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Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
(/nəˌɡɔːrnoʊ kɑːrəˈbɑːk/ nə-GOR-noh kar-ə-BAHK[3]) is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh
Karabakh
and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus
Lesser Caucasus
mountains. The region is mostly mountainous and forested. Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
is a disputed territory, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan,[4] but most of the region is governed by the Republic of Artsakh
Republic of Artsakh
(formerly named Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Republic), a de facto independent state with Armenian ethnic majority established on the basis of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
has not exercised political authority over the region since the advent of the Karabakh
Karabakh
movement in 1988. Since the end of the Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
War in 1994, representatives of the governments of Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
have been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group on the region's disputed status. The region is usually equated with the administrative borders of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
comprising an area of 4,400 square kilometres (1,700 sq mi). The historical area of the region, however, encompasses approximately 8,223 square kilometres (3,175 sq mi).[5][6]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Antiquity and Early Middle Ages 2.2 High Middle Ages 2.3 Late Middle Ages 2.4 Modern era 2.5 Soviet era 2.6 War and secession 2.7 Post-1994 ceasefire

3 Geography 4 Demographics

4.1 18th century 4.2 19th century 4.3 20th century 4.4 21st century

5 Transport 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Name

The snow-covered Lesser Caucasus
Lesser Caucasus
seen south of the Greater Caucasus. About 1800 the Karabagh Khanate was based in the southeast corner of the Lesser Caucasus. It extended east into the lowlands, hence the name Nagorno- or "Highland-" Karabagh for the western part.

The prefix Nagorno- derives from the Russian attributive adjective nagorny (нагорный), which means "highland". The Azerbaijani names of the region include the similar adjectives dağlıq (mountainous) or yuxarı (upper). Such words are not used in the Armenian name, but they have appeared in the official name of the region during the Soviet era as Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast. Other languages apply their own wording for mountainous, upper, or highland; for example, the official name used by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic in French is Haut-Karabakh, meaning "Upper Karabakh".[citation needed] The name Karabakh
Karabakh
comprises two words, kara (meaning "black" in Turkic) and bagh or bakh (meaning "garden" in Persian). Thus Karabakh literally means "black garden".[7][8] The name first appears in Georgian and Persian sources of the 13th and 14th centuries.[8] Karabagh, an acceptable alternate spelling of Karabakh, denotes a kind of patterned rug originally produced in the area.[9] According to an alternative theory proposed by Bagrat Ulubabyan, the name Karabakh
Karabakh
has a Turkic–Armenian origin, meaning "Greater Baghk" (Armenian: Մեծ Բաղք), a reference to Ktish-Baghk (later: Dizak), one of the principalities of Artsakh under the rule of the Aranshahik dynasty, which held the throne of the Kingdom of Syunik in the 11th–13th centuries and called itself the "Kingdom of Baghk".[10] The names for the region in the various local languages all translate to "mountainous Karabakh", or "mountainous black garden":

Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ, transliterated Leṙnayin Ġarabaġ (IPA: /lɛrnɑˈjin ʁɑɾɑˈbɑʁ/) Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ, Дағлыг Гарабағ (mountainous Karabakh; IPA: /dɑɣˈlɯɣ ɡɑˈɾɑbɑɣ/) or Yuxarı Qarabağ, Јухары Гарабағ (upper Karabakh; IPA: /juxɑˈɾɯ ɡɑˈɾɑbɑɣ/) Russian: Нагорный Карабах, transliterated Nagornyy Karabakh
Karabakh
or Nagornyi Karabah (IPA: /nɐˈɡornɨj kərɐˈbax/)

The Armenians
Armenians
living in the area often refer to Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
as Artsakh (Armenian: Արցախ), using the name of the 10th province of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia. Urartian
Urartian
inscriptions (9th–7th centuries BC) use the name Urtekhini for the region. Ancient Greek sources called the area Orkhistene.[11] History Antiquity and Early Middle Ages Main article: History of Nagorno-Karabakh

The Amaras Monastery, founded in the 4th century by St Gregory the Illuminator. In the 5th century, Mesrop Mashtots, inventor of the Armenian alphabet, established at Amaras the first school to use his script.[12][13]

The monastery at Gandzasar was commissioned by the House of Khachen and completed in 1238

Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
falls within the lands occupied by peoples known to modern archaeologists as the Kura-Araxes culture, who lived between the two rivers Kura and Araxes. The ancient population of the region consisted of various autochthonous local and migrant tribes who were mostly non-Indo-Europeans.[14] According to the prevailing western theory, these natives intermarried with Armenians
Armenians
who came to the region after its inclusion into Armenia
Armenia
in the 2nd or, possibly earlier, in 4th century BC.[15] Other scholars suggest that the Armenians
Armenians
settled in the region as early as in the 7th century BC.[16] In around 180 BC, Artsakh became one of the 15 provinces of the Armenian Kingdom
Armenian Kingdom
and remained so until the 4th century.[17] While formally having the status of a province (nahang), Artsakh possibly formed a principality on its own — like Armenia's province of Syunik. Other theories suggest that Artsakh was a royal land, belonging to the King of Armenia
Armenia
directly.[18] Tigran the Great, King of Armenia, (ruled from 95–55 BC), founded in Artsakh one of four cities named "Tigranakert" after himself.[19] The ruins of the ancient Tigranakert, located 30 miles (48 km) north-east of Stepanakert, are being studied by a group of international scholars. In 387 AD, after the partition of Armenia
Armenia
between Byzantium
Byzantium
and Sassanid Persia, two Armenian provinces Artsakh and Utik
Utik
became part of the Sassanid satrapy of Caucasian Albania, which, in turn, came under strong Armenian religious and cultural influence.[20][21] At the time the population of Artsakh and Utik
Utik
consisted of Armenians
Armenians
and several Armenized tribes.[14] Armenian culture and civilization flourished in the early medieval Nagorno-Karabakh. In the 5th century, the first-ever Armenian school was opened on the territory of modern Nagorno-Karabakh—at the Amaras Monastery—by the efforts of St. Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet.[22] St. Mesrop was very active in preaching Gospel in Artsakh and Utik. Overall, Mesrop Mashtots
Mesrop Mashtots
made three trips to Artsakh and Utik, ultimately reaching pagan territories at the foothills of the Greater Caucasus.[23] The 7th-century Armenian linguist and grammarian Stephanos Syunetsi stated in his work that Armenians
Armenians
of Artsakh had their own dialect, and encouraged his readers to learn it.[24] In the same 7th century, Armenian[25] poet Davtak Kertogh writes his Elegy on the Death of Grand Prince Juansher, where each passage begins with a letter of Armenian script in alphabetical order.[26][27] The only comprehensive history of Caucasian Albania was written in Armenian, by the historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi.[27] High Middle Ages Main article: Principality
Principality
of Khachen Around the mid 7th century, the region was conquered by the invading Muslim Arabs through the Muslim conquest of Persia. Subsequently, it was ruled by local governors endorsed by the Caliphate. According to some sources, in 821, the Armenian[28] prince Sahl Smbatian revolted in Artsakh and established the House of Khachen, which ruled Artsakh as a principality until the early 19th century.[29] According to other sources, Sahl i Smbatean "was of the Zamirhakan family of kings," and in the year 837-838, he acquired sovereignty over Armenia, Georgia, and Albania.[30][31] The name "Khachen" originated from Armenian word "khach," which means "cross".[32] By 1000 the House of Khachen proclaimed the Kingdom of Artsakh
Kingdom of Artsakh
with John Senecherib as its first ruler.[33] Initially Dizak, in southern Artsakh, formed also a kingdom ruled by the ancient House of Aranshahik, descended of the earliest Kings of Caucasian Albania. In 1261, after the daughter of the last king of Dizak
Dizak
married the king of Artsakh, Armenian[34] prince Hasan Jalal Dola, the two states merged into one[29] Armenian[35] Principality
Principality
of Khachen. Subsequently, Artsakh continued to exist as a de facto independent principality. Late Middle Ages Main article: Melikdoms of Karabakh

The Askeran Fortress, built by the Karabakh
Karabakh
Khanate ruler Panah Ali Khan in the 18th century

The semi-independent Five Principalities (Armenian: Խամսայի Մելիքություններ) of Karabakh
Karabakh
(Gyulistan, Jraberd, Khachen, Varanda, and Dizak), widely considered to be the last relic of Armenian statehood (15th–19th century).[36][37]

. In the 15th century, the territory of Karabakh
Karabakh
was part of the states ruled subsequently by the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
and Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
Turkic tribal confederations. The Turkoman lord Jahan Shah
Jahan Shah
(1437–67) assigned the governorship of upper Karabakh
Karabakh
to local Armenian princes, allowing a native Armenian leadership to emerge consisting of five noble families led by princes who held the titles of meliks.[29] These dynasties represented the branches of the earlier House of Khachen
House of Khachen
and were the descendants of the medieval kings of Artsakh. Their lands were often referred to as the Country of Khamsa (five in Arabic). In a Charter (2 June 1799) of the Emperor Paul I titled "About their admission to Russian suzerainty, land allocation, rights and privileges", it was noted that the Christian heritage of the Karabakh
Karabakh
region and all their people were admitted to the Russian suzerainty.[38] However, according to Robert Hewsen, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
recognized the sovereign status of the five princes in their domains by the charter of the Emperor Paul I dated 2 June 1799.[39] The Armenian meliks were granted supreme command over neighboring Armenian principalities and Muslim khans in the Caucasus
Caucasus
by the Iranian king Nader Shah, in return for the meliks' victories over the invading Ottoman Turks in the 1720s.[40] These five principalities [41][42] in Karabakh
Karabakh
were ruled by Armenian families who had received the title Melik
Melik
(prince) and were the following:

Principality
Principality
of Gulistan – under the leadership of the Melik-Beglarian family Principality
Principality
of Jraberd – under the leadership of the Melik-Israelian family Principality
Principality
of Khachen
Khachen
– under the leadership of the Hasan-Jalalian family Principality
Principality
of Varanda – under the leadership of the Melik-Shahnazarian family Principality
Principality
of Dizak
Dizak
– under the leadership of the Melik-Avanian family

From 1501 to 1736, during the existence of the Safavid
Safavid
Empire, the province of Karabakh
Karabakh
was governed by Ziyadoglu Gajar's dynasty. Ziyadoglu Gajar's dynasty ruled the province of  Karabakh
Karabakh
until Nader Shah
Nader Shah
took over Karabakh
Karabakh
from their rule.[43] The Armenian meliks maintained full control over the region until the mid-18th century.[citation needed] In the early 18th century, Iran's Nader Shah took Karabakh
Karabakh
out of control of the Ganja khans in punishment for their support of the Safavids, and placed it under his own control[44][45] In the mid-18th century, as internal conflicts between the meliks led to their weakening, the Karabakh
Karabakh
Khanate was formed. The Karabakh
Karabakh
khanate, one of the largest khanates under Iranian suzerainty,[46] was headed by Panah-Ali khan Javanshir. For the reinforcement of the power of Karabakh
Karabakh
khanate, Khan of Karabakh, Panah-Ali khan Javanshir, built up “the fortress of Panahabad (today Shusha)” in 1751. During that time, Otuziki, Javanshir, Kebirli, and other Turkic tribes constituted majority of the overall population. Modern era

Palace of the former ruler (khan) of Shusha. Taken from a postcard from the late 19th–early 20th century.

Aftermath of the Shusha
Shusha
massacre: Armenian half of Shusha
Shusha
destroyed by Azerbaijani armed forces in 1920, with the defiled Armenian Cathedral of the Holy Savior in the background.

Karabakh
Karabakh
became a protectorate of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
by the Kurekchay Treaty, signed between Ibrahim Khalil Khan of Karabakh
Karabakh
and general Pavel Tsitsianov
Pavel Tsitsianov
on behalf of Tsar Alexander I in 1805, according to which the Russian monarch recognized Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his descendants as the sole hereditary rulers of the region.[47][48][49] However, its new status was only confirmed following the outcome of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813), when through the loss in the war, Persia formally ceded Karabakh
Karabakh
to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
per the Treaty of Gulistan (1813),[50][51][52][53] before the rest of Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
was incorporated into the Empire in 1828 by the Treaty of Turkmenchay, which came as an outcome of the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828). In 1822, 9 years after passing from Iranian to Russian control, the Karabakh
Karabakh
Khanate was dissolved, and the area became part of the Elisabethpol Governorate
Elisabethpol Governorate
within the Russian Empire. In 1823, 8.4% (9%) of the population in total of Karabakh
Karabakh
was Armenian.[54] After the transfer of the Karabakh
Karabakh
Khanate to Russia, many Muslim families immigrated to Persia, while many Armenians
Armenians
were induced by the Russian government to emigrate from Persia to Karabakh.[55] Russia’s population policy changed the figures, and therefore, Armenian population formed 35% of the population in 1832, and 53% in 1880. Growth of Armenian population in Karabakh
Karabakh
is explained with the “increasing migration of Armenians
Armenians
to Mountanious Karabakh
Karabakh
or an exodus of Muslims from the region.” The Russian authorities did not rely on Azeris[citation needed] because of their ties with Turks. On the contrary, they saw Armenians
Armenians
as natural allies[citation needed] to the Russian empire and Tsar. Accordingly, Russian authorities appointed Armenians
Armenians
to the significant posts in the region. Soviet era Main article: Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast

Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
in the Soviet era.

Ethnic make-up of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
in the late Soviet era.

The present-day conflict over Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
has its roots in the decisions made by Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and the Caucasian Bureau (Kavburo) during the Sovietization of Transcaucasia. Stalin was the acting Commissar of Nationalities for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during the early 1920s, the branch of the government under which the Kavburo was created. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Karabakh
Karabakh
became part of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, but this soon dissolved into separate Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian states. Over the next two years (1918–1920), there were a series of short wars between Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
over several regions, including Karabakh. In July 1918, the First Armenian Assembly of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
declared the region self-governing and created a National Council and government.[56] Later, Ottoman troops entered Karabakh, meeting armed resistance by Armenians. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in World War I, British troops occupied Karabakh. The British command provisionally affirmed Khosrov bey Sultanov (appointed by the Azerbaijani government) as the governor-general of Karabakh
Karabakh
and Zangezur, pending final decision by the Paris Peace Conference.[57] The decision was opposed by Karabakh Armenians. In February 1920, the Karabakh
Karabakh
National Council preliminarily agreed to Azerbaijani jurisdiction, while Armenians elsewhere in Karabakh
Karabakh
continued guerrilla fighting, never accepting the agreement.[56] The agreement itself was soon annulled by the Ninth Karabagh Assembly, which declared union with Armenia
Armenia
in April.[56][58] In April 1920, while the Azerbaijani army was locked in Karabakh fighting local Armenian forces, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
was taken over by Bolsheviks. On 10 August 1920, Armenia
Armenia
signed a preliminary agreement with the Bolsheviks, agreeing to a temporary Bolshevik
Bolshevik
occupation of these areas until final settlement would be reached.[59] In 1921, Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia were also taken over by the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
who, in order to attract public support, promised they would allot Karabakh
Karabakh
to Armenia, along with Nakhchivan and Zangezur (the strip of land separating Nakhchivan from Karabakh). However, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
also had far-reaching plans concerning Turkey, hoping that it would, with a little help from them, develop along Communist
Communist
lines. Needing to placate Turkey, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
agreed to a division under which Zangezur would fall under the control of Armenia, while Karabakh
Karabakh
and Nakhchivan would be under the control of Azerbaijan. Had Turkey
Turkey
not been an issue, Stalin would likely have left Karabakh
Karabakh
under Armenian control.[60] As a result, the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
was established within the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR on 7 July 1923. With the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
firmly in control of the region, the conflict over the region died down for several decades. With the beginning of the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the question of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
re-emerged. Accusing the Azerbaijani SSR government of conducting forced Azerification of the region, the majority Armenian population, with ideological and material support from the Armenian SSR, started a movement to have the autonomous oblast transferred to the Armenian SSR. The oblast's borders were drawn to include Armenian villages and to exclude as much as possible Azerbaijani villages. The resulting district ensured an Armenian majority.[61] In August 1987, Karabakh
Karabakh
Armenians
Armenians
sent a petition for union with Armenia
Armenia
with tens of thousands of signatures to Moscow.[62] War and secession Main article: Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
War

A restored Armenian T-72, knocked out of commission while attacking Azeri positions in Askeran District, serves as a war memorial on the outskirts of Stepanakert.

On 13 February 1988, Karabakh
Karabakh
Armenians
Armenians
began demonstrating in their capital, Stepanakert, in favour of unification with the Armenian republic. Six days later they were joined by mass marches in Yerevan. On 20 February, the Soviet of People's Deputies in Karabakh
Karabakh
voted 110 to 17 to request the transfer of the region to Armenia. This unprecedented action by a regional soviet brought out tens of thousands of demonstrations both in Stepanakert
Stepanakert
and Yerevan, but Moscow
Moscow
rejected the Armenians' demands. On 22 February 1988, the first direct confrontation of the conflict occurred as a large group of Azeris marched from Agdam against the Armenian populated town of Askeran, "wreaking destruction en route". The confrontation between the Azeris and the police near Askeran degenerated into the Askeran clash, which left two Azeris dead, one of them reportedly killed by an Azeri police officer, as well as 50 Armenian villagers, and an unknown number of Azeris and police injured.[63][64] Large numbers of refugees left Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
as violence began against the minority populations of the respective countries.[65] On 29 November 1989, direct rule in Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
was ended and the region was returned to Azerbaijani administration.[66] The Soviet policy backfired, however, when a joint session of the Armenian Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
and the National Council, the legislative body of Nagorno-Karabakh, proclaimed the unification of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
with Armenia.[citation needed] In 1989, Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
had a population of 192,000.[67] The population at that time was 76 percent Armenian and 23 percent Azerbaijanis, with Russian and Kurdish minorities.[67] On 26 November 1991 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
abolished the status of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast, rearranging the administrative division and bringing the territory under direct control of Azerbaijan.[68] On 10 December 1991, in a referendum boycotted by local Azerbaijanis,[64] Armenians
Armenians
in Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
approved the creation of an independent state. A Soviet proposal for enhanced autonomy for Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
within Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
satisfied neither side, and a full-scale war subsequently erupted between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Nagorno-Karabakh, with the latter receiving support from Armenia.[69][70][71][72] According to Armenia's former president, Levon Ter-Petrossian, the Karabakh
Karabakh
leadership approach was maximalist and "they thought they could get more."[73][74][75] The struggle over Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
escalated after both Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
attained independence from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991. In the post-Soviet power vacuum, military action between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Armenia
Armenia
was heavily influenced by the Russian military. Furthermore, both the Armenian and Azerbaijani military employed a large number of mercenaries from Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia.[76] As many as one thousand Afghan mujahideen participated in the fighting on Azerbaijan's side.[64] There were also fighters from Chechnya
Chechnya
fighting on the side of Azerbaijan, as well heavy artillery and tanks provided to Armenia by Russia.[64] Many survivors from the Azerbaijani side found shelter in 12 emergency camps set up in other parts of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to cope with the growing number of internally displaced people due to the Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
war.[77] By the end of 1993, the conflict had caused thousands of casualties and created hundreds of thousands of refugees on both sides.[citation needed] By May 1994, the Armenians
Armenians
were in control of 14% of the territory of Azerbaijan. At that stage, for the first time during the conflict, the Azerbaijani government recognized Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
as a third party in the war, and started direct negotiations with the Karabakh
Karabakh
authorities. As a result, a cease-fire was reached on 12 May 1994 through Russian negotiation. Post-1994 ceasefire Further information: Madrid Principles, Prague Process (Armenian–Azerbaijani negotiations), Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Declaration, Astrakhan Declaration, and Land mine situation in Nagorno-Karabakh

The final borders of the conflict after the Bishkek Protocol. Armenian forces of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
currently control almost 9 percent of Azerbaijan's territory outside the former Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast,[64] while Azerbaijani forces control Shahumian
Shahumian
and the eastern parts of Martakert
Martakert
and Martuni.

Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
and Serzh Sargsyan
Serzh Sargsyan
in Moscow
Moscow
on 2 November 2008

Despite the ceasefire, fatalities due to armed conflicts between Armenian and Azerbaijani soldiers continued.[78] On 25 January 2005, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
(PACE) adopted PACE Resolution 1416, which condemned alleged ethnic cleansing against Azerbaijanis.[79][80] On 15–17 May 2007 the 34th session of the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Organization of Islamic Conference adopted resolution № 7/34-P, considering the occupation of Azerbaijani territory as the aggression of Armenia
Armenia
against Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and recognizing the actions against Azerbaijani civilians as a crime against humanity, and condemning the destruction of archaeological, cultural and religious monuments in the occupied territories.[81] The 11th session of the summit of the Organization of the Islamic Conference held on 13–14 March 2008 in Dakar
Dakar
adopted resolution No. 10/11-P (IS). In the resolution, OIC member states condemned the occupation of Azerbaijani lands by Armenian forces and Armenian aggression against Azerbaijan, alleged ethnic cleansing against the Azeri population, and charged Armenia
Armenia
with the "destruction of cultural monuments in the occupied Azerbaijani territories".[82] On 14 March of the same year the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution № 62/243 which "demands the immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of all Armenian forces from all occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan".[83] On 18–20 May 2010, the 37th session of the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Organization of Islamic Conference
Organization of Islamic Conference
in Dushanbe
Dushanbe
adopted another resolution condemning the aggression of Armenia
Armenia
against Azerbaijan, recognizing the actions against Azerbaijani civilians as a crime against humanity and condemning the destruction of archaeological, cultural, and religious monuments in occupied territories.[84] On 20 May of the same year, the European Parliament
European Parliament
in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
adopted the resolution on "The need for an EU Strategy for the South Caucasus" on the basis of the report by Evgeni Kirilov, the Bulgarian member of the Parliament.[85][86] The resolution states in particular that "the occupied Azerbaijani regions around Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
must be cleared as soon as possible".[87] On 26 January 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) adopted Resolution 2085, which deplored the fact that the occupation by Armenia
Armenia
of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
and other adjacent areas of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
creates humanitarian and environmental problems for the citizens of Azerbaijan, condemned alleged ethnic cleansing against Azerbaijanis and Assembly requested immediate withdrawal of Armenian armed forces from the region concerned.[88][89][90] Several[quantify] world leaders have met with the presidents of Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
over the years, but efforts to maintain the ceasefire have failed.[91] 2 April 2016 saw reports of renewed military activities between Azerbaijani and Armenian forces.[92] The Armenian Defense Ministry alleged that Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
launched an offensive to seize territory in the region. At least 30 soldiers were killed during the fighting and a Mil Mi-24
Mil Mi-24
helicopter and tank were also destroyed, with 12 of the fallen soldiers belonging to the Azerbaijani forces and the other 18 belonging to the Armenian forces, as well as an additional 35 Armenian soldiers reportedly wounded.[93][94] Geography

The Sarsang Reservoir

A view of the forested mountains of Nagorno-Karabakh

Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
has a total area of 4,400 square kilometres (1,699 sq mi).[95] Approximately half of Nagorno-Karabakh terrain is over 950 metres (3,120 ft) above sea level.[96] The borders of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
resemble a kidney bean with the indentation on the east side. It has tall mountain ridges along the northern edge and along the west and a mountainous south. The part near the indentation of the kidney bean itself is a relatively flat valley, with the two edges of the bean, the provinces of Martakert
Martakert
and Martuni, having flat lands as well. Other flatter valleys exist around the Sarsang reservoir, Hadrut, and the south. The entire region lies, on average, 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) above sea level.[96] Notable peaks include the border mountain Murovdag
Murovdag
and the Great Kirs mountain chain in the junction of Shusha
Shusha
Rayon and Hadrut. The territory of modern Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
forms a portion of the historic region of Karabakh, which lies between the rivers Kura and Araxes, and the modern Armenia- Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
border. Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
in its modern borders is part of the larger region of Upper Karabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh’s environment vary from steppe on the Kura lowland through dense forests of oak, hornbeam, and beech on the lower mountain slopes to birchwood and alpine meadows higher up. The region possesses numerous mineral springs and deposits of zinc, coal, lead, gold, marble, and limestone.[97] The major cities of the region are Stepanakert, which serves as the capital of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Shusha, which lies partially in ruins. Vineyards, orchards, and mulberry groves for silkworms are developed in the valleys.[98] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Nagorno-Karabakh Generally, the first official statistical information on the population of Karabakh
Karabakh
was given in the census of 1823 concerning the abolition of the Karabakh
Karabakh
khanate. According to the same census, 18,563 families were registered in the entire Karabakh
Karabakh
province, of which 1,559 families or 8.4 percent of all families had fallen on the share of five Meliks.[99] 18th century Population statistics for Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
are available from the 18th century. Archimandrite Minas Tigranian, after completing his secret mission to Persian Armenia
Armenia
ordered by the Russian Tsar Peter the Great stated in a report dated 14 March 1717 that the patriarch of the Gandzasar Monastery, in Nagorno-Karabakh, had under his authority 900 Armenian villages.[100] In his letter of 1769 to Russia’s Count P. Panin, the Georgian King Erekle II, in his description of Nagorno-Karabakh, suggests: "Seven families rule the region of Khamsa. Its population is totally Armenian."[101][102] However, according to the Description of the Karabagh province, totally, there were 1559 families; 215 in the Talysh district, 230 in the Khachin district, 201 in the Chilaburt district, 625 in the town of Varden and 288 in the Dizak
Dizak
district. 239 families lived in villages that were not mentioned as Armenian villages. Additionally, it was noted that Christian Albanians were also registered as Armenian villages.[103] When discussing Karabakh
Karabakh
and Shusha
Shusha
in the 18th century, the Russian diplomat and historian Semyon M. Bronevskiy (Russian: Семён Михайлович Броневский) indicated in his Historical Notes that Karabakh
Karabakh
had up to 30,000 armed Armenian men in 1796.[104] 19th century A survey prepared by the Russian imperial authorities in 1823, several years before the 1828 Armenian migration from Persia to the newly established Armenian Province, shows that all Armenians
Armenians
of Karabakh compactly resided in its highland portion, i.e. on the territory of the five traditional Armenian principalities in Nagorno-Karabakh, and constituted an absolute demographic majority on those lands.[105] The survey's more than 260 pages recorded that the district of Khachen
Khachen
had 12 Armenian villages and no Tatar (Muslim) villages; Jalapert (Jraberd) had eight Armenian villages and no Tatar villages; Dizak
Dizak
had 14 Armenian villages and one Tatar village; Gulistan had 12 Armenian and five Tatar villages; and Varanda had 23 Armenian villages and one Tatar village.[106][107] 20th century During the Soviet times, the leaders of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR tried to change demographic balance in the Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Autonomous Region (NKAO) by increasing the number of Azerbaijani residents through opening a university with Azerbaijani, Russian and Armenian sectors and a shoe factory, sending Azerbaijanis from other parts of Azerbaijani SSR to the NKAO. "By doing this", Aliyev said in an interview in 2002, "I tried to increase the number of Azeris and to reduce the number of Armenians".[108][109] Nearing the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1989, the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast had a population of 145,593 Armenians
Armenians
(76.4 percent), 42,871 Azerbaijanis (22.4 percent),[76] and several thousand Kurds, Russians, Greeks and Assyrians. Most of the Azerbaijani and Kurdish populations fled the region during the heaviest years of fighting in the war from 1992 to 1993. The main language spoken in Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
is Armenian; however, Karabakh
Karabakh
Armenians
Armenians
speak a dialect of Armenian that is considerably different from the Yerevan dialect spoken by most in Armenia, but is similar to the dialects of Southern Syunik and even Eastern Tavush, areas that were historically closely linked to Artsakh.[citation needed]

Ethnic groups of the region in 1995. (See entire map)

21st century In 2001, the NKR's reported population was 95 percent Armenian, with the remaining total including Assyrians, Greeks, and Kurds.[110] In March 2007, the local government announced that its population had grown to 138,000. The annual birth rate was recorded at 2,200–2,300 per year, an increase from nearly 1,500 in 1999. Until 2000, the country's net migration was at a negative.[111] For the first half of 2007, 1,010 births and 659 deaths were reported, with a net emigration of 27.[112] In 2011, officials from YAP submitted a letter to OSCE which included the statement, "The OSCE fact-finding mission report released last year also found that some 15,000 Armenians
Armenians
have been illegally settled on Azerbaijan's occupied territories." However, the OSCE report, released in March 2011, estimates the population of territories controlled by ethnic Armenians
Armenians
"adjacent to the breakaway Azerbaijani region of Nagorno-Karabakh" to be 14,000, and states "there has been no significant growth in the population since 2005."[113] Most of the Armenian population is Christian and belongs to the Armenian Apostolic Church. Certain Orthodox Christian and Evangelical Christian denominations also exist; other religions include Judaism.[110] Transport

Location ICAO DAFIF IATA Airport name Coordinates

Stepanakert UBBS UB13

Stepanakert
Stepanakert
Airport[114] 39°54′05″N 46°47′13″E / 39.90139°N 46.78694°E / 39.90139; 46.78694 ( Stepanakert
Stepanakert
Air Base)

During rule of the Soviet Union, the Yevlax–Ağdam–Stepanakert line connected the Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Autonomous Region with the main part of Azerbaijan. After the Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
war and the abandonment of Ağdam, the line’s service was cut back to service only between Yevlax
Yevlax
and Kətəlparaq, without any present section at the Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Republic. The former railway line between Kətəlparaq
Kətəlparaq
and Stepanakert
Stepanakert
has been almost completely destroyed. The (Tbilisi–Gyumri–)Yerevan–Nakhchivan–Horadiz–Şirvan(–Baku) main railway was also dismantled from the NKR between Ordubad
Ordubad
and Horadiz, and a by-line from Mincivan to the Armenian city of Kapan. Currently, the Azerbaijani trains only travel to Horadiz. The Ordubad– Horadiz
Horadiz
section has been demolished, leaving the NKR with no intact, active railway line in their territory. The railway at the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic still operates, but it is separated from the main Azerbaijani lines, and only has connection to Iran. See also

Geography portal Europe portal

Caucasus Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Index of Nagorno-Karabakh-related articles List of active separatist movements in Europe Janapar
Janapar
– the hiking trail across Nagorno-Karabakh Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Republic Outline of Nagorno-Karabakh Post-Soviet states Transcaucasia

References

^ "Population of NKR as of 01.01.2013". NKR. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ "Official Statistics of the NKR. Official site of the President of the NKR". President.nkr.am. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "General Assembly adopts resolution reaffirming territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, demanding withdrawal of all Armenian forces". United Nations. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 30 Aug 2015.  ^ Robert H. Hewsen. "The Meliks of Eastern Armenia: A Preliminary Study". Revue des etudes Arméniennes. NS: IX, 1972, pp. 288. ^ Robert H. Hewsen, Armenia: A Historical Atlas. The University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 264. ISBN 978-0-226-33228-4 ^ The BBC World News. Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh, BBC News Online. Last updated 3 October 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2007. ^ a b (in Armenian) Ulubabyan, Bagrat. Karabagh (Ղարաբաղ). The Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia, vol. vii, Yerevan, Armenian SSR, 1981 p. 26 ^ C. G. Ellis, "Oriental Carpets", 1988. p133. ^ Robert H. Hewsen, Armenia: a Historical Atlas. University of Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 119–120. ^ Strabo
Strabo
(ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) . Geography. The Perseus Digital Library. 11.14.4. Retrieved 21 November 2007. ^ Viviano, Frank (March 2004). "The Rebirth of Armenia". National Geographic Magazine.  ^ John Noble, Michael Kohn, Danielle Systermans. Georgia, Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan. Lonely Planet; 3 edition (May 1, 2008), p. 307 ^ a b Hewsen, Robert H. (1982). "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians". In Samuelian, Thomas J. Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: Scholars Press. pp. 27–40. ISBN 0-89130-565-3.  ^ Hewsen, Robert H. Armenia: a Historical Atlas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 32–33, map 19 (shows the territory of modern Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
as part of the Orontids' Kingdom of Armenia) ^ R. Schmitt, M. L. Chaumont. Armenia
Armenia
and Iran. Encyclopædia Iranica ^ Hewsen, Robert H. "The Kingdom of Artsakh", in T. Samuelian & M. Stone, eds. Medieval Armenian Culture. Chico, CA, 1983. ^ Hewsen. Armenia, pp. 100–103. ^ History by Sebeos, chapter 26 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
"Azerbaijan" ^ Walker, Christopher J. Armenia
Armenia
and Karabagh: The Struggle for Unity. Minority Rights Group Publications, 1991, p. 10 ^ Viviano, Frank. "The Rebirth of Armenia", National Geographic Magazine, March 2004, p. 18, ^ Movses Kalankatuatsi. History of the Land of Aluank, Book I, chapters 27, 28 and 29; Book II, chapter 3. ^ Н.Адонц. «Дионисий Фракийский и армянские толкователи», Пг., 1915, 181—219 ^ The Oxford History of Historical Writing: 400–1400 / Edited by Sarah Foot, Chase F. Robinson. — Oxford University Press, 2012. — Vol. 2. — p. 189. "The section on Juansers exploits concludes with the earliest piece of secular Armenian poetry since the adoption of Christianity
Christianity
to have reached us, in the form of an abecedarian elegy extolling the prince and bewailing his passing." ^ Movses Kalankatuatsi. History of the Land of Aluank, translated from Old Armenian by Sh. V. Smbatian. Yerevan: Matenadaran (Institute of Ancient Manuscripts), 1984, Elegy on the Death of Prince Juansher ^ a b Agop Jack Hacikyan, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk. The Heritage of Armenian Literature. Wayne State University Press (December 2002), pp. 94–99 ^ The Cambridge History of Iran. — Cambridge University Press, 1975. — vol. 4. — p. 506 "He was handed to Afshin's troops by Sahl b. Sunbadh, an Armenian prince in 222/836-7, and executed in Samarra (223/837) while his brother and assistant 'Abd-Allah was delivered to the prince of Tabaristan, Ibn Sharvin, who had him put to death in Baghdad." ^ a b c Robert H. Hewsen, Armenia: A Historical Atlas. The University of Chicago Press, 2001, pp. 119, 155, 163, 264–65. ^ Movses Dasxuranci translated by C. J. F. Dowsett (1961). The History of the Caucasian Albanians By Movses Dasxuranci. London: Oxford University Press. p. 217.  ^ Тер-Григорян Т.И. Неизданные страницы "Истории Албанской страны"Моисея Каланкайтукского. Архив Ин-та истории АН Азерб. ССР, № 1386, л.18.  ^ Christopher Walker. The Armenian presence in Mountainous Karabakh, in John F. R. Wright et al.: Transcaucasian Boundaries (SOAS/GRC Geopolitics). 1995, p. 93 ^ Hewsen, Robert H. "The Kingdom of Artsakh", in T. Samuelian & M. Stone, eds. Medieval Armenian Culture. Chico, CA, 1983 ^ Arḡūn Āqā — Encyclopædia Iranica. P. Jackson "It can only have caused resentment among the Muslims, and the Christian author Kirakos, in stark contrast with Jovaynī, has nothing favorable to say concerning Arḡūn’s exactions: his harsh treatment of certain Armenian princes, such as Jalāl of Ḵačen, whom he had executed in 659/1261, made him especially hateful." ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Armenia:"A few native Armenian rulers survived for a time in the Kiurikian kingdom of Lori, the Siuniqian kingdom of Baghq or Kapan, and the principates of Khachen
Khachen
(Artzakh) and Sasun." ^ Robert H. Hewsen. Russian–Armenian relations, 1700–1828. Society of Armenian Studies, N4, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984, p 37 ^ George A. Bournoutian. A History of Qarabagh: An Annotated Translation of Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi's Tarikh-e Qarabagh. Mazda Publishers, 1994. ISBN 1-56859-011-3, 978-1-568-59011-0 ^ Полное Собрание Законов Российской Империи c 1649 года. Том XXV. 1798-1799. СПб.: Печатано в Типографии II Отделения Собственной Его Императорского Величества Канцелярии, 1830, № 18.990, c.674-675. (Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
since 1649. Volume XXV. 1798-1799. SPb .: Printed at the Printing House of the II Branch of His Imperial Majesty's Own Office, 1830, No. 18.990, p.674-675).  ^ Robert H. Hewsen. Russian–Armenian relations, 1700–1828. Society of Armenian Studies, N4, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984, p 37. ^ Walker, Christopher J. Armenia: Survival of a Nation. London: Routledge, 1990 p. 40 ISBN 0-415-04684-X ^ Raffi, The History of Karabagh's Meliks, Vienna, 1906, in Armenian ^ In English, Raffi, The Five Melikdoms of Karabagh translated by Ara Stepan Melkonian, Garod Books Ltd. 2010, London. ISBN 9781903656570 ^ Павлова И.К. Хроника времен Сефевидов. Соч. Мухаммад-Масума Исфахани "Хуласат ас-сийар". М.:Наука, 1993, c.59-61.  ^ (in Russian) Abbas-gulu Aga Bakikhanov. Golestan-i Iram; according to an 18th-century local Turkic-Muslim writer Mirza Adigezal bey, Nadir shah placed Karabakh
Karabakh
under his own control, while a 19th-century local Turkic Muslim writer Abbas-gulu Aga Bakikhanov states that the shah placed Karabakh
Karabakh
under the control of the governor of Tabriz. ^ (in Russian) Mirza Adigezal bey. Karabakh-name, p. 48 ^ Bournoutian, George A. (2016). The 1820 Russian Survey of the Khanate of Shirvan: A Primary Source on the Demography and Economy of an Iranian Province prior to its Annexation by Russia. Gibb Memorial Trust. p. xvii. ISBN 978-1909724808. Serious historians and geographers agree that after the fall of the Safavids, and especially from the mid-eighteenth century, the territory of the South Caucasus was composed of the khanates of Ganja, Kuba, Shirvan, Baku, Talesh, Sheki, Karabagh, Nakhichivan and Yerevan, all of which were under Iranian suzerainty.  ^ (in Russian) Просительные пункты и клятвенное обещание Ибраим-хана. Archived 13 June 2003 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Muriel Atkin. The Strange Death of Ibrahim Khalil Khan of Qarabagh. Iranian Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1/2 (Winter – Spring, 1979), pp. 79–107 ^ George A. Bournoutian. A History of Qarabagh: An Annotated Translation of Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi's Tarikh-e Qarabagh. Mazda Publishers, 1994. ISBN 1-56859-011-3, 978-1-568-59011-0 ^ Tim Potier. M1 Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001, p. 2. ISBN 90-411-1477-7. ^ Leonidas Themistocles Chrysanthopoulos. Caucasus
Caucasus
Chronicles: Nation-building and Diplomacy in Armenia, 1993–1994. Gomidas Institute, 2002, p. 8. ISBN 1-884630-05-7. ^ The British and Foreign Review. J. Ridgeway and sons, 1838, p. 422. ^ Taru Bahl, M.H. Syed. Encyclopaedia of the Muslim World. Anmol Publications PVT, 2003 p. 34. ISBN 81-261-1419-3. ^ Yazdani, Ahmed Omid (1993). Geteiltes Aserbaidschan: Blick auf ein bedrohtes Volk (German Edition). Das Arabische Buch. p. 88. ISBN 3860930230.  ^ The penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 1833, Georgia. ^ a b c "The Nagorno-Karabagh Crisis: A Blueprint for Resolution" (PDF). , New England Center for International Law & Policy ^ Circular by colonel D. I. Shuttleworth of the British Command ^ Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal by Tim Potier. ISBN 90-411-1477-7 ^ Walker. The Survival of a Nation. pp. 285–90 ^ Service, Robert. Stalin: A Biography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006 p. 204 ISBN 0-674-02258-0 ^ Audrey L. Altstadt. The Azerbaijani Turks: power and identity under Russian rule. Hoover Press, 1992. ISBN 0817991824, 9780817991821 ^ Black Garden, Thomas de Waal, page 292 ^ Elizabeth Fuller, Nagorno-Karabakh: The Death and Casualty Toll to Date, RL 531/88, 14 December 1988, pp. 1–2 ^ a b c d e de Waal, Thomas (2003). Black Garden: Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1945-7.  ^ Lieberman, Benjamin (2006). Terrible Fate: Ethnic Cleansing in the Making of Modern Europe. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. pp. 284–92. ISBN 1-5666-3646-9.  ^ The Encyclopedia of World History. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2001. p. 906.  ^ a b Miller, Donald E. and Lorna Touryan Miller. Armenia: Portraits of Survival and Hope. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003 p. 7 ISBN 0-520-23492-8 ^ Roeder, Philip G. (2007). Where nation-states come from: institutional change in the age of nationalism. Princeton University Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-691-13467-7. Retrieved 2011-10-10.  ^ Human Rights Watch. Playing the "Communal Card". Communal Violence and Human Rights: "By early 1992 full-scale fighting broke out between Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Armenians
Armenians
and Azerbaijani authorities." / "... Karabakh
Karabakh
Armenian forces—often with the support of forces from the Republic of Armenia—conducted large-scale operations..." / "Because 1993 witnessed unrelenting Karabakh
Karabakh
Armenian offensives against the Azerbaijani provinces surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh..." / "Since late 1993, the conflict has also clearly become internationalized: in addition to Azerbaijani and Karabakh
Karabakh
Armenian forces, troops from the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
participate on the Karabakh
Karabakh
side in fighting inside Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and in Nagorno-Karabakh." ^ Human Rights Watch. The former Soviet Union. Human Rights Developments: "In 1992 the conflict grew far more lethal as both sides—the Azerbaijani National Army and free-lance militias fighting along with it, and ethnic Armenians
Armenians
and mercenaries fighting in the Popular Liberation Army of Artsakh—began." ^ United States Institute of Peace. Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Searching for a Solution. Foreword Archived 2 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.: "Nagorno-Karabakh’s armed forces have not only fortified their region, but have also occupied a large swath of surrounding Azeri territory in the hopes of linking the enclave to Armenia." ^ United States Institute of Peace. Sovereignty
Sovereignty
after Empire. Self-Determination Movements in the Former Soviet Union. Hopes and Disappointments: Case Studies Archived 1 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. "Meanwhile, the conflict over Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
was gradually transforming into a full-scale war between Azeri and Karabakh irregulars, the latter receiving support from Armenia." / "Azerbaijan's objective advantage in terms of human and economic potential has so far been offset by the superior fighting skills and discipline of Nagorno-Karabakh's forces. After a series of offensives, retreats, and counteroffensives, Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
now controls a sizable portion of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
proper ... including the Lachin corridor." ^ "By Giving Karabakh
Karabakh
Lands to Azerbaijan, Conflict Would Have Ended in '97, Says Ter-Petrosian". Asbarez. Asbarez. 19 April 2011.  ^ "Ter-Petrosyan on the BBC: Karabakh
Karabakh
conflict could have been resolved by giving certain territories to Azerbaijan". ArmeniaNow. ArmeniaNow. 19 April 2011.  ^ "Первый президент Армении о распаде СССР и Карабахе". BBC. BBC. 18 April 2011.  ^ a b Human Rights Watch. Seven Years of Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. December 1994, p. xiii, ISBN 1-56432-142-8, citing: Natsional'nyi Sostav Naseleniya SSSR, po dannym Vsesoyuznyi Perepisi Naseleniya 1989 g., Moskva, "Finansy i Statistika" ^ Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
closes last of emergency camps, UNHCR ^ No End in Sight to Fighting in Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
by Ivan Watson/National Public Radio. Weekend Edition Sunday, 23 April 2006. ^ Проект заявления по Нагорному Карабаху ожидает одобрения парламентских сил Армении ^ Резолюция ПАСЕ по Карабаху: что дальше?. BBC Russian. ^ Resolutions on Political Affairs Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. The Thirty-Fourth Session of the Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers. ^ Resolutions on Political Affairs Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Islamic Summit Conference. 13–14 May 2008 ^ The text of the resolution № 62/243 ^ Resolutions on Political Issues Adopted by the Council of Foreign Ministers (Session of Shared Vision of a More Secure and Prosperous Islamic World) Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan 4–6 Jamadul Thani 1431H (18–20 May 2010) Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "FM: Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
welcomes resolution 'Need for EU Strategy for South Caucasus' adopted by European Parliament." Trend.az. 21 May 2010. ^ "EU's Ashton Says Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Elections Illegal." RFE/RL. 21 May 2010. ^ Bulgarian MEPs Urge EU to Be Proactive in South Caucasus. ^ "Inhabitants of frontier regions of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
are deliberately deprived of water". Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe.  ^ "PACE Adopts Anti-Armenian Measure, Rejects Another". Armenian Weekly.  ^ "Resolution: Inhabitants of frontier regions of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
are deliberately deprived of water". sarsang.org. Archived from the original on 2017-03-15.  ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
military threat to Armenia." The Daily Telegraph. 22 November 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009. ^ http://lenta.ru/news/2016/04/02/karabah/ ^ Hodge, Nathan (April 2, 2016). "A Dozen Dead in Heavy Fighting Reported in Nagorno-Karabakh". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 April 2016.  ^ "Dozens killed in Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
clashes". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ Country Overview ^ a b Zürcher, Christoph (2007). The post-Soviet wars: rebellion, ethnic conflict, and nationhood in the Caucasus. NYU Press. p. 184. ISBN 0814797091.  ^ DeRouen, Karl R. (ed.) (2007). Civil wars of the world: major conflicts since World War II, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 150. ISBN 1851099190. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh". Britannica. Retrieved 2010-11-30.  ^ Описание Карабагской провинции (составленное в 1823 году, по распоряжению главноуправлявщаго в Грузии Ермолова, действительным статским советником Могилевским и полковником Ермоловым П-м. Тифлис: «В типографии управления наместника Кавказского», 1866 (Description of the Karabagh province (compiled in 1823 by order of the chief executive in Georgia Yermolov, the actual state councilor Mogilev and Colonel Ermolov P-m. Tbilisi: "In the printing house of the governor of the Caucasus", 1866.  ^ Bournoutian, George A. Armenians
Armenians
and Russia, 1626–1796: A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, p. 120–21 ^ Цагарели А. А. Грамота и гругие исторические документы XVIII столетия, относяшиеся к Грузии, Том 1. СПб 1891, с. 434–435. This book is available online from Google Books ^ Bournoutian, George A. Armenians
Armenians
and Russia, 1626–1796: A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, page 246 ^ Описание Карабагской провинции (составленное в 1823 году, по распоряжению главноуправлявщаго в Грузии Ермолова, действительным статским советником Могилевским и полковником Ермоловым П-м. Тифлис: «В типографии управления наместника Кавказского», 1866, c.220-235, 242-245, 310-337. (Description of the Karabagh province (compiled in 1823, by order of the chief executive in Georgia Ermolov, the actual state councilor Mogilev and Colonel Ermolov P-m. Tbilisi: "In the printing house of the governor of the Caucasus", 1866, pp .220-235, 242-245, 310 -337.).  ^ Semyon Mikhailovich Bronesvskiy. Historical Notes... St. Petersburg. 1996. Исторические выписки о сношениях России с Персиею, Грузиею и вообще с горскими народами, в Кавказе обитающими, со времён Ивана Васильевича доныне». СПб. 1996, секция "Карабаг" ^ George A. Bournoutian. The 1823 Russian Survey of the Karabagh Province: A Primary Source on the Demography and Economy of Karabagh in the Early 19th Century. Mazda Publishers; Bilingual edition (15 September 2011). United States of America. ^ Description of the Karabakh
Karabakh
province prepared in 1823 according to the order of the governor in Georgia Yermolov by state advisor Mogilevsky and colonel Yermolov 2nd (Opisaniye Karabakhskoy provincii sostavlennoye v 1823 g po rasporyazheniyu glavnoupravlyayushego v Gruzii Yermolova deystvitelnim statskim sovetnikom Mogilevskim i polkovnikom Yermolovim 2-m), Tbilisi, 1866. ^ Bournoutian, George A. A History of Qarabagh: An Annotated Translation of Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi's Tarikh-E Qarabagh. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1994, page 18 ^ (in Russian) "Гейдар Алиев: 'Государство с оппозицией лучше' Archived 24 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.." Zerkalo. 22 July 2002. ^ (in Russian) Anon. "Кто на стыке интересов? США, Россия и новая реальность на границе с Ираном" ("Who is at the turn of interests? US, Russia
Russia
and new reality on the border with Iran
Iran
Archived 24 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine."). Regnum. 4 April 2006. ^ a b Ethnic composition of the region as provided by the government ^ Regnum News Agency. Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
prime minister: We need to have at least 300,000 population Archived 5 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Regnum. 9 March 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2007. ^ Евразийская панорама ^ "Azerbaijani Party Appeals To OSCE About Armenian Resettlement". RFERL. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011.  ^ "Airports in Azerbaijan". Worldaerodata.com. Retrieved 2013-08-13. 

Ali; Ekinciel (1 August 2015). Karabakh
Karabakh
Diary (1 ed.). Russia: Sage. ISBN 9786059932196. 

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Searching for a Solution: Key points, by Patricia Carley, Publication of the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) USIP — Sovereignty
Sovereignty
after Empire Self-Determination Movements in the Former Soviet Union. Case Studies: Nagorno-Karabakh. by Galina Starovoitova, Publication of the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) Photo Series Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
2008–2011 – daily life, front line, mine clearance, culture, religion.

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Territorial disputes in Western Asia

Parties involved shown in parentheses after each entry

Land

David Gareja monastery complex

Georgia Azerbaijan

Disputed territories of Northern Iraq

Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan

Western Golan

Israel Syria

Hatay

Turkey Syria

Nagorno-Karabakh

Armenia / Artsakh Azerbaijan

Northern Cyprus

Cyprus Northern Cyprus

Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone1

Iraq Saudi Arabia

Shebaa farms

Israel Lebanon Syria

West Bank / Judea and Samaria / East Jerusalem

Israel Palestine

Islands Waters

Abu Musa / Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Iran United Arab Emirates

Fasht Ad Dibal / Qitat Jaradeh

Qatar Bahrain

Imia / Kardak

Greece Turkey

Khuriya Muriya Islands

Oman Yemen

1 Divided among multiple claimants.

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Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
conflict

Background

Nagorno-Karabakh

History

Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Karabakh
Karabakh
movement

Miatsum

Armenians
Armenians
in Azerbaijan

Armenians
Armenians
in Baku

Azerbaijanis in Armenia Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan Anti-Azerbaijani sentiment in Armenia Armenia– Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
relations

Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
War

Askeran clash Sumgait pogrom Kirovabad pogrom Baku
Baku
pogrom Battle of Kalbajar Capture of Shusha Black January Zvartnots Airport clash Siege of Stepanakert Khojaly Massacre Maraga massacre Mardakert and Martuni Offensives Law on Abolishment of Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast 1991 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8 shootdown 1992 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8 shootdown Operation Goranboy Operation Ring 1993 Summer Offensives 1994 Bagratashen bombing

Post-war clashes

2008 Mardakert skirmishes February 2010 Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
skirmish 2010 Mardakert skirmishes 2012 Armenian–Azerbaijani border clashes 2014 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes 2014 Armenian Mil Mi-24
Mil Mi-24
shootdown 2016 Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
clashes

Main locations

Administrative divisions of the Republic of Artsakh

Stepanakert Askeran Region Hadrut Region Kashatagh Region Martakert
Martakert
Region Martuni Region Shahumyan Region Shushi Region

Armenian-controlled territories

Agdam District Fuzuli District Jabrayil District Kalbajar District Lachin District Qubadli District Zangilan District

Political leaders

 Armenia

Levon Ter-Petrosyan Robert Kocharyan Serzh Sargsyan

 Republic of Artsakh

Artur Mkrtchyan Robert Kocharyan Leonard Petrosyan Arkadi Ghukasyan Bako Sahakyan

 Azerbaijan

Ayaz Mutallibov Abulfaz Elchibey Heydar Aliyev Ilham Aliyev

Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh

Bayram Safarov Nizami Bahmanov

 Russia

Boris Yeltsin

 Soviet Union

Mikhail Gorbachev

 Turkey

Turgut Özal

Military leaders

 Armenia

Vazgen Sargsyan Gurgen Dalibaltayan Norat Ter-Grigoryants Jirair Sefilian

 Republic of Artsakh

Samvel Babayan Kristapor Ivanyan Arkady Ter-Tadevosyan Monte Melkonian

 Azerbaijan

Isgandar Hamidov Rahim Gaziyev Surat Huseynov Valeh Barshadly

 Russia

Pavel Grachev

 Soviet Union

Viktor Polyanichko

 Chechen Republic of Ichkeria

Shamil Basayev

 Afghanistan

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

Peace process

Baker rules Bishkek Protocol Tehran Communiqué Zheleznovodsk Communiqué OSCE Minsk Group Prague Process Madrid Principles

International documents

Astrakhan Declaration Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Declaration NATO Lisbon Summit Declaration OIC Resolution 10/11, OIC Resolution 10/37 PACE Resolution 1416 UNGA Resolution 62/243 UNSC Resolutions

.