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Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
(Serbian Cyrillic: Надежда Петровић; 11/12 October 1873 – 3 April 1915) was a Serbian painter from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Considered Serbia's most famous impressionist and fauvist, she was the most important Serbian female painter of the period. Born in the town of Čačak, Petrović moved to Belgrade
Belgrade
in her youth and attended the women's school of higher education there. Graduating in 1891, she taught there for a period beginning in 1893 before moving to Munich
Munich
to study with Slovenian artist Anton Ažbe. Between 1901 and 1912, she exhibited her work in many cities throughout Europe. In the later years of her life, Petrović had little time to paint and produced only a few works. In 1912, she volunteered to become a nurse following the outbreak of the Balkan Wars. She continued nursing Serbian soldiers until 1913, when she contracted typhus and cholera. She earned a Medal for Bravery and an Order of the Red Cross for her efforts. With the outbreak of World War I
World War I
she again volunteered to become a nurse with the Serbian Army, eventually dying of typhus on 3 April 1915.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Selected works 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading

Biography[edit]

Petrović's self-portrait.

Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
was born in Čačak, Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia
on 11[1] or 12[2] October 1873 to Dimitrije and Mileva Petrović. Her father taught art and literature and was fond of collecting artworks. He later worked as a tax collector and wrote about painting. Her mother Mileva was a school teacher and a relative of prominent Serbian politician Svetozar Miletić. Petrović's father later found work in finance and politics. He fell ill in the late 1870s, forcing the family to move to the town of Karanovac (modern Kraljevo) before their eventual relocation to Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1884. Here, they lived in the home of Petrović's grandfather, Maksim. The home in which they lived was later destroyed by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
during World War II. Showing signs of being a talented artist, Petrović was later mentored by Đorđe Krstić and attended the women's school of higher education, from where she graduated in 1891. In 1893, she became an art teacher at the school and later taught at the women's university in Belgrade. Afterwards, she obtained a stipend from the Serbian Ministry of Education to study art in the private school of Anton Ažbe
Anton Ažbe
in Munich.[1] Here, she met painters Rihard Jakopič, Ivan Grohar, Matija Jama, Milan Milovanović, Kosta Milićević, and Borivoje Stevanović. She also encountered modern art pioneers such as Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Julius Exter, and Paul Klee, and was deeply moved by their work.[3] While in Munich, she regularly sent letters to her parents in Serbia
Serbia
and always asked for them to send her newspapers and books detailing the latest happenings in the country. Her dedication to her artwork took a toll on her personal life, and in 1898 she called off her engagement to a civil servant after the man's mother sought an unacceptably high dowry. Petrović returned to Serbia in 1900 and regularly visited museums and galleries, attended concerts and theatre productions. She also dedicated much of her time to learning foreign languages. Her first individual exhibit took place in Belgrade
Belgrade
that same year. She also helped organize the First Yugoslav Art Exhibit, and the First Yugoslav Art Colony.[1] In 1902, Petrović began teaching at the women's school of higher education. The following year she became the first chairman of the Circle of Serbian Sisters, a humanitarian organization dedicated to helping ethnic Serbs in Ottoman-controlled Kosovo
Kosovo
and Macedonia. In 1904 Petrović retreated to her family home Resnik, where she focused on her paintings. One of her most famous works, Resnik, was completed during her stay here. Over the next several years, she became involved in Serbian patriotic circles and protested the Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1910, she travelled to Paris to visit her friend, the sculptor Ivan Meštrović. Staying in France until she heard the news of her father's death, she returned to Serbia in April 1911. Upon her return, she resumed teaching at the women's school of higher education.[4]

Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
on a Serbian 200 dinar banknote.

In 1912, Petrović's mother died. With the outbreak of the Balkan Wars soon after, Petrović volunteered to become a nurse and was awarded a Medal for Bravery and an Order of the Red Cross for her efforts.[4] She continued nursing Serbian soldiers until 1913,[5] when she contracted typhus and cholera.[4] In the later years of her life, she had little time to paint and produced only a few canvases, including her post-impressionist masterpiece The Valjevo
Valjevo
Hospital (Serbian: Valjevska bolnica). Professor Andrew Wachtel praised the painting for its "bold brushstrokes and bright colours" and its depiction of "a series of white tents against an expressionistic, almost Fauvist, landscape of green, orange, and red."[5] Petrović found herself in Italy when Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
declared war on Serbia
Serbia
in July 1914. She immediately returned to Belgrade
Belgrade
to assist the Serbian Army.[4] Having volunteered to work as a nurse in Valjevo, she died of typhoid fever[6] on 3 April 1915[4] in the same hospital depicted in The Valjevo
Valjevo
Hospital.[5] Following her death, her likeness has been depicted on the Serbian 200 dinar banknote.[7] She had nine siblings, including Rastko Petrović the writer and diplomat, who died in the United States in 1949. Selected works[edit]

Bavarian Wearing a Hat (1900)

Gračanica (1913)

La Moisson (1902)

Pogreb u Sicevu (1905)

In the Forest (c. 1900)

Summer Day (c. 1900)

Beach in Bretanji (c. 1900)

Ship Down the Sava (c. 1900)

Velikafa (1905)

Resnik (1904)

Old Prizren

The Turkish Bridge

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Večernje novosti & 18 April 2013. ^ B92 & 30 June 2010. ^ Uzelac 2003, p. 127. ^ a b c d e Večernje novosti & 19 April 2013. ^ a b c Wachtel 2002, pp. 212. ^ Mitrović 2007, p. 113. ^ Cuhaj 2010, p. 844.

References[edit]

"Nekoliko (ne)poznatih stvari o Nadeždi Petrović" [Some Unknown Facts about Nadežda Petrović]. B92 (in Serbian). 30 June 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2012.  Cuhaj, George S. (2010). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money – Modern Issues: 1961–Present. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1-4402-1512-4.  Mitrović, Andrej (2007). Serbia's Great War, 1914–1918. London: Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-477-4.  Uzelac, Sonja Briski (2003). "Visual Arts in the Avant-gardes Between the Two Wars". In Djurić, Dubravka; Šuvaković, Miško. Impossible Histories: Historical Avant-gardes, Neo-avant-gardes, and Post-avant-gardes in Yugoslavia, 1918–1991. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-04216-1.  "Ceo život u slikama" [An Entire Life in Pictures]. Večernje novosti (in Serbian). 18 April 2013.  Svirepi ubica tifus [Typhus, the Cruel Killer]. Večernje novosti (in Serbian). 19 April 2013.  Wachtel, Andrew (2002). "Culture in the South Slavic Lands". In Roshwald, Aviel; Stites, Richard. European Culture in the Great War: The Arts, Entertainment and Propaganda 1914–1918. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-01324-6. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nadežda Petrović.

Značaj slikarstva Nadežde Petrović by Đorđe Popović, 1938. Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
kao preteča današnjeg našeg savremenog slikarstva by Pjer Križanić, Politika, 1938. Prilog monografiji Nadežde Petrović by Bojana Radojković, 1950. Značaj slikarstva Nadežde Petrović by Đorđe Popović, 1938. Prilog monografiji Nadežde Petrović by Bojana Radajković, pgs. 194–201, 1950. Nadežda Petrović, od desetletnici njene smrti by France Meseel, 1925. Propovodenici jugoslovesnke ideje među Srbijankama by Jelena Lazarević, 1931. Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
otvara prvu kancelariju kola srpskih sestara by Jelena Lazarević, 1931. Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
by Mile Pavlović, 1935. Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
by Branko Popović, pgs. 144–149, 1938.

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