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Namaste
Namaste
(/ˈnɑːməsteɪ/, Devanagari: नमस्ते, Hindi: [nəməsteː] ( listen)), sometimes spoken as Namaskar, Namaskaram is a respectful form of greeting in Hindu
Hindu
custom, found on the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
mainly in India
India
and Nepal
Nepal
and among the Indian diaspora. Also in other parts of south-east Asia
Asia
where there is little or no Hindu
Hindu
influence. It is used both for salutation and valediction.[1][2] Namaste
Namaste
is usually spoken with a slight bow and hands pressed together, palms touching and fingers pointing upwards, thumbs close to the chest. This gesture is called Añjali Mudrā
Añjali Mudrā
or Pranamasana.[3] Namaste
Namaste
can be spoken without the bow, however, the bow is more formal and is considered to be respectful, especially when directed towards an elder or a person of importance. In India, it is a common greeting, but it has no spiritual significance. The greeting may also be spoken without the gesture or the gesture performed wordlessly, carrying the same meaning.

Contents

1 Etymology, meaning and origins 2 Representations 3 Uses

3.1 Regional variations

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology, meaning and origins[edit]

Statue in a Thai temple

Namaste
Namaste
(Namah + te, Devanagari: नम:+ ते = नमस्ते) is derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and is a combination of the word namah and the second person dative pronoun in its enclitic form, te.[4] The word namaḥ takes the Sandhi form namas before the sound t.[5][6] Namaḥ means 'bow', 'obeisance', 'reverential salutation' or 'adoration'[7] and te means 'to you' (singular dative case of 'tvam'). Therefore, Namaste
Namaste
literally means "bowing to you". [8] In Hinduism, it also has a spiritual import reflecting the belief that "the divine and self (atman, soul) is same in you and me", and connotes "I bow to the divine in you".[9][10] A less common variant is used in the case of three or more people being addressed namely Namo vaḥ which is a combination of namaḥ and the enclitic 2nd person plural pronoun vaḥ.[4] The word namaḥ takes the Sandhi form namo before the sound v.[5] An even less common variant is used in the case of two people being addressed, namely, Namo vām, which is a combination of namaḥ and the enclitic 2nd person dual pronoun vām.[4] Representations[edit] Excavations for Indus civilization have revealed many male and female terracotta figures in Namaste
Namaste
posture.[11][12] These archaeological findings are dated to be between 3000 BC to 2000 BC.[13][14] Uses[edit]

Pressing hands together with a smile to greet Namaste
Namaste
– a common cultural practice in India.

A side view of man in Namaste
Namaste
pose.

The gesture is widely used throughout India, Nepal, Bangladesh, parts of Asia
Asia
and beyond where people of South and Southeast Asian origins have migrated.[9] Namaste
Namaste
or namaskar is used as a respectful form of greeting, acknowledging and welcoming a relative, guest or stranger.[2] In some contexts, namaste is used by one person to express gratitude for assistance offered or given, and to thank the other person for his or her generous kindness.[15] Namaskar is also part of the 16 upacharas used inside temples or any place of formal Puja (worship). Namaste
Namaste
in the context of deity worship, scholars conclude,[16][17] has the same function as in greeting a guest or anyone else. It expresses politeness, courtesy, honor, and hospitality from one person to the other. It is used in goodbyes as well. This is sometimes expressed, in ancient Hindu scriptures such as Taittiriya Upanishad, as Atithi Devobhava (literally, may the guest be god).[18][19] Namaste
Namaste
is one of the six forms of pranama, and in parts of India these terms are used synonymously.[20][21] Regional variations[edit] In the Hindi and Nepalese speaking populations of South Asia, Namaste (Hindi: [nəməsteː] ( listen), Devanagari: नमस्ते) and Namaskar are used synonymously. In Nepal, people generally use Namaskar for greeting and respecting their elders. In Odia namaste is also known as ନମସ୍କାର (namaskār) General greeting[Hello-Namaskar]. In Kannada, Namaskara (ನಮಸ್ಕಾರ) for singular and Namaskaragalu (ನಮಸ್ಕಾರಗಳು) is used and sharanu (ಶರಣು) is widely used in karnataka for namaste . In Telugu, Namaste
Namaste
is also known as Dandamu (దండము) or namaskaram (నమస్కారం) for singular and Dandaalu or namaskaralu for plural form. Pranamamu (ప్రణామము) is also used in formal Telugu. In Bengali, the Namaste
Namaste
gesture is expressed as Nōmōshkar (নমস্কার), and as Prōnäm (Bengali: প্রণাম) informally. In Assamese, Nômôskar (নমস্কাৰ) is used. In Tamil, Namaste
Namaste
is known as Vanakkam (வணக்கம்) which is derived from the root word vanangu (வணங்கு) meaning to bow or to greet. In Malayalam, Namaskāram (നമസ്കാരം) is used. See also[edit]

Culture of India Culture of Nepal Añjali Mudrā Pranāma Sat Sri Akal Gassho Sampeah Wai

References[edit]

^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Disctionary University of Koeln, Germany ^ a b Constance Jones and James D. Ryan, Encyclopedia of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9, p. 302 ^ Chatterjee, Gautam (2001), Sacred Hindu
Hindu
Symbols, Google books, pp. 47–48 . ^ a b c Thomas Burrow, The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Language, pp. 263–268 ^ a b Thomas Burrow, The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Language, pp. 100–102 ^ Namah Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary ^ "Cologne Digital Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Lexicon", Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries (search results), University of Cologne, retrieved March 24, 2012 . ^ Namaste
Namaste
Douglas Harper, Etymology Dictionary ^ a b Ying, Y. W., Coombs, M., & Lee, P. A. (1999), Family intergenerational relationship of Asian American adoblescents, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5(4), pp. 350–363 ^ K V Singh (2015). Hindu
Hindu
Rites and Rituals: Origins and Meanings. Penguin Books. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-0143425106.  ^ Sharma & Sharma (2004), Panorama of Harappan Civilization, ISBN 978-8174790576, Kaveri Books, page 129 ^ Origins of Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism
Today, Volume 7, Issue 2 (April/May/June), Chapter 1, p. 3 ^ Seated Male in Namaskar pose National Museum, New Delhi, India (2012) ^ S Kalyanaraman, Indus Script Cipher: Hieroglyphs of Indian Linguistic Area, ISBN 978-0982897102, pp. 234–236 ^ Joseph Shaules (2007), Deep Culture: The Hidden Challenges of Global Living, ISBN 978-1847690166, pp. 68–70 ^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 2, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 720 ^ Fuller, C. J. (2004), The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism
Hinduism
and Society in India, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 66–70, ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5  ^ Kelkar (2010), A Vedic approach to measurement of service quality, Services Marketing Quarterly, 31(4), 420-433 ^ Roberto De Nobili, Preaching Wisdom to the Wise: Three Treatises, ISBN 978-1880810378, page 132 ^ R.R. Mehrotra (1995), How to be polite in Indian English, International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Volume 116, Issue 1, Pages 99–110 ^ G. Chatterjee (2003), Sacred Hindu
Hindu
Symbols, ISBN 978-8170173977, pp. 47–49

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Namaste.

The meaning of Namaste
Namaste
Yoga
Yoga
Journal Modes of Greetings in Kashmiri, Indian Institute of Language Studies Ancient Indus Valley Seal print showing Namaste/anjali mudra, CSU Chico

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