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Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
(Thai: นครศรีธรรมราช, pronounced [ná(ʔ).kʰɔ̄ːn sǐː tʰām.mā.râːt]; from Pali Nagara Sri
Sri
Dhammaraja) is a city (thesaban nakhon) in southern Thailand, capital of the Nakhon Si Thammarat Province and the Nakhon Si Thammarat District. It is about 610 km (380 mi) south of Bangkok, on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. The city was the administrative center of southern Thailand
Thailand
during most of its history. Originally a coastal city, silting moved the coastline away from the city. The city has a much larger north to south extension than west to east, which dates back to its original location on a flood-save dune. The modern city centre on the train station is north of Old Town. As of 2005, the city had a population of 105,417.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Climate 4 Points of interest

4.1 Wat
Wat
Phra Mahathat Woramahawihan 4.2 City wall

5 Educational institutions 6 Museums 7 References 8 External links

Etymology[edit] Thai honorific Sri
Sri
or Si is from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sri; Thamma, from Dharma; rat, from Raja. Dhammaraja means "righteous ruler", an important Theravada
Theravada
concept. History[edit] Further information: Chi Tu

Location of Malay Peninsula

It is one of the most ancient cities of Thailand, previously the Kingdom of Ligor, and contains many buildings and ruins of historical significance. The king of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
"had established a foothold on the Malay Peninsular at Ligor" by 775, where he "built various edifices, including a sanctuary dedicated to the Buddha
Buddha
and to the Bodhisattvas Padmapani
Padmapani
and Vajrapani." [1]:84–85,91 With the fall of the Siamese capital of Ayutthaya in 1767 it regained independence, but returned to its allegiance on the founding of Bangkok. In the 17th century British, Portuguese, and Dutch merchants set up factories there and carried on an extensive trade. Its origins are not fully known. Most historians recognize the Tambralinga
Tambralinga
Kingdom of Chinese records as a precursor of Nakhon Si Thammarat. The town chronicles of this time are hardly separable from legend, but they do tell of an abandonment and refounding of the town, which would explain the break in history between Tambralinga
Tambralinga
and Nakhon Si Thammarat. References to a country named Poling appear in Chinese chronicles from the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
period down to the early Ming dynasty. Many scholars identify Poling with Maling and Danmaling was one of the member-states of Sanfoqi (the Chinese equivalent to Srivijaya) in the central part of the Malayu Peninsula or today southern Thailand. Poling may also be equated to the Tambralingarat ( Tambralinga
Tambralinga
State) that appears in Indian sources. By the end of the 12th century, Tambralinga
Tambralinga
had become independent of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Kingdom. Its rapid rise to prominence from the 13th century to the beginning of the 14th century, Tambralinga
Tambralinga
had occupied the entire Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
and become one of the dominant south-east Asian states. By the end of the 14th century, Tambralinga
Tambralinga
had become a part of Siam
Siam
(now Thailand) named Nakhon Si Thammaraj. At the time of the Sukhothai Kingdom, the Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Kingdom was already listed as one of the kingdoms under control of the Thai, which it has remained during most of its history. It was usually known as Ligor to European merchants in the 16th century. During the period of the five separate states following the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, the Prince of Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
made an abortive bid for independence, but was pardoned by Taksin
Taksin
and retired to Thonburi. At the end of the 19th century, the kingdom was finally fully absorbed into Siam
Siam
by converting it into the Monthon
Monthon
Nakhon Si Thammarat. When the monthon system was abolished in 1932, the town became a provincial capital. Climate[edit] Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification Af). Temperatures remain very warm to hot throughout the year. While some rain falls in all months, it is drier in February and March when about 90 millimetres (3.5 in) of rain falls in each month, and wetter in October to December when very heavy rain may fall; November sees 631 millimetres (24.8 in) of rain on average each year.

Climate data for Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 34.4 (93.9) 35.5 (95.9) 37.6 (99.7) 38.9 (102) 38.1 (100.6) 37.8 (100) 38.5 (101.3) 37.6 (99.7) 37.7 (99.9) 35.8 (96.4) 35.4 (95.7) 32.7 (90.9) 38.9 (102)

Average high °C (°F) 30.4 (86.7) 31.5 (88.7) 32.9 (91.2) 34.0 (93.2) 34.0 (93.2) 34.0 (93.2) 33.8 (92.8) 33.7 (92.7) 33.1 (91.6) 31.8 (89.2) 30.2 (86.4) 29.6 (85.3) 32.4 (90.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0 (78.8) 26.5 (79.7) 27.4 (81.3) 28.4 (83.1) 28.2 (82.8) 28.2 (82.8) 27.9 (82.2) 27.8 (82) 27.3 (81.1) 26.7 (80.1) 26.1 (79) 25.7 (78.3) 27.2 (81)

Average low °C (°F) 22.1 (71.8) 22.0 (71.6) 22.7 (72.9) 23.7 (74.7) 24.0 (75.2) 24.0 (75.2) 23.6 (74.5) 23.5 (74.3) 23.2 (73.8) 23.1 (73.6) 23.0 (73.4) 22.5 (72.5) 23.1 (73.6)

Record low °C (°F) 18.0 (64.4) 17.6 (63.7) 18.3 (64.9) 20.2 (68.4) 21.1 (70) 19.6 (67.3) 20.1 (68.2) 20.8 (69.4) 20.0 (68) 20.6 (69.1) 18.9 (66) 18.0 (64.4) 17.6 (63.7)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 145.4 (5.724) 68.0 (2.677) 89.7 (3.531) 107.0 (4.213) 173.8 (6.843) 117.3 (4.618) 117.8 (4.638) 129.8 (5.11) 161.6 (6.362) 303.0 (11.929) 631.2 (24.85) 451.6 (17.78) 2,496.3 (98.28)

Average rainy days 12.5 5.1 7.3 8.6 16.5 13.0 13.9 14.4 17.2 20.5 21.1 19.2 169.4

Average relative humidity (%) 84 81 80 80 81 79 79 78 82 85 87 86 81.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 179.8 180.8 201.5 183.0 155.0 150.0 155.0 114.7 108.0 108.5 105.0 142.6 1,783.9

Mean daily sunshine hours 5.8 6.4 6.5 6.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5 4.6 4.9

Source #1: Thai Meteorological Department[2]

Source #2: Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department (sun and humidity)[3]

Points of interest[edit] Wat
Wat
Phra Mahathat Woramahawihan[edit]

Chedi Phra Baromathat

Wat
Wat
Phra Mahathat Vihan (Thai วัดพระมหาธาตุวรมหาวิหาร) is the most important temple of Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
and southern Thailand. It was constructed at the time of the founding of the town, and contains a tooth relic of Buddha. The 78 m high chedi is surrounded by 173 smaller ones. While the chedi is now in Sri
Sri
Lankan style, it is said to be built on top of an earlier Srivijaya
Srivijaya
style chedi. The chedi was renovated in early 2009 and now appears like new. At the base of the chedi is a gallery named Viharn Tap Kaset, decorated with many Buddha
Buddha
statues and elephant heads emerging from the chedi. Viharn Phra Song Ma are the buildings which contain the staircase which leads to a walkway around the chedi above the gallery. At the bottom of the staircase are demon giants (yak) as guardians. Adjoining to the north is the Viharn Kien, which contains a small temple museum. South of the chedi is the large ubosot building, the Viharn Luang. Monk living quarters are across the street in a separate temple, Wat Na Phra Boromathat. The chedi is the symbol of the Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Province, present on the seal of the province. It is also displayed on the 25 satang coin.

Temple in Si Thammarat

Buddha
Buddha
statue, Si Thammarat

City wall[edit]

Northern Gate

The city chronicle mentions a fortification when the town was refounded in 1278. Restorations were recorded at the time of King Ramesuan (14th century), as well as King Narai
Narai
(1686). The latter was supported by the French engineer M. de la Mare. The walls spread 456 m from east to west, and 2238 m north to south, thus enclosing an area of about one square kilometre. The northern wall had only one gate, called Prathu Chai Nua or Prathu Chai Sak. The southern wall had only one gate. To the east there were three gates, which connected the town with the sea. To the west were five gates. Today only the northern gate still exists, together with a short stretch of the northern city wall.

Ratchadamnoen St, Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Downtown

Educational institutions[edit] Kindergarten and primary schools: Anuban Na Nakhon Utit School is a government-run school with kindergarten through grade 6. The school operates both Thai and English programmes. Srithammarat Suksa School is the largest kindergarten and primary school. They offer nursery-grade 6 classes on all three campuses in the city. They also offer the largest English program housed on a separate campus. Srithammart is often referred to as "AMC" or "EP AMC". Secondary schools: Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
has three large schools: Benjamarachutit School and Kanlayanee Si Thammarat School, both public secondary schools with grades 7 to 12, and Srithammarat Suksa School, the largest private pre-kindergarten through grade 12 school. Vocational Colleges: Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
has numerous vocational colleges, the most notable being Nakhon Sri
Sri
Thammaratt Technical College (Technic), and Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Vocational college (Acheewa). Universities: Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
has two universities: Walailak University (the largest university in Thailand) and Nakhon Si Thammarat Rajaphat University.

Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Railway Station

Museums[edit]

Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
National Museum

References[edit]

^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of south-east Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  ^ "Climatological Data for the Period 1981–2010". Thai Meteorological Department. p. 24. Retrieved 8 August 2016.  ^ "ปริมาณการใช้น้ำของพืชอ้างอิงโดยวิธีของ Penman Monteith (Reference Crop Evapotranspiration by Penman Monteith)" (PDF) (in Thai). Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department. p. 111. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 

Stuart Munro-Hay. Nakhon Sri
Sri
Thammarat – The Archaeology, History and Legends of a Southern Thai Town. ISBN 974-7534-73-8

External links[edit]

Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nakhon Si Thammarat
Nakhon Si Thammarat
(city).

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Metropolitan cities of Thailand

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City Municipalities (thesaban nakhon)

Chaophraya Surasak Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Hat Yai Khon Kaen Ko Samui Laem Chabang Lampang Mae Sot Nakhon Pathom Nakhon Ratchasima Nakhon Sawan Nakhon Si Thammarat Nonthaburi Om Noi Pak Kret Phitsanulok Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Phuket Rangsit Rayong Sakon Nakhon Samut Prakan Samut Sakhon Songkhla Surat Thani Trang Ubon Ratchathani Udon Thani Yala

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Capitals of provinces of Thailand

Ang Thong Ayothaya Ban Tom Bang Rin Bangkok Bueng Kan SAO Area Chachoengsao Chaeramae Chai Nat Chai Sathan Chaiyaphum Chanthaburi Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Chonburi Chumphon Kalasin Kanchanaburi Khelang Nakhon Khon Kaen Krabi Lamphun Loei Lopburi Mae Hong Son Mai Khet Map Ta Phut Mukdahan Nakhon Nayok Nakhon Phanom Nakhon Ratchasima Nakhon Sawan Nakhon Si Thammarat Narathiwat Non Nam Thaeng Nong Bua Lam Phu Nong Khai Nong Pling Nonthaburi Pathum Thani Pattani Phang Nga Phatthalung Phetchaburi Phichit Phitsanulok Phrae Phuket Prachuap Khiri Khan Ratchaburi Roi Et Sa Kaeo Sadiang Sakon Nakhon Samet Samut Prakan Samut Sakhon Samut Songkhram Sanam Chai Saraburi Satun Sing Buri Sisaket Songkhla Sukhothai Thani Surat Thani Surin Tak Thanon Khat Trang Trat Udon Thani Uthai Thani Uttaradit Waeng Nang Township Yala Yasothon

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