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The Info List - Names Of God In Judaism


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The name of God
God
used in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is the Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
YHWH (יהוה‬). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah
Jehovah
and Yahweh[1] and written in most English editions of the Bible
Bible
as "the Lord" owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered. It was thus replaced vocally in the synagogue ritual by the Hebrew word Adonai (“My Lord”), which was translated as Kyrios
Kyrios
(“Lord”) in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures.[2] Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
describes seven names which are so holy that, once written, should not be erased: The Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
written as YHWH and six others which can be categorized as titles are El ("God"), Eloah ("God"), Elohim
Elohim
("Gods"), Shaddai (" God
God
Almighty"), Ehyeh, and Tzevaot ("[of] Hosts").[3] Other names are considered mere epithets or titles reflecting different aspects of God,[4] but chumrah sometimes dictates special care such as the writing of "G-d" instead of "God" in English or saying Ṭēt-Vav (טו, lit. "9-6") instead of Yōd-Hē (יה, lit. "10-5" but also "Jah") for the number fifteen in Hebrew.[5] The documentary hypothesis proposes that the Torah
Torah
was compiled from various original sources, two of which (the Jahwist and the Elohist) are named for their usual names for God
God
(YHWH and Elohim respectively).

Contents

1 Seven Names of God

1.1 YHWH 1.2 El 1.3 Eloah 1.4 Elohim 1.5 Elohai 1.6 El Shaddai 1.7 Tzevaot 1.8 Jah

2 Other names and titles

2.1 Adonai 2.2 Adoshem 2.3 Baal 2.4 Ehyeh asher ehyeh 2.5 Elah 2.6 El Roi 2.7 Elyon 2.8 Eternal One 2.9 HaShem 2.10 Shalom 2.11 Shekhinah

3 Uncommon or esoteric names 4 Writing divine names 5 Kabbalistic use 6 English names 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Bibliography

10 External links

Seven Names of God[edit] The seven names of God
God
that, once written, cannot be erased because of their holiness[6] are the Tetragrammaton, El, Elohim, Eloah, Elohai, El Shaddai, and Tzevaot.[7] In addition, the name Jah—because it forms part of the Tetragrammaton—is similarly protected.[7] Rabbi Jose considered "Tzevaot" a common name[8] and Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael
Ishmael
that "Elohim" was.[9] All other names, such as "Merciful", "Gracious" and "Faithful", merely represent attributes that are also common to human beings.[10]

An early depiction of the Tetragrammaton: a passage of the Ketef Hinnom silver scrolls with the Priestly Blessing
Priestly Blessing
from the Book
Book
of Numbers[11] (c. 600 BCE).

YHWH[edit]

The Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
in Paleo-Hebrew (fl. 1100 BCE – 500 CE), Aramaic (fl. 1100 BCE – 200 CE), and modern Hebrew scripts.

Portion of column 19 of the Psalms
Psalms
Scroll (Tehilim) from Qumran Cave 11. The Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
in paleo-Hebrew can be clearly seen six times in this portion.

Main articles: Tetragrammaton, Yahweh, and Lord § Religion The name of God
God
used most often in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is YHWH[n 1] (י ה ו ה‬), also known as the Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
(Greek for "four-letter [word]"). Hebrew is a right-to-left abjad, so the word's letters Yōd, Hē, Vav, Hē are usually taken for consonants and expanded to Yahweh or Jehovah
Jehovah
in English. In modern Jewish culture, it is accepted as forbidden to pronounce the name the way that it is spelled. In prayers it is pronounced Adonai, and in discussion is usually said as HaShem, meaning “The Name”. The exact pronunciation is uncertain because—although there is nothing in the Torah
Torah
to prohibit the saying of the name[12] and Ruth shows it was being pronounced as late as the 5th century BCE[13][n 2]—it had ceased to be spoken aloud by at least the 3rd century BCE during Second Temple Judaism[15] and vowel points were not written until the early medieval period. The Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
uses vowel points of Adonai or Elohim
Elohim
(depending on the context) marking the pronunciation as Yəhōwāh (יְ הֹ וָ ה, [jăhowɔh] ( listen)); however, scholarly consensus is that this is not the original pronunciation.[16] (For a discussion of subtle pronunciation changes between what is preserved in the Hebrew Scriptures and what is read, see Qere and Ketiv.) The Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
first appears in Genesis[17] and occurs 6828 times in total in the Stuttgart edition of the Masoretic Text. It is thought to be an archaic third-person singular imperfect tense of the verb "to be" (i.e., "[He] was being"). This agrees with the passage in Exodus where God
God
names Himself as "I Will Be What I Will Be"[18] using the first-person singular imperfect tense. Rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
teaches that the name is forbidden to all except the High Priest, who should only speak it in the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
of the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on Yom Kippur. He then pronounces the name "just as it is written".[citation needed][19] As each blessing was made, the people in the courtyard were to prostrate themselves completely as they heard it spoken aloud. As the Temple has not been rebuilt since its destruction in 70 CE, most modern Jews
Jews
never pronounce YHWH but instead read Adonai ("My Lord") during prayer and while reading the Torah
Torah
and as HaShem ("The Name") at other times.[20][21] Similarly, the Vulgate
Vulgate
used Dominus ("The Lord") and most English translations of the Bible
Bible
write "the Lord" for YHWH and "the Lord God" for Adonai YHWH instead of transcribing the name. (The Septuagint apparently originally used the Hebrew letters themselves amid its Greek text[22][23] but all surviving editions instead write either Kyrios
Kyrios
[Κυριος, "Lord") or Theos [Θεος, "God"] for occurrences of the name.) El[edit]

El

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See also: El (deity)
El (deity)
§ Hebrew Bible El appears in Ugaritic, Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st millennium BCE texts both as generic "god" and as the head of the divine pantheon.[24] In the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
El (Hebrew: אל‬) appears very occasionally alone (e.g. Genesis 33:20, el elohe yisrael, "El the God
God
of Israel",[25] and Genesis 46:3, ha'el elohe abika, "El the God of thy father"),[26] but usually with some epithet or attribute attached (e.g. El Elyon, "Most High El", El Shaddai, "El of Shaddai", El `Olam "Everlasting El", El Hai, "Living El", El Ro'i "El my Shepherd", and El Gibbor "El of Strength"), in which cases it can be understood as the generic "god". In theophoric names such as Gabriel ("Strength of God"), Michael ("Who is like God?"), Raphael ("God's medicine"), Ariel ("God's lion"), Daniel ("God's Judgment"), Israel ("one who has struggled with God"), Immanuel
Immanuel
(" God
God
is with us"), and Ishmael
Ishmael
(" God
God
Hears"/" God
God
Listens") it is usually interpreted and translated as "God", but it is not clear whether these "el"s refer to the deity in general or to the god El in particular.[27] Eloah[edit] Further information: Elohim
Elohim
§ Etymology Elohim[edit] Main article: Elohim A common name of God
God
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
is Elohim
Elohim
(Hebrew:  אלהים‬ (help·info)‎). Despite the -im ending common to many plural nouns in Hebrew, the word Elohim
Elohim
when referring to God
God
is grammatically singular, and takes a singular verb in the Hebrew Bible. The word is identical to the usual plural of el meaning gods or magistrates, and is cognate to the 'lhm found in Ugaritic, where it is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods, the children of El and conventionally vocalized as "Elohim" although the original Ugaritic vowels are unknown. When the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
uses elohim not in reference to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:2). There are a few other such uses in Hebrew, for example Behemoth. In Modern Hebrew, the singular word ba'alim ("owner", "lord", or "husband") looks plural, but likewise takes a singular verb. A number of scholars have traced the etymology to the Semitic root *yl, "to be first, powerful", despite some difficulties with this view.[28] Elohim
Elohim
is thus the plural construct "powers". Hebrew grammar allows for this form to mean "He is the Power (singular) over powers (plural)", just as the word Ba'alim means "owner" (see above). "He is lord (singular) even over any of those things that he owns that are lordly (plural)." Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals of majesty came about in more modern times. Richard Toporoski, a classics scholar, asserts that plurals of majesty first appeared in the reign of Diocletian
Diocletian
(CE 284–305).[29] Indeed, Gesenius states in his book Hebrew Grammar the following:[30]

The Jewish grammarians call such plurals … plur. virium or virtutum; later grammarians call them plur. excellentiae, magnitudinis, or plur. maiestaticus. This last name may have been suggested by the we used by kings when speaking of themselves (compare 1 Maccabees
1 Maccabees
10:19 and 11:31); and the plural used by God
God
in Genesis 1:26 and 11:7; Isaiah 6:8 has been incorrectly explained in this way). It is, however, either communicative (including the attendant angels: so at all events in Isaiah 6:8 and Genesis 3:22), or according to others, an indication of the fullness of power and might implied. It is best explained as a plural of self-deliberation. The use of the plural as a form of respectful address is quite foreign to Hebrew.

Mark S. Smith has cited the use of plural as possible evidence to suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of monotheism, wherein references to "the gods" (plural) in earlier accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple aspects of a single monotheistic God
God
at the time of writing, or subsumed under a form of monolatry, wherein the god(s) of a certain city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the God
God
of Israel
Israel
and the plural deliberately dropped.[31] The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim ("life") or betulim ("virginity"). If understood this way, Elohim
Elohim
means "divinity" or "deity". The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise. In many of the passages in which elohim occurs in the Bible
Bible
it refers to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6, Psalms
Psalms
8:5) as a simple plural in those instances.

Elohai[edit] Elohai or Elohei ("My God") is a form of Elohim
Elohim
along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic. It appears in the names "God of Abraham" (Elohai Avraham); " God
God
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob" (Elohai Avraham, Elohai Yitzchak ve Elohai Yaʿaqov); and " God
God
of Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel" (Elohai Sara, Elohai Rivka, Elohai Leah
Leah
ve Elohai Rakhel). El Shaddai[edit] Main article: El Shaddai El Shaddai (Hebrew:  אל שדי‬ (help·info)‎, pronounced [ʃaˈda.i]) is one of the names of God
God
in Judaism, with its etymology coming from the influence of the Ugaritic religion on modern Judaism. El Shaddai is conventionally translated as "God Almighty". While the translation of El as "god" in Ugarit/Canaanite language is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of debate. Tzevaot[edit] Tzevaot, Tsebaoth or Sabaoth (צבאות‬, [tsvaot] ( listen), lit. "Armies") appears in reference to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus[32] but is not used as a divine epithet in the Torah, Joshua, or Judges. In the First Book
Book
of Samuel, David
David
uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and immediately glosses it as "the God
God
of the armies of Israel".[33] The same name appears in the prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey Tzevaot, and Adonai YHWH Tzevaot. These are usually translated in the King James Version as the "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord God
God
of Hosts". In its later uses, however, it often denotes God
God
in His role as leader of the heavenly hosts.[citation needed] The jewish word Sabaoth was also absorbed in Ancient Greek (σαβαωθ, sabaoth) and Latin
Latin
(Sabaoth, with no declination). Tertullian
Tertullian
and other patristics used it with the meaning of Army of angels of God.[34] Jah[edit] Main articles: Jah
Jah
and Theophory in the Bible The abbreviated form Jah
Jah
(/dʒɑː/)[35] or Yah (/jɑː/ ( listen); יהּ, Yahu) appears in the Psalms[36] and Isaiah.[37] It is a common element in Hebrew theophoric names such as Elijah and also appears in the forms yahu ("Jeremiah"), yeho ("Joshua"), and yo ("John", ultimately from the biblical "Yohanan"). It also appears 24 times in the Psalms
Psalms
as a part of Hallelujah ("Praise Jah").[38] Other names and titles[edit] Adonai[edit]

Shefa Tal - A Kabbalistic explanation of the Priestly Blessing
Priestly Blessing
with Adonai inscribed.

Adonai

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Adonai (אֲדֹנָי‬, lit. "My Lords") is the plural form of adon ("Lord") along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic.[n 3] As with Elohim, Adonai's grammatical form is usually explained as a plural of majesty. In the Hebrew Bible, it is only used to refer to God. As the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
came to be avoided in the Hellenistic period, Jews
Jews
began to read "Adonai" at its appearances in scripture and to say "Adonai" in its place in prayer. Owing to the expansion of chumra (the idea of "building a fence around the Torah"), Adonai itself has come to be too holy to say for Orthodox Jews, leading to its replacement by HaShem ("The Name"). The singular forms adon and adoni ("my lord") are used in scripture as royal titles,[39][40] as in the First Book
Book
of Samuel,[41] and for distinguished persons. The Phoenicians
Phoenicians
used it as a title of Tammuz, the origin of the Greek Adonis, and is also used in scripture to refer to God
God
(e.g. Ps 114:7.)[42] Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
10:17 has the proper name Yahweh
Yahweh
alongside the superlative constructions "god[s] of gods" elōhê ha-elōhîm and "lord of lords" adōnê ha-adōnîm (כִּי יְ ה וָ ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָֽאֱלֹהִים וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים ‬; KJV: "For the LORD your God
God
is God
God
of gods, and Lord of lords"). The final syllable of Adonai uses the vowel kamatz, rather than patach which would be expected from the Hebrew for "my lord(s)". Prof. Yoel Elitzur explains this as a normal transformation when a Hebrew word becomes a name, giving as other examples Nathan, Yitzchak, and Yigal.[43] Adoshem[edit]

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Up until the mid-twentieth century, the use of the word Adoshem, combining the first two syllables of "Adonai" with the last syllable of "Hashem"', was quite common. This was discouraged by Rabbi
Rabbi
David HaLevi Segal in his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. His rationale was that it is disrespectful to combine a Name of God
God
with another word. It took a few centuries for the word to fall into almost complete disuse. Despite being obsolete in most circles, it is used occasionally in conversation in place of Adonai by Jews
Jews
who do not wish to say Adonai but need to specify the substitution of that particular word. It is also used when quoting from the liturgy in a non-liturgical context. For example, Shlomo Carlebach performed his prayer "Shema Yisrael" with the words Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
Adoshem Elokeinu Adoshem Eḥad instead of Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Eḥad.

Baal[edit] Main article: Baal Baal
Baal
(/ˈbeɪəl/),[44][n 4] properly Baʿal,[n 5] meant "owner" and, by extension, "lord",[49] "master", and "husband" in Hebrew and the other Northwest Semitic languages.[50][51] In some early contexts and theophoric names, it and Baali (/ˈbeɪəlaɪ/; "My Lord") were treated as synonyms of Adon and Adonai.[52] After the time of Solomon[53] and particularly after Jezebel's attempt to promote the worship of the Lord of Tyre Melqart,[52] however, the name became particularly associated with the Canaanite storm god Baʿal Haddu
Baʿal Haddu
and was gradually avoided as a title for Yahweh.[53] Several names that included it were rewritten as bosheth ("shame").[54] The prophet Hosea in particular reproached the Israelites
Israelites
for continuing to use the term:[55]

"It will come about in that day," declares the Lord, "That you will call Me Ishi[n 6] And will no longer call Me Baali."[57]

Ehyeh asher ehyeh[edit] Main article: I Am that I Am

Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh

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Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew: אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה) is the first of three responses given to Moses
Moses
when he asks for God's name in the Book
Book
of Exodus.[18] The King James Version
King James Version
of the Bible translates the Hebrew as "I Am that I Am" and uses it as a proper name for God. The Aramaic Targum Onkelos
Targum Onkelos
leaves the phrase untranslated and is so quoted in the Talmud
Talmud
(B. B. 73a.[clarification needed]) Ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, "to be". Ehyeh is usually translated "I will be", since the imperfect tense in Hebrew denotes actions that are not yet completed (e.g. Exodus 3:12, "Certainly I will be [ehyeh] with thee.").[58] Asher is an ambiguous pronoun which can mean, depending on context, "that", "who", "which", or "where".[58] Although Ehyeh asher ehyeh is generally rendered in English "I am that I am", better renderings might be "I will be what I will be" or "I will be who I will be", or "I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall prove to be" or even "I will be because I will be".[59] Other renderings include: Leeser, “I Will Be that I Will Be”; Rotherham, "I Will Become whatsoever I please", New World Translation (2013 Edition): "I Will Become What I Choose to Become."[60][61] Greek, Ego eimi ho on (ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ὤν), "I am The Being" in the Septuagint,[62] and Philo,[63][64] and Revelation[65] or, "I am The Existing One"; Lat., ego sum qui sum, "I am Who I am." Elah[edit] Elah (Aramaic: אֱלָה; pl. "elim") is the Aramaic word for God. The origin of the word is uncertain and it may be related to a root word, meaning "reverence". Elah is found in the Tanakh
Tanakh
in the books of Ezra, Jeremiah (Jer 10:11, the only verse in the entire book written in Aramaic),[66] and Daniel. Elah is used to describe both pagan gods and the Jews' God. The word 'Elah - إله' is also an Arabic word which means god. The name is etymologically related to Allah
Allah
الله used by Muslims.

Elah Yisrael, God
God
of Israel
Israel
(Ezra 5:1) Elah Yerushelem, God
God
of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Ezra 7:19) Elah Shemaya, God
God
of Heaven
Heaven
(Ezra 7:23) Elah-avahati, God
God
of my fathers, (Daniel 2:23) Elah Elahin, God
God
of gods (Daniel 2:47)

El Roi[edit] Main article: El Roi In the Book
Book
of Genesis, Hagar
Hagar
is said to call the name of Yahweh
Yahweh
who spoke to her through his angel. In Hebrew, her phrase "El Roi" is taken as an epithet of God
God
(" God
God
of Seeing")[67] although the King James Version translates it as a statement: "Thou God
God
seest me."[68] Elyon[edit]

`Elyon

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Main article: Elyon The name Elyon
Elyon
(Hebrew: עליון) occurs in combination with El, YHWH, Elohim
Elohim
and alone. It appears chiefly in poetic and later Biblical passages. The modern Hebrew adjective "`Elyon" means "supreme" (as in "Supreme Court") or "Most High". El Elyon
Elyon
has been traditionally translated into English as ' God
God
Most High'. The Phoenicians
Phoenicians
used what appears to be a similar name for God, Έλιον. It is cognate to the Arabic `Aliyy. Eternal One[edit] "The Eternal One" is increasingly used, particularly in Reform and Reconstructionist communities seeking to use gender-neutral language.[69] In the Torah, " Hashem
Hashem
Kel Olam" ("the Everlasting God") is used at Genesis 21:33 to refer to God.[70]

HaShem[edit] "HaShem" redirects here. For other people with similar names, see Hashem. It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God to a liturgical context. In casual conversation some Jews, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God
God
HaShem (השם‬), which is Hebrew for "the Name" (cf. Leviticus
Leviticus
24:11 and Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
28:58). Likewise, when quoting from the Tanakh
Tanakh
or prayers, some pious Jews
Jews
will replace Adonai with HaShem. For example, when making audio recordings of prayer services, HaShem[71] will generally be substituted for Adonai. A popular expression containing this phrase is Baruch HaShem, meaning "Thank God" (literally, "Blessed be the Name").[72] Shalom[edit] Main article: Shalom Talmudic authors,[73] ruling on the basis of Gideon's name for an altar ("YHVH-Shalom", according to Judges 6:24), write that "the name of God
God
is 'Peace'" (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. 10b); consequently, a Talmudic opinion (Shabbat, 10b) asserts that one would greet another with the word  shalom (help·info) in order for the word not to be forgotten in the exile. But one is not permitted to greet another with the word  shalom (help·info) in unholy places such as a bathroom, because of holiness of the name. Shekhinah[edit] Main article: Shekhinah Shekhinah ( שכינה (help·info)‬) is the presence or manifestation of God
God
which has descended to "dwell" among humanity. The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God
God
dwelling either in the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
or amongst the people of Israel. The root of the word means "dwelling". Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar. Some believe that this was the name of a female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always mentioned in conjunction with an article (e.g.: "the Shekhina descended and dwelt among them" or "He removed Himself and His Shekhina from their midst"). This kind of usage does not occur in Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names. The Arabic form of the word "Sakīnah سكينة" is also mentioned in the Quran. This mention is in the middle of the narrative of the choice of Saul
Saul
to be king and is mentioned as descending with the Ark of the Covenant, here the word is used to mean "security" and is derived from the root sa-ka-na which means dwell:

And (further) their Prophet said to them: "A Sign of his authority is that there shall come to you the Ark of the Covenant, with (an assurance) therein of security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses
Moses
and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a Symbol for you if ye indeed have faith."

Uncommon or esoteric names[edit]

Abir – "Strong One"[74] Adir – "Great One"[75] Adon Olam – "Master of the World" Aibishter – "The Most High" (Yiddish) Aleim – sometimes seen as an alternative transliteration of Elohim, "A'lim " "عليم" in Arabic means who intensively knows, "A'alim" "عالم" means who knows, the verb is "A'lima" علم means " knows ", while "Allahomma" "اللهم" in Arabic equals to "O'God" and used to supplicate him for something. Aravat (or Avarat) – "Father of Creation"; mentioned once in 2 Enoch, "On the tenth heaven is God, in the Hebrew tongue he is called Aravat".  Avinu Malkeinu (help·info) – "Our Father, Our King"  Bore (help·info) – "The Creator" Dibbura or Dibbera - "The Word (The Law)" - used primarily in the Palestinian Targums of the Pentateuch (Aramaic); e.g. Num 7:89, The Word spoke to Moses
Moses
from between the cherubim in the holy of holies. Ehiyeh sh'Ehiyeh – "I Am That I Am": a modern Hebrew version of "Ehyeh asher Ehyeh" Ein Sof
Ein Sof
– "Endless, Infinite", Kabbalistic name of God El ha-Gibbor – " God
God
the Hero" or " God
God
the Strong" or " God
God
the Warrior"." Allah
Allah
jabbar" "الله جبار" in Arabic means "the God is formidable and invincible" Emet – "Truth" HaKadosh, Barukh Hu (Hebrew); Kudsha, Brikh Hu (Aramaic); تبارک القدوس (Arabic) – "The Holy One, Blessed Be He" HaRachaman – "The Merciful One"; "Rahman - رحمن" In (Arabic) Kadosh Israel
Israel
– "Holy One of Israel" Magen Avraham – "Shield of Abraham" Makom or HaMakom – literally "The Place", perhaps meaning "The Omnipresent" (see Tzimtzum) Malbish Arumim – "Clother of the Naked" Matir Asurim – "Freer of the Captives" Mechayeh HaKol In Arabic "Al-muhyi al-kull - محيي الكل" – "Life giver to All" (Reform version of Mechayeh Metim) Mechayeh Metim – "Life giver to the Dead" Melech HaMelachim–"The King of Kings" or Melech Malchei HaMelachim "The King, King of Kings", to express superiority to the earthly rulers title. Arabic version of it is مالك الملك (Malik al-Mulk). Melech HaOlam–"The King of the World" Memra d'Adonai-"The Word of the LORD" (plus variations such as "My Word") - restricted to the Aramaic Targums; (the written Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
is represented in various ways such as YYY, YWY, YY, but pronounced as the Hebrew "Adonai") Mi She'amar V'haya Ha`olam - "He who spoke, and the world came into being." Oseh Shalom
Shalom
– "Maker of Peace" Pokeach Ivrim – "Opener of Blind Eyes" Ribono shel'Olam – "Master of the World". Arabic version of it is رب العلمين

Rabb al-‘Alamin.

Ro'eh Yisra'el – "Shepherd of Israel" Rofeh Cholim – "Healer of the Sick" Shomer Yisrael – "Guardian of Israel" ( Psalms
Psalms
121:4) Somech Noflim – "Supporter of the Fallen" Tzur Israel
Israel
– "Rock of Israel" Uri Gol – "The New LORD for a New Era" (Judges 5:14) YHWH-Niss"i (Adonai-Nissi) – "The LORD Our Banner" (Exodus 17:8–15) YHWH-Rapha – "The LORD that Healeth" (Exodus 15:26) YHWH-Ro'i – "The LORD My Shepherd" ( Psalms
Psalms
23:1) YHWH- Shalom
Shalom
– "The LORD Our Peace" (Judges 6:24) YHWH-Shammah (Adonai-shammah) – "The LORD Is Present" (Ezekiel 48:35) YHWH-Tsidkenu – "The LORD Our Righteousness"[76] (Jeremiah 23:6) YHWH-Yireh (Adonai-jireh) – "The LORD Will Provide" (Genesis 22:13–14) Yotsehr 'Or – "Fashioner of Light" Zokef kefufim – "Straightener of the Bent"

Writing divine names[edit]

The Psalms
Psalms
in Hebrew and Latin. Manuscript on parchment, 12th century.

In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah scrolls, or tefillin and mezuzah. Before transcribing any of the divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Once he begins a name he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not be interrupted while writing it, even to greet a king. If an error is made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun. Kabbalistic use[edit] One of the most important names is that of the Ein Sof
Ein Sof
(אין סוף "Endless"), which first came into use after CE 1300.[77] The forty-two-lettered name contains the combined names אהיה יהוה אדוני הויה, that when spelled out contains 42 letters. The equivalent in value of YHWH (spelled יוד הא ואו הא = 45) is the forty-five-lettered name.[clarification needed] The seventy-two-lettered name is derived from three verses in Exodus (14:19–21) beginning with "Vayyissa", "Vayyabo" and "Vayyet" respectively. Each of the verses contains 72 letters, and when combined they form 72 names, known collectively as the Shemhamphorasch. The kabbalistic book Sefer Yetzirah
Sefer Yetzirah
explains that the creation of the world was achieved by the manipulation of these sacred letters that form the names of God. English names[edit] The words "God" and "Lord" are written by some Jews
Jews
as "G-d" and "L-rd" as a way of avoiding writing any name of God
God
in full out of respect. Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
12:3–4 reads, "And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and burn their groves with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods, and destroy the names of them out of that place. Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God." From this it is understood that one should not erase or blot out the name of God. The general halachic opinion is that this only applies to the sacred Hebrew names of God, but not to other euphemistic references; there is a dispute whether the word "God" in English or other languages may be erased.[78] See also[edit]

Judaism
Judaism
portal

Baal
Baal
Shem Besiyata Dishmaya Names of God Names of God
God
in Christianity Names of God
God
in Islam Naming taboo
Naming taboo
(a similar prohibition in China) Sacred Name Bibles Ten Commandments Vishnu Sahasranama

Notes[edit]

^ The Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
is also sometimes transcribed as YHVH or JHVH.[citation needed] ^ The World English Bible
Bible
translation: "Behold, Boaz
Boaz
came from Bethlehem, and said to the reapers, " Yahweh
Yahweh
be with you." They answered him, " Yahweh
Yahweh
bless you."[14] The book is traditionally ascribed to the prophet Samuel
Samuel
who lived in the 11th & 10th centuries BCE. A date of the 6th or 5th century BCE for the passage is, however, more common among subscribers to the Documentary Hypothesis
Documentary Hypothesis
regarding the development of the biblical canon. ^ Gesenius: "124i Further, אֲדֹנִים‬, as well as the singular אָדוֹן‬, (lordship) lord, e.g. אֲדֹנִים קָשֶׁה‬ a cruel lord, Is 194; אֲדֹנֵי הָאָ֫רֶץ‬ the lord of the land, Gn 4230, cf. Gn 3219; so especially with the suffixes of the 2nd and 3rd persons אֲדֹנֶ֫יךָ, אֲדֹנַ֫יִךְ‬ ψ 4512, אֲדֹנָיו‬, &c., also אֲדֹנֵ֫ינוּ‬ (except 1 S 1616); but in 1st sing. always אֲדֹנִי.[7] So also בְּעָלִים‬ (with suffixes) lord, master (of slaves, cattle, or inanimate things; but in the sense of maritus, always in the singular), e.g. בְּעָלָיו‬ Ex 2129, Is 13, &c." ^ The American pronunciation is usually the same[45][46] but some speakers prefer variants closer to the original sound, such as /bɑːˈɑːl, bɑːl/.[46][47] ^ The half ring ⟨ ʿ ⟩ or apostrophe ⟨ ' ⟩ in the name Baʿal marks the original words' glottal stop, a vocalization which appears in the middle of the English word "uh-oh".[48] ^ Literally, "my husband".[56]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ "Yahweh".. 2017-04-30.  ^ [1] ^ Maimonides. Mishneh Torah, Yesodei ha- Torah
Torah
§6:2.  ^ EJ (2005), p. 179. ^ Rich, Tracey R. (1996), "The Name of G-d", Judaism
Judaism
101, retrieved 31 Aug 2015 . ^ "If an error is made in writing it, it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled...", "Names of God", 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia ^ a b Maimonides. "Yesodei ha- Torah
Torah
- Chapter 6". Mishneh Torah
Torah
- Sefer Madda. Translated by Eliyahu Touger. Chabad.org. Retrieved 2017-08-10.  ^ Rabbi
Rabbi
Jose, Soferim, 4:1, Yer. R.H., 1:1; Ab. R.N., 34.[clarification needed] ^ Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael, Sanh., 66a. ^ Sheb. 35a.[clarification needed] ^ Num. 6:23–27. ^ Byrne, Máire (2011), The Names of God
God
in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: A Basis for Interfaith Dialogue, A&C Black, p. 24 . ^ Ruth 2:4. ^ Ruth 2:4 (WEB). ^ Harris, Stephen L. (1985), Understanding the Bible: A Reader's Introduction, 2nd ed., Palo Alto: Mayfield, p. 21 . ^ Gordon, Nehemia, "The Pronunciation of the Name" (PDF), The Karaite Korner, retrieved 5 June 2015 . ^ Gen. 2:4. ^ a b Exod. 3:14. ^ "The Tetragrammaton—The Unpronounceable Four-Letter Name of God", My Jewish Learning, retrieved 17 September 2014 . ^ "Hebrew Name for God—Adonai", Hebrew for Christians, retrieved 21 May 2014 . ^ "Adonai", Theopedia . ^ Origen, Commentary on Psalms
Psalms
2:2. ^ Jerome, Prologus Galeatus. ^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, "Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", pp.274-277. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-05.  ^ KJV margin at Gen.33:20 ^ Genesis 46:3 ^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, "Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", pp.277-279. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 2011-12-05.  ^ Mark S. Smith (2008). God
God
in Translation: Deities in Cross-Cultural Discourse in the Biblical World. Coronet Books Incorporated. p. 15. Retrieved 2011-12-05.  ^ R. Toporoski, "What was the origin of the royal "we" and why is it no longer used?", (The Times, May 29, 2002. Ed. F1, p. 32) ^ Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (A. E. Cowley, ed., Oxford, 1976, p.398) ^ Mark S. Smith, God
God
in Translation: Deities in Cross-Cultural Discourse in the Biblical World, vol. 57 of Forschungen zum Alten Testament, Mohr Siebeck, 2008, ISBN 978-3-16-149543-4, p. 19.; Smith, Mark S. (2002), "The Early History of God: Yahweh
Yahweh
and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel" (Biblical Resource Series) ^ Exod. 6:26, 7:4, 12:41. ^ 1 Sam. 17:45. ^ Georges, O. Badellini, F. Calonghi, Dizionario latino-italiano [Latin-to-Italian Dictionary], Rosenberg & Sellier, Turin, 17th edition, 1989,page 2431 of 2959 ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "Jah, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1900. ^ Ps. 68:4. ^ Is. 12:2, 26:4, & 38:11. ^ E.g., Ps. 150:1. ^ "Lord", International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia, p. 157 . ^ "Adonai and Adoni (Psalm 110:1)", Focus on the Kingdom, Restoration Fellowship, retrieved 5 June 2015 . ^ 1 Sam. 29:8. ^ http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Names_of_G-d/Adonai/adonai.html ^ Yoel Elitzur, Shemot HaEl VeTaarichei Ketivat Sifrei HaMiqra, published in Be'einei Elohim
Elohim
VaAdam, Beit Morasha Jerusalem: 2017, p 407 footnote 24; see also link. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(1885), "Baal, n." ^ Oxford Dictionaries (2015), "Baal" ^ a b Merriam-Webster Online (2015), "baal". ^ Webb's Easy Bible
Bible
Names Pronunciation Guide (2012), "Baal". ^ Cleghorn & al. (2011), p. 87. ^ Herrmann (1999), p. 132. ^ Pope (2006). ^ DULAT (2015), "bʕl (II)". ^ a b BEWR (2006), "Baal". ^ a b Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. VII, p. 675 . ^ ZPBD (1963). ^ Hos. 2:16. ^ Uittenbogaard, Arie, Ishi The amazing name Ishi : meaning and etymology, Abarim Publications, retrieved 21 May 2014 . ^ Hos. 2:16 (NASB). ^ a b Seidner, 4. ^ Seidner, 5. ^ New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Watchtower Bible
Bible
and Tract Society of New York, Inc. Exodus 3:14 footnote, "Exodus 3:14 NWT".  ^ The Divine Name in the Hebrew Scriptures "NWT 2013 Appendix A".  ^ "Exodus 3:14 LXX". Bibledatabase.net. Retrieved 2014-05-21.  ^ Yonge. Philo
Philo
Life Of Moses
Moses
Vol.1 :75 ^ Life of Moses
Moses
I 75, Life of Moses
Moses
II 67,99,132,161 in F.H. Colson Philo
Philo
Works Vol. VI, Loeb Classics, Harvard 1941 ^ Rev.1:4,1:8.4:8 UBS Greek Text Ed.4 ^ Torrey 1945, 64; Metzger 1957, 96; Moore 1992, 704, ^ Gen. 16:13. ^ Gen. 16:13 KJV. ^ Matthew Berke, GOD AND GENDER IN JUDAISM, First Things, June 1995; Mel Scult, The Radical American Judaism
Judaism
of Mordecai M. Kaplan, Indiana University Press, 2013. p. 195. ^ Gen 21:33. ^ A name for God
God
that simply means "the Name." ^ Greenbaum, Elisha. "Thank G-d!". Chabad.org. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Rabbi
Rabbi
Adah ben Ahabah and Rabbi
Rabbi
Haninuna (possibly citing "'Ulla") ^ "H46 - 'abiyr - Strong's Hebrew Lexicon (KJV)". Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ "H117 - 'addiyr - Strong's Hebrew Lexicon (KJV)". Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ Names of God
God
Archived 2011-04-13 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. VI, Keter Publishing House, p. 232 . ^ "Shaimos guidelines". Shaimos.org. Archived from the original on 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 

Bibliography[edit]

Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions, New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59339-491-2 . Diccionario de la Lengua Ugarítica, 3rd ed., Leiden: translated from the Spanish for E.J. Brill as A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition (Ser. Handbuch der Orientalistik [Handbook of Oriental Studies], Vol. 112), 2015, ISBN 978-90-04-28864-5 . "Names of God", Encyclopedia of Judaism, Infobase Publishing, 2005, p. 179, ISBN 0816069824 . The Zondervan Pictorial Bible
Bible
Dictionary, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1963, ISBN 978-0310235606 . Cleghorn, T.L.; et al. (2011), Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics: A Tool for Mastering the World's Languages, 2nd ed., ISBN 978-1-4507-8190-9 . Herrmann, Wolfgang (1999), "Baal", Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed., Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, pp. 132–139 . Pope, Marvin H. (2006), " Baal
Baal
Worship", Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2nd ed., Vol. III, New York: Thomas Gale, ISBN 978-0028659282 .

External links[edit]

A Christian Discussion of the pronunciation of YHWH, including a new theory that explains all theophoric elements God's names in Jewish thought and in the light of Kabbalah The Name of God
God
as Revealed in Exodus 3:14—an explanation of its meaning. Bibliography on Divine Names in the Dead Sea Scrolls Jewish Encyclopedia: Names of God "Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh" - Song and Video of Ancient Yemenite Prayer From the Diwan R. Clover. "The Sacred Name Yahweh". Qadesh La Yahweh
Yahweh
Press. Archived from the original on June 15, 2007. 

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