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Najdi Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: اللهجة النجدية‎) is a variety of Arabic
Arabic
spoken in the Najd
Najd
region of Saudi Arabia. There are three major dialects of Najdi Arabic.

Northern Najdi, spoken in Ha'il Region
Ha'il Region
and Al-Qassim Region
Al-Qassim Region
in the Najd. Central Najdi (Urban Najdi), spoken in the city of Riyadh
Riyadh
and surrounding towns and farming communities. Southern Najdi, spoken in the city of Al-Kharj
Al-Kharj
and surrounding towns, and in the Rub' al-Khali.

Contents

1 Phonology

1.1 Consonants

2 Footnotes 3 Bibliography

Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit] Here is a table of the consonant sounds of Najdi Arabic. The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and can be pronounced as /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker.

Consonant phonemes of Najdi Arabic[3]

Labial Dental Denti-alveolar Palatal Velar Pharyngeal Glottal

 plain  emphatic

Nasal m

n

Occlusive voiceless

t tˤ

k

ʔ

voiced b

d

d͡ʒ ɡ

Fricative voiceless f θ s sˤ ʃ x ħ h

voiced

ð z ðˤ

ɣ ʕ

Trill

r

Approximant

l (ɫ) j w

Phonetic notes:

The classicized [q] is an allophone for /ɡ/ ⟨ق⟩ in few words and proper names as in القرآن [alqurˈʔaːn] ('Quran') and قانون [qaːnuːn] ('Law').[4] The distinction between the classical /dˤ/ ⟨ض⟩ and /ðˤ/ ⟨ظ⟩ was completely lost in Najdi Arabic, and both are realised as /ðˤ/. the marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it,[5][incomplete citation] it contrasts with /l/ in والله /waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walːa/ ('or'), but it occurs as an allophone of /l/ in many other contexts, especially when neighboring the phonemes /ɡ, x, sˤ, tˤ/ e.g. قَلَم "pencile" /ɡalam/→[ɡaɫam]. The phonemes /ɣ/ ⟨غ⟩ and /x/ ⟨خ⟩ can be realised as uvular fricatives [ʁ] and [χ] respectively. In the consonantal system of Najdi Arabic, there is an occurrence of the alveolar affricates [t͡s] and [d͡z] as allophonic variants of the velar stops /k/ and /ɡ/, respectively.[6]

Footnotes[edit]

^ Najdi Arabic
Arabic
on Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Najdi Arabic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Al Motairi (2015:5) ^ Al Motairi (2015:6) ^ Watson (2002:16) ^ Al Motairi (2015)

Bibliography[edit]

P.F. Abboud. 1964. "The Syntax of Najdi Arabic", University of Texas PhD dissertation. Al Motairi, Sarah Soror (2015). "An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Syllable Structure in Qassimi Arabic". 

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