HOME
The Info List - Nalanda



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

ASI No. N-BR-43

UNESCO
UNESCO
WORLD HERITAGE SITE

OFFICIAL NAME Archaeological Site of Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara
Mahavihara
( Nalanda
Nalanda
University) at Nalanda, Bihar

CRITERIA Cultural: (iv), (vi)

REFERENCE 1502

INSCRIPTION 2016 (40th Session )

NALANDA ( IAST : Nālandā; /naːlən̪d̪aː/) was an acclaimed Mahavihara
Mahavihara
, a large Buddhist monastery in the ancient kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
(modern-day Bihar
Bihar
) in India
India
. The site is located about 95 kilometres (59 mi) southeast of Patna
Patna
near the town of Bihar
Bihar
Sharif , and was a centre of learning from the seventh century BCE to c. 1200 CE. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site

The highly formalized methods of Vedic
Vedic
learning helped inspire the establishment of large teaching institutions such as Taxila
Taxila
, Nalanda, and Vikramashila which are often characterised as India's early universities. Nalanda
Nalanda
flourished under the patronage of the Gupta Empire in the 5th and 6th centuries and later under Harsha
Harsha
, the emperor of Kannauj
Kannauj
. The liberal cultural traditions inherited from the Gupta age resulted in a period of growth and prosperity until the ninth century. The subsequent centuries were a time of gradual decline, a period during which the tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India
India
under the Pala Empire .

At its peak, the school attracted scholars and students from near and far with some travelling all the way from Tibet
Tibet
, China
China
, Korea
Korea
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
. Archaeological evidence also notes contact with the Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
of Indonesia, one of whose kings built a monastery in the complex.

Much of our knowledge of Nalanda
Nalanda
comes from the writings of pilgrim monks from East Asia such as Xuanzang
Xuanzang
and Yijing who travelled to the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
in the 7th century. Vincent Smith remarked that "a detailed history of Nalanda
Nalanda
would be a history of Mahayanist Buddhism". Many of the names listed by Xuanzang
Xuanzang
in his travelogue as products of Nalanda are the names of those who developed the philosophy of Mahayana. All students at Nalanda
Nalanda
studied Mahayana
Mahayana
as well as the texts of the eighteen ( Hinayana
Hinayana
) sects of Buddhism. Their curriculum also included other subjects such as the Vedas
Vedas
, logic, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammar, medicine and Samkhya
Samkhya
.

Nalanda
Nalanda
was very likely ransacked and destroyed by an army of the Mamluk Dynasty of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate under Bakhtiyar Khilji
Bakhtiyar Khilji
in c. 1200 CE. While some sources note that the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
continued to function in a makeshift fashion for a while longer, it was eventually abandoned and forgotten until the 19th century when the site was surveyed and preliminary excavations were conducted by the Archaeological Survey of India
India
. Systematic excavations commenced in 1915 which unearthed eleven monasteries and six brick temples neatly arranged on grounds 12 hectares (30 acres) in area. A trove of sculptures, coins, seals, and inscriptions have also been discovered in the ruins many of which are on display in the Nalanda Archaeological Museum situated nearby. Nalanda
Nalanda
is now a notable tourist destination and a part of the Buddhist tourism circuit.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Early history * 3 Nalanda
Nalanda
in the Gupta era

* 4 The post-Gupta era

* 4.1 Xuanzang
Xuanzang
in Nalanda
Nalanda
* 4.2 Yijing in Nalanda
Nalanda

* 5 Nalanda
Nalanda
in the Pala era

* 6 The Mahavihara
Mahavihara

* 6.1 Library * 6.2 Curriculum * 6.3 Administration

* 7 Influence on Buddhism
Buddhism
* 8 Historical figures associated with Nalanda
Nalanda
* 9 Decline and end * 10 The remains * 11 Surviving Nalanda
Nalanda
manuscripts * 12 Revival

* 13 Tourism

* 13.1 Nalanda
Nalanda
Archaeological Museum * 13.2 Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Memorial Hall * 13.3 Nalanda
Nalanda
Multimedia Museum

* 14 Gallery * 15 See also * 16 Notes * 17 References * 18 External links

ETYMOLOGY

A number of theories exist about the etymology of the name, Nālandā. According to the Tang Dynasty Chinese pilgrim, Xuanzang
Xuanzang
, it comes from Na al,lllam dā meaning no end in gifts or charity without intermission. Yijing , another Chinese traveller, however, derives it from Nāga Nanda referring to the name (Nanda) of a snake (naga) in the local tank. Hiranand Sastri , an archaeologist who headed the excavation of the ruins, attributes the name to the abundance of nālas (lotus-stalks) in the area and believes that Nalanda
Nalanda
would then represent the giver of lotus-stalks.

EARLY HISTORY

A statue of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
at Nalanda
Nalanda
in 1895.

Nalanda
Nalanda
was initially a prosperous village by a major trade route that ran through the nearby city of Rajagriha (modern Rajgir
Rajgir
) which was then the capital of Magadha
Magadha
. It is said that the Jain thirthankara , Mahavira
Mahavira
, spent 14 rainy seasons at Nalanda. Gautama Buddha
Buddha
too is said to have delivered lectures in a nearby mango grove named Pavarika and one of his two chief disciples, Shariputra , was born in the area and later attained nirvana there. This traditional association with Mahavira
Mahavira
and Buddha
Buddha
tenuously dates the existence of the village to at least the 5th–6th century BCE.

Not much is known of Nalanda
Nalanda
in the centuries hence. Taranatha , the 17th-century Tibetan Lama, states that the 3rd-century BCE Mauryan
Mauryan
and Buddhist emperor, Ashoka
Ashoka
, built a great temple at Nalanda
Nalanda
at the site of Shariputra's chaitya . He also places 3rd-century CE luminaries such as the Mahayana
Mahayana
philosopher, Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
, and his disciple, Aryadeva , at Nalanda
Nalanda
with the former also heading the institution. Taranatha also mentions a contemporary of Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
named Suvishnu building 108 temples at the location. While this could imply that there was a flourishing centre for Buddhism
Buddhism
at Nalanda
Nalanda
before the 3rd century, no archaeological evidence has been unearthed to support the assertion. When Faxian , an early Chinese Buddhist pilgrim to India, visited Nalo, the site of Shariputra's parinirvana , at the turn of the 5th century CE, all he found worth mentioning was a stupa .

NALANDA IN THE GUPTA ERA

Rear view of the ruins of the Baladitya Temple in 1872.

Nalanda's datable history begins under the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
and a seal identifies a monarch named Shakraditya (Śakrāditya) as its founder. Both Xuanzang
Xuanzang
and a Korean pilgrim named Prajnyavarman (Prajñāvarman) attribute the foundation of a sangharama (monastery) at the site to him. Shakraditya is identified with the 5th-century CE Gupta emperor, Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
(r. c. 415 – c. 455 CE), whose coin has been discovered at Nalanda. His successors, Buddhagupta , Tathagatagupta, Baladitya , and Vajra, later extended and expanded the institution by building additional monasteries and temples.

The Guptas were traditionally a Brahmanical dynasty. Narasimhagupta (Baladitya) however, was brought up under the influence of the Mahayanist philosopher, Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
. He built a sangharama at Nalanda and also a 300 ft (91 m) high vihara with a Buddha
Buddha
statue within which, according to Xuanzang, resembled the "great Vihara
Vihara
built under the Bodhi tree
Bodhi tree
". The Chinese monk also noted that Baladitya's son, Vajra, who commissioned a sangharama as well, "possessed a heart firm in faith".

THE POST-GUPTA ERA

The post-Gupta period saw a long succession of kings who continued building at Nalanda
Nalanda
"using all the skill of the sculptor". At some point, a "king of central India" built a high wall along with a gate around the now numerous edifices in the complex. Another monarch (possibly of the Maukhari
Maukhari
dynasty) named Purnavarman who is described as "the last of the race of Ashoka
Ashoka
-raja", erected an 80 ft (24 m) high copper image of Buddha
Buddha
to cover which he also constructed a pavilion of six stages.

However, after the decline of the Guptas, the most notable patron of the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
was Harsha
Harsha
, the 7th-century emperor of Kannauj
Kannauj
. Harsha
Harsha
was a converted Buddhist and considered himself a servant of the monks of Nalanda. He built a monastery of brass within the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
and remitted to it the revenues of 100 villages. He also directed 200 households in these villages to supply the institution's monks with requisite amounts of rice, butter, and milk on a daily basis. Around a thousand monks from Nalanda
Nalanda
were present at Harsha's royal congregation at Kannauj.

Much of what is known of Nalanda
Nalanda
before the 8th century is based on the travelogues of the Chinese monks, Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(Si-Yu-Ki ) and Yijing (A Record of the Buddhist Religion As Practised in India
India
and the Malay Archipelago ).

XUANZANG IN NALANDA

8th century Dunhuang cave mural depicts Xuanzang
Xuanzang
returning from India. A page from Xuanzang's Great Tang Records on the Western Regions or Da Tang Xiyuji

Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(also known as Hiuen Tsang) travelled around India
India
between the years of 630 and 643 CE, and visited Nalanda
Nalanda
first in 637 and then again in 642, spending a total of around two years at the monastery. He was warmly welcomed in Nalanda
Nalanda
where he received the Indian name of Mokshadeva and studied under the guidance of Shilabhadra , the venerable head of the institution at the time. He believed that the aim of his arduous overland journey to India
India
had been achieved as in Shilabhadra he had at last found an incomparable teacher to instruct him in Yogachara
Yogachara
, a school of thought that had then only partially been transmitted to China. Besides Buddhist studies, the monk also attended courses in grammar, logic, and Sanskrit, and later also lectured at the Mahavihara.

In the detailed account of his stay at Nalanda, the pilgrim describes the view out of the window of his quarters thus,

Moreover, the whole establishment is surrounded by a brick wall, which encloses the entire convent from without. One gate opens into the great college, from which are separated eight other halls standing in the middle (of the Sangharama). The richly adorned towers, and the fairy-like turrets, like pointed hill-tops are congregated together. The observatories seem to be lost in the vapours (of the morning), and the upper rooms tower above the clouds.

Xuanzang
Xuanzang
was a contemporary and an esteemed guest of Harsha
Harsha
and catalogued the emperor's munificence in some detail. According to Xuanzang's biographer, Hwui-Li, Nalanda
Nalanda
was held in contempt by some Sthaviras for its emphasis on Mahayana
Mahayana
philosophy. They reportedly chided King Harsha
Harsha
for patronising Nalanda
Nalanda
during one of his visits to Odisha
Odisha
, mocking the "sky-flower" philosophy taught there and suggesting that he might as well patronise a Kapalika temple. When this occurred, Harsha
Harsha
notified the chancellor of Nalanda, who sent the monks Sagaramati, Prajnyarashmi, Simharashmi, and Xuanzang
Xuanzang
to refute the views of the monks from Odisha
Odisha
.

Xuanzang
Xuanzang
returned to China
China
with 657 Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
(many of them Mahayanist) and 150 relics carried by 20 horses in 520 cases, and translated 74 of the texts himself. In the thirty years following his return, no fewer than eleven travellers from China
China
and Korea
Korea
are known to have visited famed Nalanda.

YIJING IN NALANDA

A map of Nalanda
Nalanda
and its environs from Alexander Cunningham's 1861–62 ASI report which shows a number of ponds (pokhar) around the Mahavihara.

Inspired by the journeys of Faxian and Xuanzang, the pilgrim, Yijing (also known as I-tsing), after studying Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in Srivijaya
Srivijaya
, arrived in India
India
in 673 CE. He stayed there for fourteen years, ten of which he spent at the Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara. When he returned to China in 695, he had with him 400 Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts which were subsequently translated.

Unlike his predecessor, Xuanzang, who also describes the geography and culture of 7th-century India, Yijing's account primarily concentrates on the practice of Buddhism
Buddhism
in the land of its origin and detailed descriptions of the customs, rules, and regulations of the monks at the monastery. In his chronicle, Yijing notes that revenues from 200 villages (as opposed to 100 in Xuanzang's time) had been assigned toward the maintenance of Nalanda. He described there being eight halls with as many as 300 cells. According to him, daily life at Nalanda
Nalanda
included a series of rites that were followed by all. Each morning, a bell was rung signalling the bathing hour which led to hundreds or thousands of monks proceeding from their viharas towards a number of great pools of water in and around the campus where all of them took their bath. This was followed by another gong which signalled the ritual ablution of the image of the Buddha. The chaityavandana was conducted in the evenings which included a "three-part service", the chanting of a prescribed set of hymns, shlokas , and selections from scriptures. While it was usually performed at a central location, Yijing states that the sheer number of residents at Nalanda
Nalanda
made large daily assemblies difficult. This resulted in an adapted ritual which involved a priest, accompanied by lay servants and children carrying incense and flowers, travelling from one hall to the next chanting the service. The ritual was completed by twilight.

NALANDA IN THE PALA ERA

The Palas established themselves in North-eastern India
India
in the 8th century and reigned until the 12th century. Although they were a Buddhist dynasty, Buddhism
Buddhism
in their time was a mixture of the Mahayana practised in Nalanda
Nalanda
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
, a Tantra
Tantra
-influenced version of Mahayanist philosophy. Nalanda
Nalanda
was a cultural legacy from the great age of the Guptas and it was prized and cherished. The Palas were prolific builders and their rule oversaw the establishment of four other Mahaviharas modelled on the Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara
Mahavihara
at Jagaddala , Odantapura , Somapura
Somapura
, and Vikramashila respectively. Remarkably, Odantapura was founded by Gopala , the progenitor of the royal line, only 6 miles (9.7 km) away from Nalanda. Replica of the seal of Nalanda
Nalanda
set in terracotta on display in the Archaeological Survey of India
India
Museum in Nalanda
Nalanda

Inscriptions at Nalanda
Nalanda
suggest that Gopala's son, Dharmapala , who founded the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
at Vikramshila, also appears to have been a benefactor of the ancient monastery in some form. It is however, Dharmapala's son, the 9th century emperor and founder of the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
at Somapura, Devapala , who appears to have been Nalanda's most distinguished patron in this age. A number of metallic figures containing references to Devapala have been found in its ruins as well as two notable inscriptions. The first, a copper plate inscription unearthed at Nalanda, details an endowment by the Shailendra King, Balaputradeva of Suvarnadvipa ( Sumatra
Sumatra
in modern-day Indonesia
Indonesia
). This Srivijayan king, "attracted by the manifold excellences of Nalanda" had built a monastery there and had requested Devapala to grant the revenue of five villages for its upkeep, a request which was granted. The Ghosrawan inscription is the other inscription from Devapala's time and it mentions that he received and patronised a learned Vedic scholar named Viradeva who was later elected the head of Nalanda.

The now five different seats of Buddhist learning in eastern India formed a state-supervised network and it was common for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them. Each establishment had its own official seal with a dharmachakra flanked by a deer on either side, a motif referring to Buddha's deer park sermon at Sarnath
Sarnath
. Below this device was the name of the institution which in Nalanda's case read, "Śrī-Nālandā-Mahāvihārīya-Ārya-Bhikṣusaḿghasya" which translates to "of the Community of Venerable Monks of the Great Monastery
Monastery
at Nalanda".

While there is ample epigraphic and literary evidence to show that the Palas continued to patronise Nalanda
Nalanda
liberally, the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
was less singularly outstanding during this period as the other Pala establishments must have drawn away a number of learned monks from Nalanda. The Vajrayana
Vajrayana
influence on Buddhism
Buddhism
grew strong under the Palas and this appears to have also had an effect on Nalanda. What had once been a centre of liberal scholarship with a Mahayanist focus grew more fixated with Tantric doctrines and magic rites. Taranatha's 17th-century history claims that Nalanda
Nalanda
might have even been under the control of the head of the Vikramshila Mahavihara
Mahavihara
at some point.

THE MAHAVIHARA

While its excavated ruins today only occupy an area of around 1,600 feet (488 m) by 800 feet (244 m) or roughly 12 hectares, Nalanda Mahavihara
Mahavihara
occupied a far greater area in medieval times. It was considered an architectural masterpiece, and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda
Nalanda
had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. Nalanda
Nalanda
was a residential school, i.e. it had dormitories for students. In its heyday, it is claimed to have accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. Chinese pilgrims estimated the number of students to have been between 3,000 and 5,000.

The subjects taught at Nalanda
Nalanda
covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Persia
Persia
and Turkey
Turkey
.

Xuanzang
Xuanzang
left detailed accounts of the school in the 7th century. He described how the regularly laid-out towers, forest of pavilions, harmikas and temples seemed to "soar above the mists in the sky" so that from their cells the monks "might witness the birth of the winds and clouds". The pilgrim states: "An azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the lovely kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango trees offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade."

LIBRARY

Prajnaparamita and Scenes from the Buddha's Life (top), Maitreya and Scenes from the Buddha's Life (bottom), Folios from a Dharanisamgraha, manuscript from Nalanda, circa 1075 Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
. Ashtasahasrika Prajnyaparamita Sutra manuscript from Nalanda's Pala period .

It is evident from the large numbers of texts that Yijing carried back with him after his 10-year residence at Nalanda, that the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
must have featured a well-equipped library. Traditional Tibetan sources mention the existence of a great library at Nalanda named Dharmaganja (Piety Mart) which comprised three large multi-storeyed buildings, the Ratnasagara (Ocean of Jewels), the Ratnodadhi (Sea of Jewels), and the Ratnaranjaka (Jewel-adorned). Ratnodadhi was nine storeys high and housed the most sacred manuscripts including the Prajnyaparamita Sutra
Sutra
and the Guhyasamaja
Guhyasamaja
.

The exact number of volumes in the Nalanda
Nalanda
library is not known. But it is estimated to have been in the hundreds of thousands. The library not only collected religious manuscripts but also had texts on such subjects as grammar , logic, literature, astrology , astronomy , and medicine. The Nalanda
Nalanda
library must have had a classification scheme which was possibly based on a text classification scheme developed by the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
linguist, Panini . Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
were most likely divided into three classes based on the Tripitaka
Tripitaka
's three main divisions: the Vinaya
Vinaya
, Sutra
Sutra
, and the Abhidhamma .

CURRICULUM

In his biography of Xuanzang, Hwui-Li states that all the students of Nalanda
Nalanda
studied the Great Vehicle (Mahayana) as well as the works of the eighteen ( Hinayana
Hinayana
) sects of Buddhism. In addition to these, they studied other subjects such as the Vedas
Vedas
, Hetuvidyā (Logic), Shabdavidya ( Grammar
Grammar
and Philology), Chikitsavidya (Medicine), the works on magic (the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
), and Samkhya
Samkhya
.

Xuanzang
Xuanzang
himself studied a number of these subjects at Nalanda
Nalanda
under Shilabhadra and others. Besides Theology and Philosophy, frequent debates and discussions necessitated competence in Logic. A student at the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
had to be well-versed in the systems of Logic associated with all the different schools of thought of the time as he was expected to defend Buddhist systems against the others. Other subjects believed to have been taught at Nalanda
Nalanda
include law, astronomy, and city-planning.

Tibetan tradition holds that there were "four doxographies " (Tibetan: grub-mtha’) which were taught at Nalanda:

* Sarvastivada Vaibhashika * Sarvastivada Sautrantika * Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
, the Mahayana
Mahayana
philosophy of Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Chittamatra , the Mahayana
Mahayana
philosophy of Asanga and Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu

In the 7th century, Xuanzang
Xuanzang
recorded the number of teachers at Nalanda
Nalanda
as being around 1510. Of these, approximately 1000 were able to explain 20 collections of sutras and shastras, 500 were able to explain 30 collections, and only 10 teachers were able to explain 50 collections. Xuanzang
Xuanzang
was among the few who were able to explain 50 collections or more. At this time, only the abbot Shilabhadra had studied all the major collections of sutras and shastras at Nalanda.

ADMINISTRATION

The Chinese monk Yijing wrote that matters of discussion and administration at Nalanda
Nalanda
would require assembly and consensus on decisions by all those at the assembly, as well as resident monks:

If the monks had some business, they would assemble to discuss the matter. Then they ordered the officer, Vihārpāl, to circulate and report the matter to the resident monks one by one with folded hands. With the objection of a single monk, it would not pass. There was no use of beating or thumping to announce his case. In case a monk did something without consent of all the residents, he would be forced to leave the monastery. If there was a difference of opinion on a certain issue, they would give reason to convince (the other group). No force or coercion was used to convince.

Xuanzang
Xuanzang
also noted:

The lives of all these virtuous men were naturally governed by habits of the most solemn and strictest kind. Thus in the seven hundred years of the monastery's existence no man has ever contravened the rules of the discipline. The king showers it with the signs of his respect and veneration and has assigned the revenue from a hundred cities to pay for the maintenance of the religious.

INFLUENCE ON BUDDHISM

Buddha
Buddha
Shakyamuni or the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Maitreya
Maitreya
, gilt copper alloy, early 8th century, Nalanda
Nalanda

Pilgrimage to

Buddha's Holy Sites

THE FOUR MAIN SITES

* Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Kushinagar
Kushinagar
* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Sarnath
Sarnath

FOUR ADDITIONAL SITES

* Rajgir
Rajgir
* Sankassa * Shravasti * Vaishali

OTHER SITES

* Amaravathi * Chandavaram * Devadaha

* Gaya * Kapilavastu * Kesaria

* Kosambi * Nalanda * Pataliputra
Pataliputra

* Pava * Varanasi
Varanasi

LATER SITES

* Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
* Barabar Caves
Barabar Caves
* Bharhut
Bharhut

* Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves
* Lalitgiri * Mathura
Mathura

* Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
* Piprahwa * Ratnagiri

* Sanchi
Sanchi
* Udayagiri * Vikramashila

* v * t * e

A vast amount of what came to comprise Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
, both its Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
traditions, stems from the teachers and traditions at Nalanda. Shantarakshita , who pioneered the propagation of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tibet
Tibet
in the 8th century was a scholar of Nalanda. He was invited by the Tibetan king, Khri-sron-deu-tsan , and established the monastery at Samye
Samye
, serving as its first abbot. He and his disciple Kamalashila (who was also of Nalanda) essentially taught Tibetans how to do philosophy. Padmasambhava , who was also invited from Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara
Mahavihara
by the king in 747 CE, is credited as a founder of Tibetan Buddhism.

The scholar Dharmakirti
Dharmakirti
(c. 7th century), one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic , as well as one of the primary theorists of Buddhist atomism , taught at Nalanda.

Other forms of Buddhism, such as the Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
followed in Vietnam, China, Korea
Korea
and Japan, flourished within the walls of the ancient school. A number of scholars have associated some Mahayana texts such as the Shurangama Sutra , an important sutra in East Asian Buddhism, with the Buddhist tradition at Nalanda. Ron Epstein also notes that the general doctrinal position of the sutra does indeed correspond to what is known about the Buddhist teachings at Nalanda toward the end of the Gupta period when it was translated.

HISTORICAL FIGURES ASSOCIATED WITH NALANDA

Traditional sources state that Nalanda
Nalanda
was visited by both Mahavira and the Buddha
Buddha
in c. 6th and 5th century BCE. It is also the place of birth and nirvana of Shariputra , one of the famous disciples of Buddha.

* Aryabhata * Aryadeva , student of Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Atisha
Atisha
, Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
scholar * Chandrakirti
Chandrakirti
, student of Nagarjuna * Dharmakirti
Dharmakirti
, logician * Dharmapala * Dignaga
Dignaga
, founder of Buddhist Logic * Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
, formaliser of the concept of Shunyata
Shunyata
* Naropa
Naropa
, student of Tilopa and teacher of Marpa * Shilabhadra , the teacher of Xuanzang
Xuanzang
* Xuanzang
Xuanzang
, Chinese Buddhist traveller * Yijing , Chinese Buddhist traveller

DECLINE AND END

The decline of Nalanda
Nalanda
is concomitant with the disappearance of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India. When Xuanzang
Xuanzang
travelled the length and breadth of India
India
in the 7th century, he observed that his religion was in slow decay and even had ominous premonitions of Nalanda's forthcoming demise. Buddhism
Buddhism
had steadily lost popularity with the laity and thrived, thanks to royal patronage, only in the monasteries of Bihar and Bengal. By the time of the Palas, the traditional Mahayana
Mahayana
and Hinayana
Hinayana
forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
were imbued with Tantric practices involving secret rituals and magic. The rise of Hindu
Hindu
philosophies in the subcontinent and the waning of the Buddhist Pala dynasty after the 11th century meant that Buddhism
Buddhism
was hemmed in on multiple fronts, political, philosophical, and moral. The final blow was delivered when its still-flourishing monasteries, the last visible symbols of its existence in India, were overrun during the Muslim invasion that swept across Northern India
India
at the turn of the 13th century.

In around 1200 CE, Bakhtiyar Khilji
Bakhtiyar Khilji
, a Turkic chieftain out to make a name for himself, was in the service of a commander in Awadh
Awadh
. The Persian historian, Minhaj-i-Siraj in his Tabaqat-i Nasiri , recorded his deeds a few decades later. Khilji was assigned two villages on the border of Bihar
Bihar
which had become a political no-man's land. Sensing an opportunity, he began a series of plundering raids into Bihar
Bihar
and was recognised and rewarded for his efforts by his superiors. Emboldened, Khilji decided to attack a fort in Bihar
Bihar
and was able to successfully capture it, looting it of a great booty. Minhaj-i-Siraj wrote of this attack:

Muhammad-i-Bakht-yar, by the force of his intrepidity, threw himself into the postern of the gateway of the place, and they captured the fortress, and acquired great booty. The greater number of the inhabitants of that place were Brahmans, and the whole of those Brahmans had their heads shaven; and they were all slain. There were a great number of books there; and, when all these books came under the observation of the Musalmans, they summoned a number of Hindus that they might give them information respecting the import of those books; but the whole of the Hindus had been killed. On becoming acquainted , it was found that the whole of that fortress and city was a college, and in the Hindui tongue, they call a college Bihar. The End of the Buddhist Monks, A.D. 1193 from Hutchinson's Story of the Nations depicts Khilji trying to make sense of a manuscript.

This passage refers to an attack on a Buddhist monastery (the "Bihar" or Vihara) and its monks (the shaved Brahmans). The exact date of this event is not known with scholarly estimates ranging from 1197 to 1206. While many historians believe that this monastery which was mistaken for a fort was Odantapura, some are of the opinion that it was Nalanda itself. However, considering that these two Mahaviharas were only a few kilometres apart, both very likely befell a similar fate. The other great Mahaviharas of the age such as Vikramshila and later, Jagaddala, also met their ends at the hands of the Turks at around the same time.

Another important account of the times is the biography of the Tibetan monk-pilgrim, Dharmasvamin , who journeyed to India
India
between 1234 and 1236. When he visited Nalanda
Nalanda
in 1235, he found it still surviving, but a ghost of its past existence. Most of the buildings had been damaged by the Muslims and had since fallen into disrepair. But two viharas, which he named Dhanaba and Ghunaba, were still in serviceable condition with a 90-year-old teacher named Rahula Shribhadra instructing a class of about 70 students on the premises. Dharmasvamin believed that the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
had not been completely destroyed for superstitious reasons as one of the soldiers who had participated in the desecration of a Jnananatha temple in the complex had immediately fallen ill.

While he stayed there for six months under the tutelage of Rahula Shribhadra, Dharmasvamin makes no mention of the legendary library of Nalanda
Nalanda
which possibly did not survive the initial wave of Turkic attacks. He, however, provides an eyewitness account of an attack on the derelict Mahavihara
Mahavihara
by the Muslim soldiers stationed at nearby Odantapura (now Bihar
Bihar
Sharif ) which had been turned into a military headquarters. Only the Tibetan and his nonagenarian instructor stayed behind and hid themselves while the rest of the monks fled Nalanda. Contemporary sources end at this point. But traditional Tibetan works which were written much later suggest that Nalanda's story might have managed to endure for a while longer even if the institution was only a pale shadow of its former glory. The Lama, Taranatha, states that the whole of Magadha
Magadha
fell to the Turks who destroyed many monasteries including Nalanda
Nalanda
which suffered heavy damage. He however also notes that a king of Bengal named Chagalaraja and his queen later patronised Nalanda
Nalanda
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, although no major work was done there.

An 18th-century work named Pag sam jon zang recounts another Tibetan legend which states that chaityas and viharas at Nalanda
Nalanda
were repaired once again by a Buddhist sage named Mudita
Mudita
Bhadra and that Kukutasiddha, a minister of the reigning king, erected a temple there. A story goes that when the structure was being inaugurated, two indignant (Brahmanical) Tirthika mendicants who had appeared there were treated with disdain by some young novice monks who threw washing water at them. In retaliation, the mendicants performed a 12-year penance propitiating the sun, at the end of which they performed a fire-sacrifice and threw "living embers" from the sacrificial pit into the Buddhist temples. The resulting conflagration is said to have hit Nalanda's library. Fortunately, a miraculous stream of water gushed forth from holy manuscripts in the ninth storey of Ratnodadhi which enabled many manuscripts to be saved. The heretics perished in the very fire that they had kindled. While it is unknown when this event was supposed to have occurred, archaeological evidence (including a small heap of burnt rice) does suggest that a large fire did consume a number of structures in the complex on more than one occasion. A stone inscription notes the destruction by fire and subsequent restoration at the Mahavihara
Mahavihara
during the reign of Mahipala (r. 988 – 1038).

The last throne-holder of Nalanda, Shakyashribhadra, fled to Tibet
Tibet
in 1204 at the invitation of the Tibetan translator Tropu Lotsawa (Khro-phu Lo-tsa-ba Byams-pa dpal). In Tibet, he started an ordination lineage of the Mulasarvastivada lineage to complement the two existing ones.

THE REMAINS

Excavated ruins of the monasteries of Nalanda.

After its decline, Nalanda
Nalanda
was largely forgotten until Francis Buchanan-Hamilton surveyed the site in 1811–1812 after locals in the vicinity drew his attention to a vast complex of ruins in the area. He, however, did not associate the mounds of earth and debris with famed Nalanda. That link was established by Major Markham Kittoe in 1847. Alexander Cunningham and the newly formed Archaeological Survey of India
India
conducted an official survey in 1861–1862. Systematic excavation of the ruins by the ASI did not begin until 1915 and ended in 1937. A second round of excavation and restoration took place between 1974 and 1982.

The remains of Nalanda
Nalanda
today extend some 1,600 feet (488 m) north to south and around 800 feet (244 m) east to west. Excavations have revealed eleven monasteries and six major brick temples arranged in an ordered layout. A 100 ft (30 m) wide passage runs from north to south with the temples to its west and the monasteries to its east. Most structures show evidence of multiple periods of construction with new buildings being raised atop the ruins of old ones. Many of the buildings also display signs of damage by fire on at least one occasion.

All the monasteries at Nalanda
Nalanda
are very similar in layout and general appearance. Their plan involves a rectangular form with a central quadrangular court which is surrounded by a verandah which, in turn, is bounded by an outer row of cells for the monks. The central cell facing the entrance leading into the court is a shrine chamber. Its strategic position means that it would have been the first thing that drew the eye when entering the edifice. With the exception of those designated 1A and 1B, the monasteries all face west with drains emptying out in the east and staircases positioned in the south-west corner of the buildings. Monastery
Monastery
1 is considered the oldest and the most important of the monastery group and shows as many as nine levels of construction. Its lower monastery is believed to be the one sponsored by Balaputradeva, the Srivijayan king, during the reign of Devapala in the 9th century. The building was originally at least 2 storeys high and contained a colossal statue of a seated Buddha. A map of the excavated remains of Nalanda.

The most iconic of Nalanda's structures is Temple no. 3 with its multiple flights of stairs that lead all the way to the top. The temple was originally a small structure which was built upon and enlarged by later constructions. Archaeological evidence shows that the final structure was a result of at least seven successive such accumulations of construction. The fifth of these layered temples is the most interesting and the best preserved with four corner towers of which three have been exposed. The towers as well as the sides of the stairs are decorated with exquisite panels of Gupta-era art depicting a variety of stucco figures including Buddha
Buddha
and the Bodhisattvas , scenes from the Jataka tales , Brahmanical deities such as Shiva
Shiva
, Parvati
Parvati
, Kartikeya
Kartikeya
, and Gajalakshmi
Gajalakshmi
, Kinnaras playing musical instruments, various representations of Makaras , as well as human couples in amorous postures. The temple is surrounded by numerous votive stupas some of which have been built with bricks inscribed with passages from sacred Buddhist texts. The apex of Temple no. 3 features a shrine chamber which now only contains the pedestal upon which an immense statue of Buddha
Buddha
must have once rested.

Temple no. 2 notably features a dado of 211 sculptured panels depicting a variety of religious motifs as well as scenes of art and of everyday life. The site of Temple no. 13 features a brick-made smelting furnace with four chambers. The discovery of burnt metal and slag suggests that it was used to cast metallic objects. To the north of this temple lie the remains of Temple no. 14. An enormous image of the Buddha
Buddha
was discovered here. The image's pedestal features fragments of the only surviving exhibit of mural painting at Nalanda.

Numerous sculptures, murals, copper plates, inscriptions, seals, coins, plaques, potteries and works in stone, bronze, stucco and terracotta have been unearthed within the ruins of Nalanda. The Buddhist sculptures discovered notably include those of the Buddha
Buddha
in different postures, Avalokiteshvara
Avalokiteshvara
, Jambhala , Manjushri
Manjushri
, Marichi , and Tara . Brahmanical idols of Vishnu
Vishnu
, Shiva-Parvathi, Ganesha
Ganesha
, Mahishasura Mardini , and Surya
Surya
have also been found in the ruins.

A number of other ruined structures survive. Nearby is the Surya Mandir , a Hindu
Hindu
temple. The known and excavated ruins extend over an area of about 150,000 square metres, although if Xuanzang
Xuanzang
's account of Nalanda's extent is correlated with present excavations, almost 90% of it remains unexcavated. Nalanda
Nalanda
is no longer inhabited.

SURVIVING NALANDA MANUSCRIPTS

Fleeing monks took some of the Nalanda
Nalanda
manuscripts. A few of them have survived and are preserved in collections such as those at:

* Los Angeles County Museum of Art * Asia Society * Yarlung Museum, Tsetang (From the On ke ru Lha khang monastery)

REVIVAL

In 1951, the Nava Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara
Mahavihara
(New Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara), a modern centre for Pali
Pali
and Buddhism
Buddhism
in the spirit of the ancient institution, was founded by the Government of Bihar
Bihar
near Nalanda's ruins. It was deemed to be a university in 2006.

September 1, 2014, saw the commencement of the first academic year of a modern Nalanda University
Nalanda University
, with 15 students, in nearby Rajgir
Rajgir
. It has been established in a bid to revive the ancient seat of learning. The university has acquired 455 acres of land for its campus and has been allotted ₹2727 crores (around $454M) by the Indian government. It is also being funded by the governments of China, Singapore, Australia, Thailand, and others.

TOURISM

The Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Memorial Hall at Nalanda
Nalanda

Nalanda
Nalanda
is a popular tourist destination in the state attracting a number of Indian and overseas visitors. It is also an important stop on the Buddhist tourism circuit.

NALANDA ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

The Archaeological Survey of India
India
maintains a museum near the ruins for the benefit of visitors. The museum exhibits the antiquities that have been unearthed at Nalanda
Nalanda
as well as from nearby Rajgir
Rajgir
. Out of 13,463 items, only 349 are on display in four galleries.

XUANZANG MEMORIAL HALL

The Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Memorial Hall is an Indo-Chinese undertaking to honour the famed Buddhist monk and traveller. A relic, comprising a skull bone of the Chinese monk, is on display in the memorial hall.

NALANDA MULTIMEDIA MUSEUM

Another museum adjoining the excavated site is the privately run Nalanda
Nalanda
Multimedia Museum. It showcases the history of Nalanda through 3-D animation and other multimedia presentations.

GALLERY

An ASI guide stone detailing the history of Nalanda.

Sculpted stucco panels on a tower

A teaching platform in the ruins of Nalanda
Nalanda

A post-8th century bronze statue of Buddha
Buddha
from Nalanda
Nalanda

A stone statue of the Khasarpana Lokeshvara form of Avalokisteshvara from 9th-century Nalanda.

Details on one of numerous votive stupas at the site

SEE ALSO

* India
India
portal

* Ancient higher-learning institutions * Jagaddala * List of Monuments of National Importance in Bihar
Bihar
* Odantapuri * Pushpagiri Vihara * Sharada Peeth
Sharada Peeth
* Somapura
Somapura
* Takshashila
Takshashila
* Teladhaka * Valabhi * Vikramashila

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E "Nalanda". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 18 September 2014. * ^ A B Le 2010 , p. 59. * ^ "Alphabetical List of Monuments – Bihar". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ Scharfe 2002 , p. 149. * ^ "Four sites inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List". whc.unesco.org. UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016. * ^ "Chandigarh\'s Capitol Complex makes it to UNESCO\'s World Heritage List". Economic Times. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016. * ^ A B C Frazier 2011 , p. 34. * ^ A B C Scharfe 2002 , p. 148. * ^ A B Monroe 2000 , p. 174. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , Title. * ^ A B C Wayman 1984 , p. 43. * ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004 , p. 119. * ^ A B Dutt 1988 , p. 329. * ^ Dutt 1988 , p. 344. * ^ Monroe 2000 , pp. 169. * ^ A B Dutt 1988 , p. 334. * ^ A B Dutt 1988 , pp. 332–333. * ^ A B Buswell & Lopez 2013 , Entry for Nālandā. * ^ Walton 2015 , p. 122. * ^ A B C Chandra 2004 , p. 41. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , pp. 3. * ^ Hiranand Sastri 1986 , pp. 3–4. * ^ KA Nilakanta Sastri 1988 , p. 268. * ^ Dutt 1988 , p. 328. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 37. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 4. * ^ Altekar 1965 . * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 42. * ^ Monroe 2000 , p. 166. * ^ A B Ghosh 1965 , p. 5. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 45. * ^ Dutt 1988 , p. 330. * ^ A B Sankalia 1934 , p. 55. * ^ A B C Scharfe 2002 , p. 151. * ^ A B Kulke & Rothermund 2004 , p. 110. * ^ Wriggins 1996 , p. 237. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 8. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 111. * ^ Wriggins 1996 , p. 124. * ^ Beal 2000 , p. 111. * ^ Joshi 1977 , p. 171. * ^ Wriggins 1996 , pp. 177. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 9. * ^ Scharfe 2002 , p. 144. * ^ Monroe 2000 , p. 167. * ^ Dutt 1988 , pp. 128–130. * ^ Dutt 1988 , pp. 349–352. * ^ Scharfe 2002 , p. 152. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 58. * ^ Wink 2002 , p. 268. * ^ Dutt 1988 , p. 352. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 55. * ^ Dutt 1988 , pp. 344–346. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 10. * ^ A B Sankalia 1934 , p. 217. * ^ Sharma 2005 , p. 29. * ^ Garten, Jeffrey E. (9 December 2006). "Really Old School". * ^ Grousset 1971 , p. 158. * ^ A B Grousset 1971 , p. 159. * ^ Scharfe 2002 , p. 159. * ^ Khurshid 1972 , pp. 21–65. * ^ Bhatt 1995 . * ^ Patel & Kumar 2001 , p. 4. * ^ Taher & Davis 1994 , p. 37. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 65. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , pp. 73. * ^ Berzin, Alexander (2002). "The Four Indian Buddhist Tenet Systems Regarding Illusion". Retrieved 11 July 2016. * ^ Mookerji 1998 , p. 565. * ^ Walser 2005 , p. 102. * ^ "Śāntarakṣita". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 4 October 2015. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 11. * ^ A B Collins 2000 , p. 240. * ^ Dutt 1988 , p. 264. * ^ Humphreys 1987 , p. 111. * ^ "The Shurangama Sutra (T. 945): A Reappraisal of its Authenticity". * ^ Jarzombek, Prakash & Ching 2011 , p. 312. * ^ Joshi 1977 , p. 177. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 191. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 197. * ^ Wriggins 1996 , p. 145. * ^ A B Sankalia 1934 , p. 208. * ^ A B Ghosh 1965 , p. 13. * ^ Wink 2002 , p. 333. * ^ Basham 1954 , p. 266. * ^ Minhaj-ud-Din 1881 , p. 552. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 212. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 14. * ^ Dutt 1988 , pp. 157,379. * ^ Scharfe 2002 , p. 150. * ^ A B Chos-dar 1959 , Introduction, p.XIX. * ^ Dutt 1988 , p. 347. * ^ Dutt 1988 , p. 343. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 15. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 214. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 56. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 27. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 219. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 28. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 19. * ^ Sankalia 1934 , p. 222. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 17. * ^ Ghosh 1965 , p. 31–33. * ^ Jinah 2013 , p. 52. * ^ "Five of the Leaves from an Ashtasahasrika Prajnaparamita Manuscript". Asia Society. Retrieved 25 September 2014. * ^ "Astasahahasrika Prajnaparamita Sanskrit
Sanskrit
palm-leaf manuscript". Retrieved 25 September 2014. * ^ "Getting to Nava Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara
Mahavihara
(NNM), Nalanda". Nava Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara. Retrieved 25 September 2014. * ^ "Welcome to Nava Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara
Mahavihara
(NNM)". Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. Retrieved 25 September 2014. * ^ Singh, Santosh (September 1, 2014). " Nalanda University
Nalanda University
starts today with 15 students, 11 faculty members". The Indian Express. Retrieved 3 September 2014. * ^ "Sushma Swaraj inaugurates Nalanda
Nalanda
University". Economic Times. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014. * ^ A B " Nalanda University
Nalanda University
reopens". Times of India. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014. * ^ Chatterjee, Chandan (1 September 2014). " Nalanda
Nalanda
route to prosperity — Varsity will boost trade, feel residents". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 September 2014. * ^ "The Archaeological Museum, Nalanda". Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India. Retrieved 10 September 2014. * ^ Chaudhary, Pranava K (Dec 27, 2006). " Nalanda
Nalanda
gets set for relic". Times of India. Retrieved 10 September 2014. * ^ " Nalanda
Nalanda
Multimedia Museum". Prachin Bharat. Retrieved 10 September 2014.

REFERENCES

* Minhaj-ud-Din, Maulana (1881). Tabakat-i-Nasiri – A General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of Asia Including Hindustan. Translated by Major H. G. Raverty. p. 552. * Sankalia, Hasmukhlal Dhirajlal (1934). The University of Nālandā. B. G. Paul & co. * Sukumar Dutt, London (1988) . Buddhist Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. George Allen and Unwin Ltd. ISBN 81-208-0498-8 . * Chandra, Satish (2004). Volume 1 of Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 8124110646 . * Ghosh, Amalananda (1965). A Guide to Nalanda
Nalanda
(5 ed.). New Delhi: The Archaeological Survey of India. * Scharfe, Hartmut (2002). Education in Ancient India. Handbook of Oriental Studies. 16. Brill. ISBN 9789004125568 . * Basham, A. L. (1954). The wonder that was India
India
: a survey of the history and culture of the Indian sub-continent before the coming of the Muslims. London: Picador. ISBN 978-0330439091 . * Chos-dar, Upasaka (1959). Biography of Dharmasvamin (Chag Lo Tsa-ba Chos-rje-dpal), a Tibetan Monk Pilgrim. Translated by George Roerich , Introduction by A.S. Altekar : The account was narrated by Dharmasvamin to his student, Chos-dar. * Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). Education in Ancient India. Nand Kishore. ISBN 8182054923 . * Rene Grousset (1971) . In the Footsteps of the Buddha. Translated from French by JA Underwood. Orion Press. ISBN 0-7661-9347-0 . * Joshi, Lal Mani (1977). Studies in the Buddhistic Culture of India During the Seventh and Eighth Centuries A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 8120802810 . * Wriggins, Sally Hovey (1996). Xuanzang
Xuanzang
: a Buddhist pilgrim on the Silk Road. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2801-2 – via Questia . (Subscription required (help)). * Wink, André (2002). Al-Hind : the making of the Indo-Islamic world, Volume 1 (. ed.). Boston, MA: Brill. ISBN 0-391-04173-8 – via Questia . (Subscription required (help)). * Sharma, Suresh Kant (2005). Encyclopaedia of Higher Education: Historical survey-pre-independence period. Mittal Publications. ISBN 8183240178 . * Khurshid, Anis (January 1972). "Growth of libraries in India". International Library Review. 4 (1): 21–65. doi :10.1016/0020-7837(72)90048-9 . * Sastri, Hiranand (1986) . Nalanda
Nalanda
and its Epigraphic Material. New Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications. ISBN 8170300134 . * Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta (1988) . Age of the Nandas and Mauryas (2nd ed.). Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 812080466X . * Taher, Mohamed; Davis, Donald Gordon (1994). Librarianship and library science in India
India
: an outline of historical perspectives. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. ISBN 8170225248 . * Bhatt, Rakesh Kumar (1995). History and Development of Libraries in India. Mittal Publications. ISBN 8170995825 . * Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1998) . Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (2 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 8120804236 . * Patel, Jashu; Kumar, Krishan (2001). Libraries and Librarianship in India. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313294235 . * Collins, Randall (2000). The sociology of philosophies: a global theory of intellectual change. Volume 30, Issue 2 of Philosophy of the social sciences. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00187-9 . * Beal, Samuel (2000) . The life of Hiuen-Tsiang. Trubner's Oriental Series. 1 (New ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 9781136376290 . * Humphreys, Christmas (1987)