The name of
God used in the
Hebrew Bible is the
(יהוה). It is frequently anglicized as
Jehovah and Yahweh
and written in most English editions of the
Bible as "the Lord" owing
to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too
sacred to be uttered. It was thus replaced vocally in the synagogue
ritual by the Hebrew word Adonai (“My Lord”), which was translated
Kyrios (“Lord”) in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the
Judaism describes seven names which are so holy that, once
written, should not be erased: The
Tetragrammaton written as YHWH and
six others which can be categorized as titles are El ("God"), Eloah
Elohim ("Gods"), Shaddai ("
God Almighty"), Ehyeh, and Tzevaot
("[of] Hosts"). Other names are considered mere epithets or titles
reflecting different aspects of God, but chumrah sometimes dictates
special care such as the writing of "G-d" instead of "God" in English
or saying Ṭēt-Vav (טו, lit. "9-6") instead of Yōd-Hē
(יה, lit. "10-5" but also "Jah") for the number fifteen in
The documentary hypothesis proposes that the
Torah was compiled from
various original sources, two of which (the
Jahwist and the Elohist)
are named for their usual names for
God (YHWH and Elohim
1 Seven Names of God
1.6 El Shaddai
2 Other names and titles
2.4 Ehyeh asher ehyeh
2.6 El Roi
2.8 Eternal One
3 Uncommon or esoteric names
4 Writing divine names
5 Kabbalistic use
6 English names
7 See also
10 External links
Seven Names of God
The seven names of
God that, once written, cannot be erased because of
their holiness are the Tetragrammaton, El, Elohim, Eloah, Elohai,
El Shaddai, and Tzevaot. In addition, the name Jah—because it
forms part of the Tetragrammaton—is similarly protected. Rabbi
Jose considered "Tzevaot" a common name and
"Elohim" was. All other names, such as "Merciful", "Gracious" and
"Faithful", merely represent attributes that are also common to human
An early depiction of the Tetragrammaton: a passage of the Ketef
Hinnom silver scrolls with the
Priestly Blessing from the
Numbers (c. 600 BCE).
Tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (fl. 1100 BCE –
500 CE), Aramaic (fl. 1100 BCE – 200 CE), and
modern Hebrew scripts.
Portion of column 19 of the
Psalms Scroll (Tehilim) from Qumran Cave
Tetragrammaton in paleo-Hebrew can be clearly seen six times
in this portion.
Main articles: Tetragrammaton, Yahweh, and Lord § Religion
The name of
God used most often in the
Hebrew Bible is YHWH[n 1] (י
ה ו ה), also known as the
Tetragrammaton (Greek for "four-letter
[word]"). Hebrew is a right-to-left abjad, so the word's letters Yōd,
Hē, Vav, Hē are usually taken for consonants and expanded to Yahweh
Jehovah in English.
In modern Jewish culture, it is accepted as forbidden to pronounce the
name the way that it is spelled. In prayers it is pronounced Adonai,
and in discussion is usually said as HaShem, meaning “The Name”.
The exact pronunciation is uncertain because—although there is
nothing in the
Torah to prohibit the saying of the name and Ruth
shows it was being pronounced as late as the 5th
century BCE[n 2]—it had ceased to be spoken aloud by at
least the 3rd century BCE during Second Temple Judaism
and vowel points were not written until the early medieval period. The
Masoretic Text uses vowel points of Adonai or
Elohim (depending on the
context) marking the pronunciation as Yəhōwāh (יְ הֹ וָ ה,
[jăhowɔh] ( listen)); however, scholarly consensus is that
this is not the original pronunciation. (For a discussion of
subtle pronunciation changes between what is preserved in the Hebrew
Scriptures and what is read, see Qere and Ketiv.)
Tetragrammaton first appears in Genesis and occurs 6828 times
in total in the Stuttgart edition of the Masoretic Text. It is thought
to be an archaic third-person singular imperfect tense of the verb
"to be" (i.e., "[He] was being"). This agrees with the passage in
God names Himself as "I Will Be What I Will Be" using
the first-person singular imperfect tense.
Judaism teaches that the name is forbidden to all except
the High Priest, who should only speak it in the
Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies of the
Jerusalem on Yom Kippur. He then pronounces the name "just
as it is written". As each blessing was made, the
people in the courtyard were to prostrate themselves completely as
they heard it spoken aloud. As the Temple has not been rebuilt since
its destruction in 70 CE, most modern
Jews never pronounce YHWH
but instead read Adonai ("My Lord") during prayer and while reading
Torah and as HaShem ("The Name") at other times.
Vulgate used Dominus ("The Lord") and most English
translations of the
Bible write "the Lord" for YHWH and "the Lord God"
for Adonai YHWH instead of transcribing the name. (The Septuagint
apparently originally used the Hebrew letters themselves amid its
Greek text but all surviving editions instead write either
Kyrios [Κυριος, "Lord") or Theos [Θεος, "God"] for
occurrences of the name.)
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El (deity) § Hebrew Bible
El appears in Ugaritic, Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st
millennium BCE texts both as generic "god" and as the head of the
divine pantheon. In the
Hebrew Bible El (Hebrew: אל) appears
very occasionally alone (e.g. Genesis 33:20, el elohe yisrael, "El the
God of Israel", and Genesis 46:3, ha'el elohe abika, "El the God
of thy father"), but usually with some epithet or attribute
attached (e.g. El Elyon, "Most High El", El Shaddai, "El of Shaddai",
El `Olam "Everlasting El", El Hai, "Living El", El Ro'i "El my
Shepherd", and El Gibbor "El of Strength"), in which cases it can be
understood as the generic "god". In theophoric names such as Gabriel
("Strength of God"), Michael ("Who is like God?"), Raphael ("God's
medicine"), Ariel ("God's lion"), Daniel ("God's Judgment"), Israel
("one who has struggled with God"),
God is with us"), and
God Listens") it is usually interpreted and
translated as "God", but it is not clear whether these "el"s refer to
the deity in general or to the god El in particular.
Elohim § Etymology
Main article: Elohim
A common name of
God in the
Hebrew Bible is
אלהים (help·info)). Despite the -im ending
common to many plural nouns in Hebrew, the word
Elohim when referring
God is grammatically singular, and takes a singular verb in the
Hebrew Bible. The word is identical to the usual plural of el meaning
gods or magistrates, and is cognate to the 'lhm found in Ugaritic,
where it is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods, the children of
El and conventionally vocalized as "Elohim" although the original
Ugaritic vowels are unknown. When the
Hebrew Bible uses elohim not in
reference to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:2). There are a
few other such uses in Hebrew, for example Behemoth. In Modern Hebrew,
the singular word ba'alim ("owner", "lord", or "husband") looks
plural, but likewise takes a singular verb.
A number of scholars have traced the etymology to the Semitic root
*yl, "to be first, powerful", despite some difficulties with this
Elohim is thus the plural construct "powers". Hebrew grammar
allows for this form to mean "He is the Power (singular) over powers
(plural)", just as the word Ba'alim means "owner" (see above). "He is
lord (singular) even over any of those things that he owns that are
Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals of
majesty came about in more modern times. Richard Toporoski, a classics
scholar, asserts that plurals of majesty first appeared in the reign
Diocletian (CE 284–305). Indeed,
Gesenius states in his
book Hebrew Grammar the following:
The Jewish grammarians call such plurals … plur. virium or virtutum;
later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae, magnitudinis, or plur.
maiestaticus. This last name may have been suggested by the we used by
kings when speaking of themselves (compare
1 Maccabees 10:19 and
11:31); and the plural used by
God in Genesis 1:26 and 11:7; Isaiah
6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way). It is, however,
either communicative (including the attendant angels: so at all events
in Isaiah 6:8 and Genesis 3:22), or according to others, an indication
of the fullness of power and might implied. It is best explained as a
plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of
respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew.
Mark S. Smith has cited the use of plural as possible evidence to
suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of
monotheism, wherein references to "the gods" (plural) in earlier
accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple
aspects of a single monotheistic
God at the time of writing, or
subsumed under a form of monolatry, wherein the god(s) of a certain
city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the
Israel and the plural deliberately dropped.
The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting
abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim ("life") or betulim
("virginity"). If understood this way,
Elohim means "divinity" or
"deity". The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when
used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise.
In many of the passages in which elohim occurs in the
Bible it refers
to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or
judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6,
Psalms 8:5) as a simple plural
in those instances.
Elohai or Elohei ("My God") is a form of
Elohim along with the
first-person singular pronoun enclitic. It appears in the names "God
of Abraham" (Elohai Avraham); "
God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob"
(Elohai Avraham, Elohai
Yitzchak ve Elohai Yaʿaqov); and "
Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel" (Elohai Sara, Elohai Rivka, Elohai
Leah ve Elohai Rakhel).
Main article: El Shaddai
El Shaddai (Hebrew: אל שדי (help·info),
pronounced [ʃaˈda.i]) is one of the names of
God in Judaism,
with its etymology coming from the influence of the Ugaritic religion
on modern Judaism.
El Shaddai is conventionally translated as "God
Almighty". While the translation of El as "god" in Ugarit/Canaanite
language is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the
subject of debate.
Tzevaot, Tsebaoth or Sabaoth (צבאות,
[tsvaot] ( listen), lit. "Armies") appears in reference
to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus but is not used as a
divine epithet in the Torah, Joshua, or Judges. In the First
David uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and immediately glosses it as
God of the armies of Israel". The same name appears in the
prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey Tzevaot, and Adonai
YHWH Tzevaot. These are usually translated in the King James Version
as the "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord
God of Hosts". In its later uses,
however, it often denotes
God in His role as leader of the heavenly
The jewish word Sabaoth was also absorbed in Ancient Greek
(σαβαωθ, sabaoth) and
Latin (Sabaoth, with no declination).
Tertullian and other patristics used it with the meaning of Army of
angels of God.
Jah and Theophory in the Bible
The abbreviated form
Jah (/dʒɑː/) or Yah
(/jɑː/ ( listen); יהּ, Yahu) appears in the Psalms
and Isaiah. It is a common element in Hebrew theophoric names such
as Elijah and also appears in the forms yahu ("Jeremiah"), yeho
("Joshua"), and yo ("John", ultimately from the biblical "Yohanan").
It also appears 24 times in the
Psalms as a part of Hallelujah
Other names and titles
Shefa Tal - A Kabbalistic explanation of the
Priestly Blessing with
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Adonai (אֲדֹנָי, lit. "My Lords") is the plural form of
adon ("Lord") along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic.[n
3] As with Elohim, Adonai's grammatical form is usually explained as a
plural of majesty. In the Hebrew Bible, it is only used to refer to
God. As the pronunciation of the
Tetragrammaton came to be avoided in
the Hellenistic period,
Jews began to read "Adonai" at its appearances
in scripture and to say "Adonai" in its place in prayer. Owing to the
expansion of chumra (the idea of "building a fence around the Torah"),
Adonai itself has come to be too holy to say for Orthodox Jews,
leading to its replacement by HaShem ("The Name").
The singular forms adon and adoni ("my lord") are used in scripture as
royal titles, as in the First
Book of Samuel, and for
distinguished persons. The
Phoenicians used it as a title of Tammuz,
the origin of the Greek Adonis, and is also used in scripture to refer
God (e.g. Ps 114:7.)
Deuteronomy 10:17 has the proper name
Yahweh alongside the superlative
constructions "god[s] of gods" elōhê ha-elōhîm and "lord of lords"
adōnê ha-adōnîm (כִּי יְ ה וָ ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם
הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָֽאֱלֹהִים וַאֲדֹנֵי
הָאֲדֹנִים ; KJV: "For the LORD your
God of gods,
and Lord of lords").
The final syllable of Adonai uses the vowel kamatz, rather than patach
which would be expected from the Hebrew for "my lord(s)". Prof. Yoel
Elitzur explains this as a normal transformation when a Hebrew word
becomes a name, giving as other examples Nathan, Yitzchak, and
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Up until the mid-twentieth century, the use of the word Adoshem,
combining the first two syllables of "Adonai" with the last syllable
of "Hashem"', was quite common. This was discouraged by
HaLevi Segal in his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. His rationale
was that it is disrespectful to combine a Name of
God with another
word. It took a few centuries for the word to fall into almost
complete disuse. Despite being obsolete in most circles, it is used
occasionally in conversation in place of Adonai by
Jews who do not
wish to say Adonai but need to specify the substitution of that
particular word. It is also used when quoting from the liturgy in a
non-liturgical context. For example, Shlomo Carlebach performed his
prayer "Shema Yisrael" with the words
Shema Yisrael Adoshem Elokeinu
Adoshem Eḥad instead of
Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Eḥad.
Main article: Baal
Baal (/ˈbeɪəl/),[n 4] properly Baʿal,[n 5] meant "owner" and,
by extension, "lord", "master", and "husband" in Hebrew and the
other Northwest Semitic languages. In some early contexts and
theophoric names, it and Baali (/ˈbeɪəlaɪ/; "My Lord") were
treated as synonyms of
Adon and Adonai. After the time of
Solomon and particularly after Jezebel's attempt to promote the
worship of the Lord of Tyre Melqart, however, the name became
particularly associated with the Canaanite storm god
Baʿal Haddu and
was gradually avoided as a title for Yahweh. Several names that
included it were rewritten as bosheth ("shame"). The prophet Hosea
in particular reproached the
Israelites for continuing to use the
"It will come about in that day," declares the Lord, "That you will
call Me Ishi[n 6] And will no longer call Me Baali."
Ehyeh asher ehyeh
Main article: I Am that I Am
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Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew: אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה)
is the first of three responses given to
Moses when he asks for God's
name in the
Book of Exodus. The
King James Version
King James Version of the Bible
translates the Hebrew as "I Am that I Am" and uses it as a proper name
for God. The Aramaic
Targum Onkelos leaves the phrase untranslated and
is so quoted in the
Talmud (B. B. 73a.[clarification needed])
Ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, "to be".
Ehyeh is usually translated "I will be", since the imperfect tense in
Hebrew denotes actions that are not yet completed (e.g. Exodus 3:12,
"Certainly I will be [ehyeh] with thee."). Asher is an ambiguous
pronoun which can mean, depending on context, "that", "who", "which",
Although Ehyeh asher ehyeh is generally rendered in English "I am that
I am", better renderings might be "I will be what I will be" or "I
will be who I will be", or "I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall
prove to be" or even "I will be because I will be". Other
renderings include: Leeser, “I Will Be that I Will Be”; Rotherham,
"I Will Become whatsoever I please", New World Translation (2013
Edition): "I Will Become What I Choose to Become." Greek, Ego
eimi ho on (ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ὤν), "I am The Being" in the
Septuagint, and Philo, and Revelation or, "I am The
Existing One"; Lat., ego sum qui sum, "I am Who I am."
Elah (Aramaic: אֱלָה; pl. "elim") is the Aramaic word for God.
The origin of the word is uncertain and it may be related to a root
word, meaning "reverence". Elah is found in the
Tanakh in the books of
Ezra, Jeremiah (Jer 10:11, the only verse in the entire book written
in Aramaic), and Daniel. Elah is used to describe both pagan gods
and the Jews' God. The word 'Elah - إله' is also an Arabic word
which means god. The name is etymologically related to
used by Muslims.
Israel (Ezra 5:1)
Jerusalem (Ezra 7:19)
Heaven (Ezra 7:23)
God of my fathers, (Daniel 2:23)
God of gods (Daniel 2:47)
Main article: El Roi
Book of Genesis,
Hagar is said to call the name of
spoke to her through his angel. In Hebrew, her phrase "El Roi" is
taken as an epithet of
God of Seeing") although the King
James Version translates it as a statement: "Thou
God seest me."
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Main article: Elyon
Elyon (Hebrew: עליון) occurs in combination with El,
Elohim and alone. It appears chiefly in poetic and later
Biblical passages. The modern Hebrew adjective "`Elyon" means
"supreme" (as in "Supreme Court") or "Most High". El
Elyon has been
traditionally translated into English as '
God Most High'. The
Phoenicians used what appears to be a similar name for God,
Έλιον. It is cognate to the Arabic `Aliyy.
"The Eternal One" is increasingly used, particularly in Reform and
Reconstructionist communities seeking to use gender-neutral
language. In the Torah, "
Hashem Kel Olam" ("the Everlasting God")
is used at Genesis 21:33 to refer to God.
"HaShem" redirects here. For other people with similar names, see
It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God
to a liturgical context. In casual conversation some Jews, even when
not speaking Hebrew, will call
God HaShem (השם), which is Hebrew
for "the Name" (cf.
Leviticus 24:11 and
Deuteronomy 28:58). Likewise,
when quoting from the
Tanakh or prayers, some pious
Jews will replace
Adonai with HaShem. For example, when making audio recordings of
prayer services, HaShem will generally be substituted for Adonai.
A popular expression containing this phrase is Baruch HaShem, meaning
"Thank God" (literally, "Blessed be the Name").
Main article: Shalom
Talmudic authors, ruling on the basis of Gideon's name for an
altar ("YHVH-Shalom", according to Judges 6:24), write that "the name
God is 'Peace'" (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. 10b); consequently, a
Talmudic opinion (Shabbat, 10b) asserts that one would greet another
with the word shalom (help·info) in order for the word not
to be forgotten in the exile. But one is not permitted to greet
another with the word shalom (help·info) in unholy places
such as a bathroom, because of holiness of the name.
Main article: Shekhinah
Shekhinah ( שכינה (help·info)) is the presence or
God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity.
The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word
when speaking of
God dwelling either in the
Tabernacle or amongst the
people of Israel. The root of the word means "dwelling". Of the
principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine
gender in Hebrew grammar. Some believe that this was the name of a
female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always
mentioned in conjunction with an article (e.g.: "the Shekhina
descended and dwelt among them" or "He removed Himself and His
Shekhina from their midst"). This kind of usage does not occur in
Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names.
The Arabic form of the word "Sakīnah سكينة" is also mentioned in
the Quran. This mention is in the middle of the narrative of the
Saul to be king and is mentioned as descending with the Ark
of the Covenant, here the word is used to mean "security" and is
derived from the root sa-ka-na which means dwell:
And (further) their Prophet said to them: "A Sign of his authority is
that there shall come to you the Ark of the Covenant, with (an
assurance) therein of security from your Lord, and the relics left by
the family of
Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In
this is a Symbol for you if ye indeed have faith."
Uncommon or esoteric names
Abir – "Strong One"
Adir – "Great One"
Adon Olam – "Master of the World"
Aibishter – "The Most High" (Yiddish)
Aleim – sometimes seen as an alternative transliteration of Elohim,
"A'lim " "عليم" in Arabic means who intensively knows, "A'alim"
"عالم" means who knows, the verb is "A'lima" علم means " knows
", while "Allahomma" "اللهم" in Arabic equals to "O'God" and used
to supplicate him for something.
Aravat (or Avarat) – "Father of Creation"; mentioned once in 2
Enoch, "On the tenth heaven is God, in the Hebrew tongue he is called
Avinu Malkeinu (help·info) – "Our Father, Our King"
Bore (help·info) – "The Creator"
Dibbura or Dibbera - "The Word (The Law)" - used primarily in the
Palestinian Targums of the Pentateuch (Aramaic); e.g. Num 7:89, The
Word spoke to
Moses from between the cherubim in the holy of holies.
Ehiyeh sh'Ehiyeh – "I Am That I Am": a modern Hebrew version of
"Ehyeh asher Ehyeh"
Ein Sof – "Endless, Infinite", Kabbalistic name of God
El ha-Gibbor – "
God the Hero" or "
God the Strong" or "
Allah jabbar" "الله جبار" in Arabic means "the God
is formidable and invincible"
Emet – "Truth"
HaKadosh, Barukh Hu (Hebrew); Kudsha, Brikh Hu (Aramaic); تبارک
القدوس (Arabic) – "The Holy One, Blessed Be He"
HaRachaman – "The Merciful One"; "Rahman - رحمن" In (Arabic)
Israel – "Holy One of Israel"
Magen Avraham – "Shield of Abraham"
Makom or HaMakom – literally "The Place", perhaps meaning "The
Omnipresent" (see Tzimtzum)
Malbish Arumim – "Clother of the Naked"
Matir Asurim – "Freer of the Captives"
Mechayeh HaKol In Arabic "Al-muhyi al-kull - محيي الكل" –
"Life giver to All" (Reform version of Mechayeh Metim)
Mechayeh Metim – "Life giver to the Dead"
Melech HaMelachim–"The King of Kings" or Melech Malchei HaMelachim
"The King, King of Kings", to express superiority to the earthly
rulers title. Arabic version of it is مالك الملك (Malik
Melech HaOlam–"The King of the World"
Memra d'Adonai-"The Word of the LORD" (plus variations such as "My
Word") - restricted to the Aramaic Targums; (the written
Tetragrammaton is represented in various ways such as YYY, YWY, YY,
but pronounced as the Hebrew "Adonai")
Mi She'amar V'haya Ha`olam - "He who spoke, and the world came into
Shalom – "Maker of Peace"
Pokeach Ivrim – "Opener of Blind Eyes"
Ribono shel'Olam – "Master of the World". Arabic version of it is
Ro'eh Yisra'el – "Shepherd of Israel"
Rofeh Cholim – "Healer of the Sick"
Shomer Yisrael – "Guardian of Israel" (
Somech Noflim – "Supporter of the Fallen"
Israel – "Rock of Israel"
Uri Gol – "The New LORD for a New Era" (Judges 5:14)
YHWH-Niss"i (Adonai-Nissi) – "The LORD Our Banner" (Exodus
YHWH-Rapha – "The LORD that Healeth" (Exodus 15:26)
YHWH-Ro'i – "The LORD My Shepherd" (
Shalom – "The LORD Our Peace" (Judges 6:24)
YHWH-Shammah (Adonai-shammah) – "The LORD Is Present" (Ezekiel
YHWH-Tsidkenu – "The LORD Our Righteousness" (Jeremiah 23:6)
YHWH-Yireh (Adonai-jireh) – "The LORD Will Provide" (Genesis
Yotsehr 'Or – "Fashioner of Light"
Zokef kefufim – "Straightener of the Bent"
Writing divine names
Psalms in Hebrew and Latin. Manuscript on parchment, 12th century.
In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must
be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah
scrolls, or tefillin and mezuzah. Before transcribing any of the
divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Once he
begins a name he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not
be interrupted while writing it, even to greet a king. If an error is
made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round
it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a
genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun.
One of the most important names is that of the
Ein Sof (אין סוף
"Endless"), which first came into use after CE 1300. The
forty-two-lettered name contains the combined names אהיה יהוה
אדוני הויה, that when spelled out contains 42 letters. The
equivalent in value of YHWH (spelled יוד הא ואו הא = 45) is
the forty-five-lettered name.[clarification needed]
The seventy-two-lettered name is derived from three verses in Exodus
(14:19–21) beginning with "Vayyissa", "Vayyabo" and "Vayyet"
respectively. Each of the verses contains 72 letters, and when
combined they form 72 names, known collectively as the
Shemhamphorasch. The kabbalistic book
Sefer Yetzirah explains that the
creation of the world was achieved by the manipulation of these sacred
letters that form the names of God.
The words "God" and "Lord" are written by some
Jews as "G-d" and
"L-rd" as a way of avoiding writing any name of
God in full out of
Deuteronomy 12:3–4 reads, "And ye shall overthrow their
altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and
ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the
names of them out of that place. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your
God." From this it is understood that one should not erase or blot out
the name of God. The general halachic opinion is that this only
applies to the sacred Hebrew names of God, but not to other
euphemistic references; there is a dispute whether the word "God" in
English or other languages may be erased.
Names of God
God in Christianity
God in Islam
Naming taboo (a similar prohibition in China)
Sacred Name Bibles
Tetragrammaton is also sometimes transcribed as YHVH or
^ The World English
Bible translation: "Behold,
Boaz came from
Bethlehem, and said to the reapers, "
Yahweh be with you." They
answered him, "
Yahweh bless you." The book is traditionally
ascribed to the prophet
Samuel who lived in the 11th & 10th
centuries BCE. A date of the 6th or 5th century BCE for
the passage is, however, more common among subscribers to the
Documentary Hypothesis regarding the development of the biblical
^ Gesenius: "124i Further, אֲדֹנִים, as well as the
singular אָדוֹן, (lordship) lord, e.g. אֲדֹנִים
קָשֶׁה a cruel lord, Is 194; אֲדֹנֵי
הָאָ֫רֶץ the lord of the land, Gn 4230, cf. Gn 3219; so
especially with the suffixes of the 2nd and 3rd persons
אֲדֹנֶ֫יךָ, אֲדֹנַ֫יִךְ ψ 4512,
אֲדֹנָיו, &c., also אֲדֹנֵ֫ינוּ (except 1
S 1616); but in 1st sing. always אֲדֹנִי. So also
בְּעָלִים (with suffixes) lord, master (of slaves, cattle,
or inanimate things; but in the sense of maritus, always in the
singular), e.g. בְּעָלָיו Ex 2129, Is 13, &c."
^ The American pronunciation is usually the same but some
speakers prefer variants closer to the original sound, such as
^ The half ring ⟨
ʿ ⟩ or apostrophe ⟨ ' ⟩ in the name Baʿal
marks the original words' glottal stop, a vocalization which appears
in the middle of the English word "uh-oh".
^ Literally, "my husband".
^ "Yahweh".. 2017-04-30.
^ Maimonides. Mishneh Torah, Yesodei ha-
^ EJ (2005), p. 179.
^ Rich, Tracey R. (1996), "The Name of G-d",
Judaism 101, retrieved 31
Aug 2015 .
^ "If an error is made in writing it, it may not be erased, but a line
must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled...", "Names of
God", 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
^ a b Maimonides. "Yesodei ha-
Torah - Chapter 6". Mishneh
Sefer Madda. Translated by Eliyahu Touger. Chabad.org. Retrieved
Rabbi Jose, Soferim, 4:1, Yer. R.H., 1:1; Ab. R.N.,
Rabbi Ishmael, Sanh., 66a.
^ Sheb. 35a.[clarification needed]
^ Num. 6:23–27.
^ Byrne, Máire (2011), The Names of
God in Judaism, Christianity, and
Islam: A Basis for Interfaith Dialogue, A&C Black,
p. 24 .
^ Ruth 2:4.
^ Ruth 2:4 (WEB).
^ Harris, Stephen L. (1985), Understanding the Bible: A Reader's
Introduction, 2nd ed., Palo Alto: Mayfield, p. 21 .
^ Gordon, Nehemia, "The Pronunciation of the Name" (PDF), The Karaite
Korner, retrieved 5 June 2015 .
^ Gen. 2:4.
^ a b Exod. 3:14.
^ "The Tetragrammaton—The Unpronounceable Four-Letter Name of God",
My Jewish Learning, retrieved 17 September 2014 .
^ "Hebrew Name for God—Adonai", Hebrew for Christians, retrieved 21
May 2014 .
^ "Adonai", Theopedia .
^ Origen, Commentary on
^ Jerome, Prologus Galeatus.
^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst,
"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", pp.274-277.
Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
^ KJV margin at Gen.33:20
^ Genesis 46:3
^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst,
"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", pp.277-279.
Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
Mark S. Smith (2008).
God in Translation: Deities in Cross-Cultural
Discourse in the Biblical World. Coronet Books Incorporated.
p. 15. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
^ R. Toporoski, "What was the origin of the royal "we" and why is it
no longer used?", (The Times, May 29, 2002. Ed. F1, p. 32)
^ Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (A. E. Cowley, ed., Oxford, 1976, p.398)
^ Mark S. Smith,
God in Translation: Deities in Cross-Cultural
Discourse in the Biblical World, vol. 57 of Forschungen zum Alten
Testament, Mohr Siebeck, 2008, ISBN 978-3-16-149543-4, p. 19.;
Smith, Mark S. (2002), "The Early History of God:
Yahweh and the Other
Deities in Ancient Israel" (Biblical Resource Series)
^ Exod. 6:26, 7:4, 12:41.
^ 1 Sam. 17:45.
^ Georges, O. Badellini, F. Calonghi, Dizionario latino-italiano
[Latin-to-Italian Dictionary], Rosenberg & Sellier, Turin, 17th
edition, 1989,page 2431 of 2959
^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "Jah, n." Oxford University
Press (Oxford), 1900.
^ Ps. 68:4.
^ Is. 12:2, 26:4, & 38:11.
^ E.g., Ps. 150:1.
^ "Lord", International Standard
p. 157 .
^ "Adonai and Adoni (Psalm 110:1)", Focus on the Kingdom, Restoration
Fellowship, retrieved 5 June 2015 .
^ 1 Sam. 29:8.
^ Yoel Elitzur, Shemot HaEl VeTaarichei Ketivat Sifrei HaMiqra,
published in Be'einei
Elohim VaAdam, Beit Morasha Jerusalem: 2017, p
407 footnote 24; see also link.
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "Baal, n."
^ Oxford Dictionaries (2015), "Baal"
^ a b Merriam-Webster Online (2015), "baal".
^ Webb's Easy
Bible Names Pronunciation Guide (2012), "Baal".
^ Cleghorn & al. (2011), p. 87.
^ Herrmann (1999), p. 132.
^ Pope (2006).
^ DULAT (2015), "bʕl (II)".
^ a b BEWR (2006), "Baal".
^ a b Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. VII,
p. 675 .
^ ZPBD (1963).
^ Hos. 2:16.
^ Uittenbogaard, Arie, Ishi The amazing name Ishi : meaning and
etymology, Abarim Publications, retrieved 21 May 2014 .
^ Hos. 2:16 (NASB).
^ a b Seidner, 4.
^ Seidner, 5.
^ New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Watchtower
Tract Society of New York, Inc. Exodus 3:14 footnote, "Exodus 3:14
^ The Divine Name in the Hebrew Scriptures "NWT 2013 Appendix
^ "Exodus 3:14 LXX". Bibledatabase.net. Retrieved 2014-05-21.
Philo Life Of
Moses Vol.1 :75
^ Life of
Moses I 75, Life of
Moses II 67,99,132,161 in F.H. Colson
Philo Works Vol. VI, Loeb Classics, Harvard 1941
^ Rev.1:4,1:8.4:8 UBS Greek Text Ed.4
^ Torrey 1945, 64; Metzger 1957, 96; Moore 1992, 704,
^ Gen. 16:13.
^ Gen. 16:13 KJV.
^ Matthew Berke, GOD AND GENDER IN JUDAISM, First Things, June 1995;
Mel Scult, The Radical American
Judaism of Mordecai M. Kaplan, Indiana
University Press, 2013. p. 195.
^ Gen 21:33.
^ A name for
God that simply means "the Name."
^ Greenbaum, Elisha. "Thank G-d!". Chabad.org. Retrieved 15 February
Rabbi Adah ben Ahabah and
Rabbi Haninuna (possibly citing "'Ulla")
^ "H46 - 'abiyr - Strong's Hebrew Lexicon (KJV)". Blue Letter Bible.
Retrieved 20 November 2017.
^ "H117 - 'addiyr - Strong's Hebrew Lexicon (KJV)". Blue Letter Bible.
Retrieved 21 November 2017.
^ Names of
God Archived 2011-04-13 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. VI, Keter Publishing
House, p. 232 .
^ "Shaimos guidelines". Shaimos.org. Archived from the original on
2011-12-27. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions, New York: Encyclopædia
Britannica, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59339-491-2 .
Diccionario de la Lengua Ugarítica, 3rd ed., Leiden: translated
from the Spanish for E.J. Brill as A Dictionary of the Ugaritic
Language in the Alphabetic Tradition (Ser. Handbuch der Orientalistik
[Handbook of Oriental Studies], Vol. 112), 2015,
ISBN 978-90-04-28864-5 .
"Names of God", Encyclopedia of Judaism, Infobase Publishing, 2005,
p. 179, ISBN 0816069824 .
The Zondervan Pictorial
Bible Dictionary, Grand Rapids: Zondervan
Publishing House, 1963, ISBN 978-0310235606 .
Cleghorn, T.L.; et al. (2011), Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics: A
Tool for Mastering the World's Languages, 2nd ed.,
ISBN 978-1-4507-8190-9 .
Herrmann, Wolfgang (1999), "Baal", Dictionary of Deities and Demons in
the Bible, 2nd ed., Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing,
pp. 132–139 .
Pope, Marvin H. (2006), "
Baal Worship", Encyclopaedia Judaica,
2nd ed., Vol. III, New York: Thomas Gale,
ISBN 978-0028659282 .
A Christian Discussion of the pronunciation of YHWH, including a new
theory that explains all theophoric elements
God's names in Jewish thought and in the light of Kabbalah
The Name of
God as Revealed in Exodus 3:14—an explanation of its
Bibliography on Divine Names in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Jewish Encyclopedia: Names of God
"Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh" - Song and Video of Ancient Yemenite Prayer From
R. Clover. "The Sacred Name Yahweh". Qadesh La
Yahweh Press. Archived
from the original on June 15, 2007.
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Names of God
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