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Najib ad-Dawlah
Najib ad-Dawlah
(Pashto: نجيب الدوله‎), also known as Najib Khan
Najib Khan
Yousafzai (Pashto: نجيب خان‎), was a Rohilla Yousafzai Pashtun who earlier served as a Mughal serviceman but later deserted the cause of the Mughals
Mughals
and joined Ahmed Shah Abdali
Ahmed Shah Abdali
in 1757 in his attack on Delhi. He was also a tribal chief in 18th century Rohilkhand, who in the 1740s founded the city of Najibabad
Najibabad
in Bijnor district, India. He began his career in 1743 as an immigrant from village Maneri, District Swabi
Swabi
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
as a soldier. He was at first an employee of Imad ul mulk. He deserted the cause of the Mughals
Mughals
and joined Ahmed Shah Abdali
Ahmed Shah Abdali
in 1757 in his attack on Delhi. He was then appointed as Mir Bakshi of the Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
by Abdali. Later in his career he was known as Najib ad-Dawlah, Amir al-Umra, Shuja ad-Dawlah.[1] From 1757 to 1770 he was governor of Saharanpur, ruling over Dehradun. Many architectural relics of the period of Rohilla
Rohilla
he oversaw remain in Najibabad, which he founded at the height of his career as a Mughal minister.[2]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Battle of Delhi, 1759

2.1 Third Battle of Panipat 2.2 Administrator of Delhi

3 Death

3.1 Succeeded by Zabita 3.2 Destruction of his tomb by the Marathas

4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References

Biography[edit] Najib Khan
Najib Khan
belonged to the UmarKhel section of Mandanh Yousafzais. He migrated from village Maneri, district Swabi, now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1739 to join his uncle Bisharat Khan, who had settled with his families of Pakhtuns
Pakhtuns
at Bisharatnagar, near Rampur.[citation needed] In 1749, Ali Mohammed, who had captured most of Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
by 1740, gave Najib Khan
Najib Khan
a northern portion,[3] where he established the present day city of Najibabad, a state of Najibabad
Najibabad
independent from other Rohilla
Rohilla
tribes, and received the title, ‘Najib ad-Dawlah’.

Patthargarh fort outside Najibabad, built by Najib ad-Dawlah
Najib ad-Dawlah
in 1755. 1814-15 painting.

Najibabad, c. 1784–94, the triple domed Jami Mosque and the entrance gate to the Rohilla
Rohilla
palace

Imad-ul-Mulkh appointed Najib ad- Dawlah as the governor of Saharanpur.[4] In 1757, Najib ad-Dawlah, who was then the governor of Saharanpur
Saharanpur
under Mughal Empire, invaded the city of Dehradun, with his army of Rohillas, and ruled the area for the next decade. His rule was known for its administration, and development of land resources, leading to widespread development and prosperity in the area, with emphasis on agriculture and irrigation. Many mango groves created during the area still exist today. Though after his death in 1770, the area again fell into the hands of warring sides of Rajputs, Gujjars, Sikhs and Gurkhas, who ruled the region, leading to its downfall [5] Battle of Delhi, 1759[edit] Main article: Siege of Delhi, 1757 Ahmad Shah Abdali's invasion of 1759 left Najib in effective control of Delhi
Delhi
who was appointed to the post of 'Mir Bakshi'.[4] He had become the de facto ruler of Delhi, while the Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
was left with no actual power. His forces had to clash with the advancing Marathas in Delhi
Delhi
in the Siege of Delhi, 1757. Delhi
Delhi
was captured by Marathas and he was allowed safe exit from Delhi. [6] Third Battle of Panipat[edit] In the Third battle of Panipat, during the Maratha
Maratha
Conquests, he allied himself with the Durranis
Durranis
led by Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
(also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali,[7] against the Marathas. Najib Khan
Najib Khan
was clever enough to understand changed ground realities after third battle of Panipat. His brilliant political acumen was used by Ahmed Shah Abdali to isolate Marathas & preventing them from getting even single ally during their conflict with Durrani's power. His opposition to signing of treaty, with Marathas was the main cause of battle being fought at Panipat. He not only provided, Ahmed Shah Abdali, with 40,000 Rohilla
Rohilla
troops but also 70 guns to the combined forces. He also convinced Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Oudh, to join Ahmad Shah Abdali's forces against the Marathas. In this battle, the Maratha's were defeated and as a consequence Rohilla
Rohilla
Pakhtuns
Pakhtuns
increased in power. However, the Marathas recovered in a short duration of 10 years and under Mahadji Schinde recaptured Delhi
Delhi
in 1771, reinstalling the weakened Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
to the throne, under Maratha suzerainty. After the war he was made Mir Bakshi of Mughal emperor.[8] He had to become ruler of Delhi
Delhi
state with empty treasury & territory confining to boundaries of Delhi
Delhi
city. Najib Khan
Najib Khan
was a Pashtun soldier of fortune; he attained the hand of the daughter of Dunde Khan, one of the chieftains of the Rohilkhand Pathans. Rewarded by this ruler with the charge of a district, now Bijnor, in the North-west corner of Rohilkhand, he had joined the cause of Safdarjung, when that minister occupied the country; but on the latter's disgrace had borne a part in the campaigns of Ghazi-ud-din. When the Vizier first conceived the project of attacking the government, he sent Najib in the command of a Mughal detachment to occupy the country, about Saharanpur, then known as the Bawani Mahal, which had formed the jagir of the Ex-Vazir Khan Khanan. This territory thus became in its turn separated from the Empire, and continued for two generations in the family of Najib. He ruled the dwindled Empire for nine years, and died a peaceful death, leaving his charge in an improved and strengthened condition, ready for its lawful monarch. Administrator of Delhi[edit] As the Administrator of Delhi
Delhi
and the imperial heartlands including Agra, Najib ad-Dawlah, was clearly unsuccessful in halting the Jat peasant uprisings led by Raja Suraj Mal. During one massive assault, the Jats and their leaders overran the Mughal garrison at Agra
Agra
they plundered the city and looted the two great silver doors to the entrance of the famous Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
were looted and melted down by Raja Suraj Mal
Suraj Mal
in 1764.[9] Death[edit] After protecting Rohilkhand, Delhi
Delhi
and Agra
Agra
for nearly ten years as regent of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
he fell ill and died on 30 October 1770[10] Succeeded by Zabita[edit] After his death he was succeeded by his son Zabita Khan. His cemetery is still in present day, Najibabad, where the Patthargarh Fort still exists. Destruction of his tomb by the Marathas[edit] His son Zabita Khan
Zabita Khan
was defeated by the Marathas,[11] led by Mahadji Sindhia in 1772 and the fort of Pathargarh was completely looted by the Marathas in the form of horses, elephants, guns and other valuable things, Marathas also destroyed his grave, scattering the bones all around.[12] A few years later, in the subsequent Rohilla
Rohilla
War, the Rohillas
Rohillas
were attacked by Awadh
Awadh
with help from British East India
India
Company forces. When Hafiz Rahmat Khan
Hafiz Rahmat Khan
was killed, in April 1774, they were defeated, and Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
was plundered; and later, the Rohilla
Rohilla
power east of the Ganges was ended, and the final treaty by which the territory was incorporated in Awadh
Awadh
was concluded at Lal Dhang. The District was ceded to the British by the Nawab of Awadh, Saadat Ali Khan II
Saadat Ali Khan II
in 1801.[3] See also[edit]

Mughal Empire Shah Alam II Ahmad Shah Durrani

Further reading[edit]

Najib-ud-Daula at Dehli The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan, by H. G. Keene. 1887, Part II, Chapter II, 1764. The Fall of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
by Jadunath Sarkar Najib Khan
Najib Khan
(Najib-ud-Daula), a brilliant Yousafzai Baloch proteges of Najib Khan
Najib Khan
Yousafzai

References[edit]

^ History of Etawah
Etawah
Etawah
Etawah
Official website. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Najibabad". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 156. . ^ a b History of Bijnor
Bijnor
District The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 8, p. 194-195. ^ a b Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
by Abhas Verma ISBN 9788180903397 Bharatiya Kala Prakashan ^ History of Dehra Dun The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 11, p. 213. ^ Advanced Study in the History of Modern India
India
1707-1813 ^ Najibabad
Najibabad
Tehsil & Town The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 18, p. 334. ^ History of Modern India, 1707 A. D. to 2000 A. D ^ http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Culture/Archit/TajM.html ^ Rule of Shah Alam, 1759-1806 The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 411. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bijnor". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 928.  ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=uPq640stHJ0C&pg=PA8&lpg=PA8&dq=1771+scindia&source=bl&ots=Ohxv9jrPpo&sig=gdLcPTomT2FOmazdsOmytJmiiFE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JF2_T_PEF8PYrQfPkNW2CQ&ved=0CE4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1771%20s

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