HOME
The Info List - Nahuatl



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

NAHUATL (English: /ˈnɑːwɑːtəl/ ; Nahuatl
Nahuatl
pronunciation: ( listen ) ), known historically as AZTEC, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family . Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by an estimated 1.5 million Nahua peoples , most of whom live in central Mexico
Mexico
. All Nahuan languages are indigenous to Mesoamerica .

Nahuatl
Nahuatl
has been spoken in central Mexico
Mexico
since at least the seventh century CE. It was the language of the Aztecs who dominated what is now central Mexico
Mexico
during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history . During the centuries preceding the Spanish conquest of the Aztec
Aztec
Empire , the Aztecs had expanded to incorporate a large part of central Mexico, and its influence caused the variety of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
spoken by the residents of Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
to become a prestige language in Mesoamerica. At the conquest, with the introduction of the Latin alphabet , Nahuatl
Nahuatl
also became a literary language , and many chronicles , grammars , works of poetry , administrative documents and codices were written in it during the 16th and 17th centuries. This early literary language based on the Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
variety has been labeled Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
, and is among the most studied and best-documented languages of America.

Today, Nahuan languages are spoken in scattered communities, mostly in rural areas throughout central Mexico
Mexico
and along the coastline. There are considerable differences among varieties, and some are mutually unintelligible . Huasteca Nahuatl , with over one million speakers, is the most-spoken variety. They all have been subject to varying degrees of influence from Spanish. No modern Nahuan languages are identical to Classical Nahuatl, but those spoken in and around the Valley of Mexico
Mexico
are generally more closely related to it than those on the periphery. Under Mexico's _General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples _ promulgated in 2003, Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and the other 63 indigenous languages of Mexico
Mexico
are recognized as _lenguas nacionales_ ("national languages") in the regions where they are spoken, enjoying the same status as Spanish within their region.

Nahuan languages exhibit a complex morphology characterized by polysynthesis and agglutination . Through a very long period of coexistence with the other indigenous Mesoamerican languages , they have absorbed many influences, coming to form part of the Mesoamerican language area . Many words from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
have been borrowed into Spanish, and since diffused into hundreds of other languages. Most of these loanwords denote things indigenous to central Mexico
Mexico
which the Spanish heard mentioned for the first time by their Nahuatl
Nahuatl
names. English words of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
origin include "avocado ", "chayote ", "chili ", "chocolate ", "atlatl ", "coyote ", "peyote ", "axolotl " and "tomato ".

CONTENTS

* 1 Classification

* 1.1 Terminology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Pre-Columbian period * 2.2 Colonial period * 2.3 Modern period

* 3 Demography and distribution

* 4 Phonology

* 4.1 Phonemes * 4.2 Allophony * 4.3 Phonotactics * 4.4 Stress

* 5 Morphology and syntax

* 5.1 Nouns * 5.2 Pronouns * 5.3 Verbs * 5.4 Reduplication * 5.5 Syntax

* 6 Contact phenomena * 7 Vocabulary

* 8 Writing and literature

* 8.1 Writing * 8.2 Literature * 8.3 Stylistics

* 9 Sample text * 10 See also

* 11 Notes

* 11.1 Content notes * 11.2 Citations

* 12 Bibliography

* 13 Further reading

* 13.1 Dictionaries of Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
* 13.2 Grammars of Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
* 13.3 Modern Dialects * 13.4 Miscellaneous

* 14 External links

CLASSIFICATION

Main article: Nahuan languages Tree diagram of the relation between the Nahuan languages and the rest of the Uto-Aztecan language family, based on the internal classification of Nahuan given by Terrence Kaufman (2001)

As a language label, the term "Nahuatl" encompasses a group of closely related languages or divergent dialects within the Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. The Mexican Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (National Institute of Indigenous Languages) recognize 30 different individual varieties within the "language group" labeled Nahuatl. The Ethnologue recognizes 28 varieties with separate ISO codes. Sometimes the label also is used to include the Pipil language (_Nawat_) of El Salvador. Regardless of whether the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
is considered to label a dialect continuum or a group of separate languages, the varieties form a single branch within the Uto-Aztecan family, descended from a single Proto-Nahuan language . Within Mexico
Mexico
the question of whether to consider individual varieties to be languages or dialects of a single language is highly political. This article focuses on describing the general history of the group and on giving an overview of the diversity it encompasses. For details on individual varieties or subgroups, see the individual articles.

In the past, the branch of Uto-Aztecan to which Nahuatl
Nahuatl
belongs has been called "Aztecan". From the 1990s onward, the alternative designation "Nahuan" has been frequently used as a replacement especially in Spanish-language publications. The Nahuan (Aztecan) branch of Uto-Aztecan is widely accepted as having two divisions: "General Aztec" and Pochutec.

General Aztec
Aztec
encompasses the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and Pipil languages. Pochutec is a scantily attested language, which became extinct in the 20th century, and which Campbell and Langacker classify as being outside of general Aztec. Other researchers have argued that Pochutec should be considered a divergent variant of the western periphery.

"Nahuatl" denotes at least Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
together with related modern languages spoken in Mexico. The inclusion of Pipil into the group is debated. Lyle Campbell (1997) classified Pipil as separate from the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
branch within general Aztecan, whereas dialectologists like Una Canger , Karen Dakin, Yolanda Lastra and Terrence Kaufman have preferred to include Pipil within General Aztecan branch, citing close historical ties with the eastern peripheral dialects of General Aztec.

Current subclassification of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
rests on research by Canger (1980) , Canger (1988) and Lastra de Suárez (1986) . Canger introduced the scheme of a Central grouping and two Peripheral groups, and Lastra confirmed this notion, differing in some details. Canger "> Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex . The text is in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
written in the Latin alphabet.

As a part of their missionary efforts, members of various religious orders (principally Franciscan
Franciscan
and Dominican friars and Jesuits) introduced the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to the Nahuas. Within the first twenty years after the Spanish arrival, texts were being prepared in the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
language written in Latin characters. Simultaneously, schools were founded, such as the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco in 1536, which taught both indigenous and classical European languages to both Indians and priests . Missionary grammarians undertook the writing of grammars , also called _artes_, of indigenous languages for use by priests. The first Nahuatl
Nahuatl
grammar, written by Andrés de Olmos , was published in 1547—three years before the first French grammar. By 1645 four more had been published, authored respectively by Alonso de Molina (1571), Antonio del Rincón (1595), Diego de Galdo Guzmán (1642), and Horacio Carochi (1645). Carochi's is today considered the most important of the colonial era grammars of Nahuatl. Carochi has been particularly important for scholars working in the New Philology, such that there is a 2001 English translation of Carochi's 1645 grammar by James Lockhart . Through contact with Spanish the Nahuatl language adopted many loan words, and as bilingualism intensified, even began changing the grammatical structure under influence by Spanish. Text about the language by Fray Joseph de Carranza, second half of the 18th century (click to read)

In 1570 King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
decreed that Nahuatl
Nahuatl
should become the official language of the colonies of New Spain in order to facilitate communication between the Spanish and natives of the colonies. This led to the Spanish missionaries teaching Nahuatl
Nahuatl
to Indians living as far south as Honduras
Honduras
and El Salvador
El Salvador
. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
was used as a literary language, and a large corpus of texts from that period exists today. Texts from this period include histories, chronicles, poetry, theatrical works, Christian canonical works, ethnographic descriptions, and administrative documents. The Spanish permitted a great deal of autonomy in the local administration of indigenous towns during this period, and in many Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speaking towns the language was the de facto administrative language both in writing and speech. A large body of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
literature was composed during this period, including the _ Florentine Codex _, a twelve-volume compendium of Aztec culture compiled by Franciscan
Franciscan
Bernardino de Sahagún ; _Crónica Mexicayotl _, a chronicle of the royal lineage of Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
by Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc ; _ Cantares Mexicanos _, a collection of songs in Nahuatl; a Nahuatl-Spanish/Spanish- Nahuatl
Nahuatl
dictionary compiled by Alonso de Molina ; and the _ Huei tlamahuiçoltica _, a description in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
of the apparition of the Our Lady of Guadalupe .

Grammars and dictionaries of indigenous languages were composed throughout the colonial period, but their quality was highest in the initial period. The friars found that learning all the indigenous languages was impossible in practice, so they concentrated on Nahuatl. For a time, the linguistic situation in Mesoamerica remained relatively stable, but in 1696, Charles II of Spain issued a decree banning the use of any language other than Spanish throughout the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
. In 1770 another decree, calling for the elimination of the indigenous languages, did away with Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
as a literary language. Until Mexican Independence in 1821, the Spanish courts admitted Nahuatl
Nahuatl
testimony and documentation as evidence in lawsuits, with court translators rendering it in Spanish.

MODERN PERIOD

Throughout the modern period the situation of indigenous languages has grown increasingly precarious in Mexico, and the numbers of speakers of virtually all indigenous languages have dwindled. Although the absolute number of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speakers has actually risen over the past century, indigenous populations have become increasingly marginalized in Mexican society. In 1895, Nahuatl
Nahuatl
was spoken by over 5% of the population. By 2000, this proportion had fallen to 1.49%. Given the process of marginalization combined with the trend of migration to urban areas and to the United States
United States
, some linguists are warning of impending language death . At present Nahuatl
Nahuatl
is mostly spoken in rural areas by an impoverished class of indigenous subsistence agriculturists. According to the Mexican national statistics institute, INEGI , 51% of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speakers are involved in the farming sector and 6 in 10 receive no wages or less than the minimum wage.

From the early 20th century to at least the mid-1980s, educational policies in Mexico
Mexico
focused on the hispanicization _(castellanización)_ of indigenous communities, teaching only Spanish and discouraging the use of indigenous languages. As a result, today there is no group of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speakers having attained general literacy in Nahuatl; while their literacy rate in Spanish also remains much lower than the national average. Even so, Nahuatl
Nahuatl
is still spoken by well over a million people, of whom around 10% are monolingual . The survival of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
as a whole is not imminently endangered, but the survival of certain dialects is, and some dialects have already become extinct within the last few decades of the 20th century.

The 1990s saw the onset of diametric changes in official Mexican government policies towards indigenous and linguistic rights. Developments of accords in the international rights arena combined with domestic pressures (such as social and political agitation by the Zapatista Army of National Liberation and indigenous social movements) led to legislative reforms and the creation of decentralized government agencies like National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (CDI) and Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (INALI) with responsibilities for the promotion and protection of indigenous communities and languages. In particular, the federal _Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas _ recognizes all the country's indigenous languages, including Nahuatl, as "national languages " and gives indigenous people the right to use them in all spheres of public and private life. In Article 11, it grants access to compulsory, bilingual and intercultural education . Nonetheless, progress towards institutionalizing Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and securing linguistic rights for its speakers has been slow.

DEMOGRAPHY AND DISTRIBUTION

Main articles: Nahuan languages and Nahua peoples _ Map showing the areas of Mesoamerica where Nahuatl
Nahuatl
is spoken today (in White) and where it is known to have been spoken historically (Grey)

Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speakers over 5 years of age in the ten states with most speakers (2000 census data ). Absolute and relative numbers. Percentages given are in comparison to the total population of the corresponding state. INEGI (2005) :4 REGION TOTALS PERCENTAGES

Federal District 37,450 0.44%

Guerrero
Guerrero
136,681 4.44%

Hidalgo 221,684 9.92%

State of Mexico
Mexico
55,802 0.43%

Morelos 18,656 1.20%

Oaxaca
Oaxaca
10,979 0.32%

Puebla
Puebla
416,968 8.21%

San Luis Potosí 138,523 6.02%

Tlaxcala 23,737 2.47%

Veracruz 338,324 4.90%

Rest of Mexico 50,132 0.10%

TOTAL:_ 1,448,937 1.49%

Today, a spectrum of Nahuan languages are spoken in an scattered areas stretching from the northern state of Durango to Tabasco in the southeast. Pipil, the southernmost Nahuan language, is spoken in El Salvador by a small number of speakers. According to IRIN-International, the Nawat Language Recovery Initiative project, there are no reliable figures for the contemporary numbers of speakers of Pipil. Numbers may range anywhere from "perhaps a few hundred people, perhaps only a few dozen".

According to the 2000 census by INEGI, Nahuatl
Nahuatl
is spoken by an estimated 1.45 million people, some 198,000 (14.9%) of whom are monolingual. There are many more female than male monolinguals, and females represent nearly two thirds of the total number. The states of Guerrero
Guerrero
and Hidalgo have the highest rates of monolingual Nahuatl speakers relative to the total Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speaking population, at 24.2% and 22.6%, respectively. For most other states the percentage of monolinguals among the speakers is less than 5%. This means that in most states more than 95% of the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speaking population are bilingual in Spanish.

The largest concentrations of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speakers are found in the states of Puebla
Puebla
, Veracruz , Hidalgo , San Luis Potosí , and Guerrero
Guerrero
. Significant populations are also found in the State of Mexico
Mexico
, Morelos , and the Federal District , with smaller communities in Michoacán and Durango . Nahuatl
Nahuatl
became extinct in the states of Jalisco and Colima during the 20th century. As a result of internal migration within the country, Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speaking communities exist in all states in Mexico. The modern influx of Mexican workers and families into the United States
United States
has resulted in the establishment of a few small Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speaking communities in that country, particularly in California
California
, New York , Texas
Texas
, New Mexico
Mexico
and Arizona
Arizona
.

PHONOLOGY

Nahuan languages are defined as a subgroup of Uto-Aztecan by having undergone a number of shared changes from the Uto-Aztecan protolanguage (PUA). The table below shows the phonemic inventory of Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
as an example of a typical Nahuan language. In some dialects, the /t͡ɬ/ phoneme, so common in Classical Nahuatl, has changed into either /t/, as in Isthmus Nahuatl , Mexicanero and Pipil , or into /l/, as in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
of Pómaro , Michoacán . Many dialects no longer distinguish between short and long vowels . Some have introduced completely new vowel qualities to compensate, as is the case for Tetelcingo Nahuatl
Nahuatl
. Others have developed a pitch accent , such as Nahuatl
Nahuatl
of Oapan , Guerrero
Guerrero
. Many modern dialects have also borrowed phonemes from Spanish, such as /b, d, ɡ, f/.

PHONEMES

Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
Consonants

LABIAL ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

CENTRAL LATERAL PLAIN LABIALIZED

NASAL m n

PLOSIVE p t

k kʷ ʔ

AFFRICATE

ts tɬ tʃ

CONTINUANT

s l ʃ

(h)*

SEMIVOWEL

j

w

Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
Vowels

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

LONG SHORT LONG SHORT LONG SHORT

CLOSE iː i

oː o

MID eː e

OPEN

aː a

* The glottal phoneme, called the "saltillo ," occurs only after vowels. In many modern dialects it is realized as an , but in others, as in Classical Nahuatl, it is a glottal stop .

In many Nahuatl
Nahuatl
dialects vowel length contrast is vague, and in others it has become lost entirely. The dialect of Tetelcingo (nhg) developed the vowel length into a difference in quality: long /iː eː aː oː/ to tense /i ʲe ɔ u/ and short /i e a o/ to lax /ɪ e a o/.

ALLOPHONY

Most varieties have relatively simple patterns of sound alternation (allophony) . In many dialects, the voiced consonants are devoiced in word-final position and in consonant clusters: /j/ devoices to a voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant /ʃ/, /w/ devoices to a voiceless glottal fricative or to a voiceless labialized velar approximant , and /l/ devoices to voiceless alveolar lateral fricative . In some dialects, the first consonant in almost any consonant cluster becomes . Some dialects have productive lenition of voiceless consonants into their voiced counterparts between vowels. The nasals are normally assimilated to the place of articulation of a following consonant. The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is assimilated after /l/ and pronounced .

PHONOTACTICS

Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and most of the modern varieties have fairly simple phonological systems. They allow only syllables with maximally one initial and one final consonant. Consonant clusters occur only word-medially and over syllable boundaries. Some morphemes have two alternating forms: one with a vowel _i_ to prevent consonant clusters and one without it. For example, the absolutive suffix has the variant forms _-tli_ (used after consonants) and _-tl_ (used after vowels). Some modern varieties, however, have formed complex clusters from vowel loss. Others have contracted syllable sequences, causing accents to shift or vowels to become long.

STRESS

Most Nahuatl
Nahuatl
dialects have stress on the penultimate syllable of a word. In Mexicanero from Durango, many unstressed syllables have disappeared from words, and the placement of syllable stress has become phonemic.

MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX

For details, see Classical Nahuatl grammar .

The Nahuatl
Nahuatl
languages are agglutinative , polysynthetic languages that make extensive use of compounding, incorporation and derivation. That is, they can add many different prefixes and suffixes to a root until very long words are formed, and a single word can constitute an entire sentence.

The following verb shows how the verb is marked for subject , patient , object , and indirect object: _/ni-mits-teː-tla-makiː-ltiː-s/_ I-you-someone-something-give-CAUSATIVE-FUTURE "I shall make somebody give something to you" (Classical Nahuatl)

NOUNS

The Nahuatl
Nahuatl
noun has a relatively complex structure. The only obligatory inflections are for number (singular and plural) and possession (whether the noun is possessed, as is indicated by a prefix meaning 'my', 'your', etc.). Nahuatl
Nahuatl
has neither case nor gender , but Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and some modern dialects distinguish between animate and inanimate nouns. In Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
the animacy distinction manifested with respect to pluralization, as only animate nouns could take a plural form, and all inanimate nouns were uncountable (as the words "bread" and "money" are uncountable in English). Now, many speakers do not maintain this distinction and all nouns may take the plural inflection. One dialect, that of the Eastern Huasteca, has a distinction between two different plural suffixes for animate and inanimate nouns.

In most varieties of Nahuatl, nouns in the unpossessed singular form generally take an "absolutive" suffix. The most common forms of the absolutive are _-tl_ after vowels, _-tli_ after consonants other than _l_, and _-li_ after _l_. Nouns that take the plural usually form the plural by adding one of the plural absolutive suffixes -_tin_ or -_meh_, but some plural forms are irregular or formed by reduplication . Some nouns have competing plural forms.

Singular noun: /kojo-tl/ coyote-ABSOLUTIVE "coyote" (Classical Nahuatl)

Plural animate noun: /kojo-meʔ/ coyote-PLURAL "coyotes" (Classical Nahuatl)

Plural animate noun w. reduplication: /koː~kojo-ʔ/ PLURAL~coyote-PLURAL "coyotes" (Classical Nahuatl)

Nahuatl
Nahuatl
distinguishes between possessed and unpossessed forms of nouns. The absolutive suffix is not used on possessed nouns. In all dialects, possessed nouns take a prefix agreeing with number and person of its possessor. Possessed plural nouns take the ending _-/waːn/_.

Absolutive noun: /kal-li/ house-ABSOLUTIVE "house" (Classical Nahuatl)

Possessed noun: /no-kal/ my-house "my house" (Classical Nahuatl)

Possessed plural: /no-kal-waːn/ my-house-PLURAL "my houses" (Classical Nahuatl)

Nahuatl
Nahuatl
does not have grammatical case but uses what is sometimes called a relational noun to describe spatial (and other) relations. These morphemes cannot appear alone but must occur after a noun or a possessive prefix. They are also often called postpositions or locative suffixes. in some ways these locative constructions resemble and can be thought of as locative case constructions. Most modern dialects have incorporated prepositions from Spanish that are competing with or that have completely replaced relational nouns.

Uses of relational noun/postposition/locative _-pan_ with a possessive prefix: _no-pan_ my-in/on "in/on me" (Classical Nahuatl) _iː-pan_ its-in/on "in/on it" (Classical Nahuatl) _iː-pan kal-li_ its-in house-ABSOLUTIVE "in the house" (Classical Nahuatl)

Use with a preceding noun stem: _kal-pan_ house-in "in the house" (Classical Nahuatl)

Noun compounds are commonly formed by combining two or more nominal stems or combining a nominal stem with an adjectival or verbal stem.

PRONOUNS

Nahuatl
Nahuatl
generally distinguishes three persons, both in the singular and plural numbers. In at least one modern dialect, the Isthmus-Mecayapan variety, there has come to be a distinction between inclusive (I/we and you) and exclusive (we but not you) forms of the first person plural:

First person plural pronoun in Classical Nahuatl: _tehwaːntin_ "we"

First person plural pronouns in Isthmus-Mecayapan Nahuat: _nejamēn_ () "We, but not you" (= me & them) _tejamēn_ () "We along with you" (= me & you text-align:left; vertical-align:top;">

Non-honorific forms: _tehwaːtl_ "you sg." _amehwaːntin_ "you pl." _yehwatl_ "he/she/it"

Honorific forms _tehwaːtzin_ "you sg. honorific" _amehwaːntzitzin_ "you pl. honorific" _yehwaːtzin_ "he/she honorific"

VERBS

The Nahuatl
Nahuatl
verb is quite complex and inflects for many grammatical categories. The verb is composed of a root, prefixes , and suffixes . The prefixes indicate the person of the subject , and person and number of the object and indirect object, whereas the suffixes indicate tense , aspect , mood and subject number.

Most Nahuatl
Nahuatl
dialects distinguish three tenses: present, past, and future, and two aspects: perfective and imperfective . Some varieties add progressive or habitual aspects. Many dialects distinguish at least the indicative and imperative moods, and some also have optative and vetative/prohibitive moods .

Most Nahuatl
Nahuatl
varieties have a number of ways to alter the valency of a verb. Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
had a passive voice (also sometimes defined as an impersonal voice ), but this is not found in most modern varieties. However the applicative and causative voices are found in many modern dialects. Many Nahuatl
Nahuatl
varieties also allow forming verbal compounds with two or more verbal roots.

The following verbal form has two verbal roots and is inflected for causative voice and both a direct and indirect object: _ni-kin-tla-kwa-ltiː-s-neki_ I-them-something-eat-CAUSATIVE-FUTURE-want "I want to feed them" (Classical Nahuatl)

Some Nahuatl
Nahuatl
varieties, notably Classical Nahuatl, can inflect the verb to show the direction of the verbal action going away from or towards the speaker. Some also have specific inflectional categories showing purpose and direction and such complex notions as "to go in order to" or "to come in order to", "go, do and return", "do while going", "do while coming", "do upon arrival", or "go around doing".

Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and many modern dialects have grammaticalised ways to express politeness towards addressees or even towards people or things that are being mentioned, by using special verb forms and special "honorific suffixes".

Familiar verbal form: _ti-mo-tlaːlo-a_ you-yourself-run-PRESENT "you run" (Classical Nahuatl)

Honorific verbal form: _ti-mo-tlaːlo-tsino-a_ you-yourself-run-HONORIFIC-PRESENT "You run" (said with respect) (Classical Nahuatl)

REDUPLICATION

Many varieties of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
have productive reduplication . By reduplicating the first syllable of a root a new word is formed. In nouns this is often used to form plurals, e.g. /tlaːkatl/ "man" → /tlaːtlaːkah/ "men", but also in some varieties to form diminutives , honorifics , or for derivations . In verbs reduplication is often used to form a reiterative meaning (i.e. expressing repetition), for example in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
of Tezcoco: /_wetsi_/ "he/she falls" /_we:-wetsi_/ "he/she falls several times" /_weʔ-wetsi-ʔ_/ "they fall (many people)"

SYNTAX

Some linguists have argued that Nahuatl
Nahuatl
displays the properties of a non-configurational language , meaning that word order in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
is basically free. Nahuatl
Nahuatl
allows all possible orderings of the three basic sentence constituents. It is prolifically a pro-drop language: it allows sentences with omission of all noun phrases or independent pronouns, not just of noun phrases or pronouns whose function is the sentence subject. In most varieties independent pronouns are used only for emphasis. It allows certain kinds of syntactically discontinuous expressions.

Michel Launey argues that Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
had a verb-initial basic word order with extensive freedom for variation, which was then used to encode pragmatic functions such as focus and topicality . The same has been argued for some contemporary varieties. _newal no-nobia_ I my-fianceé "MY fiancée" (and not anyone else's) ( Michoacán Nahual)

It has been argued that Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
syntax is best characterised by "omnipredicativity", meaning that any noun or verb in the language is in fact a full predicative sentence. A radical interpretation of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
syntactic typology, this nonetheless seems to account for some of the language's peculiarities, for example, why nouns must also carry the same agreement prefixes as verbs, and why predicates do not require any noun phrases to function as their arguments. For example, the verbal form _tzahtzi_ means "he/she/it shouts", and with the second person prefix _titzahtzi_ it means "you shout". Nouns are inflected in the same way: the noun "_conētl_" means not just "child", but also "it is a child", and _ticonētl_ means "you are a child". This prompts the omnipredicative interpretation, which posits that all nouns are also predicates. According to this interpretation a phrase such as _tzahtzi in conētl_ should not be interpreted as meaning just "the child screams" but, rather, "it screams, (the one that) is a child".

CONTACT PHENOMENA

Nearly 500 years of intense contact between speakers of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and speakers of Spanish , combined with the minority status of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and the higher prestige associated with Spanish has caused many changes in modern Nahuatl
Nahuatl
varieties, with large numbers of words borrowed from Spanish into Nahuatl, and the introduction of new syntactic constructions and grammatical categories.

For example, a construction like the following, with several borrowed words and particles, is common in many modern varieties (Spanish loanwords in boldface): _PERO āmo tēchENTENDERoah LO QUE tlen tictoah EN MEXICANO_ but not they-us-understand-PLURAL that which what we-it-say in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
"But they don't understand what we say in Nahuatl" (Malinche Nahuatl)

In some modern dialects basic word order has become a fixed subject–verb–object , probably under influence from Spanish. Other changes in the syntax of modern Nahuatl
Nahuatl
include the use of Spanish prepositions instead of native postpositions or relational nouns and the reinterpretation of original postpositions/relational nouns into prepositions. In the following example, from Michoacán Nahual, the postposition -_ka_ meaning "with" appears used as a preposition, with no preceding object: _ti-ya ti-k-wika ka tel_ you-go you-it-carry with you "are you going to carry it with you?" ( Michoacán Nahual)

In this example from Mexicanero Nahuat, of Durango , the original postposition/relational noun -_pin_ "in/on" is used as a preposition. Also, "porque", a conjunction borrowed from Spanish, occurs in the sentence. _amo wel kalaki-yá pin kal porke ȼakwa-tiká im pwerta_ not can he-enter-PAST in house because it-closed-was the door "He couldn't enter the house because the door was closed" (Mexicanero Nahuat)

Many dialects have also undergone a degree of simplification of their morphology that has caused some scholars to consider them to have ceased to be polysynthetic .

VOCABULARY

Main article: Words of Nahuatl origin _ The Aztecs called (red) tomatoes xitōmatl_, whereas the green tomatillo was called _tōmatl_; the latter is the source for the English word "tomato".

Many Nahuatl
Nahuatl
words have been borrowed into the Spanish language , most of which are terms designating things indigenous to the American continent. Some of these loans are restricted to Mexican or Central American Spanish, but others have entered all the varieties of Spanish in the world. A number of them, such as "chocolate", "tomato" and "avocado" have made their way into many other languages via Spanish.

Likewise a number of English words have been borrowed from Nahuatl through Spanish. Two of the most prominent are undoubtedly chocolate and tomato (from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
_tomatl_). Other common words such as coyote (from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
_coyotl_), avocado (from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
_ahuacatl_) and chile or chili (from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
_chilli_). The word chicle is also derived from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
_tzictli_ "sticky stuff, chicle". Some other English words from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
are: Aztec
Aztec
(from _aztecatl_); cacao (from Nahuatl _cacahuatl_ 'shell, rind'); ocelot (from _ocelotl_). In Mexico
Mexico
many words for common everyday concepts attest to the close contact between Spanish and Nahuatl, so many in fact that entire dictionaries of "_mexicanismos_" (words particular to Mexican Spanish) have been published tracing Nahuatl
Nahuatl
etymologies, as well as Spanish words with origins in other indigenous languages. Many well known toponyms also come from Nahuatl, including _Mexico_ (from the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word for the Aztec
Aztec
capital _mexihco_) and _Guatemala_ (from the word _cuauhtēmallan_).

WRITING AND LITERATURE

WRITING

Main article: Nahuatl orthography See also: Aztec
Aztec
writing and Aztec codices _ The placenames Mapachtepec_ ("Raccoon Hill"), _Mazatlan_ ("Deer Place") and _Huitztlan_ ("Thorn Place") written in the Aztec
Aztec
writing system, from the Codex Mendoza

Traditionally, Pre-Columbian Aztec
Aztec
writing has not been considered a true writing system, since it did not represent the full vocabulary of a spoken language in the way that the writing systems of the Old World or the Maya Script did. Therefore, generally Aztec
Aztec
writing was not meant to be read, but to be told. The elaborate codices were essentially pictographic aids for memorizing texts, which include genealogies, astronomical information, and tribute lists. Three kinds of signs were used in the system: pictures used as mnemonics (which do not represent particular words), logograms which represent whole words (instead of phonemes or syllables ), and logograms used only for their sound values (i.e. used according to the rebus principle). However, epigrapher Alfonso Lacadena has argued that by the eve of the Spanish invasion, one school of Nahua scribes, those of Tetzcoco, had developed a fully syllabic script which could represent spoken language phonetically in the same way that the Maya script did. Some other epigraphers have questioned the claim, arguing that although the syllabicity was clearly extant in some early colonial manuscripts (hardly any pre-Columbian manuscripts have survived), this could be interpreted as a local innovation inspired by Spanish literacy rather than a continuation of a pre-Columbian practice.

The Spanish introduced the Latin script , which was used to record a large body of Aztec
Aztec
prose, poetry and mundane documentation such as testaments, administrative documents, legal letters, etc. In a matter of decades pictorial writing was completely replaced with the Latin alphabet. No standardized Latin orthography has been developed for Nahuatl, and no general consensus has arisen for the representation of many sounds in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
that are lacking in Spanish, such as long vowels and the glottal stop . The orthography most accurately representing the phonemes of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
was developed in the 17th century by the Jesuit
Jesuit
Horacio Carochi , building on the insights of another Jesuit, Antonio del Rincon . Carochi's orthography used two different diacritics: a macron to represent long vowels and a grave for the _saltillo_, and sometimes an acute accent for short vowels. This orthography did not achieve a wide following outside of the Jesuit community.

When Nahuatl
Nahuatl
became the subject of focused linguistic studies in the 20th century, linguists acknowledged the need to represent all the phonemes of the language. Several practical orthographies were developed to transcribe the language, many using the Americanist transcription system. With the establishment of Mexico's Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas in 2004, new attempts to create standardized orthographies for the different dialects were resumed; however to this day there is no single official orthography for Nahuatl. Apart from dialectal differences, major issues in transcribing Nahuatl
Nahuatl
include:

* whether to follow Spanish orthographic practice and write /k/ with _c_ and _qu_, /kʷ/ with _cu_ and _uc_, /s/ with _c_ and _z_, or _s_, and /w/ with _hu_ and _uh_, or _u_. * how to write the "saltillo " phoneme (in some dialects pronounced as a glottal stop and in others as an ), which has been spelled with _j_, _h_, ’ (apostrophe), or a grave accent on the preceding vowel, but which traditionally has often been omitted in writing. * whether and how to represent vowel length, e.g. by double vowels or by the use of macrons.

LITERATURE

Main article: Mesoamerican literature

Among the indigenous languages of the Americas , the extensive corpus of surviving literature in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
dating as far back as the 16th century may be considered unique. Nahuatl
Nahuatl
literature encompasses a diverse array of genres and styles, the documents themselves composed under many different circumstances. It appears that the preconquest Nahua had a distinction much like the European distinction between "prose " and "poetry ", the first called _tlahtolli_ "speech" and the second _cuicatl_ "song".

Nahuatl
Nahuatl
_tlahtolli_ prose has been preserved in different forms. Annals and chronicles recount history, normally written from the perspective of a particular _altepetl _ (locally based polity ) and often combining mythical accounts with real events. Important works in this genre include those from Chalco written by Chimalpahin , from Tlaxcala by Diego Muñoz Camargo , from Mexico- Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
by Fernando Alvarado Tezozomoc and those of Texcoco by Fernando Alva Ixtlilxochitl . Many annals recount history year-by-year and are normally written by anonymous authors. These works are sometimes evidently based on pre-Columbian pictorial year counts that existed, such as the Cuauhtitlan annals and the Anales de Tlatelolco . Purely mythological narratives are also found, like the "Legend of the Five Suns ", the Aztec
Aztec
creation myth recounted in Codex Chimalpopoca.

One of the most important works of prose written in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
is the twelve-volume compilation generally known as the _ Florentine Codex _, produced in the mid-16th century by the Franciscan
Franciscan
missionary Bernardino de Sahagún with the help of a number of Nahua informants . With this work Sahagún bestowed an enormous ethnographic description of the Nahua, written in side-by-side translations of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
and Spanish and illustrated throughout by color plates drawn by indigenous painters. Its volumes cover a diverse range of topics: Aztec
Aztec
history, material culture, social organization, religious and ceremonial life, rhetorical style and metaphors. The twelfth volume provides an indigenous perspective on the conquest itself. Sahagún also made a point of trying to document the richness of the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
language, stating:

This work is like a dragnet to bring to light all the words of this language with their exact and metaphorical meanings, and all their ways of speaking, and most of their practices good and evil.

Nahuatl
Nahuatl
poetry is preserved in principally two sources: the _Cantares Mexicanos _ and the _ Romances de los señores de Nueva España _, both collections of Aztec
Aztec
songs written down in the 16th and 17th centuries. Some songs may have been preserved through oral tradition from pre-conquest times until the time of their writing, for example the songs attributed to the poet-king of Texcoco, Nezahualcoyotl . Karttunen text-align:left; vertical-align:top;">

_TLANAHUATIL PANOLOANI_

_An Altepeme de non cate itech nin tlalpan_ _de netehuiloya den tlanahuatiani Arenas._

_Axcan cuan nonques tlalticpacchanéhque_ _de non altepeme tlami quitzetzeloa_ _neca tliltic amo cuali nemiliz Carrancista,_ _noyolo pahpaqui_ _ihuan itech nin mahuiztica,_ _intoca netehuiloanime-tlatzintlaneca,_ _ihuan nanmechtitlanilia_ _ze páhpaquilizticatlápaloli_ _ihuan ica nochi noyolo_ _niquinyolehua nonques altepeme_ _aquihque cate qui chihuazque netehuiliztle_ _ipampa meláhqui tlanahuatil_ ihuan amo nen motenecahuilia _quitlahtlaczazque_ _in anmocualinemiliz._ _tiquintlahpaloa nonques netehuiloanime_ _tlen mocuepan ican nin yolopaquilizticatequi,_ _ihuan quixnamiqui in nexicoaliztle_ _ipan non huei tehuile_ _tlen aic hueliti tlami nian aic tlamiz_ _zeme ica nitlamiliz in tliltic oquichtlanahuatiani,_ _de neca moxicoani, teca mocaya_ _de non zemihcac teixcuepa_ _tlen itoca Venustiano Carranza_ _que quimahuizquixtia in netehuiliztle_ _ihuan quipinahtia to tlalticpac-nantzi "Mexico"_ _zeme quimahuizpolóhtica._

MESSAGE TO BE PASSED AROUND

To the towns that are located in the area that fought under General Arenas.

Now, that the dwellers of this earth, of those towns, finish shaking out that black, evil life of the Carrancismo my heart is very happy and with the dignity in the name of those who fight in the ranks, and to you all I send a happy greeting and with all of my heart I invite those towns, those who are there, to join the fight for a righteous mandate to not vainly issue statements, to not allow to be done away with your good way of life. We salute those fighters who turn towards this joyous labour and confront the greed in this great war, which can never end, nor will ever end until the end of the black tyrant of that glutton, who mocks and always cheat people and whose name is Venustiano Carranza, who takes the glory out of war and who shames our motherland, Mexico completely dishonouring it.

SEE ALSO

* _ Vocabulario manual de las lenguas castellana y mexicana _ (a Spanish- Nahuatl
Nahuatl
dictionary) * _ Vocabulario trilingüe _ (dictionary of Spanish, Latin, and Nahuatl)

NOTES

CONTENT NOTES

* ^ The Classical Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word _nāhuatl_ (noun stem _NāHUA_, + absolutive _-TL_ ) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" Andrews (2003) :578,364,398 This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),("Náhuatl" (in Spanish). rae.es. Retrieved 6 July 2012. ) Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speakers are called _Nahua_. * ^ By the provisions of Article IV: _Las lenguas indígenas...y el español son lenguas nacionales...y tienen la misma validez en su territorio, localización y contexto en que se hablen._ ("The indigenous languages ... and Spanish are national languages ... and have the same validity in their territory, location and context in which they are spoken.") * ^ "General Aztec
Aztec
is a generally accepted term referring to the most shallow common stage, reconstructed for all present-day Nahuatl varieties; it does not include the Pochutec dialect Campbell & Langacker (1978) ." Canger (2000) :385(Note 4) * ^ Such as the 1996 adoption at a world linguistics conference in Barcelona of the Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights , a declaration which "became a general reference point for the evolution and discussion of linguistic rights in Mexico" Pellicer, Cifuentes traditionally Nahuatl
Nahuatl
had postpositions or relational nouns rather than prepositions. The stem _mexihka_, related to the name _mexihko_, 'Mexico', is of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
origin, but the suffix _-ano_ is from Spanish, and it is probable that the whole word _mexicano_ is a re-borrowing from Spanish back into Nahuatl. * ^ While there is no real doubt that the word "chocolate" comes from Nahuatl, the commonly given Nahuatl
Nahuatl
etymology /ʃokolaːtl/ "bitter water" no longer seems to be tenable. Dakin see Carmack (1981) :143.

CITATIONS

* ^ "General Law of Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2008. * ^ " Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas homepage". * ^ _A_ _B_ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Aztec". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, _The Linguistics Student’s Handbook_, Edinburgh * ^ _A_ _B_ Suárez (1983) :149 * ^ Canger 1980 , p. 13. * ^ Canger 2002 , p. 195. * ^ Canger 1988 . * ^ "Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas" (PDF). _Diario Oficial de la Federación_ (in Spanish). Issued by the Cámara de Diputados del H. Congreso de la Unión . 2003-03-13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2008. . * ^ Pharao Hansen 2013 . * ^ Canger (1988) :42–43, Dakin (1982) :202, INALI (2008) :63, Suárez (1983) :149 * ^ Boas 1917 . * ^ Knab 1980 . * ^ Canger & Dakin (1985) :360, Dakin (2001) :21–22 * ^ Dakin (2001) :21–22, Kaufman (2001) * ^ Launey 1992 , p. 116. * ^ Canger 2001 , p. 385. * ^ Hill & Hill 1986 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Tuggy (1979) * ^ _A_ _B_ Campbell (1985) * ^ Canger 2001 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Wolgemuth 2002 . * ^ Suárez 1983 , p. 20. * ^ Canger (1980) :12, Kaufman (2001) :1 * ^ Hill 2001 . * ^ Merrill et al. 2010 . * ^ Kaufman & Justeson 2009 . * ^ Justeson et al. 1985 , p. passim. * ^ Kaufman 2001 , pp. 3–6,12. * ^ Kaufman Pasztory (1993) * ^ Campbell (1997) :161, Justeson et al. (1985) ; Kaufman (2001) :3–6,12 * ^ Dakin & Wichmann (2000) , Macri (2005) , Macri Kaufman (2001) * ^ Fowler (1985) :38; Kaufman (2001) * ^ Carmack 1981 , pp. 142–143. * ^ Canger 2011 . * ^ Jackson 2000 . * ^ INAFED (Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal) (2005). "Saltillo, Coahuila". _Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México_ (in Spanish) (online version at E-Local ed.). INAFED , Secretaría de Gobernación . Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-28. . The Tlaxcaltec community remained legally separate until the 19th century. * ^ Matthew 2012 . * ^ Lockhart (1991) :12; Lockhart (1992) :330–331 * ^ Rincón 1885 . * ^ Carochi 1645 . * ^ Canger 1980 , p. 14. * ^ Carochi 2001 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Olko & Sullivan 2013 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Suárez (1983) :165 * ^ Suárez 1983 , pp. 140–41. * ^ Suárez 1983 , p. 5. * ^ Cline 2000 . * ^ Rolstad 2002 , p. _passim._. * ^ INEGI 2005 , pp. 63–73. * ^ Suárez 1983 , p. 167. * ^ Suárez 1983 , p. 168. * ^ INEGI 2005 , p. 49. * ^ Lastra de Suárez (1986) , Rolstad (2002) :passim * ^ Pellicer, Cifuentes & Herrera 2006 , pp. 132–137. * ^ INALI (n.d.). "Presentación de la Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos". _Difusión de INALI_ (in Spanish). INALI, Secretaría de Educación Pública . Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-31. * ^ Based on Lastra de Suárez (1986) ; Fowler (1985) * ^ IRIN 2004 . * ^ INEGI 2005 , p. 35. * ^ INEGI 2005 . * ^ Flores Farfán 2002 , p. 229. * ^ Sischo 1979 , p. _passim_. * ^ Amith 1989 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Flores Farfán (1999) * ^ Pury-Toumi 1980 . * ^ Burnham, Jeff & David Tuggy (1979). A Spectrographic Analysis of Vowel
Vowel
Length in Rafael Delgado Nahuatl. * ^ Launey 1992 , p. 16. * ^ Launey 1992 , p. 26. * ^ Launey 1992 , pp. 19–22. * ^ Canger 2001 , p. 29. * ^ Launey 1999 . * ^ Hill & Hill 1980 . * ^ Kimball 1990 . * ^ Launey 1992 , pp. 27–28. * ^ Launey 1992 , pp. 88–89. * ^ Hill Andrews (2003) . * ^ Launey (1994) , Launey (1999) :116–18 * ^ _A_ _B_ Canger & Jensen (2007) * ^ Hill & Hill 1986 , p. 317. * ^ Hill and Hill 1986:page# * ^ Suárez 1977 . * ^ Canger 2001 , p. 116. * ^ Hill & Hill 1986 , pp. 249–340. * ^ Haugen 2009 . * ^ Dakin et al., eds. (2000). _ocelot_. _The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language_ (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin . ISBN 0-395-82517-2 . OCLC
OCLC
43499541 . Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Lockhart 1992 , pp. 327–329. * ^ Lacadena 2008 . * ^ Whittaker 2009 . * ^ Lockhart 1992 , pp. 330–335. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Canger (2002) :200–204 * ^ Smith-Stark 2005 . * ^ Whorf, Karttunen & Campbell 1993 . * ^ McDonough 2014 , p. 148. * ^ Bierhorst 1985 , p. xii. * ^ Canger 2002 , p. 300. * ^ León-Portilla 1985 , p. 12. * ^ Karttunen & Lockhart 1980 . * ^ Bierhorst 1998 . * ^ Sahagún -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;"> Amith, Jonathan D. (1989). _Acento en el nahuatl de Oapan_. Presentation to the Seminario de Lenguas Indígenas, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas- UNAM (in Spanish). México D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México . Andrews, J. Richard (2003). _Introduction to Classical Nahuatl_ (revised ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0-8061-3452-6 . OCLC
OCLC
50090230 . Baker, Mark C. (1996). _The Polysynthesis Parameter_. Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax. New York: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 0-19-509308-9 . OCLC
OCLC
31045692 . Beller, Richard; Beller, Patricia (1979). "Huasteca Nahuatl". In Ronald Langacker . _Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar
Grammar
2: Modern Aztec
Aztec
Grammatical Sketches_. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 56. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington . pp. 199–306. ISBN 0-88312-072-0 . OCLC
OCLC
6086368 . Bierhorst, J. (1985). _Cantares mexicanos: Songs of the Aztecs_. Stanford University Press. Bierhorst, J. (1998). _History and Mythology of the Aztecs: The Codex Chimalpopoca_. University of Arizona
Arizona
Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-1886-9 . Boas, Franz (1917). "El dialecto mexicano de Pochutla, Oaxaca". _International Journal of American Linguistics _ (in Spanish). New York: Douglas C. McMurtrie. 1 (1): 9–44. OCLC
OCLC
56221629 . doi :10.1086/463709 . Bright, William (1990). " 'With One Lip, with Two Lips': Parallelism in Nahuatl". _Language _. Washington DC: Linguistic Society of America . 66 (3): 437–452. JSTOR 414607 . OCLC
OCLC
93070246 . doi :10.2307/414607 . Campbell, Lyle (1985). _The Pipil Language of El Salvador_. Mouton Grammar
Grammar
Library, no. 1. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter . ISBN 978-3-11-010344-1 . OCLC
OCLC
13433705 . Campbell, Lyle (1997). _American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America_. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics, 4. London and New York: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 0-19-509427-1 . OCLC
OCLC
32923907 . Campbell, Lyle ; Langacker, ronald (1978). "Proto-Aztecan vowels: Part I". _ International Journal of American Linguistics _. Chicago: University of Chicago Press . 44 (2): 85–102. OCLC
OCLC
1753556 . doi :10.1086/465526 . Canger, Una (1980). _Five Studies Inspired by Náhuatl Verbs in -oa_. Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague, Vol. XIX. Copenhagen: The Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen; distributed by C.A. Reitzels Boghandel. ISBN 87-7421-254-0 . OCLC
OCLC
7276374 . Canger, Una (1988). " Nahuatl
Nahuatl
dialectology: A survey and some suggestions". _ International Journal of American Linguistics _. Chicago: University of Chicago Press . 54 (1): 28–72. OCLC
OCLC
1753556 . doi :10.1086/466074 . Canger, Una (1996). "Is there a passive in nahuatl". In Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; et al. _Content, expression and structure: studies in Danish functional grammar_. Amsterdam: John Benjamin's Publishing Co. pp. 1–15. Canger, Una (2000). "Stress in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
of Durango: whose stress?". In Eugene H. Casad; Thomas L. Willett. _Uto-Aztecan: Structural, Temporal, and Geographic Perspectives: Papers in Memory of Wick R. Miller by the Friends of Uto-Aztecan_. Hermosillo, Sonora: Universidad de Sonora División de Humanidades y Bellas Artes, Editorial UniSon. pp. 373–386. ISBN 970-689-030-0 . OCLC
OCLC
50091799 . Canger, Una (2001). _ Mexicanero de la Sierra Madre Occidental_. Archivo de Lenguas Indígenas de México, #24 (in Spanish). México D.F.: El Colegio de México . ISBN 968-12-1041-7 . OCLC
OCLC
49212643 . Canger, Una (2002). "An interactive dictionary and text corpus". In William Frawley; Pamela Munro ; Kenneth C. Hill. _Making dictionaries: Preserving Indigenous Languages of the Americas_. Berkeley, CA: University of California
California
Press . pp. 195–218. ISBN 0-520-22995-9 . OCLC
OCLC
47863283 . Canger, Una (2011). "El nauatl urbano de Tlatelolco/Tenochtitlan, resultado de convergencia entre dialectos, con un esbozo brevísimo de la historia de los dialectos". _Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl_. Mexico: UNAM: 243–258. Canger, Una; Dakin, Karen (1985). "An inconspicuous basic split in Nahuatl". _International journal of American linguistics_: 358–361. Canger, Una; Jensen, Anne (2007). "Grammatical borrowing in Nahuatl". In Yaron Matras; J Sakel. _Grammatical Borrowing in Cross-Linguistic Perspective Empirical Approaches to Language Typology_. 38. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 403–418. Carmack, Robert M. (1981). _The Quiché Mayas of Utatlán: The Evolution of a Highland Guatemala
Guatemala
Kingdom_. Civilization of the American Indian series, no. 155. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 0-8061-1546-7 . OCLC
OCLC
6555814 . Carochi, Horacio (1645). _Arte de la lengua mexicana con la declaracion de los adverbios della. Al Illustrisso. y Reuerendisso. _ Mexico: Juan Ruyz. OCLC
OCLC
7483654 . (in Spanish) (in Nahuatl) Carochi, Horacio (2001). _ Grammar
Grammar
of the Mexican Language: With an Explanation of Its Adverbs (1645), by Horacio Carochi_. James Lockhart (trans., ed., and notes). Stanford and Los Angeles: Stanford University Press , UCLA Latin American Center Publications. ISBN 0-8047-4281-2 . OCLC
OCLC
46858462 . Cline, Sarah L. (2000). "Native Peoples of Colonial Central Mexico". In Richard E.W. Adams; Murdo J. MacLeod. _The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas: Volume II, Mesoamerica, Part 2_. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 187–222. Cowgill, George L. (1992). " Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
Glyphs and Imagery in the Light of Some Early Colonial Texts". In Janet Catherine Berlo . _Art, Ideology, and the City of Teotihuacan: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 8th and 9th October 1988_. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection . pp. 231–246. ISBN 0-88402-205-6 . OCLC
OCLC
25547129 . Cowgill, George L. (2003). " Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
and Early Classic Interaction: A Perspective from Outside the Maya Region". In Geoffrey E. Braswell. _The Maya and Teotihuacan: Reinterpreting Early Classic Interaction_. Austin: University of Texas
Texas
Press . pp. 315–336. ISBN 0-292-70587-5 . OCLC 49936017 . Dakin, Karen (1982). _La evolución fonológica del Protonáhuatl_ (in Spanish). México D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas. ISBN 968-5802-92-0 . OCLC
OCLC
10216962 . Dakin, Karen (1994). "El náhuatl en el yutoazteca sureño: algunas isoglosas gramaticales y fonológicas". In Carolyn MacKay; Verónica Vázquez. _Investigaciones lingüísticas en Mesoamérica_. Estudios sobre Lenguas Americanas, no. 1 (in Spanish). México D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, Seminario de Lenguas Indígenas. pp. 3–86. ISBN 968-36-4055-9 . OCLC
OCLC
34716589 . Dakin, Karen; Wichmann, Søren (2000). "Cacao and Chocolate: A Uto-Aztecan Perspective" (PDF online reprint). _Ancient Mesoamerica_. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. 11 (1): 55–75. OCLC 88396015 . doi :10.1017/S0956536100111058 . Dakin, Karen (2001). "Estudios sobre el náhuatl". _Avances y balances de lenguas yutoaztecas_. Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, UNAM . ISBN 970-18-6966-4 . Flores Farfán, José Antonio (1999). _Cuatreros Somos y Toindioma Hablamos. Contactos y Conflictos entre el Náhuatl y el Español en el Sur de México_ (in Spanish). Tlalpán D.F.: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social. ISBN 968-496-344-0 . OCLC
OCLC
42476969 . Flores Farfán, José Antonio (2002). Barbara Jane Burnaby; John Allan Reyhner, eds. _The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerrero, Mexico_ (PDF ). Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 11–14 May 2000). Flagstaff, AZ: Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona
Arizona
University . pp. 225–236. ISBN 0-9670554-2-3 . OCLC 95062129 . Flores Farfán, José Antonio (2006). "Intervention in indigenous education. Culturally-sensitive materials for bilingual Nahuatl
Nahuatl
speakers". In Margarita G. Hidalgo. _Mexican Indigenous Languages at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century_. Contributions to the sociology of language, no. 91. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter . pp. 301–324. ISBN 978-3-11-018597-3 . OCLC
OCLC
62090844 . Fowler, William R. Jr. (1985). "Ethnohistoric Sources on the Pipil Nicarao: A Critical Analysis". _Ethnohistory_. Columbus, OH: American Indian Ethnohistoric Conference. 32 (1): 37–62. JSTOR 482092 . OCLC
OCLC
62217753 . doi :10.2307/482092 . Haugen, J. D. (2009). "Borrowed borrowings: Nahuatl loan words in English". _Lexis: E-Journal in English Lexicology_. 3: 63–106. Hill, J. H.; Hill, K. C. (1980). "Mixed grammar, purist grammar, and language attitudes in modern Nahuatl". _Language in society_. 9 (03): 321–348. Hill, Jane H. (2001). "Proto-Uto-Aztecan: A Community of Cultivators in Central Mexico?". _ American Anthropologist _. Arlington, VA: American Anthropological Association and affiliated societies. 103 (4): 913–934. OCLC 192932283 . doi :10.1525/aa.2001.103.4.913 . Hill, Jane H.; Hill, Kenneth C. (1986). _Speaking Mexicano: Dynamics of Syncretic Language in Central Mexico_. Tucson: University of Arizona
Arizona
Press . ISBN 0-8165-0898-4 . OCLC
OCLC
13126530 . INALI, (14 January 2008). "Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas" (PDF online facsimile). _ Diario Oficial de la Federación _ (in Spanish). México, D.F.: Imprenta del Gobierno Federal , SEGOB . 652 (9): 22–78 (first section),1–96 (second section),1–112 (third section). OCLC
OCLC
46461036 . INEGI, (2005). _Perfil sociodemográfica de la populación hablante de náhuatl_ (PDF). XII Censo General de Población y Vivienda 2000 (in Spanish) (Publicación única ed.). Aguascalientes, Mex.: INEGI. ISBN 970-13-4491-X . Archived from the original (PDF ) on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-02. IRIN, (2004). "IRIN-International homepage". _The Nawat Language Recovery Initiative_. IRIN. Retrieved 2008-03-31. Jackson, Robert H. (2000). _From Savages to Subjects: Missions in the History of the American Southwest_. Latin American Realities hardcover series. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0597-X . OCLC
OCLC
49415084 . Justeson, John S.; Norman, William M.; Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence (1985). _The Foreign Impact on Lowland Mayan Language and Script_. Middle American Research Institute Publications, no. 53. New Orleans, LA: Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University . ISBN 0-939238-82-9 . OCLC
OCLC
12444550 . Karttunen, Frances ; Lockhart, James (1980). "La estructura de la poesía nahuatl vista por sus variantes". _Estudios de Cultura Nahuatl_ (in Spanish). México, D.F.: Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México . 14: 15–64. ISSN 0071-1675 . OCLC
OCLC
1568281 . Kaufman, Terrence ; Justeson, John (2009). "Historical linguistics and pre-columbian Mesoamerica". _Ancient Mesoamerica_. 20 (2): 221–231. doi :10.1017/S0956536109990113 . Kaufman, Terrence ; Justeson, John (2007). "Writing the history of the word for cacao in ancient Mesoamerica". _Ancient Mesoamerica_. 18: 193–237. doi :10.1017/s0956536107000211 . Kaufman, Terrence (2001). "The history of the Nawa language group from the earliest times to the sixteenth century: some initial results" (PDF ). Revised March 2001. Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Mesoamerica. Retrieved 2007-10-07. Kimball, G. (1990). "Noun pluralization in Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl". _International journal of American linguistics_: 196–216. Knab, Tim (1980). "When Is a Language Really Dead: The Case of Pochutec". _ International Journal of American Linguistics _. Chicago: University of Chicago Press , in cooperation with the Conference on American Indian Languages. 46 (3): 230–233. OCLC 1753556 . doi :10.1086/465658 . Lacadena, Alfonso (2008). "Regional scribal traditions: Methodological implications for the decipherment of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
writing" (PDF). _The PARI Journal_. 8 (4): 1–23. Langacker, Ronald W (1977). _Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar
Grammar
1: An Overview of Uto-Aztecan Grammar_. Summer Institute of Linguistics publications in linguistics, publication no. 56. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington . ISBN 0-88312-070-4 . OCLC
OCLC
6087919 . Lastra de Suárez, Yolanda (1986). _Las áreas dialectales del náhuatl moderno_. Serie antropológica, no. 62. Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas. ISBN 968-837-744-9 . OCLC
OCLC
19632019 . (in Spanish) Launey, Michel (1979). _Introduction à la langue et à la littérature aztèques, vol. 1: Grammaire_. Série ethnolinguistique amérindienne (in French). Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2-85802-107-4 . Launey, Michel (1980). _Introduction à la langue et à la littérature aztèques, vol. 2: Littérature_. Série ethnolinguistique amérindienne. Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2-85802-155-4 . (in French) (in Nahuatl) Launey, Michel (1992). _Introducción a la lengua y a la literatura náhuatl_ (in Spanish). México D.F.: National Autonomous University of Mexico
Mexico
, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas. ISBN 968-36-1944-4 . OCLC
OCLC
29376295 . Launey, Michel (1994). _Une grammaire omniprédicative: Essai sur la morphosyntaxe du nahuatl classique_ (in French). Paris: CNRS Editions . ISBN 2-271-05072-3 . OCLC
OCLC
30738298 . Launey, M. (1999). "Compound nouns vs. incorporation in classical Nahuatl". _STUF-Language Typology and Universals_. 52 (3-4): 347–364. Launey, Michel (2011). _An Introduction to Classical Nahuatl_. Christopher Mackay (trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-73229-8 . León-Portilla, Miguel (1978). _Los manifiestos en náhuatl de Emiliano Zapata._ (in Spanish). Cuernavaca, Mex.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas. OCLC
OCLC
4977935 . León-Portilla, Miguel (1985). " Nahuatl
Nahuatl
literature". In Munro S. Edmonson (Volume ed.), with Patricia A. Andrews. _Supplement to the Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 3: Literatures_. Victoria Reifler Bricker (General ed.). Austin: University of Texas
Texas
Press . pp. 7–43. ISBN 0-292-77577-6 . OCLC
OCLC
11785568 . Lockhart, James (1991). _Nahuas and Spaniards: Postconquest Mexican History and Philology_. UCLA Latin American studies vol. 76, Nahuatl
Nahuatl
studies series no. 3. Stanford and Los Angeles, CA: Stanford University Press and UCLA Latin American Center Publications. ISBN 0-8047-1953-5 . OCLC
OCLC
23286637 . Lockhart, James (1992). _The Nahuas After the Conquest: A Social and Cultural History of the Indians of Central Mexico, Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries_. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press . ISBN 0-8047-1927-6 . OCLC
OCLC
24283718 . Macri, Martha J. (2005). "Nahua loan words from the early classic period: Words for cacao preparation on a Río Azul ceramic vessel". _Ancient Mesoamerica_. London and New York: Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. 16 (2): 321–326. OCLC
OCLC
87656385 . doi :10.1017/S0956536105050200 . Macri, Martha J.; Looper, Matthew G. (2003). "Nahua in ancient Mesoamerica: Evidence from Maya inscriptions". _Ancient Mesoamerica_. London and New York: Cambridge University Press . 14 (2): 285–297. OCLC
OCLC
89805456 . doi :10.1017/S0956536103142046 . Matthew, Laura E. (2012). _Memories of conquest: Becoming Mexicano in colonial Guatemala_. University of North Carolina Press. McDonough, K. S. (2014). _The Learned Ones: Nahua Intellectuals in Postconquest Mexico_. University of Arizona Press. Merrill, W. L.; Hard, R. J.; Mabry, J. B.; Fritz, G. J.; Adams, K. R.; Roney, J. R.; Macwilliams, A. C. (2010). "Reply to Hill and Brown: Maize and Uto-Aztecan cultural history". _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences _. 107 (11): E35–E36. doi :10.1073/pnas.1000923107 . Olmos, Fray Andrés de (1993) . _Arte de la lengua mexicana: concluido en el Convento de San Andrés de Ueytlalpan, en la provincia de la Totonacapan que es en la Nueva España, el 1o. de enero de 1547 , 2 vols._ (Facsimile edition of original MS.). Ascensión León-Portilla and Miguel León-Portilla (introd., transliteration, and notes). Madrid: Ediciones de Cultura Hispánica, Instituto de Cooperación Iberoamericana. ISBN 84-7232-684-5 . OCLC
OCLC
165270583 . (in Spanish) Olko, J.; Sullivan, J. (2013). "Empire, Colony, and Globalization. A Brief History of the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
Language". _Colloquia Humanistica_. Instytut Slawistyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk (2): 181–216. Pasztory, Esther (1993). "An Image Is Worth a Thousand Words: Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
and the Meanings of Style in Classic Mesoamerica". In Don Stephen Rice. _Latin American horizons: a symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 11th and 12th October 1986_. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Trustees for Harvard University
Harvard University
. pp. 113–146. ISBN 0-88402-207-2 . OCLC
OCLC
25872400 . Pellicer, Dora; Cifuentes, Bábara; Herrera, Carmen (2006). "Legislating diversity in twenty-first century Mexico". In Margarita G. Hidalgo. _Mexican Indigenous Languages at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century_. Contributions to the Sociology of Language, no. 91. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter . pp. 127–168. ISBN 978-3-11-018597-3 . OCLC
OCLC
62090844 . Peralta Ramírez, Valentin (1991). "La reduplicación en el náhuatl de Tezcoco y sus funciones sociales". _Amerindia_. 16: 20–36. Pharao Hansen, Magnus (2010). " Polysynthesis in Hueyapan Nahuatl: The Status of Noun Phrases, Basic Word Order, and Other Concerns". _Anthropological Linguistics_. University of Nebraska Press. 52 (3): 274–299. doi :10.1353/anl.2010.0017 . Pharao Hansen, Magnus (2013). _ Nahuatl
Nahuatl
in the Plural: Dialectology and Activism in Mexico_. The Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association. Pury-Toumi, S. D. (1980). "Le saltillo en nahuatl". _Amerindia. Revue d'Ethnolinguistique Amérindienne Paris_. 5: 31–45. Rincón, Antonio del (1885) . _Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio Del Rincón de la compañia de Jesus: Dirigido al illustrissimo y reverendissimo s. Don Diego Romano obispo de Tlaxcallan, y del consejo de su magestad, ">(PDF facsimile, University of Chicago Library digital collections) (in Spanish) (Reprinted 1885 under the care of Dr. Antonio Peñafiel ed.). México D.F.: Oficina tip. de la Secretaría de fomento. OCLC
OCLC
162761360 . Rolstad, Kellie (2002). " Language death in Central Mexico: The decline of Spanish-Nahuatl bilingualism and the new bilingual maintenance programs". _The Bilingual Review/La revista bilingüe _. Tempe: Hispanic Research Center, Arizona
Arizona
State University . 26 (1): 3–18. ISSN 0094-5366 . OCLC
OCLC
1084374 . Sahagún, Bernardino de (1950–82) . _Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain , 13 vols_. vols. I-XII. Charles E. Dibble and Arthur J.O. Anderson (eds., trans., notes and illus.) (translation of _Historia General de las Cosas de la Nueva España_ ed.). Santa Fe, NM and Salt Lake City: School of American Research and the University of Utah Press . ISBN 0-87480-082-X . OCLC 276351 . Sahagún, Bernardino de (1997) . _ Primeros Memoriales _. The Civilization of the American Indians Series vol. 200, part 2. Thelma D. Sullivan (English trans. and paleography of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
text), with H.B. Nicholson , Arthur J.O. Anderson , Charles E. Dibble , Eloise Quiñones Keber , and Wayne Ruwet (completion, revisions, and ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press . ISBN 978-0-8061-2909-9 . OCLC 35848992 . Sischo, William R. (1979). " Michoacán Nahual". In Ronald W. Langacker . _Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar
Grammar
2: Modern Aztec Grammatical Sketches_. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, no. 56. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington . pp. 307–380. ISBN 0-88312-072-0 . OCLC
OCLC
6086368 . Smith-Stark, T. C. (2005). "Phonological description in New Spain". In Zwartjes, O.; Altman, C. _Missionary Linguistics II/Lingüística misionera II: Orthography and Phonology. Selected papers from the Second International Conference on Missionary Linguistics_. 109. John Benjamins Publishing. Suárez, Jorge A. (1977). "La influencia del español en la estructura gramatical del náhuatl". _Anuario de Letras. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras_ (in Spanish). Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Centro de Linguística Hispánica. 15: 115–164. ISSN 0185-1373 . OCLC
OCLC
48341068 . Suárez, Jorge A. (1983). _The Mesoamerian Indian Languages_. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press . ISBN 0-521-22834-4 . OCLC
OCLC
8034800 . Sullivan, Thelma D. (1988). Wick R. Miller; Karen Dakin, eds. _Compendium of Náhuatl Grammar_. Translated by Thelma D. Sullivan & Neville Stiles (English translation of _Compendio de la gramática náhuatl_ ed.). Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press . ISBN 0-87480-282-2 . OCLC 17982711 . Tuggy, David H. (1979). " Tetelcingo Náhuatl". In Ronald Langacker . _Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar
Grammar
2: Modern Aztec Grammatical Sketches_. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, no. 56. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington . pp. 1–140. ISBN 0-88312-072-0 . OCLC
OCLC
6086368 . Voegelin, Charles F.; Florence M. Voegelin; Kenneth L. Hale (1962). _Typological and Comparative Grammar
Grammar
of Uto-Aztecan I: Phonology_ (Supplement to International Journal of American linguistics, vol. 28, no. 1). Indiana University publications in anthropology and linguistics, Memoir 17. Baltimore MD: Waverly Press. OCLC
OCLC
55576894 . Whittaker, G. (2009). "The Principles of Nahuatl Writing" (PDF). _Göttinger Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft_. 16: 47–81. Whorf, Benjamin Lee ; Karttunen, Frances; Campbell, Lyle (1993). "Pitch Tone and the 'Saltillo' in Modern and Ancient Nahuatl". _ International Journal of American Linguistics _. Chicago: University of Chicago Press . 59 (2): 165–223. OCLC
OCLC
1753556 . doi :10.1086/466194 . Wimmer, Alexis (2006). "Dictionnaire de la langue nahuatl classique" (online version, incorporating reproductions from _Dictionnaire de la langue nahuatl ou mexicaine_ , by Rémi Siméon ). Retrieved 2008-02-04. (in French) (in Nahuatl) Wolgemuth, Carl (2002). _Gramática Náhuatl (melaʼtájto̱l): de los municipios de Mecayapan y Tatahuicapan de Juárez, Veracruz_ (PDF online edition). Sharon Stark and Albert Bickford (online eds.) (2nd ed.). México D.F.: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano . ISBN 968-31-0315-4 . OCLC 51555383 .

FURTHER READING

DICTIONARIES OF CLASSICAL NAHUATL

* de Molina, Fray Alonso: _Vocabulario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana y Mexicana y Castellana_. Reprint: Porrúa México 1992 * Karttunen, Frances, _An analytical dictionary of Náhuatl_. Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman 1992 * Siméon, Rémi: _Diccionario de la Lengua Náhuatl o Mexicana_. Reprint: México 2001

GRAMMARS OF CLASSICAL NAHUATL

* Carochi, Horacio. _ Grammar
Grammar
of the Mexican Language: With an Explanation of its Adverbs (1645)_ Translated by James Lockhart. Stanford University Press. 2001. * Lockhart, James: _ Nahuatl
Nahuatl
as written: lessons in older written Nahuatl, with copious examples and texts_, Stanford 2001 * Sullivan, Thelma: _Compendium of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
Grammar_, Univ. of Utah Press, 1988. * Campbell, Joe and Frances Karttunen, _Foundation course in Náhuatl grammar_. Austin 1989 * Launey, Michel. _Introducción a la lengua y a la literatura Náhuatl_. México D.F.: UNAM. 1992 (Spanish); _An Introduction to Classical Nahuatl_ , 2011, Cambridge University Press. * Andrews, J. Richard. _Introduction to Classical Nahuatl_ University of Oklahoma Press: 2003 (revised edition)

MODERN DIALECTS

* Ronald W. Langacker (ed.): _Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar
Grammar
2: Modern Aztec
Aztec
Grammatical Sketches_, Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 56. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas
Texas
at Arlington, pp. 1–140. ISBN 0-88312-072-0 . OCLC
OCLC
6086368. 1979. (Contains studies of Nahuatl from Michoacan, Tetelcingo, Huasteca and North Puebla) * Canger, Una. _ Mexicanero de la Sierra Madre Occidental_, Archivo de Lenguas Indígenas de México, #24. México D.F.: El Colegio de México. ISBN 968-12-1041-7 . OCLC
OCLC
49212643. 2001 (Spanish) * Campbell, Lyle. _The Pipil Language of El Salvador_, Mouton