angola
against UNITA. Angola
Angola
also resolved its civil war, although not until 2002. A combined UN civilian and peace-keeping force called UNTAG (United Nations Transition Assistance Group), led by Finnish diplomat Martti Ahtisaari, was deployed from April 1989 to March 1990 to monitor the peace process and elections, and to supervise military withdrawals. As UNTAG began to deploy peacekeepers, military observers, police, and political workers, hostilities were briefly renewed on the day the transition process was supposed to begin. After a new round of negotiations, a second date was set, and the elections process began in earnest. After the return of more than 46,000 SWAPO
SWAPO
exiles, Namibia's first one man, one vote elections for the constitutional assembly took place in November 1989. The official election slogan was "Free and Fair Elections". This was won by SWAPO
SWAPO
although it did not gain the two-thirds majority it had hoped for; the South African-backed DTA of Namibia
Namibia
became the official opposition. The elections were peaceful and declared free and fair.[36] The Namibian
The Namibian
Constitution adopted in February 1990 incorporated protection for human rights, compensation for state expropriations of private property, and established an independent judiciary, legislature, and an executive presidency (the constituent assembly became the national assembly). The country officially became independent on 21 March 1990. Sam Nujoma
Sam Nujoma
was sworn in as the first President of Namibia
President of Namibia
at a ceremony attended by Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
of South Africa
Africa
(who had been released from prison the previous month) and representatives from 147 countries, including 20 heads of state.[37] Upon the end of Apartheid
Apartheid
in South Africa
Africa
in 1994, the nation ceded Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
to Namibia.[38] After independence[edit] Since independence Namibia
Namibia
has successfully completed the transition from white minority apartheid rule to parliamentary democracy. Multiparty democracy
Multiparty democracy
was introduced and has been maintained, with local, regional and national elections held regularly. Several registered political parties are active and represented in the National Assembly, although the SWAPO
SWAPO
has won every election since independence.[39] The transition from the 15-year rule of President Sam Nujoma
Sam Nujoma
to his successor Hifikepunye Pohamba
Hifikepunye Pohamba
in 2005 went smoothly.[40] Since independence, the Namibian government has promoted a policy of national reconciliation. It issued an amnesty for those who had fought on either side during the liberation war. The civil war in Angola spilled over and adversely affected Namibians living in the north of the country. In 1998, Namibia Defence Force
Namibia Defence Force
(NDF) troops were sent to the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo as part of a Southern African Development Community (SADC) contingent. In 1999, the national government successfully quashed a secessionist attempt in the northeastern Caprivi Strip.[40] The Caprivi conflict was initiated by the Caprivi Liberation Army (CLA), a rebel group led by Mishake Muyongo. It wanted the Caprivi Strip
Caprivi Strip
to secede in order to form its own society. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Namibia

Sand dunes in the Namib, Namibia

Shaded relief map of Namibia

Namibia
Namibia
map of Köppen climate classification

At 825,615 km2 (318,772 sq mi),[41] Namibia
Namibia
is the world's thirty-fourth largest country (after Venezuela). It lies mostly between latitudes 17° and 29°S (a small area is north of 17°), and longitudes 11° and 26°E. Being situated between the Namib
Namib
and the Kalahari deserts, Namibia
Namibia
has the least rainfall of any country in sub-Saharan Africa.[42] The Namibian
The Namibian
landscape consists generally of five geographical areas, each with characteristic abiotic conditions and vegetation, with some variation within and overlap between them: the Central Plateau, the Namib, the Great Escarpment, the Bushveld, and the Kalahari Desert. The Central Plateau runs from north to south, bordered by the Skeleton Coast to the northwest, the Namib Desert
Namib Desert
and its coastal plains to the southwest, the Orange River
Orange River
to the south, and the Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
to the east. The Central Plateau is home to the highest point in Namibia at Königstein elevation 2,606 metres (8,550 ft).[43] The Namib
Namib
is a broad expanse of hyper-arid gravel plains and dunes that stretches along Namibia's entire coastline. It varies between 100 and many hundreds of kilometres in width. Areas within the Namib include the Skeleton Coast
Skeleton Coast
and the Kaokoveld
Kaokoveld
in the north and the extensive Namib
Namib
Sand Sea along the central coast.[19] The Great Escarpment swiftly rises to over 2,000 metres (6,562 ft). Average temperatures and temperature ranges increase further inland from the cold Atlantic
Atlantic
waters, while the lingering coastal fogs slowly diminish. Although the area is rocky with poorly developed soils, it is significantly more productive than the Namib Desert. As summer winds are forced over the Escarpment, moisture is extracted as precipitation.[44] The Bushveld
Bushveld
is found in north-eastern Namibia
Namibia
along the Angolan border and in the Caprivi Strip. The area receives a significantly greater amount of precipitation than the rest of the country, averaging around 400 mm (15.7 in) per year. The area is generally flat and the soils sandy, limiting their ability to retain water and support agriculture.[45] The Kalahari Desert, an arid region that extends into South Africa
Africa
and Botswana, is one of Namibia's well-known geographical features. The Kalahari, while popularly known as a desert, has a variety of localised environments, including some verdant and technically non-desert areas. The Succulent Karoo
Succulent Karoo
is home to over 5,000 species of plants, nearly half of them endemic; approximately 10 percent of the world's succulents are found in the Karoo.[46] The reason behind this high productivity and endemism may be the relatively stable nature of precipitation.[47] Namibia's Coastal Desert is one of the oldest deserts in the world. Its sand dunes, created by the strong onshore winds, are the highest in the world.[48] Because of the location of the shoreline, at the point where the Atlantic's cold water reaches Africa's hot climate, often extremely dense fog forms along the coast.[49] Near the coast there are areas where the dunes are vegetated with hammocks.[50] Namibia
Namibia
has rich coastal and marine resources that remain largely unexplored.[51]

Fish River Canyon

Climate[edit]

Namibia
Namibia
is primarily a large desert and semi-desert plateau.

Namibia
Namibia
extends from 17°S to 25°S latitude: climatically the range of the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt. Its overall climate description is arid, descending from the Sub-Humid (mean rain above 500 mm) through Semi-Arid between 300 and 500 mm (embracing most of the waterless Kalahari) and Arid from 150 to 300 mm (these three regions are inland from the western escarpment) to the Hyper-Arid coastal plain with less than a 100 mm mean. Temperature maxima are limited by the overall elevation of the entire region: only in the far south, Warmbad for instance, are mid-40 °C maxima recorded.[52] Typically the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt, with frequent clear skies, provides more than 300 days of sunshine per year. It is situated at the southern edge of the tropics; the Tropic of Capricorn cuts the country about in half. The winter (June – August) is generally dry. Both rainy seasons occur in summer: the small rainy season between September and November, the big one between February and April.[53] Humidity is low, and average rainfall varies from almost zero in the coastal desert to more than 600 mm in the Caprivi Strip. Rainfall is highly variable, and droughts are common.[54] The last[update] rainy season with rainfall far below the annual average occurred in summer 2006/07.[55] Weather and climate in the coastal area are dominated by the cold, north-flowing Benguela Current
Benguela Current
of the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean, which accounts for very low precipitation (50 mm per year or less), frequent dense fog, and overall lower temperatures than in the rest of the country.[54] In Winter, occasionally a condition known as Bergwind (German for "mountain breeze") or Oosweer ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "east weather") occurs, a hot dry wind blowing from the inland to the coast. As the area behind the coast is a desert, these winds can develop into sand storms, leaving sand deposits in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
that are visible on satellite images.[56] The Central Plateau and Kalahari areas have wide diurnal temperature ranges of up to 30 °C.[54] Efundja, the annual seasonal flooding of the northern parts of the country, often causes not only damage to infrastructure but loss of life.[57] The rains that cause these floods originate in Angola, flow into Namibia's Cuvelai basin, and fill the oshanas (Oshiwambo: flood plains) there. The worst floods so far[update] occurred in March 2011 and displaced 21,000 people.[58] Water sources[edit] Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Namibia Namibia
Namibia
is the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
and depends largely on groundwater. With an average rainfall of about 350 mm per annum, the highest rainfall occurs in the Caprivi in the northeast (about 600 mm per annum) and decreases in a westerly and southwesterly direction to as little as 50 mm and less per annum at the coast. The only perennial rivers are found on the national borders with South Africa, Angola, Zambia, and the short border with Botswana
Botswana
in the Caprivi. In the interior of the country, surface water is available only in the summer months when rivers are in flood after exceptional rainfalls. Otherwise, surface water is restricted to a few large storage dams retaining and damming up these seasonal floods and their runoff. Where people do not live near perennial rivers or make use of the storage dams, they are dependent on groundwater. Even isolated communities and those economic activities located far from good surface water sources, such as mining, agriculture, and tourism, can be supplied from groundwater over nearly 80% of the country.[59] More than 100,000 boreholes have been drilled in Namibia
Namibia
over the past century. One third of these boreholes have been drilled dry.[60] Communal Wildlife Conservancies[edit]

Quivertree Forest, Bushveld

Main article: Communal Wildlife Conservancies in Namibia Namibia
Namibia
is one of few countries in the world to specifically address conservation and protection of natural resources in its constitution.[61] Article 95 states, "The State shall actively promote and maintain the welfare of the people by adopting international policies aimed at the following: maintenance of ecosystems, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity of Namibia, and utilisation of living natural resources on a sustainable basis for the benefit of all Namibians, both present and future."[61] In 1993, the newly formed government of Namibia
Namibia
received funding from the United States Agency for International Development
United States Agency for International Development
(USAID) through its Living in a Finite Environment (LIFE) Project.[62] The Ministry of Environment and Tourism, with the financial support from organisations such as USAID, Endangered Wildlife Trust, WWF, and Canadian Ambassador's Fund, together form a Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) support structure. The main goal of this project is promote sustainable natural resource management by giving local communities rights to wildlife management and tourism.[63] Politics and government[edit]

Tintenpalast, the centre of Namibia's government

Main article: Politics of Namibia Namibia
Namibia
is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic.[10][11] The President of Namibia
President of Namibia
is elected to a five-year term and is both the head of state and the head of government.[64] However, while the President is both head of state and government, all members of the government are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature.[65] The Constitution of Namibia
Constitution of Namibia
guarantees the separation of powers:[66]

Executive: Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislature: Namibia
Namibia
has a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as lower house, and the National Council as the upper house.[12] Judiciary: Namibia
Namibia
has a system of courts that interpret and apply the law in the name of the state.

While the constitution envisaged a multi-party system for Namibia's government, the SWAPO
SWAPO
party has been dominant since independence in 1990.[67] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Namibia Namibia
Namibia
follows a largely independent foreign policy, with persisting affiliations with states that aided the independence struggle, including Cuba. With a small army and a fragile economy, the Namibian Government's principal foreign policy concern is developing strengthened ties within the Southern African region. A dynamic member of the Southern African Development Community, Namibia
Namibia
is a vocal advocate for greater regional integration. Namibia
Namibia
became the 160th member of the UN on 23 April 1990. On its independence it became the fiftieth member of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations.[68] Military[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2015)

Main article: Namibian Defence Force Namibia
Namibia
does not have any enemies in the region although it has been involved in various disputes regarding borders and construction plans.[citation needed] It consistently spends more as a percentage of GDP on its military than all of its neighbours, except Angola. Military expenditure rose from 2.7% of GDP in 2000 to 3.7% in 2009, and the arrival of 12 Chengdu J-7
Chengdu J-7
Airguard jets in 2006 and 2008 made Namibia
Namibia
for a short time one of the top arms importers in Sub-Saharan Africa.[69] By 2015, military expenditure was estimated at between 4% and 5% of GDP.[70][71][72] The constitution of Namibia
Namibia
defined the role of the military as "defending the territory and national interests." Namibia
Namibia
formed the Namibian Defence Force
Namibian Defence Force
(NDF), comprising former enemies in a 23-year bush war: the People's Liberation Army of Namibia
People's Liberation Army of Namibia
(PLAN) and South West African Territorial Force (SWATF). The British formulated the plan for integrating these forces and began training the NDF, which consists of a small headquarters and five battalions. The United Nations
United Nations
Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG)'s Kenyan infantry battalion remained in Namibia
Namibia
for three months after independence to help train the NDF and to stabilise the north. According to the Namibian Defence Ministry, enlistments of both men and women will number no more than 7,500. The current minister of the Namibian Military is Hon Penda YaNdakolo Administrative division[edit]

The fourteen regions of Namibia.

Main article: Administrative divisions of Namibia Namibia
Namibia
is divided into 14 regions and subdivided into 121 constituencies. The administrative division of Namibia
Namibia
is tabled by Delimitation Commissions and accepted or declined by the National Assembly. Since state foundation four Delimitation Commissions have delivered their work, the last one in 2013 under the chairmanship of Judge Alfred Siboleka.[73] Regional councillors are directly elected through secret ballots (regional elections) by the inhabitants of their constituencies.[74] Local authorities in Namibia
Namibia
can be in the form of municipalities (either Part 1 or Part 2 municipalities), town councils or villages.[75]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Namibia

Downtown Windhoek

Tsumeb's main road

Namibia's economy is tied closely to South Africa's due to their shared history.[76][77] The largest economic sectors are mining (10.4% of the gross domestic product in 2009), agriculture (5.0%), manufacturing (13.5%), and tourism.[78] Namibia
Namibia
has a highly developed banking sector with modern infrastructure, such as online banking and cellphone banking. The Bank of Namibia
Namibia
(BoN) is the central bank of Namibia
Namibia
responsible for performing all other functions ordinarily performed by a central bank. There are 5 BoN authorised commercial banks in Namibia: Bank Windhoek, First National Bank, Nedbank, Standard Bank and Small and Medium Enterprises Bank.[79] According to the Namibia
Namibia
Labour Force Survey Report 2012, conducted by the Namibia
Namibia
Statistics Agency, the country's unemployment rate is 27.4%.[80] "Strict unemployment" (people actively seeking a full-time job) stood at 20.2% in 2000, 21.9% in 2004 and spiraled to 29.4% in 2008. Under a broader definition (including people that have given up searching for employment) unemployment rose to 36.7% in 2004. This estimate considers people in the informal economy as employed. Labour and Social Welfare Minister Immanuel Ngatjizeko
Immanuel Ngatjizeko
praised the 2008 study as "by far superior in scope and quality to any that has been available previously",[81] but its methodology has also received criticism.[82] In 2004 a labour act was passed to protect people from job discrimination stemming from pregnancy and HIV/AIDS status. In early 2010 the Government tender board announced that "henceforth 100 per cent of all unskilled and semi-skilled labour must be sourced, without exception, from within Namibia".[83] In 2013, global business and financial news provider, Bloomberg, named Namibia
Namibia
the top emerging market economy in Africa
Africa
and the 13th best in the world. Only four African countries made the Top 20 Emerging Markets list in the March 2013 issue of Bloomberg Markets magazine, and Namibia
Namibia
was rated ahead of Morocco
Morocco
(19th), South Africa
Africa
(15th) and Zambia
Zambia
(14th). Worldwide, Namibia
Namibia
also fared better than Hungary, Brazil and Mexico. Bloomberg Markets magazine ranked the top 20 based on more than a dozen criteria. The data came from Bloomberg's own financial-market statistics, IMF forecasts and the World Bank. The countries were also rated on areas of particular interest to foreign investors: the ease of doing business, the perceived level of corruption and economic freedom. In order to attract foreign investment, the government has made improvement in reducing red tape resulted from excessive government regulations making the country one of the least bureaucratic places to do business in the region. However, facilitation payments are occasionally demanded by customs due to cumbersome and costly customs procedures.[84] Namibia
Namibia
is also classified as an Upper Middle Income country by the World Bank, and ranks 87th out of 185 economies in terms of ease of doing business.[85] The cost of living in Namibia
Namibia
is relatively high because most of the goods including cereals need to be imported. Business monopoly in some sectors causes higher profit bookings and further raising of prices.[citation needed] Its capital city, Windhoek
Windhoek
is currently ranked as the 150th most expensive place in the world for expatriates to live.[86] Taxation in Namibia
Taxation in Namibia
includes personal income tax, which is applicable to total taxable income of an individual and all individuals are taxed at progressive marginal rates over a series of income brackets. The value added tax (VAT) is applicable to most of the commodities and services.[87]

The B2 between Swakopmund
Swakopmund
and Walvis Bay, Namibia

Despite the remote nature of much of the country, Namibia
Namibia
has seaports, airports, highways, and railways (narrow-gauge). The country seeks to become a regional transportation hub; it has an important seaport and several landlocked neighbours. The Central Plateau already serves as a transportation corridor from the more densely populated north to South Africa, the source of four-fifths of Namibia's imports.[88] Agriculture[edit] Main article: Agriculture in Namibia

Welcoming sign of the Burgsdorf farm in Hardap

About half of the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood, but Namibia
Namibia
must still import some of its food. Although per capita GDP is five times the per capita GDP of Africa's poorest countries, the majority of Namibia's people live in rural areas and exist on a subsistence way of life. Namibia
Namibia
has one of the highest rates of income inequality in the world, due in part to the fact that there is an urban economy and a more rural cash-less economy. The inequality figures thus take into account people who do not actually rely on the formal economy for their survival. Although arable land accounts for only 1% of Namibia, nearly half of the population is employed in agriculture.[88] About 4,000, mostly white, commercial farmers own almost half of Namibia's arable land.[89] The governments of Germany and Britain will finance Namibia's land reform process, as Namibia
Namibia
plans to start expropriating land from white farmers to resettle landless black Namibians.[90] Agreement has been reached on the privatisation of several more enterprises in coming years, with hopes that this will stimulate much needed foreign investment. However, reinvestment of environmentally derived capital has hobbled Namibian per capita income.[91] One of the fastest growing areas of economic development in Namibia
Namibia
is the growth of wildlife conservancies. These conservancies are particularly important to the rural, generally unemployed, population. An aquifer called "Ohangwena II" has been discovered, capable of supplying the 800,000 people in the North for 400 years.[92] Experts estimate that Namibia
Namibia
has 7,720 km3 of underground water.[93][94] Mining and electricity[edit] Main article: Mining in Namibia Providing 25% of Namibia's revenue, mining is the single most important contributor to the economy.[95] Namibia
Namibia
is the fourth largest exporter of non-fuel minerals in Africa
Africa
and the world's fourth largest producer of uranium. There has been significant investment in uranium mining and Namibia
Namibia
is set to become the largest exporter of uranium by 2015.[96] Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia
Namibia
a primary source for gem-quality diamonds.[97] While Namibia
Namibia
is known predominantly for its gem diamond and uranium deposits, a number of other minerals are extracted industrially such as lead, tungsten, gold, tin, fluorspar, manganese, marble, copper and zinc. There are offshore gas deposits in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
that are planned to be extracted in the future.[78] According to "The Diamond Investigation", a book about the global diamond market, from 1978, De Beers, the largest diamond company, bought most of the Namibian diamonds, and would continue to do so, because "whatever government eventually comes to power they will need this revenue to survive".[98] Domestic supply voltage is 220V AC. Electricity is generated mainly by thermal and hydroelectric power plants. Non-conventional methods of electricity generation also play some role. Encouraged by the rich uranium deposits the Namibian government plans to erect its first nuclear power station by 2018, also uranium enrichment is envisaged to happen locally.[99] Tourism[edit]

An example of Namibian wildlife, the plains zebra, is one focus of tourism.

Main article: Tourism in Namibia Tourism is a major contributor (14.5%) to Namibia's GDP, creating tens of thousands of jobs (18.2% of all employment) directly or indirectly and servicing over a million tourists per year.[100] The country is a prime destination in Africa
Africa
and is known for ecotourism which features Namibia's extensive wildlife.[101] There are many lodges and reserves to accommodate eco-tourists. Sport hunting is also a large, and growing component of the Namibian economy, accounting for 14% of total tourism in the year 2000, or $19.6 million US dollars, with Namibia
Namibia
boasting numerous species sought after by international sport hunters.[102] In addition, extreme sports such as sandboarding, skydiving and 4x4ing have become popular, and many cities have companies that provide tours.[citation needed] The most visited places include the capital city of Windhoek, Caprivi Strip, Fish River Canyon, Sossusvlei, the Skeleton Coast
Skeleton Coast
Park, Sesriem, Etosha Pan
Etosha Pan
and the coastal towns of Swakopmund, Walvis Bay and Lüderitz.[103] The capital city of Windhoek
Windhoek
plays a very important role in Namibia's tourism due to its central location and close proximity to Hosea Kutako International Airport. According to The Namibia
Namibia
Tourism Exit Survey, which was produced by the Millennium Challenge Corporation
Millennium Challenge Corporation
for the Namibian Directorate of Tourism, 56% of all tourists visiting Namibia
Namibia
during the time period, 2012 – 2013, visited Windhoek.[104] Many of Namibia's tourism related parastatals and governing bodies such as Namibia
Namibia
Wildlife Resorts, Air Namibia
Air Namibia
and the Namibia Tourism Board as well as Namibia's tourism related trade associations such as the Hospitality Association of Namibia are also all headquartered in Windhoek.[105] There are also a number of notable hotels in Windhoek
Windhoek
such as Windhoek
Windhoek
Country Club Resort and some international hotel chains also operate in Windhoek, such as Avani Hotels and Resorts and Hilton Hotels and Resorts. Namibia's primary tourism related governing body, the Namibia
Namibia
Tourism Board (NTB), was established by an Act of Parliament: the Namibia Tourism Board Act, 2000 (Act 21 of 2000). Its primary objectives are to regulate the tourism industry and to market Namibia
Namibia
as a tourist destination.[106] There are also a number of trade associations that represent the tourism sector in Namibia, such as the Federation of Namibia
Namibia
Tourism Associations (the umbrella body for all tourism associations in Namibia), the Hospitality Association of Namibia, the Association of Namibian Travel Agents, Car Rental Association of Namibia
Namibia
and the Tour and Safari Association of Namibia.[107] Water supply and sanitation[edit] Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Namibia Namibia
Namibia
is the only country in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
to provide water through municipal departments.[108] The only bulk water supplier in Namibia
Namibia
is NamWater, which sells it to the respective municipalities which in turn deliver it through their reticulation networks.[108] In rural areas, the Directorate of Rural Water Supply in the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry is in charge of drinking water supply.[108] The UN evaluated in 2011 that Namibia
Namibia
has improved its water access network significantly since independence in 1990. A large part of the population can not, however, make use of these resources due to the prohibitively high consumption cost and the long distance between residences and water points in rural areas.[108] As a result, many Namibians prefer the traditional wells over the available water points far away.[109] Compared to the efforts made to improve access to safe water, Namibia is lagging behind in the provision of adequate sanitation.[110] This includes 298 schools that have no toilet facilities.[111] Over 50% of child deaths are related to lack of water, sanitation, or hygiene; 23% are due to diarrhea alone. The UN has identified a "sanitation crisis" in the country.[109] Apart from residences for upper and middle class households, sanitation is insufficient in most residential areas. Private flush toilets are too expensive for virtually all residents in townships due to their water consumption and installation cost. As a result, access to improved sanitation has not increased much since independence: In Namibia's rural areas 13% of the population had more than basic sanitation, up from 8% in 1990. Many of Namibia's inhabitants have to resort to "flying toilets", plastic bags to defecate which after use are flung into the bush.[112] The use of open areas close to residential land to urinate and defecate is very common[113] and has been identified as a major health hazard.[111] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Namibia

Population density in Namibia
Namibia
by regions (census 2011)

Namibia
Namibia
has the second-lowest population density of any sovereign country, after Mongolia.[114] The majority of the Namibian population is of Bantu-speaking origin  – mostly of the Ovambo ethnicity, which forms about half of the population – residing mainly in the north of the country, although many are now resident in towns throughout Namibia. Other ethnic groups are the Herero and Himba people, who speak a similar language, and the Damara, who speak the same "click" language as the Nama. In addition to the Bantu majority, there are large groups of Khoisan (such as Nama and San), who are descendants of the original inhabitants of Southern Africa. The country also contains some descendants of refugees from Angola. There are also two smaller groups of people with mixed racial origins, called "Coloureds" and "Basters", who together make up 8.0% (with the Coloureds outnumbering the Basters two to one). There is a substantial Chinese minority in Namibia; it stood at 40,000 in 2006.[115]

Himba people
Himba people
in northern Namibia

Whites (mainly of Afrikaner, German, British and Portuguese origin) make up between 4.0 and 7.0% of the population. Although their percentage of population decreased after independence due to emigration and lower birth rates they still form the second-largest population of European ancestry, both in terms of percentage and actual numbers, in Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
(after South Africa).[116] The majority of Namibian whites and nearly all those who are mixed race speak Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and share similar origins, culture, and religion as the white and coloured populations of South Africa. A large minority of whites (around 30,000) trace their family origins back to the German settlers who colonized Namibia
Namibia
prior to the British confiscation of German lands after World War One, and they maintain German cultural and educational institutions. Nearly all Portuguese settlers came to the country from the former Portuguese colony of Angola.[117] The 1960 census reported 526,004 persons in what was then South-West Africa, including 73,464 whites (14%).[118]

Children in Namibia

Namibia
Namibia
conducts a census every ten years. After independence the first Population and Housing Census was carried out in 1991; further rounds followed in 2001 and 2011.[119] The data collection method is to count every person resident in Namibia
Namibia
on the census reference night, wherever they happen to be. This is called the de facto method.[120] For enumeration purposes the country is demarcated into 4,042 enumeration areas. These areas do not overlap with constituency boundaries to get reliable data for election purposes as well.[121] The 2011 Population and Housing Census counted 2,113,077 inhabitants of Namibia. Between 2001 and 2011 the annual population growth was 1.4%, down from 2.6% in the previous ten–year period.[122] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Namibia

Lutheran church in Swakopmund

The Christian community makes up 80%–90% of the population of Namibia, with at least 75% being Protestant, and at least 50% Lutheran. Lutherans are the largest religious group – a legacy of the German and Finnish missionary work during the country's colonial times. 10%–20% of the population hold indigenous beliefs.[116] Missionary activities during the second half of the 19th century resulted in many Namibians converting to Christianity. Today most Christians are Lutheran, but there also are Roman Catholic, Methodist, Anglican, African Methodist Episcopal, Dutch Reformed and Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). Islam in Namibia
Islam in Namibia
is subscribed to by about 9,000 Muslims,[123] many of whom are Nama.[124] Namibia
Namibia
is home to a small Jewish community of about 100 members.[125] Language[edit] Main article: Languages of Namibia

Although its official language is English, Namibia
Namibia
is a multilingual country as is illustrated by these examples in English, German, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and Oshiwambo.

Up to 1990, English, German and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
were official languages. Long before Namibia's independence from South Africa, SWAPO
SWAPO
was of the opinion that the country should become officially monolingual, choosing this approach in contrast to that of its neighbour South Africa
Africa
(which granted all 11 of its major languages official status), which was seen by them as "a deliberate policy of ethnolinguistic fragmentation."[126] Consequently, SWAPO
SWAPO
instituted English as the sole official language of Namibia
Namibia
though only about 3% of the population speaks it as a home language. Its implementation is focused on the civil service, education and the broadcasting system.[127] Some other languages have received semi-official recognition by being allowed as medium of instruction in primary schools. It is expected of private schools to follow the same policy as state schools, and "English language" is a compulsory subject.[127] As in other postcolonial African societies, the push for monolingual instruction and policy has resulted in a high rate of school drop-outs and of individuals whose academic competence in any language is low.[128] According to the 2011 census, the most common languages are Oshiwambo (the most spoken language for 49% of households),[129] Nama/Damara (11.3%), Afrikaans
Afrikaans
(10.4%), Kavango (9%), Otjiherero
Otjiherero
(9%).[122][130] The most widely understood and spoken language is English. Both Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and English are used primarily as a second language reserved for public communication. Most of the white population speaks either German or Afrikaans. Even today, 103 years after the end of the German colonial era, the German language plays a role as a commercial language. Afrikaans
Afrikaans
is spoken by 60% of the white community, German is spoken by 32%, English is spoken by 7% and Portuguese by 1%.[116] Geographical proximity to Portuguese-speaking Angola
Angola
explains the relatively high number of Portuguese speakers; in 2011 these were estimated to be 100,000, or 4–5% of the total population.[131] Largest cities[edit] See also: List of cities and towns in Namibia

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Namibia GeoNames

Rank Name Region Pop.

Windhoek

Walvis Bay 1 Windhoek Khomas 322,500

Rundu

Swakopmund

2 Walvis Bay Erongo 85,000

3 Rundu Kavango 63,431

4 Swakopmund Erongo 44,725

5 Oshakati Oshana 36,540

6 Rehoboth Hardap 28,843

7 Katima Mulilo Zambezi 28,362

8 Otjiwarongo Otjozondjupa 28,249

9 Ondangwa Oshana 22,822

10 Okahandja Otjozondjupa 22,639

Sport[edit] Main articles: Sport in Namibia
Sport in Namibia
and Rugby union in Namibia

The Namibia
Namibia
rugby team

The most popular sport in Namibia
Namibia
is association football. The Namibia national football team qualified for the 2008 Africa
Africa
Cup of Nations but has yet to qualify for any World Cups. The most successful national team is the Namibian rugby team, having competed in five separate World Cups. Namibia
Namibia
were participants in the 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015 Rugby World Cups. Cricket
Cricket
is also popular, with the national side having played in the 2003 Cricket World Cup. In December 2017, Namibia
Namibia
Cricket
Cricket
reached the final of the Cricket
Cricket
South Africa
Africa
(CSA) Provincial One Day Challenge for the first time.[132] In February 2018 Namibia
Namibia
will host the ICC World Cricket League Division 2 with Namibia, Kenya, UAE, Nepal, Canada
Canada
and Oman to compete for the final two ICC Cricket
Cricket
World Cup Qualifier positions in Zimbabwe.[133] Netball
Netball
is popular as well. Inline hockey
Inline hockey
was first played in 1995 and has also become more and more popular in the last years. The Women's inline hockey National Team participated in the 2008 FIRS World Championships. Namibia
Namibia
is the home for one of the toughest footraces in the world, the Namibian ultra marathon. The most famous athlete from Namibia
Namibia
is Frankie Fredericks, sprinter in the 100 and 200 m events. He won four Olympic silver medals (1992, 1996) and also has medals from several World Athletics Championships. He is also known for humanitarian activities in Namibia
Namibia
and beyond. Golfer Trevor Dodds won the Greater Greensboro Open
Greater Greensboro Open
in 1998, one of 15 tournaments in his career. He achieved a career high world ranking of 78th in 1998. Professional cyclist and Namibian Road Race champion Dan Craven represented Namibia
Namibia
at the 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
in both the road race and individual time trial. Boxer Julius Indongo is the unified WBA, IBF, and IBO world champion in the Light welterweight division. The Swakopmund
Swakopmund
Skydiving
Skydiving
Club in Swakopmund
Swakopmund
was founded in 1974, and operates from Swakopmund
Swakopmund
Airport. Media[edit] See also: Media of Namibia Although Namibia's population is fairly small, the country has a diverse choice of media; two TV stations, 19 radio stations (without counting community stations), 5 daily newspapers, several weeklies and special publications compete for the attention of the audience. Additionally, a mentionable amount of foreign media, especially South African, is available. Online media are mostly based on print publication contents. Namibia
Namibia
has a state-owned Press Agency, called NAMPA.[134] The first newspaper in Namibia
Namibia
was the German-language Windhoeker Anzeiger, founded 1898. Radio was introduced in 1969, TV in 1981. During German rule, the newspapers mainly reflected the living reality and the view of the white German-speaking minority. The black majority was ignored or depicted as a threat. During South African rule, the white bias continued, with mentionable influence of the Pretoria government on the "South West African" media system. Independent newspapers were seen as a menace to the existing order, critical journalists threatened.[134][135][136] The daily newspapers include the private publications The Namibian (English and other languages), Die Republikein
Die Republikein
(Afrikaans), Allgemeine Zeitung (German) and Namibian Sun
Namibian Sun
(English) as well as the state-owned New Era (predominantly English). Except for the largest newspaper, The Namibian, which is owned by a trust, the other mentioned private newspapers are part of the Democratic Media Holdings.[134] Other mentionable newspapers are the tabloid Informanté owned by TrustCo, the weekly Windhoek
Windhoek
Observer, the weekly Namibia
Namibia
Economist, as well as the regional Namib
Namib
Times. Current affairs magazines include Insight Namibia, Vision2030 Focus magazine[citation needed] and Prime FOCUS. Sister Namibia Magazine stands out as the longest running NGO magazine in Namibia, while Namibia Sport is the only national sport magazine. Furthermore, the print market is complemented with party publications, student newspapers and PR publications.[134] The broadcasting sector is dominated by the state-run Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC). The public broadcaster offers a TV station as well as a "National Radio" in English and nine language services in locally spoken languages. The nine private radio stations in the country are mainly English-language channels, except for Radio Omulunga (Oshiwambo) and Kosmos 94.1 (Afrikaans). Privately held One Africa
Africa
TV has competed with NBC since the 2000s.[134][137] Compared to neighbouring countries, Namibia
Namibia
has a large degree of media freedom. Over the past years, the country usually ranked in the upper quarter of the Press Freedom Index
Press Freedom Index
of Reporters without Borders, reaching position 21 in 2010, being on par with Canada
Canada
and the best-positioned African country.[138] The African Media Barometer shows similarly positive results.[citation needed] However, as in other countries, there is still mentionable influence of representatives of state and economy on media in Namibia.[134] In 2009, Namibia
Namibia
dropped to position 36 on the Press Freedom Index.[139] In 2013, it was 19th.[140] In 2014 it ranked 22nd [141] Media and journalists in Namibia
Namibia
are represented by the Namibian chapter of the Media Institute of Southern Africa
Africa
and the Editors' Forum of Namibia. An independent media ombudsman was appointed in 2009 to prevent a state-controlled media council.[134] Education[edit]

Secondary school students

Main article: Education in Namibia See also: List of schools in Namibia Namibia
Namibia
has free education for both primary and secondary education levels. Grades 1–7 are primary level, grades 8–12 are secondary. In 1998, there were 400,325 Namibian students in primary school and 115,237 students in secondary schools. The pupil-teacher ratio in 1999 was estimated at 32:1, with about 8% of the GDP being spent on education.[142] Curriculum development, educational research, and professional development of teachers is centrally organised by the National Institute for Educational Development (NIED) in Okahandja.[143] Most schools in Namibia
Namibia
are state-run, but there are some private schools, which are also part of the country's education system. There are four teacher training universities, three colleges of agriculture, a police training college, and two universities: University of Namibia (UNAM) and Namibia University of Science and Technology
Namibia University of Science and Technology
(NUST). Health[edit] Main article: Health in Namibia See also: HIV/AIDS in Namibia Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth is estimated to be 64 years in 2017 – among the lowest in the world.[144] Namibia
Namibia
launched a National Health Extension Programme in 2012[145] deployment 1,800 (2015) of a total ceiling of 4,800 health extension workers trained for six months in community health activities including first aid, health promotion for disease prevention, nutritional assessment and counseling, water sanitation and hygiene practices, HIV testing and community-based antiretroviral treatment.[146] Namibia
Namibia
faces non-communicable disease burden. The Demographic and Health Survey (2013) summarizes findings on elevated blood pressure, hypertension, diabetes and obesity:

Among eligible respondents age 35–64, more than 4 in 10 women (44 percent) and men (45 percent) have elevated blood pressure or are currently taking medicine to lower their blood pressure. Forty-nine percent of women and 61 percent of men are not aware that they have elevated blood pressure. • Forty-three percent of women and 34 percent of men with hypertension are taking medication for their condition. Only 29 percent of women and 20 percent of men with hypertension are taking medication and have their blood pressure under control. Six percent of women and 7 percent of men are diabetic; that is, they have elevated fasting plasma glucose values or report that they are taking diabetes medication. An additional 7 percent of women and 6 percent of men are prediabetic. Sixty-seven percent of women and 74 percent of men with diabetes are taking medication to lower their blood glucose. Women and men with a higher-than-normal body mass index (25.0 or higher) are more likely to have elevated blood pressure and elevated fasting blood glucose.[147] 

The HIV epidemic remains a public health issue in Namibia
Namibia
despite significant achievements made by the Ministry of Health and Social Services to expand HIV treatment services.[148] In 2001, there were an estimated 210,000 people living with HIV/AIDS, and the estimated death toll in 2003 was 16,000. According to the 2011 UNAIDS
UNAIDS
Report, the epidemic in Namibia
Namibia
"appears to be leveling off."[149] As the HIV/AIDS epidemic has reduced the working-aged population, the number of orphans has increased. It falls to the government to provide education, food, shelter and clothing for these orphans.[150] A Demographic and Health Survey with an HIV biomarker was completed in 2013 and served as the fourth comprehensive, national-level population and health survey conducted in Namibia
Namibia
as part of the global Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme. The DHS observed important characteristics associated to the HIV epidemic:

Overall, 26 percent of men age 15–49 and 32 percent of those age 50–64 have been circumcised. HIV prevalence for men age 15–49 is lower among circumcised (8.0 percent) than among uncircumcised men (11.9 percent). The pattern of lower HIV prevalence among circumcised than uncircumcised men is observed across most background characteristics. For each age group, circumcised men have lower HIV prevalence than those who are not circumcised; the difference is especially pronounced for men age 35–39 and 45–49 (11.7 percentage points each). The difference in HIV prevalence between uncircumcised and circumcised men is larger among urban than rural men (5.2 percentage points versus 2.1 percentage points). HIV prevalence among respondents age 15–49 is 16.9 percent for women and 10.9 percent for men. HIV prevalence rates among women and men age 50–64 are similar (16.7 percent and 16.0 percent, respectively). HIV prevalence peaks in the 35–39 age group for both women and men (30.9 percent and 22.6 percent, respectively). It is lowest among respondents age 15–24 (2.5–6.4 percent for women and 2.0–3.4 percent for men). Among respondents age 15–49, HIV prevalence is highest for women and men in Zambezi
Zambezi
(30.9 percent and 15.9 percent, respectively) and lowest for women in Omaheke (6.9 percent) and men in Ohangwena (6.6 percent). In 76.4 percent of the 1,007 cohabiting couples who were tested for HIV in the 2013 NDHS, both partners were HIV negative; in 10.1 percent of the couples, both partners were HIV positive; and 13.5 percent of the couples were discordant (that is, one partner was infected with HIV and the other was not).[147]

As of 2015, the Ministry of Health and Social Services and UNAIDS produced a Progress Report in which UNAIDS
UNAIDS
projected HIV prevalence among 15 – 49 year olds at 13.3% [12.2% – 14.5%] and an estimated 210 000 [200 000 – 230 000] living with HIV.[151] The malaria problem seems to be compounded by the AIDS epidemic.[152] Research has shown that in Namibia
Namibia
the risk of contracting malaria is 14.5% greater if a person is also infected with HIV.[152] The risk of death from malaria is also raised by approximately 50% with a concurrent HIV infection.[153] The country had only 598 physicians in 2002.[154] See also[edit]

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal Namibia
Namibia
portal

Index of Namibia-related articles Music of Namibia Outline of Namibia Shark Island Concentration Camp Telecommunications in Namibia United Nations
United Nations
Commissioner for Namibia Visa policy of Namibia

Lists[edit]

List of cities and towns in Namibia List of colonial governors of South-West Africa List of Namibians List of national parks of Namibia List of schools in Namibia List of villages and settlements in Namibia

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Afrikaans" (PDF). Government of Namibia. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ "Communal Land Reform Act, German" (PDF). Government of Namibia. Retrieved 18 February 2016. [permanent dead link] ^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Khoekhoegowab" (PDF). Government of Namibia. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Otjiherero" (PDF). Government of Namibia. Retrieved 18 February 2016. [permanent dead link] ^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Oshiwambo" (PDF). Government of Namibia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Rukwangali" (PDF). Government of Namibia. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Setswana" (PDF). Government of Namibia. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ "Communal Land Reform Act, Lozi" (PDF). Government of Namibia. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ " CIA
CIA
World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency, US. Retrieved 21 February 2016.  ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan Journals. 3 (3): pp. 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Retrieved 4 September 2016. Of the contemporary cases, only four provide the assembly majority an unrestricted right to vote no confidence, and of these, only two allow the president unrestricted authority to appoint the prime minister. These two, Mozambique
Mozambique
and Namibia, as well as the Weimar Republic, thus resemble most closely the structure of authority depicted in the right panel of Figure 3, whereby the dual accountability of the cabinet to both the president and the assembly is maximized. (...) Namibia
Namibia
allows the president to dissolve [the assembly] at any time but places a novel negative incentive on his exercise of the right: He must stand for a new election at the same time as the new assembly elections. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ a b "National Council". Parliament.gov .na (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-08-26.  ^ "CountryMeters – Namibia
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was the 20th century's first genocide David Olusoga Comment is free". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2015.  ^ Drechsler, Horst (1980). The actual number of deaths in the limited number of battles with the Germany Schutztruppe (expeditionary force) were limited; most of the deaths occurred after fighting had ended. The German military governor Lotha von Trotha issued an explicit extermination order, and many Herero died of disease and abuse in detention camps after being taken from their land. A substantial minority of Herero crossed the Kalahari desert into the British colony of Bechuanaland (modern-day Botswana), where a small community continues to live in western Botswana
Botswana
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Namibia
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Namibia
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Bibliography[edit]

Vedder, Heinrich (1997). Das alte Südwestafrika. Südwestafrikas Geschichte bis zum Tode Mahareros 1890 [The old South-West Africa. South-West Africa's history until Maharero's death 1890] (in German) (7th ed.). Windhoek: Namibia
Namibia
Scientific Society. ISBN 0-949995-33-9.  Olusoga, David; Erichsen, Casper W. (2010). The Kaiser’s Holocaust: Germany’s Forgotten Genocide. London: Farber and Farber. ISBN 978-0-571-23142-3.  Besenyo, Molnar: UN peacekeeping in Namibia, Tradecraft Review, Periodical of the Military National Security Service, 2013, 1. Special Issue, 93-109

General references[edit]

Christy, S. A. (2007). Namibian Travel Photography. Horn, N/Bösl, A (eds.). Human rights and the rule of law in Namibia, Macmillan Namibia, 2008. Horn, N/Bösl, A (eds.). The independence of the judiciary in Namibia, Macmillan Namibia, 2008. KAS Factbook Namibia, Facts and figures about the status and development of Namibia, Ed. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V. Fritz, Jean-Claude. La Namibie indépendante. Les coûts d'une décolonisation retardée, Paris, L'Harmattan, 1991. World Almanac. 2004. World Almanac Books. New York, NY

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of Nations

Sovereign states (Members)

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania The Gambia Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Dependencies of Members

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Source: Commonwealth
Commonwealth
Secretariat - Member States

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140653407 LCCN: n79039884 ISNI: 0000 0001 2170 3475 GND: 4075202-1 BNF: cb153049015 (data) HDS: 16541 NDL: 0056

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