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NAJDI ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: اللهجة النجدية‎‎) is a variety of Arabic
Arabic
spoken in the Najd region of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
.

There are three major dialects of Najdi Arabic.

* Northern Najdi, spoken in Ha\'il Region and Al-Qassim Region in the Najd. * Central Najdi (Urban Najdi), spoken in the city of Riyadh
Riyadh
and surrounding towns and farming communities. * Southern Najdi, spoken in the city of Al-Kharj and surrounding towns, and in the Rub' al-Khali.

CONTENTS

* 1 Phonology

* 1.1 Consonants

* 2 Footnotes * 3 Bibliography

PHONOLOGY

CONSONANTS

Here is a table of the consonant sounds of Najdi Arabic. The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and can be pronounced as /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker.

CONSONANT PHONEMES OF NAJDI ARABIC

LABIAL DENTAL DENTI-ALVEOLAR PALATAL Velar PHARYNGEAL GLOTTAL

PLAIN EMPHATIC

NASAL m

n

OCCLUSIVE VOICELESS

t tˤ

k

ʔ

VOICED b

d

d͡ʒ ɡ

FRICATIVE VOICELESS f θ s sˤ ʃ x ħ h

VOICED

ð z ðˤ

ɣ ʕ

TRILL

r

APPROXIMANT

l (ɫ ) j w

Phonetic notes:

* The classicized is an allophone for /g/ ⟨ق⟩ in few words and proper names as in القرآن ('Quran') and قانون ('Law'). * The distinction between the classical /dˤ/ ⟨ض⟩ and /ðˤ/ ⟨ظ⟩ was completely lost in Najdi Arabic, and both are realised as /ðˤ/. * the marginal phoneme /ɫ / only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it, it contrasts with /l/ in والله /waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walːa/ ('or'), but it occurs as an allophone of /l / in many other contexts, especially when neighboring the phonemes /g , x , sˤ , tˤ / e.g. قَلَم "pencile" /galam/→. * The phonemes /ɣ/ ⟨غ⟩ and /x/ ⟨خ⟩ can be realised as uvular fricatives and respectively. * In the consonantal system of Najdi Arabic, there is an occurrence of the alveolar affricates and as allophonic variants of the velar stops /k/ and /g/, respectively.

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Najdi Arabic
Arabic
at Ethnologue (13th ed., 1996). * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Najdi Arabic". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Al Motairi (2015 :5) * ^ Al Motairi (2015 :6) * ^ Watson (2002 :16) * ^ Al Motairi (2015)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* P.F. Abboud. 1964. "The Syntax of Najdi Arabic", University of Texas PhD dissertation. * Al Motairi, Sarah Soror (2015). "An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Syllable Structure in Qassimi Arabic".

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Languages of Iraq
Iraq

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

* Standard Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian Arabic (Main) * Bedawi

* Kurdish

MINORITY LANGUAGES

* Kurdish (Main)

* Neo-Aramaic

* Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

* Armenian * South Azerbaijani * Luri * Persian

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Iraqi Sign Language

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Languages of Syria
Syria

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* Standard Arabic
Arabic

MINORITY LANGUAGES

* Adyghe * Afshar * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Domari

* Kurdish

* Kurmanji

* Turoyo * Western Neo-Aramaic

VARIETIES OF ARABIC

* Bedawi * Levantine * Mesopotamian * Najdi * North Syrian

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Levantine Arabic
Levantine Arabic
Sign Language

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Languages of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

* Arabic
Arabic

VERNACULARS

* Baharna * Bareqi * Bedawi * Gulf * Hejazi * Najdi

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Saudi Sign Language

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Varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic

PRE-ISLAMIC

* Old Arabic
Arabic

MODERN LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

PENINSULAR

NORTHEASTERN

* Gulf

* Omani * Shihhi * Dhofari * Kuwaiti

* Najdi

WESTERN

* Bareqi

* Hejazi

* Sedentary * Bedouin

SOUTHERN

* Baharna

* Yemeni

* Hadhrami * Sanaani * Ta\'izzi-Adeni * Tihami * Judeo-Yemeni

NORTHWESTERN

* Bedouin

EASTERN

MESOPOTAMIAN

* North Mesopotamian

* Cypriot Maronite * Anatolian * Judeo-Iraqi

* South Mesopotamian

* Baghdad Koiné * Khuzestani

CENTRAL ASIAN

* Afghani * Khorasani * Central Asian Arabic
Arabic

LEVANTINE

NORTH LEVANTINE

* North Syrian

* Central Levantine

* Central Syrian * Lebanese

SOUTH LEVANTINE

* Jordanian

* Palestinian

* Urban * Central village

* Outer southern

NILO-EGYPTIAN

* Egyptian * Chadian * Sa\'idi * Sudanese

WESTERN

IBERIAN

* Andalusian

MAGHREBI

PRE-HILALIAN

* Urban

* Eastern Village

* Sahel * Lesser Kabylia

* Western Village

* Traras-Msirda * Mountain

* Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian

HILALIAN

* Sulaym

* Libyan koiné

* Eastern Hilal

* Tunisian koiné

* Central Hilal

* Algerian koiné * Central and Saharan * Eastern Algerian * Western Algerian

* Maqil

* Western Moroccan * Eastern Moroccan * Moroccan koiné * Hassānīya

SICULO-ARABIC

* Maltese * Sicilian

UNDESCRIBED

* Shirvani

JUDEO-ARABIC

* Judeo-Iraqi

* Judeo-Baghdadi

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian * Judeo-Yemeni

CREOLES AND PIDGINS

* Babalia * Bimbashi * Juba * Nubi * Maridi * Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages .

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Semitic languages
-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it .

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Saudi Arabia
related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it .

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Arabic
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